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Neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779943/astroglial-cb-1-receptors-determine-synaptic-d-serine-availability-to-enable-recognition-memory
#1
Laurie M Robin, José F Oliveira da Cruz, Valentin C Langlais, Mario Martin-Fernandez, Mathilde Metna-Laurent, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Luigi Bellocchio, Edgar Soria-Gomez, Thomas Papouin, Marjorie Varilh, Mark W Sherwood, Ilaria Belluomo, Georgina Balcells, Isabelle Matias, Barbara Bosier, Filippo Drago, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Francois Georges, Alfonso Araque, Aude Panatier, Stéphane H R Oliet, Giovanni Marsicano
Bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes shapes synaptic plasticity and behavior. D-serine is a necessary co-agonist of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), but the physiological factors regulating its impact on memory processes are scantly known. We show that astroglial CB1 receptors are key determinants of object recognition memory by determining the availability of D-serine at hippocampal synapses. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from astroglial cells (GFAP-CB1 -KO) displayed impaired object recognition memory and decreased in vivo and in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779942/transformation-of-a-spatial-map-across-the-hippocampal-lateral-septal-circuit
#2
David Tingley, György Buzsáki
The hippocampus constructs a map of the environment. How this "cognitive map" is utilized by other brain regions to guide behavior remains unexplored. To examine how neuronal firing patterns in the hippocampus are transmitted and transformed, we recorded neurons in its principal subcortical target, the lateral septum (LS). We observed that LS neurons carry reliable spatial information in the phase of action potentials, relative to hippocampal theta oscillations, while the firing rates of LS neurons remained uninformative...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779941/the-epigenetic-state-of-prdm16-regulated-enhancers-in-radial-glia-controls-cortical-neuron-position
#3
José-Manuel Baizabal, Meeta Mistry, Miguel Turrero García, Nicolás Gómez, Olubusola Olukoya, Diana Tran, Matthew B Johnson, Christopher A Walsh, Corey C Harwell
The epigenetic landscape is dynamically remodeled during neurogenesis. However, it is not understood how chromatin modifications in neural stem cells instruct the formation of complex structures in the brain. We report that the histone methyltransferase PRDM16 is required in radial glia to regulate lineage-autonomous and stage-specific gene expression programs that control number and position of upper layer cortical projection neurons. PRDM16 regulates the epigenetic state of transcriptional enhancers to activate genes involved in intermediate progenitor cell production and repress genes involved in cell migration...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779940/encoding-of-articulatory-kinematic-trajectories-in-human-speech-sensorimotor-cortex
#4
Josh Chartier, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Keith Johnson, Edward F Chang
When speaking, we dynamically coordinate movements of our jaw, tongue, lips, and larynx. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying articulation, we used direct cortical recordings from human sensorimotor cortex while participants spoke natural sentences that included sounds spanning the entire English phonetic inventory. We used deep neural networks to infer speakers' articulator movements from produced speech acoustics. Individual electrodes encoded a diversity of articulatory kinematic trajectories (AKTs), each revealing coordinated articulator movements toward specific vocal tract shapes...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754752/hippocampal-5-ht-input-regulates-memory-formation-and-schaffer-collateral-excitation
#5
Catia M Teixeira, Zev B Rosen, Deepika Suri, Qian Sun, Marc Hersh, Derya Sargin, Iva Dincheva, Ashlea A Morgan, Stephen Spivack, Anne C Krok, Tessa Hirschfeld-Stoler, Evelyn K Lambe, Steven A Siegelbaum, Mark S Ansorge
The efficacy and duration of memory storage is regulated by neuromodulatory transmitter actions. While the modulatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in implicit forms of memory in the invertebrate Aplysia, its function in explicit memory mediated by the mammalian hippocampus is less clear. Specifically, the consequences elicited by the spatio-temporal gradient of endogenous 5-HT release are not known. Here we applied optogenetic techniques in mice to gain insight into this fundamental biological process...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754753/a-genetically-encoded-biosensor-reveals-location-bias-of-opioid-drug-action
#6
Miriam Stoeber, Damien Jullié, Braden T Lobingier, Toon Laeremans, Jan Steyaert, Peter W Schiller, Aashish Manglik, Mark von Zastrow
Opioid receptors (ORs) precisely modulate behavior when activated by native peptide ligands but distort behaviors to produce pathology when activated by non-peptide drugs. A fundamental question is how drugs differ from peptides in their actions on target neurons. Here, we show that drugs differ in the subcellular location at which they activate ORs. We develop a genetically encoded biosensor that directly detects ligand-induced activation of ORs and uncover a real-time map of the spatiotemporal organization of OR activation in living neurons...
