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Neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625486/a-corticothalamic-circuit-for-dynamic-switching-between-feature-detection-and-discrimination
#1
Wei Guo, Amanda R Clause, Asa Barth-Maron, Daniel B Polley
Sensory processing must be sensitive enough to encode faint signals near the noise floor but selective enough to differentiate between similar stimuli. Here we describe a layer 6 corticothalamic (L6 CT) circuit in the mouse auditory forebrain that alternately biases sound processing toward hypersensitivity and improved behavioral sound detection or dampened excitability and enhanced sound discrimination. Optogenetic activation of L6 CT neurons could increase or decrease the gain and tuning precision in the thalamus and all layers of the cortical column, depending on the timing between L6 CT activation and sensory stimulation...
June 14, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625487/distinct-feedforward-and-feedback-effects-of-microstimulation-in-visual-cortex-reveal-neural-mechanisms-of-texture-segregation
#2
P Christiaan Klink, Bruno Dagnino, Marie-Alice Gariel-Mathis, Pieter R Roelfsema
The visual cortex is hierarchically organized, with low-level areas coding for simple features and higher areas for complex ones. Feedforward and feedback connections propagate information between areas in opposite directions, but their functional roles are only partially understood. We used electrical microstimulation to perturb the propagation of neuronal activity between areas V1 and V4 in monkeys performing a texture-segregation task. In both areas, microstimulation locally caused a brief phase of excitation, followed by inhibition...
June 9, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625488/a-central-catecholaminergic-circuit-controls-blood-glucose-levels-during-stress
#3
Zhe Zhao, Liang Wang, Wenling Gao, Fei Hu, Juen Zhang, Yuqi Ren, Rui Lin, Qiru Feng, Mingxiu Cheng, Dapeng Ju, Qingsheng Chi, Dehua Wang, Sen Song, Minmin Luo, Cheng Zhan
Stress-induced hyperglycemia is a fundamental adaptive response that mobilizes energy stores in response to threats. Here, our examination of the contributions of the central catecholaminergic (CA) neuronal system to this adaptive response revealed that CA neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) control stress-induced hyperglycemia. Ablation of VLM CA neurons abolished the hyperglycemic response to both physical and psychological stress, whereas chemogenetic activation of these neurons was sufficient to induce hyperglycemia...
June 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602690/dorsal-raphe-dopamine-neurons-modulate-arousal-and-promote-wakefulness-by-salient-stimuli
#4
Jounhong Ryan Cho, Jennifer B Treweek, J Elliott Robinson, Cheng Xiao, Lindsay R Bremner, Alon Greenbaum, Viviana Gradinaru
Ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) is unambiguously involved in motivation and behavioral arousal, yet the contributions of other DA populations to these processes are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dorsal raphe nucleus DA neurons are critical modulators of behavioral arousal and sleep-wake patterning. Using simultaneous fiber photometry and polysomnography, we observed time-delineated dorsal raphe nucleus dopaminergic (DRN(DA)) activity upon exposure to arousal-evoking salient cues, irrespective of their hedonic valence...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625485/motor-cortical-visuomotor-feedback-activity-is-initially-isolated-from-downstream-targets-in-output-null-neural-state-space-dimensions
#5
Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
Neural circuits must transform new inputs into outputs without prematurely affecting downstream circuits while still maintaining other ongoing communication with these targets. We investigated how this isolation is achieved in the motor cortex when macaques received visual feedback signaling a movement perturbation. To overcome limitations in estimating the mapping from cortex to arm movements, we also conducted brain-machine interface (BMI) experiments where we could definitively identify neural firing patterns as output-null or output-potent...
June 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602691/temporal-and-rate-coding-for-discrete-event-sequences-in-the-hippocampus
#6
Satoshi Terada, Yoshio Sakurai, Hiroyuki Nakahara, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa
Although the hippocampus is critical to episodic memory, neuronal representations supporting this role, especially relating to nonspatial information, remain elusive. Here, we investigated rate and temporal coding of hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats performing a cue-combination task that requires the integration of sequentially provided sound and odor cues. The majority of CA1 neurons displayed sensory cue-, combination-, or choice-specific (simply, "event"-specific) elevated discharge activities, which were sustained throughout the event period...
June 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602689/empathic-care-and-distress-predictive-brain-markers-and-dissociable-brain-systems
#7
Yoni K Ashar, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Sona Dimidjian, Tor D Wager
Encountering another's suffering can elicit both empathic distress and empathic care-the warm desire to affiliate. It remains unclear whether these two feelings can be accurately and differentially predicted from neural activity and to what extent their neural substrates can be distinguished. We developed fMRI markers predicting moment-by-moment intensity levels of care and distress intensity while participants (n = 66) listened to true biographies describing human suffering. Both markers' predictions correlated strongly with self-report in out-of-sample participants (r = 0...
