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Neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919174/new-nih-regulations-say-most-basic-human-brain-research-is-a-clinical-trial
#1
Adina L Roskies
New NIH definitions classify virtually all human brain and behavioral research as clinical trials. The new definitions will change regulatory, reporting, and funding schemes for noninvasive studies such as neuroimaging. Resulting burdens threaten the viability of basic biobehavioral science research.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919175/slow-ampar-synaptic-transmission-is-determined-by-stargazin-and-glutamate-transporters
#2
Hsin-Wei Lu, Timothy S Balmer, Gabriel E Romero, Laurence O Trussell
AMPARs mediate the briefest synaptic currents in the brain by virtue of their rapid gating kinetics. However, at the mossy fiber-to-unipolar brush cell synapse in the cerebellum, AMPAR-mediated EPSCs last for hundreds of milliseconds, and it has been proposed that this time course reflects slow diffusion from a complex synaptic space. We show that upon release of glutamate, synaptic AMPARs were desensitized by transmitter by >90%. As glutamate levels subsequently fell, recovery of transmission occurred due to the presence of the AMPAR accessory protein stargazin that enhances the AMPAR response to low levels of transmitter...
September 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890345/prosapip1-dependent-synaptic-adaptations-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-drive-alcohol-intake-seeking-and-reward
#3
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Jung Hoon Shin, Feng Liu, Martin F Adrover, Samuel A Sakhai, Marcelo F Lopez, Khanhky Phamluong, William C Griffin, Howard C Becker, Kevin J Bender, Veronica A Alvarez, Dorit Ron
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a transducer of local dendritic translation, participates in learning and memory processes as well as in mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking behaviors. Using an unbiased RNA-seq approach, we identified Prosapip1 as a novel downstream target of mTORC1 whose translation and consequent synaptic protein expression are increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice excessively consuming alcohol. We demonstrate that alcohol-dependent increases in Prosapip1 levels promote the formation of actin filaments, leading to changes in dendritic spine morphology of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs)...
September 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910624/a-sensorimotor-circuit-in-mouse-cortex-for-visual-flow-predictions
#4
Marcus Leinweber, Daniel R Ward, Jan M Sobczak, Alexander Attinger, Georg B Keller
The cortex is organized as a hierarchical processing structure. Feedback from higher levels of the hierarchy, known as top-down signals, have been shown to be involved in attentional and contextual modulation of sensory responses. Here we argue that top-down input to the primary visual cortex (V1) from A24b and the adjacent secondary motor cortex (M2) signals a prediction of visual flow based on motor output. A24b/M2 sends a dense and topographically organized projection to V1 that targets most neurons in layer 2/3...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910623/laminar-organization-of-encoding-and-memory-reactivation-in-the-parietal-cortex
#5
Aaron A Wilber, Ivan Skelin, Wei Wu, Bruce L McNaughton
Egocentric neural coding has been observed in parietal cortex (PC), but its topographical and laminar organization is not well characterized. We used multi-site recording to look for evidence of local clustering and laminar consistency of linear and angular velocity encoding in multi-neuronal spiking activity (MUA) and in the high-frequency (300-900 Hz) component of the local field potential (HF-LFP), believed to reflect local spiking activity. Rats were trained to run many trials on a large circular platform, either to LED-cued goal locations or as a spatial sequence from memory...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910622/dopamine-neurons-respond-to-errors-in-the-prediction-of-sensory-features-of-expected-rewards
#6
Yuji K Takahashi, Hannah M Batchelor, Bing Liu, Akash Khanna, Marisela Morales, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Midbrain dopamine neurons have been proposed to signal prediction errors as defined in model-free reinforcement learning algorithms. While these algorithms have been extremely powerful in interpreting dopamine activity, these models do not register any error unless there is a difference between the value of what is predicted and what is received. Yet learning often occurs in response to changes in the unique features that characterize what is received, sometimes with no change in its value at all. Here, we show that classic error-signaling dopamine neurons also respond to changes in value-neutral sensory features of an expected reward...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910621/a-fully-automated-approach-to-spike-sorting
#7
Jason E Chung, Jeremy F Magland, Alex H Barnett, Vanessa M Tolosa, Angela C Tooker, Kye Y Lee, Kedar G Shah, Sarah H Felix, Loren M Frank, Leslie F Greengard
