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Neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103808/disc1-regulates-neurogenesis-via-modulating-kinetochore-attachment-of-ndel1-nde1-during-mitosis
#1
Fei Ye, Eunchai Kang, Chuan Yu, Xuyu Qian, Fadi Jacob, Cong Yu, Mao Mao, Randy Y C Poon, Jieun Kim, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming, Mingjie Zhang
Mutations of DISC1 (disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1) have been associated with major psychiatric disorders. Despite the hundreds of DISC1-binding proteins reported, almost nothing is known about how DISC1 interacts with other proteins structurally to impact human brain development. Here we solved the high-resolution structure of DISC1 C-terminal tail in complex with its binding domain of Ndel1. Mechanistically, DISC1 regulates Ndel1's kinetochore attachment, but not its centrosome localization, during mitosis...
November 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103807/kinetics-of-releasable-synaptic-vesicles-and-their-plastic-changes-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#2
Mitsuharu Midorikawa, Takeshi Sakaba
Hippocampal mossy fiber boutons (hMFBs) are presynaptic terminals displaying various forms of synaptic plasticity. The presynaptic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity still remain poorly understood. Here, we have combined high temporal resolution measurements of presynaptic capacitance and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) to measure the kinetics of exocytosis. In addition, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was employed to directly visualize dynamics of single synaptic vesicles adjacent to the plasma membrane at high spatial resolution...
November 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103806/local-order-within-global-disorder-synaptic-architecture-of-visual-space
#3
Benjamin Scholl, Daniel E Wilson, David Fitzpatrick
Substantial evidence at the subcellular level indicates that the spatial arrangement of synaptic inputs onto dendrites could play a significant role in cortical computations, but how synapses of functionally defined cortical networks are arranged within the dendrites of individual neurons remains unclear. Here we assessed one-dimensional spatial receptive fields of individual dendritic spines within individual layer 2/3 neuron dendrites. Spatial receptive field properties of dendritic spines were strikingly diverse, with no evidence of large-scale topographic organization...
November 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107522/-silent-nmda-synapses-enhance-motion-sensitivity-in-a-mature-retinal-circuit
#4
Santhosh Sethuramanujam, Xiaoyang Yao, Geoff deRosenroll, Kevin L Briggman, Greg D Field, Gautam B Awatramani
Retinal direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) have the remarkable ability to encode motion over a wide range of contrasts, relying on well-coordinated excitation and inhibition (E/I). E/I is orchestrated by a diverse set of glutamatergic bipolar cells that drive DSGCs directly, as well as indirectly through feedforward GABAergic/cholinergic signals mediated by starburst amacrine cells. Determining how direction-selective responses are generated across varied stimulus conditions requires understanding how glutamate, acetylcholine, and GABA signals are precisely coordinated...
October 25, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103805/a-genetically-defined-circuit-for-arousal-from-sleep-during-hypercapnia
#5
Satvinder Kaur, Joshua L Wang, Loris Ferrari, Stephen Thankachan, Daniel Kroeger, Anne Venner, Michael Lazarus, Andrew Wellman, Elda Arrigoni, Patrick M Fuller, Clifford B Saper
The precise neural circuitry that mediates arousal during sleep apnea is not known. We previously found that glutamatergic neurons in the external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBel) play a critical role in arousal to elevated CO2 or hypoxia. Because many of the PBel neurons that respond to CO2 express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), we hypothesized that CGRP may provide a molecular identifier of the CO2 arousal circuit. Here, we report that selective chemogenetic and optogenetic activation of PBel(CGRP) neurons caused wakefulness, whereas optogenetic inhibition of PBel(CGRP) neurons prevented arousal to CO2, but not to an acoustic tone or shaking...
