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Visual Neuroscience

Ilaria Savelli, Iñigo Novales Flamarique
Vertebrate retinal photoreceptors house visual pigments that absorb light to begin the process of vision. The light absorbed by a visual pigment depends on its two molecular components: protein (opsin) and chromophore (a vitamin A derivative). Although an increasing number of studies show intraretinal variability in visual pigment content, it is only for two mammals (human and mouse) and two birds (chicken and pigeon) that such variability has been demonstrated to underlie differences in spectral sensitivity of the animal...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
David Hunter, Susan Cotter
Amblyopia can be improved or eliminated more easily when treated early in life. Because amblyopia in older children is generally less responsive to treatment (Holmes et al., 2011), there is a premium on the early identification of amblyopia and its risk factors and the subsequent treatment thereof. Clinical preference is to institute treatment in children before 7 years of age when an optimal visual outcome is typically easier to obtain.
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Takao K Hensch, Elizabeth M Quinlan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Stephen Ramanoël, Sylvie Chokron, Ruxandra Hera, Louise Kauffmann, Christophe Chiquet, Alexandre Krainik, Carole Peyrin
In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the processing of fine details in a visual scene, based on a high spatial frequency processing, is impaired, while the processing of global shapes, based on a low spatial frequency processing, is relatively well preserved. The present fMRI study aimed to investigate the residual abilities and functional brain changes of spatial frequency processing in visual scenes in AMD patients. AMD patients and normally sighted elderly participants performed a categorization task using large black and white photographs of scenes (indoors vs...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Jonathan M Holmes, Dennis M Levi
Although historically, treatment of amblyopia has been recommended prior to closure of a critical window in visual development, the existence and duration of that critical window is currently unclear. Moreover, there is clear evidence, both from animal and human studies of deprivation amblyopia, that there are different critical windows for different visual functions and that monocular and binocular deprivation have different neural and behavioral consequences. In view of the spectrum of critical windows for different visual functions and for different types of amblyopia, combined with individual variability in these windows, treatment of amblyopia has been increasingly offered to older children and adults...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Daphne Maurer, Suzanne P McKEE
Amblyopia is a developmental disorder that affects the spatial vision of one or both eyes in the absence of an obvious organic cause; it is associated with a history of abnormal visual experience during childhood. Subtypes have been defined based on the purported etiology, namely, strabismus (misaligned eyes) and/or anisometropia (unequal refractive error). Here we consider the usefulness of these subclassifications.
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Patrick W Keeley, Benjamin E Reese
The orderly spacing of retinal neurons is commonly regarded as a characteristic feature of retinal nerve cell populations. Exemplars of this property include the horizontal cells and the cholinergic amacrine cells, where individual cells minimize the proximity to like-type neighbors, yielding regularity in the patterning of their somata. Recently, two types of retinal bipolar cells in the mouse retina were shown to exhibit an order in their somal patterning no different from density-matched simulations constrained by soma size but being otherwise randomly distributed...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Lynne Kiorpes, Nigel Daw
There are many levels of disorder in amblyopic vision, from basic acuity and contrast sensitivity loss to abnormal binocular vision and global perception of motion and form. Amblyopia treatment via patching to restore acuity often leaves other aspects of vision deficient. The source for these additional deficits is unclear. Neural correlates of poor binocular function and acuity loss are found in V1 and V2. However, they are generally not sufficient to account for behaviorally measured vision loss. This review summarizes the known cortical correlates of visual deficits found in association with amblyopia, particularly those relevant to binocular vision and higher-order visual processing, in striate and extrastriate cortex...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Donald Mitchell, Frank Sengpiel
Unquestionably, the last six decades of research on various animal models have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the many complex characteristics of amblyopia as well as provided promising new avenues for treatment. While animal models in general have served an important purpose, there nonetheless remain questions regarding the efficacy of particular models considering the differences across animal species, especially when the goal is to provide the foundations for human interventions...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