May 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641116/mechanisms-for-selective-single-cell-reactivation-during-offline-sharp-wave-ripples-and-their-distortion-by-fast-ripples
#8
Manuel Valero, Robert G Averkin, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Juan Aguilar, Diego Lopez-Pigozzi, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, Elena Cid, Gabor Tamas, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641115/feature-integration-drives-probabilistic-behavior-in-the-drosophila-escape-response
#9
Catherine R von Reyn, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Patrick Breads, Ming Wu, Shigehiro Namiki, Gwyneth M Card
Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641114/a-critical-role-of-presynaptic-cadherin-catenin-p140cap-complexes-in-stabilizing-spines-and-functional-synapses-in-the-neocortex
#10
Min-Yin Li, Wan-Ying Miao, Qiu-Zi Wu, Shun-Ji He, Guoquan Yan, Yanrui Yang, Jia-Jia Liu, M Mark Taketo, Xiang Yu
The formation of functional synapses requires coordinated assembly of presynaptic transmitter release machinery and postsynaptic trafficking of functional receptors and scaffolds. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of presynaptic cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complexes in stabilizing functional synapses and spines in the developing neocortex. Importantly, presynaptic expression of stabilized β-catenin in either layer (L) 4 excitatory neurons or L2/3 pyramidal neurons significantly upregulated excitatory synaptic transmission and dendritic spine density in L2/3 pyramidal neurons, while its sparse postsynaptic expression in L2/3 neurons had no such effects...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641113/enhanced-functional-genomic-screening-identifies-novel-mediators-of-dual-leucine-zipper-kinase-dependent-injury-signaling-in-neurons
#11
Derek S Welsbie, Katherine L Mitchell, Vinod Jaskula-Ranga, Valentin M Sluch, Zhiyong Yang, Jessica Kim, Eugen Buehler, Amit Patel, Scott E Martin, Ping-Wu Zhang, Yan Ge, Yukan Duan, John Fuller, Byung-Jin Kim, Eman Hamed, Xitiz Chamling, Lei Lei, Iain D C Fraser, Ze'ev A Ronai, Cynthia A Berlinicke, Donald J Zack
Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) has been implicated in cell death signaling secondary to axonal damage in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and other neurons. To better understand the pathway through which DLK acts, we developed enhanced functional genomic screens in primary RGCs, including use of arrayed, whole-genome, small interfering RNA libraries. Explaining why DLK inhibition is only partially protective, we identify leucine zipper kinase (LZK) as cooperating with DLK to activate downstream signaling and cell death in RGCs, including in a mouse model of optic nerve injury, and show that the same pathway is active in human stem cell-derived RGCs...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641112/molecular-mechanism-of-mdga1-regulation-of-neuroligin-2-neurexin-trans-synaptic-bridges
#12
Shanti Pal Gangwar, Xiaoying Zhong, Suchithra Seshadrinathan, Hui Chen, Mischa Machius, Gabby Rudenko
Neuroligins and neurexins promote synapse development and validation by forming trans-synaptic bridges spanning the synaptic cleft. Select pairs promote excitatory and inhibitory synapses, with neuroligin 2 (NLGN2) limited to inhibitory synapses and neuroligin 1 (NLGN1) dominating at excitatory synapses. The cell-surface molecules, MAM domain-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 1 (MDGA1) and 2 (MDGA2), regulate trans-synaptic adhesion between neurexins and neuroligins, impacting NLGN2 and NLGN1, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641111/structural-insights-into-modulation-of-neurexin-neuroligin-trans-synaptic-adhesion-by-mdga1-neuroligin-2-complex
#13
Jung A Kim, Doyoun Kim, Seoung Youn Won, Kyung Ah Han, Dongseok Park, Eunju Cho, Nayoung Yun, Hyun Joo An, Ji Won Um, Eunjoon Kim, Jie-Oh Lee, Jaewon Ko, Ho Min Kim
Membrane-associated mucin domain-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor proteins (MDGAs) bind directly to neuroligin-1 (NL1) and neuroligin-2 (NL2), thereby respectively regulating excitatory and inhibitory synapse development. However, the mechanisms by which MDGAs modulate NL activity to specify development of the two synapse types remain unclear. Here, we determined the crystal structures of human NL2/MDGA1 Ig1-3 complex, revealing their stable 2:2 arrangement with three interaction interfaces. Cell-based assays using structure-guided, site-directed MDGA1 mutants showed that all three contact patches were required for the MDGA's negative regulation of NL2-mediated synaptogenic activity...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641110/sox11-expression-promotes-regeneration-of-some-retinal-ganglion-cell-types-but-kills-others
#14
Michael W Norsworthy, Fengfeng Bei, Riki Kawaguchi, Qing Wang, Nicholas M Tran, Yi Li, Benedikt Brommer, Yiming Zhang, Chen Wang, Joshua R Sanes, Giovanni Coppola, Zhigang He
At least 30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send distinct messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Available strategies of promoting axon regeneration act on only some of these types. Here we tested the hypothesis that overexpressing developmentally important transcription factors in adult RGCs could reprogram them to a "youthful" growth-competent state and promote regeneration of other types. From a screen of transcription factors, we identified Sox11 as one that could induce substantial axon regeneration...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641109/rare-copy-number-variants-in-nrxn1-and-cntn6-increase-risk-for-tourette-syndrome