October 24, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103804/fibrinogen-activates-bmp-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-and-inhibits-remyelination-after-vascular-damage
#6
Mark A Petersen, Jae Kyu Ryu, Kae-Jiun Chang, Ainhoa Etxeberria, Sophia Bardehle, Andrew S Mendiola, Wanjiru Kamau-Devers, Stephen P J Fancy, Andrea Thor, Eric A Bushong, Bernat Baeza-Raja, Catriona A Syme, Michael D Wu, Pamela E Rios Coronado, Anke Meyer-Franke, Stephanie Yahn, Lauriane Pous, Jae K Lee, Christian Schachtrup, Hans Lassmann, Eric J Huang, May H Han, Martina Absinta, Daniel S Reich, Mark H Ellisman, David H Rowitch, Jonah R Chan, Katerina Akassoglou
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption alters the composition of the brain microenvironment by allowing blood proteins into the CNS. However, whether blood-derived molecules serve as extrinsic inhibitors of remyelination is unknown. Here we show that the coagulation factor fibrinogen activates the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and suppresses remyelination. Fibrinogen induces phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8 and inhibits OPC differentiation into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) while promoting an astrocytic fate in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144976/single-cell-profiling-of-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-of-human-interneuron-development-reveals-temporal-dynamics-of-cell-type-production-and-maturation
#7
Jennie L Close, Zizhen Yao, Boaz P Levi, Jeremy A Miller, Trygve E Bakken, Vilas Menon, Jonathan T Ting, Abigail Wall, Anne-Rachel Krostag, Elliot R Thomsen, Angel M Nelson, John K Mich, Rebecca D Hodge, Soraya I Shehata, Ian A Glass, Susan Bort, Nadiya V Shapovalova, N Kiet Ngo, Joshua S Grimley, John W Phillips, Carol L Thompson, Sharad Ramanathan, Ed Lein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144975/the-spatiotemporal-organization-of-the-striatum-encodes-action-space
#8
Andreas Klaus, Gabriela J Martins, Vitor B Paixao, Pengcheng Zhou, Liam Paninski, Rui M Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144974/double-nanodomain-coupling-of-calcium-channels-ryanodine-receptors-and-bk-channels-controls-the-generation-of-burst-firing
#9
Tomohiko Irie, Laurence O Trussell
Action potentials clustered into high-frequency bursts play distinct roles in neural computations. However, little is known about ionic currents that control the duration and probability of these bursts. We found that, in cartwheel inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the likelihood of bursts and the interval between their spikelets were controlled by Ca(2+) acting across two nanodomains, one between plasma membrane P/Q Ca(2+) channels and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ryanodine receptors and another between ryanodine receptors and large-conductance, voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144973/orbitofrontal-cortex-a-neural-circuit-for-economic-decisions
#10
REVIEW
Camillo Padoa-Schioppa, Katherine E Conen
Economic choice behavior entails the computation and comparison of subjective values. A central contribution of neuroeconomics has been to show that subjective values are represented explicitly at the neuronal level. With this result at hand, the field has increasingly focused on the difficult question of where in the brain and how exactly subjective values are compared to make a decision. Here, we review a broad range of experimental and theoretical results suggesting that good-based decisions are generated in a neural circuit within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144972/building-bridges-through-science
#11
Thomas Lissek, Michelle Adams, John Adelman, Ehud Ahissar, Mohammed Akaaboune, Huda Akil, Mustafa al'Absi, Fazal Arain, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Deniz Atasoy, Jesus Avila, Ashraf Badawi, Hilmar Bading, Abdul Mannan Baig, Jimena Baleriola, Carlos Belmonte, Ilaria Bertocchi, Heinrich Betz, Colin Blakemore, Olaf Blanke, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Paolo Bonifazi, Nils Brose, Patrizia Campolongo, Tansu Celikel, Cathy C Chang, Ta-Yuan Chang, Ami Citri, Hollis T Cline, Jesus M Cortes, Kathleen Cullen, Kellie Dean, José M Delgado-Garcia, Mathieu Desroches, John F Disterhoft, John E Dowling, Andreas Draguhn, Sherif F El-Khamisy, Abdeljabbar El Manira, S Ather Enam, Juan M Encinas, Asier Erramuzpe, José A Esteban, Isabel Fariñas, Edmond Fischer, Izumi Fukunaga, Iñigo Gabilondo, Detlev Ganten, Albert Gidon, Juan Carlos Gomez-Esteban, Paul Greengard, Valery Grinevich, Agnés Gruart, Roger Guillemin, Ahmad R Hariri, Bassem Hassan, Michael Häusser, Yasunori Hayashi, Natasha K Hussain, Adnan Abdul Jabbar, Mohamed Jaber, Reinhardt Jahn, Essam Mohammed Janahi, Mohamed Kabbaj, Helmut Kettenmann, Merel Kindt, Shira Knafo, Georg Köhr, Shoji Komai, Harm Krugers, Bernd Kuhn, Nouria Lakhdar Ghazal, Matthew E Larkum, Mickey London, Beat Lutz, Carlos Matute, Luis Martinez-Millan, Mouna Maroun, James McGaugh, Ahmed A Moustafa, Anwar Nasim, Klaus-Armin Nave, Erwin Neher, Karoly Nikolich, Tiago Outeiro, Lucy M Palmer, Olga Penagarikano, Isabel Perez-Otano, Donald W Pfaff, Bruno Poucet, Atta-Ur Rahman, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Richard J Roberts, Serafim Rodrigues, Joshua R Sanes, Andreas T Schaefer, Menahem Segal, Idan Segev, Saad Shafqat, Nikhat Ahmed Siddiqui, Hermona Soreq, Eduardo Soriano-García, Rainer Spanagel, Rolf Sprengel, Greg Stuart, Thomas C Südhof, Jan Tønnesen, Mario Treviño, Basim M Uthman, J Craig Venter, Alexei Verkhratsky, Craig Weiss, Torsten N Wiesel, Emre Yaksi, Ofer Yizhar, Larry J Young, Paul Young, Nasser H Zawia, José L Zugaza, Mazahir T Hasan
