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Journal of Traumatic Stress

Sarah C Hellewell, Ibolja Cernak
Adaptability to stress is governed by innate resilience, comprised of complex neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms alongside inherited or learned behavioral traits. Based on their capacity to adapt, some people thrive in stressful situations, whereas others experience maladaptation. In our study, we used state-of-the-art tools to assess the resilience level in individuals, as well as their susceptibility to developing military stress-induced behavioral and cognitive deficits. To address this complex question, we tested Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel in three distinct stress environments (baselines): during predeployment training, deployment in Afghanistan, and readjustment upon return to Canada...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Rui Zhen
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) often coexist in the survivors of traumatic events. The current study examined the coexisting patterns of PTSD and PTG using latent profile analysis in a sample of 591 adolescent survivors of the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects of traumatic exposure on specific coexisting patterns. A three-class solution characterized by a growth group (39.6%), a low symptoms group (10...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Manuel Cárdenas, Jaime Barrientos, Ilan Meyer, Fabiola Gómez, Mónica Guzmán, Joaquín Bahamondes
This study examined the direct and indirect effects of perceived stigma on posttraumatic growth (PTG) in a sample of gay men and lesbian women in Chile, with coping strategies (positive reappraisal, social support seeking, and active coping strategies) as intermediate variables. Data from 467 gay men (57.4%) and lesbian women (42.6%) were analyzed. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was used. The hierarchical regression analysis indicated the important predictive role of active coping, β = .23, and positive reappraisal, β = ...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Ashley A Chesmore, Yaliu He, Na Zhang, Abigail H Gewirtz
Researchers have shown that parents often disagree in their ratings of their children's behavior, and that these discrepancies are typically related to child and family characteristics (e.g., child's age, parent psychopathology). Few studies, however, have examined discrepancies in how mothers and fathers rate child behavior during a stressful family context such as a parent's wartime deployment. The present study of 174 military families (children aged 6 to 11 years; 54.0% female) examined whether family factors (parental sense of control, marital satisfaction) and contextual risk factors related to a parent's wartime deployment (number and length of deployments, battle experiences, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms) were associated with discrepancies in how mothers and fathers rated internalizing and externalizing behaviors in their children...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kevin M Crombie, Angelique G Brellenthin, Cecilia J Hillard, Kelli F Koltyn
Previous reports have shown improvements in mood and increases in endocannabinoids in healthy adults following a session of aerobic exercise, but it is unclear whether adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience similar responses. The purpose of this study was to examine psychobiological responses (plasma endocannabinoids [eCBs], mood, and pain) to aerobic exercise in a sample of adults with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants engaged in an aerobic exercise session in which they ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (70 to 75% maximum heart rate [MHR])...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Archana Varma, Michael B Moore, Christopher W T Miller, Seth Himelhoch
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and debilitating condition for which clinicians sometimes turn to anticonvulsants as a treatment for symptoms. This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) that have assessed the efficacy of topiramate as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, compared to placebo, for the treatment of PTSD in adults. Prescribers may be reluctant to turn to topiramate, given the commonly reported side effects of impaired cognition, sedation, fatigue, and headache...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Shira Segev, Maayan Shorer, Tammy Pilowsky Peleg, Alan Apter, Silvana Fennig, Yuri Rassovsky
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are frequent sequelae after motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). These two pathologies often have overlapping neurocognitive deficits across several domains, such as attention, memory, and executive functions. The present study was an effort to examine the contribution of gender to these overlapping symptoms. To this end, psychodiagnostic and neuropsychological data were collected on 61 children and adolescents 3 months following MVA. All participants were diagnosed with PTSD, and about half (n = 33) also received a diagnosis of mTBI...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jeffrey L Kibler
Beyond the construct of cardiovascular reactivity, the measurement of cardiovascular recovery from stress represents an important index of exaggerated physiological arousal and disease risk. Cardiovascular recovery in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not received adequate attention. The present study examined whether cardiovascular recovery following an oral speaking stressor was associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms, and whether cognitive stress appraisals of threat and challenge were significantly associated with PTSD severity and recovery...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Elizabeth J Schilpzand, Rowena Conroy, Vicki Anderson, Eva Alisic
Researchers have recently suggested that parent posttraumatic appraisals potentially contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress in both parents and children following children's exposure to trauma. However, a single-instrument, multidimensional measure of parent posttraumatic cognitions as they relate to their child's recovery has yet to be operationalized. This study described the development and evaluation of a parent-report questionnaire of parent posttraumatic cognitions, designed to be used after a child's exposure to trauma...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Meredith E Charney, Eric Bui, Julia C Sager, Bonnie Y Ohye, Elizabeth M Goetter, Naomi M Simon
Minimal research is available on the prevalence and impact of complicated grief (CG) in military service members and veterans, despite high reported rates of loss in this population. The present study aimed to examine prevalence rates of CG in a sample of treatment-seeking military service and members and veterans who served after September 11, 2001. Additionally, the study aimed to examine characteristics associated with CG as well as the association between CG and quality of life. In a sample of 622 military service members and veterans who served after September 11, 2001, 502 reported a significant loss (80...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kossi B Kounou, Fabrice Brodard, Afèignindou Gnassingbe, Ayoko A Dogbe Foli, Julia C Sager, Laurent Schmitt, Eric Bui
