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Visual Neuroscience

Shinya Sato, Rikard Frederiksen, M Carter Cornwall, Vladimir J Kefalov
Vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors require continuous supply of chromophore for regenerating their visual pigments after photoactivation. Cones, which mediate our daytime vision, demand a particularly rapid supply of 11-cis retinal chromophore in order to maintain their function in bright light. An important contribution to this process is thought to be the chromophore precursor 11-cis retinol, which is supplied to cones from Müller cells in the retina and subsequently oxidized to 11-cis retinal as part of the retina visual cycle...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Alexander H Ward, John T Siegwart, Michael R Frost, Thomas T Norton
We examined the effect of intravitreal injections of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists and D4 receptor drugs on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates. In eleven groups (n = 7 per group), we measured the amount of FDM produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) over an 11-day treatment period. The untreated fellow eye served as a control. Animals also received daily 5 µL intravitreal injections in the FD eye. The reference group received 0...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Gudmundur Jonsson, Thor Eysteinsson
Adenosine is a neuromodulator present in various areas of the central nervous system, including the retina. Adenosine may serve a neuroprotective role in the retina, based on electroretinogram (ERG) recordings from the rat retina. Our purpose was to assess the role of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors in the generation and modulation of the rat ERG. The flash ERG was recorded with corneal electrodes from Sprague Dawley rats. Agonists and antagonists for A2A and A3 receptors, and adenosine were injected (5 µl) into the vitreous...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Patrick W Keeley, Jason J Kim, Sammy C S Lee, Silke Haverkamp, Benjamin E Reese
Retinal bipolar cells spread their dendritic arbors to tile the retinal surface, extending them to the tips of the dendritic fields of their homotypic neighbors, minimizing dendritic overlap. Such uniform nonredundant dendritic coverage of these populations would suggest a degree of spatial order in the properties of their somal distributions, yet few studies have examined the patterning in retinal bipolar cell mosaics. The present study examined the organization of two types of cone bipolar cells in the mouse retina, the Type 2 cells and the Type 4 cells, and compared their spatial statistical properties with those of the horizontal cells and the cholinergic amacrine cells, as well as to random simulations of cells matched in density and constrained by soma size...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Yan Zhang, Yue Liu, Abraham Hang, Eileen Phan, Christine F Wildsoet
Recent studies have demonstrated the defocus sign-dependent, bidirectional gene expression regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins, BMP2, 4 and 7 in chick RPE. In this study, we examined the effects of imposed positive (+10 D) and negative (-10 D) lenses on the gene expression of these BMPs and BMP receptors (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2) in chick retina and choroid after monocular lens treatment for 2 or 48 h, as indicators of the roles of retinal and choroidal BMPs and receptors in postnatal eye growth regulation...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Filipp Schmidt, Andreas Weber, Anke Haberkamp
Visual perception is not instantaneous; the perceptual representation of our environment builds up over time. This can strongly affect our responses to visual stimuli. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of visual processing by analyzing the time course of priming effects induced by the well-known Ebbinghaus illusion. In slower responses, Ebbinghaus primes produce effects in accordance with their perceptual appearance. However, in fast responses, these effects are reversed. We argue that this dissociation originates from the difference between early feedforward-mediated gist of the scene processing and later feedback-mediated more elaborate processing...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
David W Marshak
Amacrine cells are a diverse set of local circuit neurons of the inner retina, and they all release either GABA or glycine, amino acid neurotransmitters that are generally inhibitory. But some types of amacrine cells have another function besides inhibiting other neurons. One glycinergic amacrine cell, the Aii type, excites a subset of bipolar cells via extensive gap junctions while inhibiting others at chemical synapses. Many types of GABAergic amacrine cells also release monoamines, acetylcholine, or neuropeptides...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Andrea Helo, Pia Rämä, Sebastian Pannasch, David Meary
Recently, two attentional modes have been associated with specific eye movement patterns during scene processing. Ambient mode, characterized by short fixations and long saccades during early scene inspection, is associated with localization of objects. Focal mode, characterized by longer fixations, is associated with more detailed object feature processing during later inspection phase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of these attentional modes. More specifically, we examined whether indications of ambient and focal attention modes are similar in infants and adults...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Miriam Reisenhofer, Thomas Pannicke, Andreas Reichenbach, Volker Enzmann
Retinal Müller glial cells have been shown to undergo reactive gliosis in a variety of retinal diseases. Upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a hallmark of Müller cell activation. Reactive gliosis after retinal detachment or ischemia/reperfusion is characterized by hypertrophy and downregulation of inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) currents. However, this kind of physiological alteration could not be detected in slowly progressing retinal degenerations. The photoreceptor toxin N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) leads to the rapid loss of cells in the outer nuclear layer and subsequent Müller cell activation...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Viola VON Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver VON Bohlen Und Halbach
The cholinergic system is involved in cortical plasticity, attention, and learning. Within the visual cortex the cholinergic system seems to play a role in visual perception. The cholinergic neurons which project into the visual cortex are located in the basal forebrain. It has been shown that mice deficient for the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR display increased numbers of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and a denser cholinergic innervation of the hippocampus. This prompted us to analyze whether the cholinergic system is altered in adult p75NTR deficient mice...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Alison L Huckenpahler, Melissa A Wilk, Robert F Cooper, Francie Moehring, Brian A Link, Joseph Carroll, Ross F Collery
