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Neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712653/neural-circuit-specialized-astrocytes-transcriptomic-proteomic-morphological-and-functional-evidence
#1
Hua Chai, Blanca Diaz-Castro, Eiji Shigetomi, Emma Monte, J Christopher Octeau, Xinzhu Yu, Whitaker Cohn, Pradeep S Rajendran, Thomas M Vondriska, Julian P Whitelegge, Giovanni Coppola, Baljit S Khakh
Astrocytes are ubiquitous in the brain and are widely held to be largely identical. However, this view has not been fully tested, and the possibility that astrocytes are neural circuit specialized remains largely unexplored. Here, we used multiple integrated approaches, including RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), mass spectrometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, serial block-face-scanning electron microscopy, morphological reconstructions, pharmacogenetics, and diffusible dye, calcium, and glutamate imaging, to directly compare adult striatal and hippocampal astrocytes under identical conditions...
July 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712654/activity-dependent-gating-of-parvalbumin-interneuron-function-by-the-perineuronal-net-protein-brevican
#2
Emilia Favuzzi, André Marques-Smith, Rubén Deogracias, Christian M Winterflood, Alberto Sánchez-Aguilera, Laura Mantoan, Patricia Maeso, Cathy Fernandes, Helge Ewers, Beatriz Rico
Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is a fundamental mechanism through which the nervous system adapts to sensory experience. Several lines of evidence suggest that parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons are essential in this process, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of experience on interneuron plasticity remain poorly understood. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping PV+ cells are long-standing candidates for playing such a role, yet their precise contribution has remained elusive. We show that the PNN protein Brevican is a critical regulator of interneuron plasticity...
July 10, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712652/serotonergic-modulation-enables-pathway-specific-plasticity-in-a-developing-sensory-circuit-in-drosophila
#3
Takuya Kaneko, Ann Marie Macara, Ruonan Li, Yujia Hu, Kenichi Iwasaki, Zane Dunnings, Ethan Firestone, Shawn Horvatic, Ananya Guntur, Orie T Shafer, Chung-Hui Yang, Jie Zhou, Bing Ye
How experiences during development cause long-lasting changes in sensory circuits and affect behavior in mature animals are poorly understood. Here we establish a novel system for mechanistic analysis of the plasticity of developing neural circuits by showing that sensory experience during development alters nociceptive behavior and circuit physiology in Drosophila larvae. Despite the convergence of nociceptive and mechanosensory inputs on common second-order neurons (SONs), developmental noxious input modifies transmission from nociceptors to their SONs, but not from mechanosensors to the same SONs, which suggests striking sensory pathway specificity...
July 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689983/a-novel-neural-prediction-error-found-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-ensembles
#4
James Michael Hyman, Clay Brian Holroyd, Jeremy Keith Seamans
The function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) remains controversial, yet many theories suggest a role in behavioral adaptation, partly because a robust event-related potential, the feedback-related negativity (FN), is evoked over the ACC whenever expectations are violated. We recorded from the ACC as rats performed a task identical to one that reliably evokes an FN in humans. A subset of neurons was found that encoded expected outcomes as abstract outcome representations. The degree to which a reward/non-reward outcome representation emerged during a trial depended on the history of outcomes that preceded it...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689982/network-level-control-of-frequency-tuning-in-auditory-cortex
#5
Hiroyuki K Kato, Samuel K Asinof, Jeffry S Isaacson
Lateral inhibition is a fundamental circuit operation that sharpens the tuning properties of cortical neurons. This operation is classically attributed to an increase in GABAergic synaptic input triggered by non-preferred stimuli. Here we use in vivo whole-cell recording and two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in awake mice to show that lateral inhibition shapes frequency tuning in primary auditory cortex via an unconventional mechanism: non-preferred tones suppress both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs onto layer 2/3 cells ("network suppression")...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689984/local-cues-establish-and-maintain-region-specific-phenotypes-of-basal-ganglia-microglia
#6
Lindsay M De Biase, Kornel E Schuebel, Zachary H Fusfeld, Kamwing Jair, Isobel A Hawes, Raffaello Cimbro, Hai-Ying Zhang, Qing-Rong Liu, Hui Shen, Zheng-Xiong Xi, David Goldman, Antonello Bonci
Microglia play critical roles in tissue homeostasis and can also modulate neuronal function and synaptic connectivity. In contrast to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which arise from multiple progenitor pools, microglia arise from yolk sac progenitors and are widely considered to be equivalent throughout the CNS. However, little is known about basic properties of deep brain microglia, such as those within the basal ganglia (BG). Here, we show that microglial anatomical features, lysosome content, membrane properties, and transcriptomes differ significantly across BG nuclei...
