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Neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190642/widespread-and-opponent-fmri-signals-represent-sound-location-in-macaque-auditory-cortex
#1
Michael Ortiz-Rios, Frederico A C Azevedo, Paweł Kuśmierek, Dávid Z Balla, Matthias H Munk, Georgios A Keliris, Nikos K Logothetis, Josef P Rauschecker
In primates, posterior auditory cortical areas are thought to be part of a dorsal auditory pathway that processes spatial information. But how posterior (and other) auditory areas represent acoustic space remains a matter of debate. Here we provide new evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the macaque indicating that space is predominantly represented by a distributed hemifield code rather than by a local spatial topography. Hemifield tuning in cortical and subcortical regions emerges from an opponent hemispheric pattern of activation and deactivation that depends on the availability of interaural delay cues...
February 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190641/emergence-of-coordinated-neural-dynamics-underlies-neuroprosthetic-learning-and-skillful-control
#2
Vivek R Athalye, Karunesh Ganguly, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena
During motor learning, movements and underlying neural activity initially exhibit large trial-to-trial variability that decreases over learning. However, it is unclear how task-relevant neural populations coordinate to explore and consolidate activity patterns. Exploration and consolidation could happen for each neuron independently, across the population jointly, or both. We disambiguated among these possibilities by investigating how subjects learned de novo to control a brain-machine interface using neurons from motor cortex...
February 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190643/left-habenula-mediates-light-preference-behavior-in-zebrafish-via-an-asymmetrical-visual-pathway
#3
Bai-Bing Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Yao, He-Fei Zhang, Koichi Kawakami, Jiu-Lin Du
Habenula (Hb) plays critical roles in emotion-related behaviors through integrating inputs mainly from the limbic system and basal ganglia. However, Hb also receives inputs from multiple sensory modalities. The function and underlying neural circuit of Hb sensory inputs remain unknown. Using larval zebrafish, we found that left dorsal Hb (dHb, a homolog of mammalian medial Hb) mediates light-preference behavior by receiving visual inputs from a specific subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through eminentia thalami (EmT)...
February 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190640/divergent-hox-coding-and-evasion-of-retinoid-signaling-specifies-motor-neurons-innervating-digit-muscles
#4
Alana I Mendelsohn, Jeremy S Dasen, Thomas M Jessell
The establishment of spinal motor neuron subclass diversity is achieved through developmental programs that are aligned with the organization of muscle targets in the limb. The evolutionary emergence of digits represents a specialized adaptation of limb morphology, yet it remains unclear how the specification of digit-innervating motor neuron subtypes parallels the elaboration of digits. We show that digit-innervating motor neurons can be defined by selective gene markers and distinguished from other LMC neurons by the expression of a variant Hox gene repertoire and by the failure to express a key enzyme involved in retinoic acid synthesis...
February 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162807/a-brainstem-spinal-cord-inhibitory-circuit-for-mechanical-pain-modulation-by-gaba-and-enkephalins
#5
Amaury François, Sarah A Low, Elizabeth I Sypek, Amelia J Christensen, Chaudy Sotoudeh, Kevin T Beier, Charu Ramakrishnan, Kimberly D Ritola, Reza Sharif-Naeini, Karl Deisseroth, Scott L Delp, Robert C Malenka, Liqun Luo, Adam W Hantman, Grégory Scherrer
Pain thresholds are, in part, set as a function of emotional and internal states by descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to critically contribute to this process; however, the neural circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which distinct populations of RVM neurons facilitate or diminish pain remain elusive. Here we used in vivo opto/chemogenetic manipulations and trans-synaptic tracing of genetically identified dorsal horn and RVM neurons to uncover an RVM-spinal cord-primary afferent circuit controlling pain thresholds...
January 31, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162809/axonal-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-content-controls-release-probability-in-cns-nerve-terminals
#6
Jaime de Juan-Sanz, Graham T Holt, Eric R Schreiter, Fernando de Juan, Douglas S Kim, Timothy A Ryan
Although the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) extends throughout axons and axonal ER dysfunction is implicated in numerous neurological diseases, its role at nerve terminals is poorly understood. We developed novel genetically encoded ER-targeted low-affinity Ca(2+) indicators optimized for examining axonal ER Ca(2+). Our experiments revealed that presynaptic function is tightly controlled by ER Ca(2+) content. We found that neuronal activity drives net Ca(2+) uptake into presynaptic ER although this activity does not contribute significantly to shaping cytosolic Ca(2+) except during prolonged repetitive firing...