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) provide many advantages as a model organism for studying ocular disease and development, and there is great interest in the ability to non-invasively assess their photoreceptor mosaic. Despite recent applications of scanning light ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and gonioscopy to in vivo imaging of the adult zebrafish eye, current techniques either lack accurate scaling information (limiting quantitative analyses) or require euthanizing the fish (precluding longitudinal analyses)...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Diane R Nava, Bhavna Antony, L I Zhang, Michael D Abràmoff, Christine F Wildsoet
Studies into the mechanisms underlying the active emmetropization process by which neonatal refractive errors are corrected, have described rapid, compensatory changes in the thickness of the choroidal layer in response to imposed optical defocus. While high frequency A-scan ultrasonography, as traditionally used to characterize such changes, offers good resolution of central (on-axis) changes, evidence of local retinal control mechanisms make it imperative that more peripheral, off-axis changes also be tracked...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
A Reiner, T T Wong, C C Nazor, N Del Mar, M E C Fitzgerald
The medial part of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EWM) in birds mediates light-regulated adaptive increases in choroidal blood flow (ChBF). We sought to characterize the effect of loss of EWM-mediated ChBF regulation on photoreceptor health in pigeons housed in either moderate intensity diurnal or constant light (CL). Photoreceptor abundance following complete EWM destruction was compared to that following a lesion in the pupil control circuit (as a control for spread of EWM lesions to the nearby pupil-controlling lateral EW) or following no EW damage...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Boris V Chernyshev, Platon K Pronko, Tatiana A Stroganova
Detection of illusory contours (ICs) such as Kanizsa figures is known to depend primarily upon the lateral occipital complex. Yet there is no universal agreement on the role of the primary visual cortex in this process; some existing evidence hints that an early stage of the visual response in V1 may involve relative suppression to Kanizsa figures compared with controls. Iso-oriented luminance borders, which are responsible for Kanizsa illusion, may evoke surround suppression in V1 and adjacent areas leading to the reduction in the initial response to Kanizsa figures...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Joseph Bouskila, Vanessa Harrar, Pasha Javadi, Christian Casanova, Yoshio Hirabayashi, Ichiro Matsuo, Jyunpei Ohyama, Jean-François Bouchard, Maurice Ptito
The endogenous cannabinoid system plays important roles in the retina of mice and monkeys via their classic CB1 and CB2 receptors. We have previously reported that the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a putative cannabinoid receptor, is exclusively expressed in rod photoreceptors in the monkey retina, suggesting its possible role in scotopic vision. To test this hypothesis, we recorded full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) after the intravitreal injection of the GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylglucoside (LPG) or the selective GPR55 antagonist CID16020046 (CID), under light- and dark-adapted conditions...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Robert F Cooper, Marco Lombardo, Joseph Carroll, Kenneth R Sloan, Giuseppe Lombardo
The ability to noninvasively image the cone photoreceptor mosaic holds significant potential as a diagnostic for retinal disease. Central to the realization of this potential is the development of sensitive metrics for characterizing the organization of the mosaic. Here we evaluated previously-described and newly-developed (Fourier- and Radon-based) methods of measuring cone orientation in simulated and real images of the parafoveal cone mosaic. The proposed algorithms correlated well across both simulated and real mosaics, suggesting that each algorithm provides an accurate description of photoreceptor orientation...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Edward V Famiglietti
Recent physiological studies coupled with intracellular staining have subdivided ON directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells of rabbit retina into two types. One exhibits more "transient" and more "brisk" responses (ON DS-t), and the other has more "sustained' and more "sluggish" responses (ON DS-s), although both represent the same three preferred directions and show preference for low stimulus velocity, as reported in previous studies of ON DS ganglion cells in rabbit retina. ON DS-s cells have the morphology of ganglion cells previously shown to project to the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) of the accessory optic system, and the MTN-projecting, class IVus1 cells have been well-characterized previously in terms of their dendritic morphology, branching pattern, and stratification...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Nazarul Hasan, Thomas A Ray, Ronald G Gregg
Cacna1s encodes the α1S subunit (Cav1.1) of voltage-dependent calcium channels, and is required for normal skeletal and cardiac muscle function, where it couples with the ryanodine receptor to regulate muscle contraction. Recently CACNA1S was reported to be expressed on the tips of retinal depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) and colocalized with metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6), which is critical to DBC signal transduction. Further, in mGluR6 knockout mice, expression at this location is down regulated...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Benjamin Sajdak, Yusufu N Sulai, Christopher S Langlo, Gabriel Luna, Steven K Fisher, Dana K Merriman, Alfredo Dubra
Ground squirrels are an increasingly important model for studying visual processing, retinal circuitry, and cone photoreceptor function. Here, we demonstrate that the photoreceptor mosaic can be longitudinally imaged noninvasively in the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) using confocal and nonconfocal split-detection adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy using 790 nm light. Photoreceptor density, spacing, and Voronoi analysis are consistent with that of the human cone mosaic. The high imaging success rate and consistent image quality in this study reinforce the ground squirrel as a practical model to aid drug discovery and testing through longitudinal imaging on the cellular scale...
2016: Visual Neuroscience
Austin C Starnes, Carrie Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Kenneth R Sloan, Zsolt Ablonczy, R Theodore Smith, Christine A Curcio, Thomas Ach
BACKGROUND: The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is reportedly 3% bi-nucleated. The importance to human vision of multi-nucleated (MN)-RPE cells could be clarified with more data about their distribution in central retina. METHODS: Nineteen human RPE-flatmounts (9 ≤ 51 years, 10 > 80 years) were imaged at 12 locations: 3 eccentricities (fovea, perifovea, near periphery) in 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal). Image stacks of lipofuscin-attributable autofluorescence and phalloidin labeled F-actin cytoskeleton were obtained using a confocal fluorescence microscope...
2016: Visual Neuroscience
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