July 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689981/thalamic-spindles-promote-memory-formation-during-sleep-through-triple-phase-locking-of-cortical-thalamic-and-hippocampal-rhythms
#7
Charles-Francois V Latchoumane, Hong-Viet V Ngo, Jan Born, Hee-Sup Shin
While the interaction of the cardinal rhythms of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-the thalamo-cortical spindles, hippocampal ripples, and the cortical slow oscillations-is thought to be critical for memory consolidation during sleep, the role spindles play in this interaction is elusive. Combining optogenetics with a closed-loop stimulation approach in mice, we show here that only thalamic spindles induced in-phase with cortical slow oscillation up-states, but not out-of-phase-induced spindles, improve consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory during sleep...
July 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689980/the-contribution-of-area-mt-to-visual-motion-perception-depends-on-training
#8
Liu D Liu, Christopher C Pack
Perceptual decisions require the transformation of raw sensory inputs into cortical representations suitable for stimulus discrimination. One of the best-known examples of this transformation involves the middle temporal area (MT) of the primate visual cortex. Area MT provides a robust representation of stimulus motion, and previous work has shown that it contributes causally to performance on motion discrimination tasks. Here we report that the strength of this contribution can be highly plastic: depending on the recent training history, pharmacological inactivation of MT can severely impair motion discrimination, or it can have little detectable influence...
June 29, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669544/tdp-43-depletion-in-microglia-promotes-amyloid-clearance-but-also-induces-synapse-loss
#9
Rosa C Paolicelli, Ali Jawaid, Christopher M Henstridge, Andrea Valeri, Mario Merlini, John L Robinson, Edward B Lee, Jamie Rose, Stanley Appel, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Tara Spires-Jones, Paul E Schulz, Lawrence Rajendran
Microglia coordinate various functions in the central nervous system ranging from removing synaptic connections, to maintaining brain homeostasis by monitoring neuronal function, and clearing protein aggregates across the lifespan. Here we investigated whether increased microglial phagocytic activity that clears amyloid can also cause pathological synapse loss. We identified TDP-43, a DNA-RNA binding protein encoded by the Tardbp gene, as a strong regulator of microglial phagocytosis. Mice lacking TDP-43 in microglia exhibit reduced amyloid load in a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but at the same time display drastic synapse loss, even in the absence of amyloid...
June 27, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669545/retrograde-synaptic-inhibition-is-mediated-by-%C3%AE-neurexin-binding-to-the-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-subunits-of-n-type-calcium-channels
#10
Xia-Jing Tong, Eduardo Javier López-Soto, Lei Li, Haowen Liu, Daniel Nedelcu, Diane Lipscombe, Zhitao Hu, Joshua M Kaplan
The synaptic adhesion molecules Neurexin and Neuroligin alter the development and function of synapses and are linked to autism in humans. In C. elegans, post-synaptic Neurexin (NRX-1) and pre-synaptic Neuroligin (NLG-1) mediate a retrograde synaptic signal that inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release at neuromuscular junctions. Here, we show that the retrograde signal decreases ACh release by inhibiting the function of pre-synaptic UNC-2/CaV2 calcium channels. Post-synaptic NRX-1 binds to an auxiliary subunit of pre-synaptic UNC-2/CaV2 channels (UNC-36/α2δ), decreasing UNC-36 abundance at pre-synaptic elements...
June 26, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669546/biased-oxytocinergic-modulation-of-midbrain-dopamine-systems
#11
Lei Xiao, Michael F Priest, Jordan Nasenbeny, Ting Lu, Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy
The release of dopamine (DA) regulates rewarding behavior and motor actions through striatum-targeting efferents from ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Here, we map and functionally characterize axonal projections from oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to midbrain DA regions. Electrophysiological recordings of DA neurons reveal that both the application of oxytocin and optogenetic stimulation of oxytocinergic terminals suffice to increase DA neuron activity in the VTA but downregulate it in SNc...
June 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669543/fronto-parietal-cortical-circuits-encode-accumulated-evidence-with-a-diversity-of-timescales
#12
Benjamin B Scott, Christine M Constantinople, Athena Akrami, Timothy D Hanks, Carlos D Brody, David W Tank
Decision-making in dynamic environments often involves accumulation of evidence, in which new information is used to update beliefs and select future actions. Using in vivo cellular resolution imaging in voluntarily head-restrained rats, we examined the responses of neurons in frontal and parietal cortices during a pulse-based accumulation of evidence task. Neurons exhibited activity that predicted the animal's upcoming choice, previous choice, and graded responses that reflected the strength of the accumulated evidence...