Understanding the detailed dynamics of neuronal networks will require the simultaneous measurement of spike trains from hundreds of neurons (or more). Currently, approaches to extracting spike times and labels from raw data are time consuming, lack standardization, and involve manual intervention, making it difficult to maintain data provenance and assess the quality of scientific results. Here, we describe an automated clustering approach and associated software package that addresses these problems and provides novel cluster quality metrics...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910620/ctag-paperclip-reveals-alternative-polyadenylation-promotes-cell-type-specific-protein-diversity-and-shifts-araf-isoforms-with-microglia-activation
#8
Hun-Way Hwang, Yuhki Saito, Christopher Y Park, Nathalie E Blachère, Yoko Tajima, John J Fak, Ilana Zucker-Scharff, Robert B Darnell
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is increasingly recognized to regulate gene expression across different cell types, but obtaining APA maps from individual cell types typically requires prior purification, a stressful procedure that can itself alter cellular states. Here, we describe a new platform, cTag-PAPERCLIP, that generates APA profiles from single cell populations in intact tissues; cTag-PAPERCLIP requires no tissue dissociation and preserves transcripts in native states. Applying cTag-PAPERCLIP to profile four major cell types in the mouse brain revealed common APA preferences between excitatory and inhibitory neurons distinct from astrocytes and microglia, regulated in part by neuron-specific RNA-binding proteins NOVA2 and PTBP2...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910619/loss-of-hyperdirect-pathway-cortico-subthalamic-inputs-following-degeneration-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#9
Hong-Yuan Chu, Eileen L McIver, Ryan F Kovaleski, Jeremy F Atherton, Mark D Bevan
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to abnormally correlated and coherent activity in the cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, in parkinsonian mice we found that cortico-STN transmission strength had diminished by 50%-75% through loss of axo-dendritic and axo-spinous synapses, was incapable of long-term potentiation, and less effectively patterned STN activity. Optogenetic, chemogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological interrogation suggested that downregulation of cortico-STN transmission in PD mice was triggered by increased striato-pallidal transmission, leading to disinhibition of the STN and increased activation of STN NMDA receptors...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910618/ran-translation-regulated-by-muscleblind-proteins-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-2
#10
Tao Zu, John D Cleary, Yuanjing Liu, Monica Bañez-Coronel, Jodi L Bubenik, Fatma Ayhan, Tetsuo Ashizawa, Guangbin Xia, H Brent Clark, Anthony T Yachnis, Maurice S Swanson, Laura P W Ranum
Several microsatellite-expansion diseases are characterized by the accumulation of RNA foci and RAN proteins, raising the possibility of a mechanistic connection. We explored this question using myotonic dystrophy type 2, a multisystemic disease thought to be primarily caused by RNA gain-of-function effects. We demonstrate that the DM2 CCTG⋅CAGG expansion expresses sense and antisense tetrapeptide poly-(LPAC) and poly-(QAGR) RAN proteins, respectively. In DM2 autopsy brains, LPAC is found in neurons, astrocytes, and glia in gray matter, and antisense QAGR proteins accumulate within white matter...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910617/whole-cell-recording-of-neuronal-membrane-potential-during-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Carl C H Petersen
Neuronal membrane potential is of fundamental importance for the mechanistic understanding of brain function. This review discusses progress in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for low-noise measurement of neuronal membrane potential in awake behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings can be combined with two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons, revealing cell-type-specific membrane potential dynamics of retrogradely or genetically labeled neurons. Dual whole-cell recordings reveal behavioral modulation of membrane potential synchrony and properties of synaptic transmission in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910616/neuroimmunology-of-traumatic-brain-injury-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#12
REVIEW
Yasir N Jassam, Saef Izzy, Michael Whalen, Dorian B McGavern, Joseph El Khoury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and disability, with a considerable socioeconomic burden. Heterogeneity of pathoanatomical subtypes and diversity in the pathogenesis and extent of injury contribute to differences in the course and outcome of TBI. Following the primary injury, extensive and lasting damage is sustained through a complex cascade of events referred to as "secondary injury." Neuroinflammation is proposed as an important manipulable aspect of secondary injury in animal and human studies...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910615/-beginning-with-the-smallest-intake-children-s-brain-development-and-the-role-of-neuroscience-in-global-environmental-health
