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Journal of Traumatic Stress

Guia Guffanti, Lupo Geronazzo-Alman, Bin Fan, Cristiane S Duarte, George J Musa, Christina W Hoven
Patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) will very likely not share all of the same symptoms, a consequence of the polythetic approach used in the DSM. We examined heterogeneity in the latent structure of PTSD symptoms using data from a previously published sample of 8,236 youth a subset of which had been exposed to the September 11, 2001 attacks (N = 6,670; Hoven et al...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Sarah R Lowe, Laura Sampson, Oliver Gruebner, Sandro Galea
Persons living in communities with limited resources are at heightened risk of posttraumatic stress (PTS) after disasters, especially if they were highly exposed. The support deterrence desistence model and the conservation of resources theory suggest that this risk might increase in the longer-term aftermath of disasters. In the present study, we aimed to test this hypothesis. Two population-based samples of New York City residents in communities affected by Hurricane Sandy were surveyed at either 13-16 months (Time 1; n = 421) or 25-28 months (Time 2; n = 420) postdisaster...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Katie A Ragsdale, Sarah C Voss Horrell
This retrospective analysis of previously existing nonrandomized clinical data examined the effectiveness of completing prolonged exposure (PE) or cognitive processing therapy (CPT) in a sample of 41 U.S. veterans at a Veterans Affairs medical center. The sample included 19 veterans with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 22 veterans with PTSD only. Diagnostic groups did not significantly differ on PTSD and depression symptom reduction, F(2, 36) = 0.05, p = ...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Erica L Birkley, Christopher I Eckhardt, Rita E Dykstra
This meta-analysis was the first study of which we are aware to investigate the association between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) PTSD symptom clusters and parent, child, family, and marital/partner functioning problems (e.g., intimate partner violence [IPV] and intimacy). Of the 23 studies that met inclusion criteria, the sample was predominantly male (83.8%), Caucasian (65.0%), and from the military (98.9%). The average age was 43...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Amar Mandavia, Gabriella G N Robinson, Bekh Bradley, Kerry J Ressler, Abigail Powers
Little is known about how emotion dysregulation (ED) and trauma exposure differentially affect the relationship between abuse in childhood and adult substance use. We examined associations between child abuse, trauma exposure, ED, and current substance use in an already existing dataset. Participants (N = 2,014 adults, 90% African American) had been recruited from an urban hospital for a parent study. Analyses showed that drug and alcohol use was significantly positively correlated with child abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual), later trauma exposure, and ED (all ps < ...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Joanne Haldane, Angela Nickerson
Research findings have documented a relationship between the number of types of traumatic events to which refugees were exposed and psychological disorders. It is unclear, however, if gender moderates the impact of trauma on refugee mental health. The participants in this study were 60 male and 31 female refugees and asylum-seekers resettled in Australia. Participants had a mean age of 34.54 years (SD = 9.70), and were from a variety of countries including Iraq, Iran, and Sri Lanka. We conducted a multigroup path analysis to test if the relationship between psychological outcomes of exposure to trauma (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, symptoms of anxiety, and symptoms of depression) was different as a function of the type of traumatic exposure (interpersonal vs...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Michelle B Rissling, Paul A Dennis, Lana L Watkins, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham, Junichiro Hayano, Christi S Ulmer
Prior research has demonstrated that individuals exposed to trauma have shown impaired autonomic function. We sought to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of impaired autonomic function, differed across periods of wake, rest, and sleep as a function of the level of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A sample of young adults (N = 209), 95 of whom met full criteria for current PTSD based on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1995), were evaluated for ≈ 24 hr using actigraphy and electrocardiogram...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Janet Shein-Szydlo, Denis G Sukhodolsky, David Szydlo Kon, Miguel Marin Tejeda, Esteli Ramirez, Vladislav Ruchkin
The study aimed to evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, and anger in street children by a randomized controlled trial of CBT versus a waitlist control. It was conducted in 8 residential facilities for street children in Mexico City, with assessments at baseline, posttreatment, and 3 months later. Children who reported at least moderate posttraumatic stress, and fulfilled the study requirement were enrolled in the study (N = 100, 12-18 years old, 36 boys)...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Carl F Weems, Justin D Russell, Erin L Neill, Steven L Berman, Brandon G Scott
Exposure to natural disasters can be highly traumatic and have a detrimental effect on youth mental health by threatening the satisfaction of basic human needs and goals. Recent research in adults suggests that exposure to disasters may exacerbate existential anxiety about the meaning of life. The current study expands this investigation to adolescents, who may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of disaster. Data came from 325 adolescents (mean age = 15.05 years, SD = 1.05) residing in the Greater New Orleans area who were exposed to Hurricanes Katrina and/or Gustav...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
J Zachary Wilson, Donna Marin, Katherine Maxwell, Joseph Cumming, Ryan Berger, Shermini Saini, William Ferguson, John T Chibnall
Research has indicated that childhood cancer may lead to posttraumatic growth (PTG), given cancer's association with posttraumatic stress. PTG may be associated with family/home and health care dynamics, as well as parental resilience, distress, and coping. This cross-sectional study investigated the associations of psychosocial factors of the patient, family, and health care team with PTG and illness-related burden (IRB) in childhood cancer survivors. The sample comprised 61 children and adolescents (7-18 years of age), their parents, and their nurses...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Thomas J Yager, Nicole Gerszberg, Bruce P Dohrenwend
