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Visual Neuroscience

Melina A Agosto, Ivan A Anastassov, Theodore G Wensel
The transient receptor potential channel TRPM1 is required for synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and the ON subtype of bipolar cells (ON-BPC), mediating depolarization in response to light. TRPM1 is present in the somas and postsynaptic dendritic tips of ON-BPCs. Monoclonal antibodies generated against full-length TRPM1 were found to have differential labeling patterns when used to immunostain the mouse retina, with some yielding reduced labeling of dendritic tips relative to the labeling of cell bodies...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Josh L Morgan
Although the core functions and structure of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) are well understood, this core is surrounded by questions about the integration of feedforward and feedback connections, interactions between different channels of information, and how activity dependent development restructures synaptic networks. Our understanding of the organization of the mouse LGN is particularly limited given how important it has become as a model system. Advances in circuit scale electron microscopy (cellular connectomics) have made it possible to reconstruct the synaptic connectivity of hundreds of neurons within in a circuit the size of the mouse LGN...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Daniel Kerschensteiner, William Guido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Alison L Huckenpahler, Melissa A Wilk, Robert F Cooper, Francie Moehring, Brian A Link, Joseph Carroll, Ross F Collery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Sabrina Asteriti, Claudia Gargini, Lorenzo Cangiano
Rod-cone gap junctions mediate the so-called "secondary rod pathway", one of three routes that convey rod photoreceptor signals across the retina. Connexin 36 (Cx36) is expressed at these gap junctions, but an unidentified connexin protein also seems to be expressed. Cx36 knockout mice have been used extensively in the quest to dissect the roles in vision of all three pathways, with the assumption, never directly tested, that rod-cone electrical coupling is abolished by deletion of this connexin isoform. We previously showed that when wild type mouse cones couple to rods, their apparent dynamic range is extended toward lower light intensities, with the appearance of large responses to dim flashes (up to several mV) originating in rods...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Charles L Cox, Joseph A Beatty
Intrinsic interneurons within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) provide a feed-forward inhibitory pathway for afferent visual information originating from the retina. These interneurons are unique because in addition to traditional axodendritic output onto thalamocortical neurons, these interneurons have presynaptic dendrites that form dendrodendritic synapses onto thalamocortical neurons as well. These presynaptic dendrites, termed F2 terminals, are tightly coupled to the retinogeniculate afferents that synapse onto thalamocortical relay neurons...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Ubadah Sabbagh, Michael A Fox
Often mislabeled as a simple relay of sensory information, the thalamus is a complicated structure with diverse functions. This diversity is exemplified by roles visual thalamus plays in processing and transmitting light-derived stimuli. Such light-derived signals are transmitted to the thalamus by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole projection neurons of the retina. Axons from RGCs innervate more than ten distinct nuclei within thalamus, including those of the lateral geniculate complex. Nuclei within the lateral geniculate complex of nocturnal rodents, which include the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), are each densely innervated by retinal projections, yet, exhibit distinct cytoarchitecture and connectivity...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Andrea Pavan, Lucy M Bimson, Martin G Gall, Filippo Ghin, George Mather
Previous psychophysical evidence suggests that motion and orientation processing systems interact asymmetrically in the human visual system, with orientation information having a stronger influence on the perceived motion direction than vice versa. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this motion-form interaction we used moving and oriented Glass patterns (GPs), which consist of randomly distributed dot pairs (dipoles) that induce the percept of an oriented texture. In Experiment 1 we varied the angle between dipole orientation and motion direction (conflict angle)...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Elizabeth Y Litvina, Chinfei Chen
The thalamocortical (TC) relay neuron of the dorsoLateral Geniculate Nucleus (dLGN) has borne its imprecise label for many decades in spite of strong evidence that its role in visual processing transcends the implied simplicity of the term "relay". The retinogeniculate synapse is the site of communication between a retinal ganglion cell and a TC neuron of the dLGN. Activation of retinal fibers in the optic tract causes reliable, rapid, and robust postsynaptic potentials that drive postsynaptics spikes in a TC neuron...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Reece Mazade, Jose Manuel Alonso
Visual information reaches the cerebral cortex through a major thalamocortical pathway that connects the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus with the primary visual area of the cortex (area V1). In humans, ∼3.4 million afferents from the LGN are distributed within a V1 surface of ∼2400 mm2, an afferent number that is reduced by half in the macaque and by more than two orders of magnitude in the mouse. Thalamocortical afferents are sorted in visual cortex based on the spatial position of their receptive fields to form a map of visual space...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Ivy S Samuels, Jose-Andres C Portillo, Yanling Miao, Timothy S Kern, Carlos S Subauste
Chronic low grade inflammation is considered to contribute to the development of experimental diabetic retinopathy (DR). We recently demonstrated that lack of CD40 in mice ameliorates the upregulation of inflammatory molecules in the diabetic retina and prevented capillary degeneration, a hallmark of experimental diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we investigated the contribution of CD40 to diabetes-induced reductions in retinal function via the electroretinogram (ERG) to determine if inflammation plays a role in the development of ERG defects associated with diabetes...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
