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Journal of Traumatic Stress

Jenny A Bannister, Frederick G Lopez, Deleene S Menefee, Peter J Norton, Jill Wanner
Samples in prior studies examining attachment theory in the military have been predominantly composed of male combat veterans. Given the rates of sexual trauma among female veterans and differences in the association between attachment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity for sexual trauma survivors, it was necessary to consider the attachment characteristics of veterans within a mixed-sex sample. Participants were a mixed-sex veteran sample seeking inpatient trauma-related treatment (N = 469)...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Carrie L Lucas, Jeremy T Goldbach, Mary Rose Mamey, Sara Kintzle, Carl Andrew Castro
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) civilians report higher rates of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts. In this study, we compared military sexual assault (MSA), PTSD, and depression in LGB individuals and their non-LGB peers in two community samples of veterans (N = 2,583). Participants were selected for inclusion if they identified as LGB (n = 110) and were matched 1 to 3 on gender and age with non-LGB veterans (n = 330). Chi-square analyses showed significant differences for LGB veterans compared to non-LGB veterans for experiencing MSA (32...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Maya Gobin, G James Rubin, Idit Albert, Alison Beck, Andrea Danese, Neil Greenberg, Nick Grey, Patrick Smith, Isabel Oliver
Following several terrorist attacks in 2015 and 2016, a national program was set up to identify and support residents of England whose mental health had been affected. We report the outcomes of the program's screening and assessment components. Questionnaires and information about the program were mailed to 483 people and 49 families known to the police. Individuals who screened positive on an assessment for posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, increased smoking, or problematic alcohol consumption were offered clinical assessment and referred to an appropriate National Health Service (NHS) service, if required...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Fulei Geng, Yingxin Liang, Xuliang Shi, Fang Fan
Natural disaster exposure is associated with increased risk of mental health problems. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, course, and risk factors of probable psychiatric disorders among 1,573 adolescents following the May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), conduct disorder (CD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed at 6 and 18 months postearthquake using a battery of standardized measures...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Brandon J Weiss, Kathryn Azevedo, Katie Webb, Julia Gimeno, Marylene Cloitre
This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a skills-focused treatment delivered via video teleconferencing (VTC) to women veterans living in rural areas who had experienced military sexual trauma (MST). The Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) program focuses on teaching emotion management and interpersonal skills in 8 to 10 sessions. The STAIR program may be a good fit for individuals in rural areas for whom social isolation and low social support are particularly problematic...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Geneviève Belleville, Mylène Dubé-Frenette, Andréanne Rousseau
Sleep disturbances are common among sexual assault victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD does not directly address sleep-related symptoms. Trauma-related sleep disturbances are associated with more impairment and contribute to the maintenance of PTSD. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a combination of CBT and nightmare therapy (imagery rehearsal therapy; IRT) compared to CBT alone for the treatment of PTSD. We recruited 42 adult victims of sexual assault who were suffering from PTSD and randomly assigned them to either the experimental (IRT + CBT) or control condition (waiting period followed by CBT)...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Christian M Connell, Samantha L Pittenger, Jason M Lang
The majority of youth living in the United States experience a potentially traumatic event (PTE) by 18 years of age, with many experiencing multiple PTEs. Variation in the nature and range of PTE exposure differentially impacts youth functioning, although this association is poorly understood. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of PTE exposure from caregiver and youth report in a treatment-seeking sample of children and adolescents (N = 701) and examined how these patterns predict youths' behavioral health outcomes...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Aimee Schneider, Omar G Gudiño
Not all youth exposed to violence are at equal risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reflecting potential variability in risk factors influencing the development of PTSD beyond exposure to violence. In particular, Latino youth have been found to be at a higher risk for developing PTSD after exposure to violence. Similarly, youth with high levels of behavioral inhibition appear to be at greater risk of developing PTSD following exposure to violence. In this study, we examined how Latino cultural values might be associated with behavioral inhibition and how these two factors together may interact to predict risk for developing PTSD avoidance symptoms, specifically...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Rupa Jose
Postdisaster mental health is typically assessed and treated on an individual basis. Ecological assessments, however, can be a more cost-effective means to identify and promote mental health after a disaster. In this study, the spatial patterning of acute stress scores, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and fears and worries among a representative sample of Boston metropolitan area participants (N = 788) was examined using data collected 2-4 weeks to 2 years after the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jason M Lang, Christian M Connell
Although the prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events and associated outcomes among children is well documented, widespread trauma screening remains limited. This study provides additional data supporting the psychometrics of the Child Trauma Screen (CTS), a free, brief, empirically derived measure that was intended as a trauma screen for use across child-serving systems. Participants were an ethnically diverse sample of 187 children aged 6-18 years recruited from an urban children's community mental health clinic...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Thyagi Ponnamperuma, Nancy A Nicolson
Prior trauma, current stress, and poor social support contribute to youth mental health problems. As daily stressors often increase in the aftermath of traumatic events, trauma could plausibly impact psychopathology not only directly but also indirectly via ongoing stress. In this study, we examined the relative roles of trauma and daily stressors in mental health outcomes in 753 Sri Lankan adolescents residing in areas impacted by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of trauma exposure, daily stressors, social support, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotional and behavioral problems (EBP), and functional impairment; a subsample (n = 89) repeated these assessments 16 months later...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Andrea N Niles, Adam Luxenberg, Thomas C Neylan, Sabra S Inslicht, Anne Richards, Thomas J Metzler, Jennifer Hlavin, Jersey Deng, Aoife O'Donovan