#13
Kam Sripada
Early exposure to environmental toxins like lead, air pollution, and arsenic can have long-lasting and irreversible consequences for children's neurodevelopment, especially in the developing world. Though the number of pollutants increases each year, some neuroscientists are forging partnerships to improve measurement, raise awareness, and promote global health.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910614/movement-coding-at-the-mesoscale-in-posterior-parietal-cortex
#14
Jonathan R Whitlock
Neural correlates of movement planning have been studied most commonly using signals isolated from single cells. However, in this issue of Neuron, Wilber et al. (2017) show that movement trajectories are encoded and replayed in the collective activity of thousands of cells at a time in the posterior parietal cortex.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910613/resolving-cns-mrna-heterogeneity-examining-mrna-alternative-polyadenylation-at-a-cell-type-specific-level
#15
Martine Therrien, Myriam Heiman
Alternative polyadenylation often regulates mRNA isoform usage. In this issue of Neuron, Hwang et al. (2017) describe a powerful new cell-type-specific methodology, cTag-PAPERCLIP, which can be used to study alternative polyadenylation in the CNS.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910612/smells-familiar-pheromone-induced-neurotransmitter-switching-mediates-social-discrimination
#16
Michael Gliksberg, Gil Levkowitz
Social discrimination is regulated by a variety of sensory inputs. In this issue of Neuron, Dulcis et al. (2017) show that chemosensory-mediated kin preference in Xenopus is determined by changes in neurotransmitter composition, which are regulated by specific microRNAs.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910611/revealing-a-role-for-nmda-receptors-in-regulating-stn-inputs-following-the-loss-of-dopamine
#17
Aphroditi A Mamaligas, Christopher P Ford
In this issue of Neuron, Chu et al. (2017) show that dopamine depletion using a 6-OHDA model causes a decrease in hyperdirect inputs from the motor cortex directly to the STN and that rescuing this loss alleviates Parkinsonian symptoms.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867552/connexin-43-mediated-astroglial-metabolic-networks-contribute-to-the-regulation-of-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#18
Jerome Clasadonte, Eliana Scemes, Zhongya Wang, Detlev Boison, Philip G Haydon
Astrocytes produce and supply metabolic substrates to neurons through gap junction-mediated astroglial networks. However, the role of astroglial metabolic networks in behavior is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that perturbation of astroglial networks impairs the sleep-wake cycle. Using a conditional Cre-Lox system in mice, we show that knockout of the gap junction subunit connexin 43 in astrocytes throughout the brain causes excessive sleepiness and fragmented wakefulness during the nocturnal active phase. This astrocyte-specific genetic manipulation silenced the wake-promoting orexin neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) by impairing glucose and lactate trafficking through astrocytic networks...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867551/stable-positioning-of-unc13-restricts-synaptic-vesicle-fusion-to-defined-release-sites-to-promote-synchronous-neurotransmission
#19
Suneel Reddy-Alla, Mathias A Böhme, Eric Reynolds, Christina Beis, Andreas T Grasskamp, Malou M Mampell, Marta Maglione, Meida Jusyte, Ulises Rey, Husam Babikir, Anthony W McCarthy, Christine Quentin, Tanja Matkovic, Dominique Dufour Bergeron, Zeeshan Mushtaq, Fabian Göttfert, David Owald, Thorsten Mielke, Stefan W Hell, Stephan J Sigrist, Alexander M Walter
Neural information processing depends on precisely timed, Ca(2+)-activated synaptic vesicle exocytosis from release sites within active zones (AZs), but molecular details are unknown. Here, we identify that the (M)Unc13-family member Unc13A generates release sites and show the physiological relevance of their restrictive AZ targeting. Super-resolution and intravital imaging of Drosophila neuromuscular junctions revealed that (unlike the other release factors Unc18 and Syntaxin-1A) Unc13A was stably and precisely positioned at AZs...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867550/neurotransmitter-switching-regulated-by-mirnas-controls-changes-in-social-preference
#20
Davide Dulcis, Giordano Lippi, Christiana J Stark, Long H Do, Darwin K Berg, Nicholas C Spitzer
Changes in social preference of amphibian larvae result from sustained exposure to kinship odorants. To understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of this neuroplasticity, we investigated the effects of olfactory system activation on neurotransmitter (NT) expression in accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) interneurons during development. We show that protracted exposure to kin or non-kin odorants changes the number of dopamine (DA)- or gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-expressing neurons, with corresponding changes in attraction/aversion behavior...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
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