May 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754754/excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons-utilize-different-ca-2-sensors-and-sources-to-regulate-spontaneous-release
#7
Nicholas A Courtney, Joseph S Briguglio, Mazdak M Bradberry, Christina Greer, Edwin R Chapman
Spontaneous neurotransmitter release (mini) is an important form of Ca2+ -dependent synaptic transmission that occurs in the absence of action potentials. A molecular understanding of this process requires an identification of the underlying Ca2+ sensors. Here, we address the roles of the relatively low- and high-affinity Ca2+ sensors, synapotagmin-1 (syt1) and Doc2α/β, respectively. We found that both syt1 and Doc2 regulate minis, but, surprisingly, their relative contributions depend on whether release was from excitatory or inhibitory neurons...
May 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754751/pauses-in-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-are-driven-by-excitatory-input-and-delayed-rectification-with-dopamine-modulation
#8
Yan-Feng Zhang, John N J Reynolds, Stephanie J Cragg
Cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) of the striatum pause their firing in response to salient stimuli and conditioned stimuli after learning. Several different mechanisms for pause generation have been proposed, but a unifying basis has not previously emerged. Here, using in vivo and ex vivo recordings in rat and mouse brain and a computational model, we show that ChI pauses are driven by withdrawal of excitatory inputs to striatum and result from a delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr ) in concert with local neuromodulation...
May 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731253/a-brain-wide-circuit-model-of-heat-evoked-swimming-behavior-in-larval-zebrafish
#9
Martin Haesemeyer, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M Li, Alexander F Schier, Florian Engert
Thermosensation provides crucial information, but how temperature representation is transformed from sensation to behavior is poorly understood. Here, we report a preparation that allows control of heat delivery to zebrafish larvae while monitoring motor output and imaging whole-brain calcium signals, thereby uncovering algorithmic and computational rules that couple dynamics of heat modulation, neural activity and swimming behavior. This approach identifies a critical step in the transformation of temperature representation between the sensory trigeminal ganglia and the hindbrain: A simple sustained trigeminal stimulus representation is transformed into a representation of absolute temperature as well as temperature changes in the hindbrain that explains the observed motor output...
May 1, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731252/on-how-the-dentate-gyrus-contributes-to-memory-discrimination
#10
Milenna Tamara van Dijk, André Antonio Fenton
The dentate gyrus (DG) is crucial for behaviorally discriminating similar spatial memories, predicting that DG place cells change ("remap") their relative spatial tuning ("place fields") for memory discrimination. This prediction was never tested, although DG place cells remap across similar environments without memory tasks. We confirm this prior finding but find that DG place fields do not remap across spatial tasks that require DG-dependent memory discrimination. Instead of remapping, place-discriminating discharge is observed transiently among DG place cells, particularly when memory discrimination is most necessary...
May 1, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731254/filopodia-conduct-target-selection-in-cortical-neurons-using-differences-in-signal-kinetics-of-a-single-kinase
#11
Yu-Ting Mao, Julia X Zhu, Kenji Hanamura, Giuliano Iurilli, Sandeep Robert Datta, Matthew B Dalva
Dendritic filopodia select synaptic partner axons by interviewing the cell surface of potential targets, but how filopodia decipher the complex pattern of adhesive and repulsive molecular cues to find appropriate contacts is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in cortical neurons that a single cue is sufficient for dendritic filopodia to reject or select specific axonal contacts for elaboration as synaptic sites. Super-resolution and live-cell imaging reveals that EphB2 is located in the tips of filopodia and at nascent synaptic sites...
