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Xiaoyang Yao, Jon Cafaro, Amanda J McLaughlin, Friso R Postma, David L Paul, Gautam Awatramani, Greg D Field
Direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) deliver signals from the retina to multiple brain areas to indicate the presence and direction of motion. Delivering reliable signals in response to motion is critical across light levels. Here we determine how populations of DSGCs adapt to changes in light level, from moonlight to daylight. Using large-scale measurements of neural activity, we demonstrate that the population of DSGCs switches encoding strategies across light levels. Specifically, the direction tuning of superior (upward)-preferring ON-OFF DSGCs becomes broader at low light levels, whereas other DSGCs exhibit stable tuning...
September 6, 2018: Neuron
Lige Leng, Kai Zhuang, Zeyue Liu, Changquan Huang, Yuehong Gao, Guimiao Chen, Hui Lin, Yu Hu, Di Wu, Meng Shi, Wenting Xie, Hao Sun, Zhicheng Shao, Huifang Li, Kunkun Zhang, Wei Mo, Timothy Y Huang, Maoqiang Xue, Zengqiang Yuan, Xia Zhang, Guojun Bu, Huaxi Xu, Qi Xu, Jie Zhang
Astrocyte dysfunction and inflammation are associated with the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. Here, we found that multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (Men1; protein: menin) expression is attenuated in the brain of mice exposed to CUMS (chronic unpredictable mild stress) or lipopolysaccharide. Astrocyte-specific reduction of Men1 (GcKO) led to depressive-like behaviors in mice. We observed enhanced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production with menin deficiency in astrocytes, where depressive-like behaviors in GcKO mice were restored by NF-κB inhibitor or IL-1β receptor antagonist...
September 6, 2018: Neuron
Erin L Barnhart, Irving E Wang, Huayi Wei, Claude Desplan, Thomas R Clandinin
Many animals guide their movements using optic flow, the displacement of stationary objects across the retina caused by self-motion. How do animals selectively synthesize a global motion pattern from its local motion components? To what extent does this feature selectivity rely on circuit mechanisms versus dendritic processing? Here we used in vivo calcium imaging to identify pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms for processing local motion signals in global motion detection circuits in Drosophila. Lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs) detect global motion by pooling input from local motion detectors, T4/T5 neurons...
September 6, 2018: Neuron
Maryam Bijanzadeh, Lauri Nurminen, Sam Merlin, Andrew M Clark, Alessandra Angelucci
Visual perception is affected by spatial context. In visual cortex, neuronal responses to stimuli inside the receptive field (RF) are suppressed by stimuli in the RF surround. To understand the circuits and cortical layers processing spatial context, we simultaneously recorded across all layers of macaque primary visual cortex while presenting stimuli at increasing distances from the recorded cells' RF. We find that near versus far-surround stimuli activate distinct layers, thus revealing unique laminar contributions to the processing of local and global spatial context...
September 5, 2018: Neuron
Yasuyo H Tanaka, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Masashi Kondo, Shin-Ichiro Terada, Yasuo Kawaguchi, Masanori Matsuzaki
The thalamus is the hub through which neural signals are transmitted from the basal ganglia and cerebellum to the neocortex. However, thalamocortical axonal activity during motor learning remains largely undescribed. We conducted two-photon calcium imaging of thalamocortical axonal activity in the motor cortex of mice learning a self-initiated lever-pull task. Layer 1 (L1) axons came to exhibit activity at lever-pull initiation and termination, while layer 3 (L3) axons did so at lever-pull initiation. L1 population activity had a sequence structure related to both lever-pull duration and reproducibility...
August 27, 2018: Neuron
Holger Haselmann, Francesco Mannara, Christian Werner, Jesús Planagumà, Federico Miguez-Cabello, Lars Schmidl, Benedikt Grünewald, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Knut Kirmse, Joseph Classen, Fatih Demir, Nikolaj Klöcker, David Soto, Sören Doose, Josep Dalmau, Stefan Hallermann, Christian Geis
AMPA receptors are essential for fast excitatory transmission in the CNS. Autoantibodies to AMPA receptors have been identified in humans with autoimmune encephalitis and severe defects of hippocampal function. Here, combining electrophysiology and high-resolution imaging with neuronal culture preparations and passive-transfer models in wild-type and GluA1-knockout mice, we analyze how specific human autoantibodies against the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 affect receptor function and composition, synaptic transmission, and plasticity...
August 18, 2018: Neuron
Joanna I Giza, Jihye Kim, Heidi C Meyer, Agustin Anastasia, Iva Dincheva, Crystal I Zheng, Katherine Lopez, Henrietta Bains, Jianmin Yang, Clay Bracken, Conor Liston, Deqiang Jing, Barbara L Hempstead, Francis S Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Wenqin Hu, Bruce P Bean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Raphael Koster, Martin J Chadwick, Yi Chen, David Berron, Andrea Banino, Emrah Düzel, Demis Hassabis, Dharshan Kumaran
Recent evidence challenges the widely held view that the hippocampus is specialized for episodic memory, by demonstrating that it also underpins the integration of information across experiences. Contemporary computational theories propose that these two contrasting functions can be accomplished by big-loop recurrence, whereby the output of the system is recirculated back into the hippocampus. We use ultra-high-resolution fMRI to provide support for this hypothesis, by showing that retrieved information is presented as a new input on the superficial entorhinal cortex-driven by functional connectivity between the deep and superficial entorhinal layers...