June 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602690/dorsal-raphe-dopamine-neurons-modulate-arousal-and-promote-wakefulness-by-salient-stimuli
#13
Jounhong Ryan Cho, Jennifer B Treweek, J Elliott Robinson, Cheng Xiao, Lindsay R Bremner, Alon Greenbaum, Viviana Gradinaru
Ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) is unambiguously involved in motivation and behavioral arousal, yet the contributions of other DA populations to these processes are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dorsal raphe nucleus DA neurons are critical modulators of behavioral arousal and sleep-wake patterning. Using simultaneous fiber photometry and polysomnography, we observed time-delineated dorsal raphe nucleus dopaminergic (DRN(DA)) activity upon exposure to arousal-evoking salient cues, irrespective of their hedonic valence...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602691/temporal-and-rate-coding-for-discrete-event-sequences-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Satoshi Terada, Yoshio Sakurai, Hiroyuki Nakahara, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa
Although the hippocampus is critical to episodic memory, neuronal representations supporting this role, especially relating to nonspatial information, remain elusive. Here, we investigated rate and temporal coding of hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats performing a cue-combination task that requires the integration of sequentially provided sound and odor cues. The majority of CA1 neurons displayed sensory cue-, combination-, or choice-specific (simply, "event"-specific) elevated discharge activities, which were sustained throughout the event period...
June 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602689/empathic-care-and-distress-predictive-brain-markers-and-dissociable-brain-systems
#15
Yoni K Ashar, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Sona Dimidjian, Tor D Wager
Encountering another's suffering can elicit both empathic distress and empathic care-the warm desire to affiliate. It remains unclear whether these two feelings can be accurately and differentially predicted from neural activity and to what extent their neural substrates can be distinguished. We developed fMRI markers predicting moment-by-moment intensity levels of care and distress intensity while participants (n = 66) listened to true biographies describing human suffering. Both markers' predictions correlated strongly with self-report in out-of-sample participants (r = 0...
May 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683273/vasopressin-and-the-neurogenetics-of-parental-care
#16
Noah Snyder-Mackler, Jenny Tung
Making robust connections between genetic variation, neurophysiology, and social behavior remains a challenge. A study by Bendesky et al. (2017) tackles this challenge by dissecting the genetic architecture of parental care in deer mice to discover an important contribution of vasopressin signaling to the evolution of nest building.
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683272/axon-death-pathways-converge-on-axundead-to-promote-functional-and-structural-axon-disassembly
#17
Lukas J Neukomm, Thomas C Burdett, Andrew M Seeds, Stefanie Hampel, Jaeda C Coutinho-Budd, Jonathan E Farley, Jack Wong, Yonca B Karadeniz, Jeannette M Osterloh, Amy E Sheehan, Marc R Freeman
Axon degeneration is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease and neural injury. Axotomy activates an intrinsic pro-degenerative axon death signaling cascade involving loss of the NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme Nmnat/Nmnat2 in axons, activation of dSarm/Sarm1, and subsequent Sarm-dependent depletion of NAD(+). Here we identify Axundead (Axed) as a mediator of axon death. axed mutants suppress axon death in several types of axons for the lifespan of the fly and block the pro-degenerative effects of activated dSarm in vivo...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683271/distinct-roles-for-the-amygdala-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-representing-the-relative-amount-of-expected-reward
#18
Rebecca A Saez, Alexandre Saez, Joseph J Paton, Brian Lau, C Daniel Salzman
The same reward can possess different motivational meaning depending upon its magnitude relative to other rewards. To study the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating assignment of motivational meaning, we recorded the activity of neurons in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of monkeys during a Pavlovian task in which the relative amount of liquid reward associated with one conditioned stimulus (CS) was manipulated by changing the reward amount associated with a second CS. Anticipatory licking tracked relative reward magnitude, implying that monkeys integrated information about recent rewards to adjust the motivational meaning of a CS...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683270/inter-synaptic-lateral-diffusion-of-gabaa-receptors-shapes-inhibitory-synaptic-currents
#19
Emanuela de Luca, Tiziana Ravasenga, Enrica Maria Petrini, Alice Polenghi, Thierry Nieus, Stefania Guazzi, Andrea Barberis
The lateral mobility of neurotransmitter receptors has been shown to tune synaptic signals. Here we report that GABAA receptors (GABAARs) can diffuse between adjacent dendritic GABAergic synapses in long-living desensitized states, thus laterally spreading "activation memories" between inhibitory synapses. Glutamatergic activity limits this inter-synaptic diffusion by trapping GABAARs at excitatory synapses. This novel form of activity-dependent hetero-synaptic interplay is likely to modulate dendritic synaptic signaling...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683269/stalling-for-time-it-s-not-the-magnitude-but-the-way-neurons-fire-that-matters
#20
Stephen H Scott
In this issue of Neuron, Stavisky et al. (2017) demonstrate that visual feedback in M1 during reaching initially reflects a specific pattern of neural activity that does not generate motor output and then is altered to a pattern that does generate motor output. This switch likely provides time for the motor system to consider various behavioral factors when specifying the appropriate motor response during voluntary motor actions.
July 5, 2017: Neuron
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