April 30, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754750/cocaine-place-conditioning-strengthens-location-specific-hippocampal-coupling-to-the-nucleus-accumbens
#12
Lucas Sjulson, Adrien Peyrache, Andrea Cumpelik, Daniela Cassataro, György Buzsáki
Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a widely used model of addiction-related behavior whose underlying mechanisms are not understood. In this study, we used dual site silicon probe recordings in freely moving mice to examine interactions between the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens in cocaine CPP. We found that CPP was associated with recruitment of D2-positive nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons to fire in the cocaine-paired location, and this recruitment was driven predominantly by selective strengthening of coupling with hippocampal place cells that encode the cocaine-paired location...
April 28, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731251/common-variant-burden-contributes-to-the-familial-aggregation-of-migraine-in-1-589-families
#13
Padhraig Gormley, Mitja I Kurki, Marjo Eveliina Hiekkala, Kumar Veerapen, Paavo Häppölä, Adele A Mitchell, Dennis Lal, Priit Palta, Ida Surakka, Mari Anneli Kaunisto, Eija Hämäläinen, Salli Vepsäläinen, Hannele Havanka, Hanna Harno, Matti Ilmavirta, Markku Nissilä, Erkki Säkö, Marja-Liisa Sumelahti, Jarmo Liukkonen, Matti Sillanpää, Liisa Metsähonkala, Seppo Koskinen, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli Raitakari, Minna Männikkö, Caroline Ran, Andrea Carmine Belin, Pekka Jousilahti, Verneri Anttila, Veikko Salomaa, Ville Artto, Markus Färkkilä, Heiko Runz, Mark J Daly, Benjamin M Neale, Samuli Ripatti, Mikko Kallela, Maija Wessman, Aarno Palotie
Complex traits, including migraine, often aggregate in families, but the underlying genetic architecture behind this is not well understood. The aggregation could be explained by rare, penetrant variants that segregate according to Mendelian inheritance or by the sufficient polygenic accumulation of common variants, each with an individually small effect, or a combination of the two hypotheses. In 8,319 individuals across 1,589 migraine families, we calculated migraine polygenic risk scores (PRS) and found a significantly higher common variant burden in familial cases (n = 5,317, OR = 1...
April 27, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731250/spectrally-resolved-fiber-photometry-for-multi-component-analysis-of-brain-circuits
#14
Chengbo Meng, Jingheng Zhou, Amy Papaneri, Teja Peddada, Karen Xu, Guohong Cui
To achieve simultaneous measurement of multiple cellular events in molecularly defined groups of neurons in vivo, we designed a spectrometer-based fiber photometry system that allows for spectral unmixing of multiple fluorescence signals recorded from deep brain structures in behaving animals. Using green and red Ca2+ indicators differentially expressed in striatal direct- and indirect-pathway neurons, we were able to simultaneously monitor the neural activity in these two pathways in freely moving animals...
April 25, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706583/serotonergic-signaling-controls-input-specific-synaptic-plasticity-at-striatal-circuits
#15
Anna Cavaccini, Marta Gritti, Andrea Giorgi, Andrea Locarno, Nicolas Heck, Sara Migliarini, Alice Bertero, Maddalena Mereu, Giulia Margiani, Massimo Trusel, Tiziano Catelani, Roberto Marotta, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Jocelyne Caboche, Alessandro Gozzi, Massimo Pasqualetti, Raffaella Tonini
Monoaminergic modulation of cortical and thalamic inputs to the dorsal striatum (DS) is crucial for reward-based learning and action control. While dopamine has been extensively investigated in this context, the synaptic effects of serotonin (5-HT) have been largely unexplored. Here, we investigated how serotonergic signaling affects associative plasticity at glutamatergic synapses on the striatal projection neurons of the direct pathway (dSPNs). Combining chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches reveals that impeding serotonergic signaling preferentially gates spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) at thalamostriatal synapses...