N A Zhou, Phillip S Maire, Sean P Masterson, Martha E Bickford
Comparative studies have greatly contributed to our understanding of the organization and function of visual pathways of the brain, including that of humans. This comparative approach is a particularly useful tactic for studying the pulvinar nucleus, an enigmatic structure which comprises the largest territory of the human thalamus. This review focuses on the regions of the mouse pulvinar that receive input from the superior colliculus, and highlights similarities of the tectorecipient pulvinar identified across species...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Daniel Kerschensteiner, William Guido
The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus is the principal conduit for visual information from retina to visual cortex. Viewed initially as a simple relay, recent studies in the mouse reveal far greater complexity in the way input from the retina is combined, transmitted, and processed in dLGN. Here we consider the structural and functional organization of the mouse retinogeniculate pathway by examining the patterns of retinal projections to dLGN and how they converge onto thalamocortical neurons to shape the flow of visual information to visual cortex...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Petia Kupenova, Elka Popova, Liliya Vitanova
The contribution of the purinergic receptors P2X7 (P2X7Rs) to the electroretinographic (ERG) responses was studied by testing the effects of the selective P2X7R antagonist A438079 and the selective P2X7R agonist Bz-ATP on the electroretinograms obtained in perfused frog (Rana ridibunda) eyecup preparations under a variety of stimulation conditions. The P2X7R blockade by 200 µM A438079 diminished the amplitude of the photoreceptor components: the a-wave and the pharmacologically isolated mass receptor potential...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Shinya Sato, Rikard Frederiksen, M Carter Cornwall, Vladimir J Kefalov
Vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors require continuous supply of chromophore for regenerating their visual pigments after photoactivation. Cones, which mediate our daytime vision, demand a particularly rapid supply of 11-cis retinal chromophore in order to maintain their function in bright light. An important contribution to this process is thought to be the chromophore precursor 11-cis retinol, which is supplied to cones from Müller cells in the retina and subsequently oxidized to 11-cis retinal as part of the retina visual cycle...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Alexander H Ward, John T Siegwart, Michael R Frost, Thomas T Norton
We examined the effect of intravitreal injections of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists and D4 receptor drugs on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates. In eleven groups (n = 7 per group), we measured the amount of FDM produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) over an 11-day treatment period. The untreated fellow eye served as a control. Animals also received daily 5 µL intravitreal injections in the FD eye. The reference group received 0...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Gudmundur Jonsson, Thor Eysteinsson
Adenosine is a neuromodulator present in various areas of the central nervous system, including the retina. Adenosine may serve a neuroprotective role in the retina, based on electroretinogram (ERG) recordings from the rat retina. Our purpose was to assess the role of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors in the generation and modulation of the rat ERG. The flash ERG was recorded with corneal electrodes from Sprague Dawley rats. Agonists and antagonists for A2A and A3 receptors, and adenosine were injected (5 µl) into the vitreous...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Patrick W Keeley, Jason J Kim, Sammy C S Lee, Silke Haverkamp, Benjamin E Reese
Retinal bipolar cells spread their dendritic arbors to tile the retinal surface, extending them to the tips of the dendritic fields of their homotypic neighbors, minimizing dendritic overlap. Such uniform nonredundant dendritic coverage of these populations would suggest a degree of spatial order in the properties of their somal distributions, yet few studies have examined the patterning in retinal bipolar cell mosaics. The present study examined the organization of two types of cone bipolar cells in the mouse retina, the Type 2 cells and the Type 4 cells, and compared their spatial statistical properties with those of the horizontal cells and the cholinergic amacrine cells, as well as to random simulations of cells matched in density and constrained by soma size...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Yan Zhang, Yue Liu, Abraham Hang, Eileen Phan, Christine F Wildsoet
Recent studies have demonstrated the defocus sign-dependent, bidirectional gene expression regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins, BMP2, 4 and 7 in chick RPE. In this study, we examined the effects of imposed positive (+10 D) and negative (-10 D) lenses on the gene expression of these BMPs and BMP receptors (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2) in chick retina and choroid after monocular lens treatment for 2 or 48 h, as indicators of the roles of retinal and choroidal BMPs and receptors in postnatal eye growth regulation...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Filipp Schmidt, Andreas Weber, Anke Haberkamp
Visual perception is not instantaneous; the perceptual representation of our environment builds up over time. This can strongly affect our responses to visual stimuli. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of visual processing by analyzing the time course of priming effects induced by the well-known Ebbinghaus illusion. In slower responses, Ebbinghaus primes produce effects in accordance with their perceptual appearance. However, in fast responses, these effects are reversed. We argue that this dissociation originates from the difference between early feedforward-mediated gist of the scene processing and later feedback-mediated more elaborate processing...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
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