Science is ideally suited to connect people from different cultures and thereby foster mutual understanding. To promote international life science collaboration, we have launched "The Science Bridge" initiative. Our current project focuses on partnership between Western and Middle Eastern neuroscience communities.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144971/gender-equality-from-a-european-perspective-myth-and-reality
#12
Patricia C Salinas, Claudia Bagni
In the past 50 years, significant progress in women's equality has been made worldwide. Western countries, particularly European countries, have implemented initiatives to attain a more gender-balanced workforce with the introduction of family friendly policies, by trying to narrow the gender pay gap and by promoting women's career progression. In academia, however, fewer women reach top leadership positions than those in the political arena. These findings suggest that academia needs to carefully evaluate why these new policies have not been very effective...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144970/epimetronomics-m6a-marks-the-tempo-of-corticogenesis
#13
Nathan C Boles, Sally Temple
Yoon et al. (2017) uncover a key role for the m6A RNA mark in regulating the timing of cerebral cortex development in mouse and human. This discovery opens new avenues of exploration into how the epitranscriptome helps orchestrate central nervous system formation.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144969/good-vibrations-resting-state-functional-connectivity-reflects-entrainment-of-vasomotion
#14
Allen W Chan, Timothy H Murphy
In this issue of Neuron,Mateo et al. (2017) suggest that hemodynamic measures of resting-state functional connectivity in cortex are reporting the consequences of entrainment of arteriole vasomotion by neuronal activity.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144968/a-synaptic-basis-for-glp-1-action-in-the-brain
#15
Sandrine Lefort, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina García-Cáceres
Unraveling the brain control of metabolism may generate opportunities to discover novel precision medicines for obesity and diabetes. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2017) identify a novel glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor-dependent signaling process that exerts anorexigenic action via the regulation of AMPA receptor subunit composition in the hypothalamus.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144967/a-local-rebalancing-act-leads-to-global-benefit
#16
Ju Lu, Yi Zuo
Barnes et al. (2017) reveal that in the visual cortex of sensory-deprived mice, dendritic spine enlargement correlates with recent spine loss from the same dendritic branch. Such branch-specific homeostatic plasticity highlights dendritic branches as key computational units.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144966/gabaergic-synaptogenesis-a-case-for-cooperation
#17
Jean-Marc Fritschy, Shiva K Tyagarajan
Multiple cell-adhesion molecules contribute to synapse formation by mediating trans-synaptic interactions with presynaptic signaling molecules. In this issue of Neuron, Li et al. (2017) report cooperativity between Neuroligin2 and Slitrk3, exerting distinct effects on GABAergic synapse formation in immature and mature neurons.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107523/a-large-scale-semi-chronic-microdrive-recording-system-for-non-human-primates
#18
Nicholas M Dotson, Steven J Hoffman, Baldwin Goodell, Charles M Gray
Multi-electrode recordings in the non-human primate provide a critical method for measuring the widely distributed activity patterns that underlie brain function. However, common techniques rely on small, often immovable arrays, or microdrives, that are only capable of manipulating a small number of closely spaced probes. These techniques restrict the number of cortical areas that can be simultaneously sampled and are typically not capable of reaching subcortical targets. To overcome these limitations, we developed a large-scale, semi-chronic microdrive recording system with up to 256 independently movable microelectrodes spanning an entire cerebral hemisphere...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107521/molecular-dissection-of-neuroligin-2-and-slitrk3-reveals-an-essential-framework-for-gabaergic-synapse-development
#19
Jun Li, Wenyan Han, Kenneth A Pelkey, Jingjing Duan, Xia Mao, Ya-Xian Wang, Michael T Craig, Lijin Dong, Ronald S Petralia, Chris J McBain, Wei Lu
In the brain, many types of interneurons make functionally diverse inhibitory synapses onto principal neurons. Although numerous molecules have been identified to function in inhibitory synapse development, it remains unknown whether there is a unifying mechanism for development of diverse inhibitory synapses. Here we report a general molecular mechanism underlying hippocampal inhibitory synapse development. In developing neurons, the establishment of GABAergic transmission depends on Neuroligin 2 (NL2), a synaptic cell adhesion molecule (CAM)...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107520/deprivation-induced-homeostatic-spine-scaling-in%C3%A2-vivo-is-localized-to-dendritic-branches-that-have-undergone-recent-spine-loss
#20
Samuel J Barnes, Eleonora Franzoni, R Irene Jacobsen, Ferenc Erdelyi, Gabor Szabo, Claudia Clopath, Georg B Keller, Tara Keck
Synaptic scaling is a key homeostatic plasticity mechanism and is thought to be involved in the regulation of cortical activity levels. Here we investigated the spatial scale of homeostatic changes in spine size following sensory deprivation in a subset of inhibitory (layer 2/3 GAD65-positive) and excitatory (layer 5 Thy1-positive) neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using repeated in vivo two-photon imaging, we find that increases in spine size are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) dependent and thus are likely associated with synaptic scaling...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
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