January 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162808/fgf13-selectively-regulates-heat-nociception-by-interacting-with-nav1-7
#7
Liu Yang, Fei Dong, Qing Yang, Pai-Feng Yang, Ruiqi Wu, Qing-Feng Wu, Dan Wu, Chang-Lin Li, Yan-Qing Zhong, Ying-Jin Lu, Xiaoyang Cheng, Fu-Qiang Xu, Limin Chen, Lan Bao, Xu Zhang
The current knowledge about heat nociception is mainly confined to the thermosensors, including the transient receptor potential cation channel V1 expressed in the nociceptive neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). However, the loss of thermosensors only partially impairs heat nociception, suggesting the existence of undiscovered mechanisms. We found that the loss of an intracellular fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF13, in the mouse DRG neurons selectively abolished heat nociception. The noxious heat stimuli could not evoke the sustained action potential firing in FGF13-deficient DRG neurons...
January 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162806/a-neural-circuit-for-auditory-dominance-over-visual-perception
#8
You-Hyang Song, Jae-Hyun Kim, Hye-Won Jeong, Ilsong Choi, Daun Jeong, Kwansoo Kim, Seung-Hee Lee
When conflicts occur during integration of visual and auditory information, one modality often dominates the other, but the underlying neural circuit mechanism remains unclear. Using auditory-visual discrimination tasks for head-fixed mice, we found that audition dominates vision in a process mediated by interaction between inputs from the primary visual (VC) and auditory (AC) cortices in the posterior parietal cortex (PTLp). Co-activation of the VC and AC suppresses VC-induced PTLp responses, leaving AC-induced responses...
January 27, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182907/memory-without-feedback-in-a-neural-network
#9
Mark S Goldman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182906/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-encodes-a-latent-estimate-of-cumulative-reward
#10
Keno Juechems, Jan Balaguer, Maria Ruz, Christopher Summerfield
Humans and other animals accumulate resources, or wealth, by making successive risky decisions. If and how risk attitudes vary with wealth remains an open question. Here humans accumulated reward by accepting or rejecting successive monetary gambles within arbitrarily defined temporal contexts. Risk preferences changed substantially toward risk aversion as reward accumulated within a context, and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) tracked the latent growth of cumulative economic outcomes...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182905/cracking-the-neural-code-for-sensory-perception-by-combining-statistics-intervention-and-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Stefano Panzeri, Christopher D Harvey, Eugenio Piasini, Peter E Latham, Tommaso Fellin
The two basic processes underlying perceptual decisions-how neural responses encode stimuli, and how they inform behavioral choices-have mainly been studied separately. Thus, although many spatiotemporal features of neural population activity, or "neural codes," have been shown to carry sensory information, it is often unknown whether the brain uses these features for perception. To address this issue, we propose a new framework centered on redefining the neural code as the neural features that carry sensory information used by the animal to drive appropriate behavior; that is, the features that have an intersection between sensory and choice information...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182904/neuroscience-needs-behavior-correcting-a-reductionist-bias
#12
REVIEW
John W Krakauer, Asif A Ghazanfar, Alex Gomez-Marin, Malcolm A MacIver, David Poeppel
There are ever more compelling tools available for neuroscience research, ranging from selective genetic targeting to optogenetic circuit control to mapping whole connectomes. These approaches are coupled with a deep-seated, often tacit, belief in the reductionist program for understanding the link between the brain and behavior. The aim of this program is causal explanation through neural manipulations that allow testing of necessity and sufficiency claims. We argue, however, that another equally important approach seeks an alternative form of understanding through careful theoretical and experimental decomposition of behavior...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182903/balancing-act-maintaining-amino-acid-levels-in-the-autistic-brain
#13
Thomas M Maynard, M Chiara Manzini
The ever-expanding number of genes that are mutated in autism is showing us how imbalances in fundamental cellular processes can lead to disease. A recent study by Tărlungeanu et al. (2016) identifies a form of ASD resulting from a failure of the brain to properly import amino acids.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182902/money-in-the-bank-distortive-effects-of-accumulated-earnings-on-risky-choice
#14
Arkady Konovalov, Ian Krajbich
A new study by Juechems et al. (2017) demonstrates that individuals take fewer risks as they accumulate monetary reward. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in the decision process, encoding both momentary reward and the context of the accumulated wealth.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182901/one-cycle-fuels-another-the-energetics-of-neurotransmitter-release
#15
Katlin Silm, Robert H Edwards
In this issue of Neuron, Ashrafi et al. (2017) show that activity induces translocation of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, where it sustains the ATP production required for synaptic vesicle cycling. However, translocation occurs from presynaptic membranes other than synaptic vesicles and involves a distinct molecular mechanism.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182900/microglial-barriers-to-viral-gene-delivery
#16
John V Pluvinage, Tony Wyss-Coray
In this issue of Neuron, Tufail et al. present an underlying mechanism for microglia-mediated elimination of virally transduced cells in the central nervous system. These findings could contribute to the development of improved gene therapies for various neurological disorders by exploring why microglia destroy viable cells following viral infection.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182899/dentate-mossy-cell-and-pattern-separation
#17
Kazu Nakazawa
Three studies by Danielson et al. (2017), GoodSmith et al. (2017), and Sensai and Buzsáki (2017) distinguish in vivo firing properties of dentate mossy cells from granule cells during behavior. Robust spatial remapping of mossy cells, in contrast to sparse firing of granule cells, suggests differential involvement in pattern separation.