This research focused on secondary traumatization of wives and offspring of 115 male Vietnam veterans, a subsample from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study who had one or more children aged 6 to 16 years and had had a clinical interview. Traumatization was defined as meeting criteria for lifetime war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secondary traumatization was operationalized by elevated scores on children's internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and on wives' demoralization...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Rachel Sayko Adams, Ruslan V Nikitin, Nikki R Wooten, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
An association between combat exposure and postdeployment behavioral health problems has been demonstrated among U.S. military service members returning from Afghanistan or Iraq in predominantly male samples, yet few studies have focused on the experiences of women. Using data from the longitudinal, observational Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat (SUPIC) Study, we explored the self-report of 4 combat exposure items and postdeployment behavioral health screening results for 42,397 Army enlisted women who had returned from Afghanistan or Iraq from fiscal years 2008 through 2011...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Frederic J Sautter, Shirley M Glynn, Julia J Becker-Cretu, Damla Senturk, Aaron P Armelie, Dustin B Wielt
To address the impact of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans, the investigators developed a 12-session manualized PTSD treatment for couples called structured approach therapy (SAT). A randomized controlled trial had shown that 29 OEF/OIF veterans with combat-related PTSD who had participated in SAT showed significantly greater reductions in PTSD compared to 28 veterans receiving a 12-session PTSD family education intervention (Sautter, Glynn, Cretu, Senturk, & Vaught, 2015)...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Katherine R Buchholz, Steven E Bruce, Ellen M Koucky, Tiffany M Artime, Jessica A Wojtalik, Wilson J Brown, Yvette I Sheline
Rumination, defined as repetitive, negative, self-focused thinking, is hypothesized to be a transdiagnostic factor that is associated with depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Theory has suggested that in individuals with PTSD, rumination serves as a cognitive avoidance factor that contributes to the maintenance of symptoms by inhibiting the cognitive and emotional processing of the traumatic event, subsequently interfering with treatment engagement and outcome. Little is known about the neural correlates of rumination in women with PTSD...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Dawn M Johnson, Nicole L Johnson, Sara K Perez, Patrick A Palmieri, Caron Zlotnick
This study explored the acceptability, feasibility, and initial efficacy of an expanded version of a PTSD treatment developed for residents of battered women's shelters, Helping to Overcome PTSD through Empowerment (HOPE) in women who received standard shelter services (SSSs). A Phase I randomized clinical trial comparing HOPE + SSSs (n = 30) to SSSs (n = 30) was conducted. Primary outcome measures included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (Blake et al., 1995) and the Revised Conflict Tactic Scales (Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, & Sugarman, )...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Anu Asnaani, Jody Zhong, Edna B Foa
Trauma experienced in childhood and adolescence negatively affects the development of adaptive regulation of emotions and is associated with greater symptoms of anger. Prior research has suggested that high levels of anger may impede the outcome of treatment in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study investigated whether high levels of anger resulted in poorer treatment outcomes in adolescent girls with PTSD. Participants included 61 female adolescent survivors of sexual abuse or assault who were randomized to either prolonged exposure for adolescents (PE-A) or client-centered therapy (CCT) for traumatized children for 8-14 weekly sessions...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jennifer DiMauro, Keith D Renshaw, Brian N Smith, Dawne Vogt
Perceived social support is negatively associated with severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the literature lacks data about specific sources of support. Using 2 service member (SM) samples (n = 207 and 465), this study examined perceived support from family/friends and the broader public. SMs perceived high support from both sources. In multivariate regressions, perceived support from the broader public was not significantly associated with severity of PTSD symptoms, but it demonstrated a nearly identical effect size (β = -...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Alice T Sawyer, Gabrielle I Liverant, Janie J Jun, Daniel J Lee, Andrew L Cohen, Sunny J Dutra, Diego A Pizzagalli, Denise M Sloan
Learning processes have been implicated in the development and course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, little is currently known about punishment-based learning in PTSD. The current study investigated impairments in punishment-based learning in U.S. veterans. We expected that veterans with PTSD would demonstrate greater punishment-based learning compared to a non-PTSD control group. We compared a PTSD group with and without co-occurring depression (n = 27) to a control group (with and without trauma exposure) without PTSD or depression (n = 29)...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Robert M Bray, Charles C Engel, Jason Williams, Lisa H Jaycox, Marian E Lane, Jessica K Morgan, Jürgen Unützer
We examined the longitudinal course of primary care patients in the active duty Army with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and identified prognostic indicators of PTSD severity. Data were drawn from a 6-site randomized trial of collaborative primary care for PTSD and dpression in the military. Subjects were 474 soldiers with PTSD (scores ≥ 50 on the PTSD Checklist -Civilian Version). Four assessments were completed at U.S. Army installations: baseline, and follow-ups at 3 months (92.8% response rate [RR]), 6 months (90...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Eva Monson, Catherine Paquet, Mark Daniel, Alain Brunet, Jean Caron
Research on traumatic stress has focused largely on individual risk factors. A more thorough understanding of risk factors may require investigation of the contribution of neighborhood context, such as the associations between perceived neighbourhood disorder and social cohesion with reported trauma exposure (yes/no) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status (past-year PTSD, remitted). To examine these associations, we used a cross-sectional analysis of an epidemiological catchment area survey (N = 2,433)...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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