April 25, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706584/ras-and-rap-signal-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity-via-distinct-subcellular-microdomains
#16
Lei Zhang, Peng Zhang, Guangfu Wang, Huaye Zhang, Yajun Zhang, Yilin Yu, Mingxu Zhang, Jian Xiao, Piero Crespo, Johannes W Hell, Li Lin, Richard L Huganir, J Julius Zhu
How signaling molecules achieve signal diversity and specificity is a long-standing cell biology question. Here we report the development of a targeted delivery method that permits specific expression of homologous Ras-family small GTPases (i.e., Ras, Rap2, and Rap1) in different subcellular microdomains, including the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid rafts, bulk membrane, lysosomes, and Golgi complex, in rodent hippocampal CA1 neurons. The microdomain-targeted delivery, combined with multicolor fluorescence protein tagging and high-resolution dual-quintuple simultaneous patch-clamp recordings, allows systematic analysis of microdomain-specific signaling...
April 24, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706585/odor-perception-on-the-two-sides-of-the-brain-consistency-despite-randomness
#17
Evan S Schaffer, Dan D Stettler, Daniel Kato, Gloria B Choi, Richard Axel, L F Abbott
Neurons in piriform cortex receive input from a random collection of glomeruli, resulting in odor representations that lack the stereotypic organization of the olfactory bulb. We have performed in vivo optical imaging and mathematical modeling to demonstrate that correlations are retained in the transformation from bulb to piriform cortex, a feature essential for generalization across odors. Random connectivity also implies that the piriform representation of a given odor will differ among different individuals and across brain hemispheres in a single individual...
April 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706581/cortical-circuit-activity-evokes-rapid-astrocyte-calcium-signals-on-a-similar-timescale-to-neurons
#18
Jillian L Stobart, Kim David Ferrari, Matthew J P Barrett, Chaim Glück, Michael J Stobart, Marc Zuend, Bruno Weber
Sensory stimulation evokes intracellular calcium signals in astrocytes; however, the timing of these signals is disputed. Here, we used novel combinations of genetically encoded calcium indicators for concurrent two-photon imaging of cortical astrocytes and neurons in awake mice during whisker deflection. We identified calcium responses in both astrocyte processes and endfeet that rapidly followed neuronal events (∼120 ms after). These fast astrocyte responses were largely independent of IP3 R2-mediated signaling and known neuromodulator activity (acetylcholine, serotonin, and norepinephrine), suggesting that they are evoked by local synaptic activity...
April 20, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681530/more-than-the-sum-of-its-parts-a-role-for-the-hippocampus-in-configural-reinforcement-learning
#19
Katherine Duncan, Bradley B Doll, Nathaniel D Daw, Daphna Shohamy
People often perceive configurations rather than the elements they comprise, a bias that may emerge because configurations often predict outcomes. But how does the brain learn to associate configurations with outcomes and how does this learning differ from learning about individual elements? We combined behavior, reinforcement learning models, and functional imaging to understand how people learn to associate configurations of cues with outcomes. We found that configural learning depended on the relative predictive strength of elements versus configurations and was related to both the strength of BOLD activity and patterns of BOLD activity in the hippocampus...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681533/a-task-optimized-neural-network-replicates-human-auditory-behavior-predicts-brain-responses-and-reveals-a-cortical-processing-hierarchy
#20
Alexander J E Kell, Daniel L K Yamins, Erica N Shook, Sam V Norman-Haignere, Josh H McDermott
A core goal of auditory neuroscience is to build quantitative models that predict cortical responses to natural sounds. Reasoning that a complete model of auditory cortex must solve ecologically relevant tasks, we optimized hierarchical neural networks for speech and music recognition. The best-performing network contained separate music and speech pathways following early shared processing, potentially replicating human cortical organization. The network performed both tasks as well as humans and exhibited human-like errors despite not being optimized to do so, suggesting common constraints on network and human performance...
April 17, 2018: Neuron
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