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132832/intra-neuronal-competition-for-synaptic-partners-conserves-the-amount-of-dendritic-building-material
#18
Stefanie Ryglewski, Fernando Vonhoff, Kathryn Scheckel, Carsten Duch
Brain development requires correct targeting of multiple thousand synaptic terminals onto staggeringly complex dendritic arbors. The mechanisms by which input synapse numbers are matched to dendrite size, and by which synaptic inputs from different transmitter systems are correctly partitioned onto a postsynaptic arbor, are incompletely understood. By combining quantitative neuroanatomy with targeted genetic manipulation of synaptic input to an identified Drosophila neuron, we show that synaptic inputs of two different transmitter classes locally direct dendrite growth in a competitive manner...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132831/transient-opening-of-the-mitochondrial-permeability%C3%A2-transition-pore-induces-microdomain-calcium-transients-in-astrocyte-processes
#19
Amit Agarwal, Pei-Hsun Wu, Ethan G Hughes, Masahiro Fukaya, Max A Tischfield, Abraham J Langseth, Denis Wirtz, Dwight E Bergles
Astrocytes extend highly branched processes that form functionally isolated microdomains, facilitating local homeostasis by redistributing ions, removing neurotransmitters, and releasing factors to influence blood flow and neuronal activity. Microdomains exhibit spontaneous increases in calcium (Ca(2+)), but the mechanisms and functional significance of this localized signaling are unknown. By developing conditional, membrane-anchored GCaMP3 mice, we found that microdomain activity that occurs in the absence of inositol triphosphate (IP3)-dependent release from endoplasmic reticulum arises through Ca(2+) efflux from mitochondria during brief openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132830/flexible-near-field-wireless-optoelectronics-as-subdermal-implants-for-broad-applications-in-optogenetics
#20
Gunchul Shin, Adrian M Gomez, Ream Al-Hasani, Yu Ra Jeong, Jeonghyun Kim, Zhaoqian Xie, Anthony Banks, Seung Min Lee, Sang Youn Han, Chul Jong Yoo, Jong-Lam Lee, Seung Hee Lee, Jonas Kurniawan, Jacob Tureb, Zhongzhu Guo, Jangyeol Yoon, Sung-Il Park, Sang Yun Bang, Yoonho Nam, Marie C Walicki, Vijay K Samineni, Aaron D Mickle, Kunhyuk Lee, Seung Yun Heo, Jordan G McCall, Taisong Pan, Liang Wang, Xue Feng, Tae-Il Kim, Jong Kyu Kim, Yuhang Li, Yonggang Huang, Robert W Gereau, Jeong Sook Ha, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
In vivo optogenetics provides unique, powerful capabilities in the dissection of neural circuits implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional hardware for such studies, however, physically tethers the experimental animal to an external light source, limiting the range of possible experiments. Emerging wireless options offer important capabilities that avoid some of these limitations, but the current size, bulk, weight, and wireless area of coverage is often disadvantageous. Here, we present a simple but powerful setup based on wireless, near-field power transfer and miniaturized, thin, flexible optoelectronic implants, for complete optical control in a variety of behavioral paradigms...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
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