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Journal of Traumatic Stress

Kristen H Walter, Jordan A Levine, Robyn M Highfill-McRoy, Melissa Navarro, Cynthia J Thomsen
Among active duty service members, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses have increased dramatically since 2000. Because psychiatric comorbidity is more common for PTSD than for other mental health disorders, we examined the prevalence estimates of disorders comorbid or trimorbid with PTSD in this study. The medical records of 523,626 female and male active duty Sailors and Marines who entered the U.S. military between 2006 and 2013 were examined for diagnoses of PTSD and 14 potentially comorbid disorders...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kirsten Barnicot, Mike Crawford
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with personality disorder (PD). We evaluated whether comorbid PTSD has a negative effect on patients' ability to benefit from evidence-based psychological treatments for PD and tested potential mediators of any effect. The effect of PTSD on self-harm and borderline PD symptoms was evaluated in 90 patients with borderline PD who were receiving dialectical behavior therapy or mentalization-based therapy. Self-report and interview measures were administered every 3 months over a 12-month period...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Sage E Hawn, Christina M Sheerin, Bradley T Webb, Roseann E Peterson, Elizabeth K Do, Danielle Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Ananda B Amstadter
In the present study, we sought to replicate recent findings of Polimanti et al. (2017), who conducted a genome-wide gene-by-environment interaction study (GEWIS) and identified a gene-by-trauma interaction that predicts alcohol misuse among African Americans.  Consistent with the findings published by Polimanti and colleagues, results of the current study demonstrated an interaction effect, b = 0.41, of trauma exposure and rs1729578 in the intron of PRKG1 on alcohol misuse in a subsample of ancestral African Americans...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Rahel Bachem, Saskia Mitreuter, Yafit Levin, Jacob Y Stein, Zhou Xiao, Zahava Solomon
Posttraumatic growth (PTG), the positive psychological transformations that follow traumatic events, affects both direct survivors (primary PTG) and their significant others (secondary PTG). Though primary and secondary PTG have been widely investigated in the literature, their long-term trajectories decades after a traumatic event, especially as survivors enter older age, remain largely uninvestigated. Furthermore, it remains contested whether PTG adds up to a monolithic construct or rather consists of relatively independent components...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kaitlin P Ward, Stacey A Shaw, Mingway Chang, Nabila El-Bassel
Across cultures, experiencing traumatic life events, particularly violence, is a salient predictor of depression. Some previous findings have shown that social support can serve as a buffer in the association between traumatic life events and depression (i.e., the buffering hypothesis) in that individuals with a high level of social support have a decreased or nonexistent association between traumatic life events and depression. The purpose of this study was to test the buffering hypothesis among a sample of 1,342 male migrant and nonmigrant market vendors in Almaty, Kazakhstan...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Michael S Boroughs, Peter P Ehlinger, Abigail W Batchelder, Steven A Safren, Conall O'Cleirigh
Emerging adulthood (EA) is a developmental period marked by unique challenges that affect health including burgeoning occupational, relational, and financial stability; and increased risk taking in terms of sexual behavior(s) and substance use. Data were collected from 296 HIV-uninfected sexual minority men with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We analyzed baseline assessment data from a multisite randomized controlled trial that tested the efficaciousness of an experimental psychosocial treatment and examined vulnerabilities known to be linked with CSA...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Geert E Smid, Christianne A I van der Meer, Miranda Olff, Mirjam J Nijdam
Police officers exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTE) are at a heightened risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about trauma-focused psychotherapy outcomes in the police. In this naturalistic study, we evaluated whether PTE exposure and baseline clinical characteristics predicted PTSD symptom reduction during treatment and residual PTSD symptoms posttreatment. In consecutive referrals to a specialized mental health service for police officers (N = 665), PTSD was measured pre- and posttreatment using structured clinical interviews...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Alice Alberici, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Jade Claxton, Patrick Smith, Anke Ehlers, Clare Dixon, Anna Mckinnon
Safety-seeking behaviors (SSBs) may be employed after exposure to a traumatic event in an effort to prevent a feared outcome. Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder propose SSBs contribute to maintaining this disorder by preventing disconfirmation of maladaptive beliefs and preserving a sense of current threat. Recent research has found that SSBs impact children's posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and recovery. In this paper, we sought to develop and validate a novel 22-item Child Safety Behavior Scale (CSBS) in a school-based sample of 391 pupils (age 12-15 years) who completed a battery of questionnaires as well as 68 youths (age 8-17 years) who were recently exposed to a trauma...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Samantha L Connolly, Tawni B Stoop, Mark W Logue, Esther Hana Orr, Immaculata De Vivo, Mark W Miller, Erika J Wolf
Traumatic stress is thought to be associated with shortened telomere length (TL) in leukocytes, an age-related marker of increased risk for cellular senescence, although findings thus far have been mixed. We assessed associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, temperament, and TL in a sample of 453 White, non-Hispanic, middle-aged, trauma-exposed male and female veterans and civilians. Given that prior research has suggested an association between PTSD and accelerated cellular age, we also examined associations between TL and an index of accelerated cellular age derived from DNA methylation data (DNAm age)...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Nicole H Weiss, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Courtney Peasant, Tami P Sullivan
Emotion regulation difficulties have been theoretically and empirically linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research, however, has focused almost exclusively on difficulties regulating negative emotions. In this study, we explored the nature of difficulties regulating positive emotions in PTSD. Participants were women who had experienced domestic violence (N = 210; 48.6% African American; Mage = 36.14 years). Higher levels of nonacceptance of positive emotions, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behaviors when experiencing positive emotions, and difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors when experiencing positive emotions were related to a higher level of PTSD symptom severity overall and for the intrusion, avoidance/emotional numbing, and hyperarousal clusters, rs = ...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kyle Possemato, Laura O Wray, Emily Johnson, Brad Webster, Gregory P Beehler
Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in primary care patients, many do not seek mental health treatment. Existing research on barriers and facilitators to receiving PTSD treatment are not specific to primary care patients. In this study, we sought to understand the psychosocial concerns, treatment barriers, and treatment facilitators among non-treatment-seeking primary care veterans with PTSD who reside in both rural and urban settings. Using a concurrent triangulation design, we collected qualitative focus group and quantitative self-report data concurrently, analyzed them separately, and merged the results for interpretation...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Dominic Murphy, Kirsten V Smith
Evidence suggests that veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a poorer treatment response than nonveterans.  In this study, we explored heterogeneity in treatment response for 960 veterans in the United Kingdom with PTSD who had been offered a residential intervention consisting of a mixture of group sessions and individual trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). The primary outcome was PTSD score on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).  Covariates included depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol misuse, functional impairment, and sociodemographic characteristics...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Julia M Kobulsky, Susan Yoon, Charlotte L Bright, Guijin Lee, Boyoung Nam
Substantial research has linked childhood maltreatment to the development of substance use in adolescence. However, gender differences in the mechanisms that connect child abuse and neglect to substance use remain unclear. In this study, we applied multiple-group structural equation modeling in a sample of 1,161 youths (boys, n = 552; girls, n = 609) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine gender differences in the associations between childhood abuse and neglect exposure from ages 0-12 years and substance use severity at age 18 as mediated by early substance use at age 14 and psychological symptoms (anger, anxiety, and depression) at age 16...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Giuseppe Massaro, Daniela Altavilla, Paola Aceto, Gaia Romana Pellicano, Giada Lucarelli, Massimiliano Luciani, Carlo Lai
In the present study, we aimed to explore neural correlates of survivors of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy earthquake in response to being shown pictures featuring their own city before and after an earthquake as well as those of an unfamiliar city. Moreover, we explored the associations among psychological variables and brain responses to the pictures of L'Aquila after the earthquake. Our final sample (N = 30 adults) comprised 15 survivors (M age = 31.40 years, SD = 9.42) and 15 controls (M age = 30.53 years, SD = 10...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jordana L Sommer, Natalie Mota, Renée El-Gabalawy
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and eating pathology are frequently comorbid, and both are independent risk factors for various medical conditions. Using population-based data collected as part of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III; N = 36,309), the primary objectives of this study were to (a) identify eating pathology classes among PTSD and (b) investigate associations between maladaptive eating and medical conditions among PTSD. Using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5), we assessed PTSD and maladaptive eating symptoms in accordance with the DSM-5...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Eric C Meyer, Robyn Walser, Barbara Hermann, Heidi La Bash, Bryann B DeBeer, Sandra B Morissette, Nathan A Kimbrel, Oi-Man Kwok, Sonja V Batten, Paula P Schnurr
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur and are associated with worse outcomes together than either disorder alone. A lack of consensus regarding recommendations for treating PTSD-AUD exists, and treatment dropout is a persistent problem. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a transdiagnostic, mindfulness- and acceptance-based form of behavior therapy, has potential as a treatment option for PTSD-AUD. In this uncontrolled pilot study, we examined ACT for PTSD-AUD in 43 veterans; 29 (67%) completed the outpatient individual therapy protocol (i...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jacqueline C Pflieger, Cynthia A LeardMann, Hope S McMaster, Carrie J Donoho, Lyndon A Riviere
There has been conflicting research regarding direct association between deployments and marital quality, particularly from the military spouse's perspective. In the current study, we sought to extend past research by examining the direct association between both military and nonmilitary experiences and military spouse marital quality using 2011-2013 baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a large sample of military couples representing all U.S. service branches and components. Military experiences were assessed using electronic deployment records to capture the number and length of deployments since 2001, and service members reported combat experience and symptoms indicative of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Joseph Spinazzola, Bessel van der Kolk, Julian D Ford
Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) has been proposed as clinical framework for the sequelae of complex trauma exposure in children. In this study, we investigated whether DTD is associated with different traumatic antecedents than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a multisite sample of 236 children referred from pediatric or mental health treatment, DTD was assessed using the DTD Structured Interview. Trauma history was assessed using the Traumatic Events Screening Instrument (TESI). On an unadjusted basis, both DTD, odds ratios (ORs) = 2...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jenny A Bannister, Frederick G Lopez, Deleene S Menefee, Peter J Norton, Jill Wanner
Samples in prior studies examining attachment theory in the military have been predominantly composed of male combat veterans. Given the rates of sexual trauma among female veterans and differences in the association between attachment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity for sexual trauma survivors, it was necessary to consider the attachment characteristics of veterans within a mixed-sex sample. Participants were a mixed-sex veteran sample seeking inpatient trauma-related treatment (N = 469)...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Carrie L Lucas, Jeremy T Goldbach, Mary Rose Mamey, Sara Kintzle, Carl Andrew Castro
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) civilians report higher rates of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts. In this study, we compared military sexual assault (MSA), PTSD, and depression in LGB individuals and their non-LGB peers in two community samples of veterans (N = 2,583). Participants were selected for inclusion if they identified as LGB (n = 110) and were matched 1 to 3 on gender and age with non-LGB veterans (n = 330). Chi-square analyses showed significant differences for LGB veterans compared to non-LGB veterans for experiencing MSA (32...
August 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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