The present study examined the relationship between peritraumatic reactions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, somatization, and quality of life (QoL) in a sample of refugees, two years after the 2011 Ivory Coast sociopolitical crisis. Participants were 101 Ivorian adult refugees (mean age = 31.61 years, SD = 7.84; 45.5% women) who completed several questionnaires relating to peritraumatic reactions, PTSD symptoms, somatization, and QoL. Most participants (86.1%) scored above the cutoff for probable PTSD...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Betty S Lai, Rayleen Lewis, Michelle S Livings, Annette M La Greca, Ann-Margaret Esnard
Natural disasters, such as hurricanes and floods, are increasing in frequency and scope. Youth exposed to disasters are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, not all youth who report initially elevated PTSS report persistent PTSS that last beyond the first three to six months postdisaster. Thus, it is crucial to understand how and why youth differ in their patterns of PTSS. This study reviewed the literature on children's postdisaster PTSS, evaluating the typical number and types of patterns for children's PTSS trajectories, as well as risk and protective factors predicting trajectory membership...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Giorgi Sikharulidze, Nan van Geloven, Estate Lelashvili, Giorgi Kalandarishvili, Nino Gugushvili, Eric Vermetten
Several studies have shown the relationship between symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), somatic symptoms, and the mediating effect of depression and anxiety. The following study was conducted to investigate the relationship between PTSD symptoms and somatic complaints through underlying symptoms of depression and anxiety. The participants of the study were 2,799 veterans who were examined after a 6-month deployment. They were assessed using the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) for depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Sophie Billoux, Virginie Voltzenlogel, Norbert Telmon, Philippe Birmes, Christophe Arbus
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly acknowledged to be associated with reduced specificity of autobiographical memory (AM). However, very few studies have assessed AM in the peritraumatic phase. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the AM impairment reported in PTSD is present a few days after a traumatic event. We assessed AM in 41 participants who had recently been exposed to trauma, and 34 controls who had never experienced a traumatic situation. The trauma-exposed participants also completed the Impact of Event Scale-R (IES-R), the Inventory of Peritraumatic Distress, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Finola Ferry, Edel Ennis, Brendan Bunting, Samuel Murphy, David Bolton, Siobhan O'Neill
Northern Ireland is an appropriate region to examine the impact of traumatic experiences, owing to the many years of civil violence that have characterized its recent history, known colloquially as the "Troubles." Given the prominence of traumatic experiences among the aging population of Northern Ireland (NI), an evidence base is required to inform the planning and provision of effective mental health and other services. We analyzed the follow-up interviews (n = 225) of individuals from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS), aged 45 years and older, who experienced one or more conflict-related traumatic events...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jeremiah A Schumm, Whitney L Gore, Kathleen M Chard, Eric C Meyer
Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is effective for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among military veterans. However, studies have not examined whether CPT is associated with reductions in disability severity. The current study examines the association between disability severity and PTSD and depression among U.S. veterans who are receiving CPT. Veterans completed measures at pre- and posttreatment and received CPT through a Veterans Affairs PTSD outpatient (n = 155) or residential (n = 177) program...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Clara Dittmann, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Ulrich Stangier, Kathlen Priebe, Thomas Fydrich, Nora Görg, Sophie Rausch, Patricia A Resick, Regina Steil
Although the assessment of therapeutic competence in psychotherapy research is essential for examining its possible associations with treatment outcomes, it is often neglected due to high costs and a lack of valid instruments. This study aimed to develop two therapeutic competence scales that assess disorder-specific and treatment-specific therapeutic competence, and to examine these scales' psychometric properties along with those of the already established Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS) in a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sample...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jieling Chen, Xinchun Wu
This study examined the transitions in classes of posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth in a sample of children and adolescents (N = 757), between 8 and 20 months after the 2013 Ya'an earthquake in China. Using latent profile analysis, three classes of symptoms (resilient, thriving, and struggling) were identified at 8 and 20 months after the earthquake. Latent transition analysis indicated that the majority of survivors remained in the same class during the period, while others showed a transition between different classes over time...
December 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Melissa E Dichter, Anneliese Sorrentino, Scarlett Bellamy, Elina Medvedeva, Christopher B Roberts, Katherine M Iverson
Experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) can lead to mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy substance use. Women seen in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) face high rates of both IPV and mental health morbidity. This study aimed to identify associations between recent IPV experience and mental health diagnoses among women VHA patients. We examined medical records data for 8,888 female veteran and nonveteran VHA patients across 13 VHA facilities who were screened for past-year IPV between April, 2014 and April, 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Justin M Litvin, Patricia L Kaminski, Shelley A Riggs
The work group revising the criteria for trauma-related disorders in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) made several changes. Specifically, they simplified the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and added a new trauma disorder called complex PTSD (CPTSD). These proposed changes to taxonomy require new instruments to assess these novel constructs. We developed a measure of PTSD and CPTSD (the Complex Trauma Inventory; CTI) according to the proposed domains, creating several items to assess each domain...
December 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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