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Lindsey M Snyder, Michael C Chiang, Emanuel Loeza-Alcocer, Yu Omori, Junichi Hachisuka, Tayler D Sheahan, Jenna R Gale, Peter C Adelman, Elizabeth I Sypek, Stephanie A Fulton, Robert L Friedman, Margaret C Wright, Melissa Giraldo Duque, Yeon Sun Lee, Zeyu Hu, Huizhen Huang, Xiaoyun Cai, Kimberly A Meerschaert, Vidhya Nagarajan, Toshiro Hirai, Gregory Scherrer, Daniel H Kaplan, Frank Porreca, Brian M Davis, Michael S Gold, H Richard Koerber, Sarah E Ross
Primary afferents are known to be inhibited by kappa opioid receptor (KOR) signaling. However, the specific types of somatosensory neurons that express KOR remain unclear. Here, using a newly developed KOR-cre knockin allele, viral tracing, single-cell RT-PCR, and ex vivo recordings, we show that KOR is expressed in several populations of primary afferents: a subset of peptidergic sensory neurons, as well as low-threshold mechanoreceptors that form lanceolate or circumferential endings around hair follicles...
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Scott A Hollingsworth, Ron O Dror
The impact of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in molecular biology and drug discovery has expanded dramatically in recent years. These simulations capture the behavior of proteins and other biomolecules in full atomic detail and at very fine temporal resolution. Major improvements in simulation speed, accuracy, and accessibility, together with the proliferation of experimental structural data, have increased the appeal of biomolecular simulation to experimentalists-a trend particularly noticeable in, although certainly not limited to, neuroscience...
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Guglielmo Foffani, José A Obeso
In Parkinson's disease, the progressive neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is associated with classic motor features, which typically have a focal onset. Since a defined somatotopic arrangement in the SNc has not been recognized, this focal motor onset is unexplained and hardly justified by current pathogenic theories of bottom-up disease progression (Braak's hypothesis, prionopathy). Here we propose that corticostriatal activity may represent a critical somatotopic "stressor" for nigrostriatal terminals, ultimately driving retrograde nigrostriatal degeneration and leading to focal motor onset and progression of Parkinson's disease...
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Marla B Feller
Teaching undergraduates is part of the academic commitment for many neuroscience faculty. While some scientists view this as a major distraction from research, teaching is of high value, both in training young scientists and for informing one's own scientific investigations.
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Jozien Goense
Memory encoding and retrieval require directional exchange of information between different areas in the medial temporal lobe. In this issue of Neuron, Koster et al. (2018) use high-resolution fMRI combined with state-of-the-art data analysis methods to trace the information flow in memory circuits in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Sten Grillner
Goal-directed behavior is processed in the dorsomedial striatum. Using a probabilistic reward paradigm, Nonomura et al. (2018) show that indirect pathway neurons signal when an action is incorrect and it is time to switch strategies, while the direct pathway remains active with a correct action.
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Paul V Naser, Rohini Kuner
With the current unmet demand for effective analgesics and the opioid crisis, pain relief without major central adverse effects is highly appealing. In this issue of Neuron, Snyder et al. (2018) report on the localization, functions, and therapeutic potential of kappa opioid receptors in peripheral sensory neurons.
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Timal S Kannangara, Diane C Lagace
In this issue of Neuron, Schäffner et al. (2018) discover multiple effects of the Forkhead Box O (FoxO) transcription factor family on the different stages of adult neurogenesis, including the genesis of dendrites and spines regulated by FoxO-dependent autophagic activity.
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Iris Schäffner, Georgia Minakaki, M Amir Khan, Elli-Anna Balta, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Tobias J Schwarz, Ruth Beckervordersandforth, Beate Winner, Ashley E Webb, Ronald A DePinho, Jihye Paik, Wolfgang Wurst, Jochen Klucken, D Chichung Lie
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic pathway with emerging functions in mammalian neurodevelopment and human neurodevelopmental diseases. The mechanisms controlling autophagy in neuronal development are not fully understood. Here, we found that conditional deletion of the Forkhead Box O transcription factors FoxO1, FoxO3, and FoxO4 strongly impaired autophagic flux in developing neurons of the adult mouse hippocampus. Moreover, FoxO deficiency led to altered dendritic morphology, increased spine density, and aberrant spine positioning in adult-generated neurons...
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Xin Duan, Arjun Krishnaswamy, Mallory A Laboulaye, Jinyue Liu, Yi-Rong Peng, Masahito Yamagata, Kenichi Toma, Joshua R Sanes
Distinct neuronal types connect in complex ways to generate functional neural circuits. The molecular diversity required to specify this connectivity could be supplied by multigene families of synaptic recognition molecules, but most studies to date have assessed just one or a few members at a time. Here, we analyze roles of cadherins (Cdhs) in formation of retinal circuits comprising eight neuronal types that inform the brain about motion in four directions. We show that at least 15 classical Cdhs are expressed by neurons in these circuits and at least 6 (Cdh6-10 and 18) act individually or in combinations to promote specific connectivity among the cells...
September 19, 2018: Neuron
Arnau Busquets-Garcia, José F Oliveira da Cruz, Geoffrey Terral, Antonio C Pagano Zottola, Edgar Soria-Gómez, Andrea Contini, Hugo Martin, Bastien Redon, Marjorie Varilh, Christina Ioannidou, Filippo Drago, Federico Massa, Xavier Fioramonti, Pierre Trifilieff, Guillaume Ferreira, Giovanni Marsicano
By priming brain circuits, associations between low-salience stimuli often guide future behavioral choices through a process known as mediated or inferred learning. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms of these incidental associations are largely unknown. Using sensory preconditioning procedures, we show that type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 R) in hippocampal GABAergic neurons are necessary and sufficient for mediated but not direct learning. Deletion and re-expression of CB1 R in hippocampal GABAergic neurons abolishes and rescues mediated learning, respectively...
September 19, 2018: Neuron
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