#15
Alden Y Huang, Dongmei Yu, Lea K Davis, Jae Hoon Sul, Fotis Tsetsos, Vasily Ramensky, Ivette Zelaya, Eliana Marisa Ramos, Lisa Osiecki, Jason A Chen, Lauren M McGrath, Cornelia Illmann, Paul Sandor, Cathy L Barr, Marco Grados, Harvey S Singer, Markus M Nöthen, Johannes Hebebrand, Robert A King, Yves Dion, Guy Rouleau, Cathy L Budman, Christel Depienne, Yulia Worbe, Andreas Hartmann, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Manfred Stuhrmann, Harald Aschauer, Mara Stamenkovic, Monika Schloegelhofer, Anastasios Konstantinidis, Gholson J Lyon, William M McMahon, Csaba Barta, Zsanett Tarnok, Peter Nagy, James R Batterson, Renata Rizzo, Danielle C Cath, Tomasz Wolanczyk, Cheston Berlin, Irene A Malaty, Michael S Okun, Douglas W Woods, Elliott Rees, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, James A Knowles, Danielle Posthuma, David L Pauls, Nancy J Cox, Benjamin M Neale, Nelson B Freimer, Peristera Paschou, Carol A Mathews, Jeremiah M Scharf, Giovanni Coppola
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a model neuropsychiatric disorder thought to arise from abnormal development and/or maintenance of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. TS is highly heritable, but its underlying genetic causes are still elusive, and no genome-wide significant loci have been discovered to date. We analyzed a European ancestry sample of 2,434 TS cases and 4,093 ancestry-matched controls for rare (< 1% frequency) copy-number variants (CNVs) using SNP microarray data. We observed an enrichment of global CNV burden that was prominent for large (> 1 Mb), singleton events (OR = 2...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641108/high-speed-and-scalable-whole-brain-imaging-in-rodents-and-primates
#16
Kaoru Seiriki, Atsushi Kasai, Takeshi Hashimoto, Wiebke Schulze, Misaki Niu, Shun Yamaguchi, Takanobu Nakazawa, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Shiori Uezono, Masahiko Takada, Yuichiro Naka, Hisato Igarashi, Masato Tanuma, James A Waschek, Yukio Ago, Kenji F Tanaka, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Kazuki Nagayasu, Norihito Shintani, Ryota Hashimoto, Yasuto Kunii, Mizuki Hino, Junya Matsumoto, Hirooki Yabe, Takeharu Nagai, Katsumasa Fujita, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma, Akemichi Baba, Hitoshi Hashimoto
Subcellular resolution imaging of the whole brain and subsequent image analysis are prerequisites for understanding anatomical and functional brain networks. Here, we have developed a very high-speed serial-sectioning imaging system named FAST (block-face serial microscopy tomography), which acquires high-resolution images of a whole mouse brain in a speed range comparable to that of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy. FAST enables complete visualization of the brain at a resolution sufficient to resolve all cells and their subcellular structures...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641107/the-persistence-and-transience-of-memory
#17
REVIEW
Blake A Richards, Paul W Frankland
The predominant focus in the neurobiological study of memory has been on remembering (persistence). However, recent studies have considered the neurobiology of forgetting (transience). Here we draw parallels between neurobiological and computational mechanisms underlying transience. We propose that it is the interaction between persistence and transience that allows for intelligent decision-making in dynamic, noisy environments. Specifically, we argue that transience (1) enhances flexibility, by reducing the influence of outdated information on memory-guided decision-making, and (2) prevents overfitting to specific past events, thereby promoting generalization...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641106/antisense-oligonucleotides-translation-from-mouse-models-to-human-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Kathleen M Schoch, Timothy M Miller
Multiple neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by single-protein dysfunction and aggregation. Treatment strategies for these diseases have often targeted downstream pathways to ameliorate consequences of protein dysfunction; however, targeting the source of that dysfunction, the affected protein itself, seems most judicious to achieve a highly effective therapeutic outcome. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are small sequences of DNA able to target RNA transcripts, resulting in reduced or modified protein expression...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641105/it-s-not-all-fun-and-games-sports-concussions-and-neuroscience
#19
Christopher C Giza, Mayumi L Prins, David A Hovda
Few items grab the public's attention like sports, from extremes of great victory to injury and defeat. No injury currently arouses stronger interest than concussion. Giza et al., discuss how neuroscience can provide balance between physical activity and TBI, and guide thoughtful discourse and policy.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641104/constructing-the-external-world
#20
Jiseok Lee, Alison L Barth
In this issue of Neuron, Pluta et al. (2017) find a novel map of external space in primary somatosensory cortex, generated by multi-whisker interactions during active touch.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
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