In the current study, we explored exaggerated physiological startle responses in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examined startle reactivity as a biomarker of PTSD in a large veteran sample. We assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and electromyographic (EMG) startle responses to acoustic stimuli under low-, ambiguous-, and high-threat conditions in Gulf War veterans with current (n = 48), past (n = 42), and no history of PTSD (control group; n = 152). We evaluated PTSD status using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and trauma exposure using the Trauma History Questionnaire...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Mira Vasileva, Ann-Christin Haag, Markus A Landolt, Franz Petermann
The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in very young children depends on the diagnostic criteria. Thus far, studies have investigated the International Classification of Diseases (11th rev.; ICD-11) criteria for PTSD only in samples of children older than 6 years of age. The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic agreement between the ICD-11 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria for children who are 6 years old and younger. Caregivers of children aged 3-6 years in foster care in Germany (N = 147) and parents of children aged 1-4 years who had attended a hospital in Switzerland following burn injuries (N  = 149) completed a questionnaire about children's PTSD...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Nikhil Banerjee, Gail Ironson, Calvin Fitch, Michael S Boroughs, Steven A Safren, Alexis Powell, Conall O'Cleirigh
Self-medication theory posits that some trauma survivors use alcohol to cope with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, but the role of negative posttraumatic cognitions in this relationship is not well defined. We examined associations among PTSD symptoms, posttraumatic cognitions, and alcohol intoxication frequency in 290 men who have sex with men (MSM), who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Using a bootstrap approach, we examined the indirect effects of PTSD symptoms on alcohol intoxication frequency through posttraumatic cognitions regarding the self, world, and self-blame...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Alison Levin-Rector, Laurel L Hourani, Richard A Van Dorn, Robert M Bray, Valerie A Stander, Joel K Cartwright, Jessica K Morgan, James Trudeau, Pamela K Lattimore
Understanding mental health disorder diagnosis and treatment seeking among active-duty military personnel is a topic with both clinical and policy implications. It has been well documented in military populations that individual-level military experience, including deployment history and combat exposure, influences mental health outcomes, but the impact of unit-level factors is less well understood. In the current study, we used administrative longitudinal data to examine a comprehensive set of unit- and individual-level predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), non-PTSD anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and overall mental health diagnoses among Army and Marines Corps personnel...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Katherine van Stolk-Cooke, Andrew Brown, Anne Maheux, Justin Parent, Rex Forehand, Matthew Price
Although crowdsourcing websites like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) allow researchers to conduct research efficiently, it is unclear if MTurk and traditionally recruited samples are comparable when assessing the sequela of traumatic events. We compared the responses to validated self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related constructs that were given by 822 participants recruited via MTurk and had experienced a DSM-5 Criterion A traumatic event to responses obtained in recent samples of participants recruited via traditional methods...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Madison W Silverstein, Tracy K Witte, Daniel J Lee, Lindsay B Kramer, Frank W Weathers
Posttraumatic growth, defined as positive transformation following trauma, is commonly measured using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) and is postulated to comprise five distinct domains: Changes in Relationships, Life Possibilities, Personal Strength, Spirituality, and Appreciation of Life. However, research has indicated that the model fit is not good and the factors are highly intercorrelated. Further, no studies have formally examined the heterogeneity of correlations of the five factors with external constructs...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Andrea J Phelps, Zachary Steele, Sean Cowlishaw, Olivia Metcalf, Nathan Alkemade, Peter Elliott, Meaghan O'Donnell, Suzy Redston, Katelyn Kerr, Alexandra Howard, Jane Nursey, John Cooper, Renee Armstrong, Lea Fitzgerald, David Forbes
Although effective posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments are available, outcomes for veterans with PTSD are relatively modest. Previous researchers have identified subgroups of veterans with different response trajectories but have not investigated whether PTSD symptom clusters (based on a four-factor model) have different patterns of response to treatment. The importance of this lies in the potential to increase treatment focus on less responsive symptoms. We investigated treatment outcomes by symptom cluster for 2,685 Australian veterans with PTSD...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Meaghan L O'Donnell, Olivia Metcalf, Loretta Watson, Andrea Phelps, Tracey Varker
Adjustment disorder is a common psychiatric disorder, yet knowledge of the efficacious treatments for adjustment disorder is limited. In this systematic review, we aimed to examine psychological and pharmacological interventions that target adjustment disorder in adults to determine which interventions have the best evidence for improving adjustment disorder symptoms. We performed database searches for literature published between January 1980 and September 2016 and identified studies that included both a sample majority of individuals diagnosed with adjustment disorder and findings on adjustment disorder symptom outcomes...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Carol A Keane, Christopher A Magee, Peter J Kelly
Childhood maltreatment and interpersonal trauma experience is an important factor underpinning the apparent perpetuation of the cycle of social disadvantage experienced by homeless adults. This paper aimed to examine longitudinal patterns of psychological distress in a sample of 1,504 socially disadvantaged adult participants from the Journeys Home Study in Australia. The current paper utilized the "conservation of resources" theory and the concept of "risk factor caravans" to investigate the nature and implications of childhood trauma in the context of homelessness...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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