John E Dowling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Kaitlyn D Holman, Kevin R Duffy, Donald E Mitchell
It has been shown that the visual acuity loss experienced by the deprived eye of kittens following an early period of monocular deprivation (MD) can be alleviated rapidly following 10 days of complete darkness when imposed even as late as 14 weeks of age. To examine whether 10 days of darkness conferred benefits at any age, we measured the extent of recovery of the visual acuity of the deprived eye following the darkness imposed on adult cats that had received the same early period of MD as used in prior experiments conducted on kittens...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Michael P Stryker, Siegrid Löwel
Emerging technologies are now giving us unprecedented access to manipulate brain circuits, shedding new light on treatments for amblyopia. This research is identifying key circuit elements that control brain plasticity and highlight potential therapeutic targets to promote rewiring in the visual system during and beyond early life. Here, we explore how such recent advancements may guide future pharmacological, genetic, and behavioral approaches to treat amblyopia. We will discuss how animal research, which allows us to probe and tap into the underlying circuit and synaptic mechanisms, should best be used to guide therapeutic strategies...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Anton Delwig, Shawnta Y Chaney, Andrea S Bertke, Jan Verweij, Susana Quirce, Delaine D Larsen, Cindy Yang, Ethan Buhr, Russell VAN Gelder, Juana Gallar, Todd Margolis, David R Copenhagen
A unique class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in mammalian retinae has been recently discovered and characterized. These neurons can generate visual signals in the absence of inputs from rods and cones, the conventional photoreceptors in the visual system. These light sensitive ganglion cells (mRGCs) express the non-rod, non-cone photopigment melanopsin and play well documented roles in modulating pupil responses to light, photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, mood, sleep and other adaptive light functions...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Takao K Hensch, Elizabeth M Quinlan
The shift in ocular dominance (OD) of binocular neurons induced by monocular deprivation is the canonical model of synaptic plasticity confined to a postnatal critical period. Developmental constraints on this plasticity not only lend stability to the mature visual cortical circuitry but also impede the ability to recover from amblyopia beyond an early window. Advances with mouse models utilizing the power of molecular, genetic, and imaging tools are beginning to unravel the circuit, cellular, and molecular mechanisms controlling the onset and closure of the critical periods of plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1)...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
David Hunter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Melina A Agosto, Ivan A Anastassov, Theodore G Wensel
The transient receptor potential channel TRPM1 is required for synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and the ON subtype of bipolar cells (ON-BPC), mediating depolarization in response to light. TRPM1 is present in the somas and postsynaptic dendritic tips of ON-BPCs. Monoclonal antibodies generated against full-length TRPM1 were found to have differential labeling patterns when used to immunostain the mouse retina, with some yielding reduced labeling of dendritic tips relative to the labeling of cell bodies...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Josh L Morgan
Although the core functions and structure of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) are well understood, this core is surrounded by questions about the integration of feedforward and feedback connections, interactions between different channels of information, and how activity dependent development restructures synaptic networks. Our understanding of the organization of the mouse LGN is particularly limited given how important it has become as a model system. Advances in circuit scale electron microscopy (cellular connectomics) have made it possible to reconstruct the synaptic connectivity of hundreds of neurons within in a circuit the size of the mouse LGN...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Daniel Kerschensteiner, William Guido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Alison L Huckenpahler, Melissa A Wilk, Robert F Cooper, Francie Moehring, Brian A Link, Joseph Carroll, Ross F Collery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
Sabrina Asteriti, Claudia Gargini, Lorenzo Cangiano
Rod-cone gap junctions mediate the so-called "secondary rod pathway", one of three routes that convey rod photoreceptor signals across the retina. Connexin 36 (Cx36) is expressed at these gap junctions, but an unidentified connexin protein also seems to be expressed. Cx36 knockout mice have been used extensively in the quest to dissect the roles in vision of all three pathways, with the assumption, never directly tested, that rod-cone electrical coupling is abolished by deletion of this connexin isoform...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
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