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Journal of Traumatic Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708283/acute-stress-symptoms-in-seriously-injured-patients-precipitating-versus-cumulative-trauma-and-the-contribution-of-peritraumatic-distress
#1
John Briere, Colin P Dias, Randye J Semple, Catherine Scott, Noémie Bigras, Natacha Godbout
The relationship between type of trauma exposure, cumulative trauma, peritraumatic distress, and subsequent acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms was examined prospectively in 96 individuals presenting with acute medical injuries to a Level 1 emergency/trauma department. Common precipitating traumas included motor vehicle-related events, stabbings, shootings, and physical assaults. At 2 to 3 weeks follow-up, 22.9% of participants had developed ASD. Univariate analysis revealed no relationship between type of precipitating trauma and ASD symptoms, whereas robust path analysis indicated direct effects of gender, lifetime cumulative trauma exposure, and peritraumatic distress...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700808/the-moderating-effect-of-childhood-maltreatment-on-the-relations-among-ptsd-symptoms-positive-urgency-and-negative-urgency
#2
Matthew Price, Julie P Connor, Holley C Allen
Childhood maltreatment increases the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). One pathway by which this occurs is through impaired emotion regulation. Past research has shown that negative urgency, a deficit in the regulation of negative emotions, is strongly related to PTSD in those with comorbid SUD. However, there is minimal research on the relation between positive urgency and PTSD in those with comorbid SUD. The current study investigated the association between childhood maltreatment, positive urgency, negative urgency, and PTSD symptoms among those with SUD...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699663/posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-alcohol-related-outcomes-among-municipal-firefighters
#3
Joe Tomaka, Dejan Magoc, Stormy M Morales-Monks, Anabel C Reyes
This study examined levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and relationships between PTSS and alcohol-related outcomes in a near census of municipal firefighters. The study also assessed substance-use coping and drinking to cope as potential mediators of such outcomes. Firefighters (N = 740) completed measures that assessed PTSS, alcohol risk behaviors, alcohol problems, drinking motives, and coping with stress. Results showed that 32.4% of firefighters reported significant levels of PTSS using National Center for PTSD (2014) screening cutoff scores...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696563/secondary-traumatization-and-differentiation-among-the-wives-of-former-pows-a-reciprocal-association
#4
Yael Lahav, Yafit Levin, Moshe Bensimon, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Zahava Solomon
Repercussions of war captivity may transmit to spouses of former prisoners of war (POW) via posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Overidentification with their partners underlies the PTSS experienced by former wives of POWs, thus implying impaired self-differentiation. Although wives' indirect exposure to their husbands' captivity and subsequent PTSS has been associated with the wives' PTSS and differentiation, the combined effects remain unclear. Furthermore, previous cross-sectional studies could not illuminate directionality...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696543/sense-of-threat-as-a-mediator-of-peritraumatic-stress-symptom-development-during-wartime-an-experience-sampling-study
#5
Liron Lapid Pickman, Talya Greene, Marc Gelkopf
Exposure and sense of threat have been associated with stress symptoms, yet these relationships have not been clarified during the peritraumatic period. We investigated the mediating role of sense of threat in the link between exposure to rocket warning sirens and stress symptoms during wartime, and the effect of severe mental illness (SMI) status and gender on this mediation. A 30-day twice-daily smartphone-based intensive assessment of exposure to sirens, sense of threat, and peritraumatic stress symptoms was performed during the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665526/cognitive-emotion-regulation-strategies-associated-with-the-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-criteria
#6
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Yinyin Zang, Natalie G Gay, Alan L Peterson, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Elisa V Borah, Katherine A Dondanville, Elizabeth A Hembree, Brett T Litz, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Edna B Foa
Maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies have been proposed to contribute to the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prior work has focused on the relationship between these strategies and PTSD as a whole, rather than on how they are related to each PTSD symptom cluster. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether cognitive emotion regulation strategies are predictive of certain PTSD symptom clusters under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585777/natural-course-of-co-occurring-ptsd-and-alcohol-use-disorder-among-recent-combat-veterans
#7
Kyle Possemato, Stephen A Maisto, Michael Wade, Kimberly Barrie, Emily M Johnson, Paige C Ouimette
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) commonly co-occur in veterans, yet little is known about the longitudinal course of PTSD and drinking in comorbid populations. This study assessed the natural course of daily alcohol consumption and weekly changes in PTSD symptoms in 112 recent combat veterans over the course of 11 months. Latent class growth mixture modeling was used to classify individuals into distinct classes with similar PTSD symptom and alcohol use growth trajectories...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585761/somatic-experiencing-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-outcome-study
#8
Danny Brom, Yaffa Stokar, Cathy Lawi, Vered Nuriel-Porat, Yuval Ziv, Karen Lerner, Gina Ross
This study presents the first known randomized controlled study evaluating the effectiveness of somatic experiencing (SE), an integrative body-focused therapy for treating people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were 63 participants meeting DSM-IV-TR full criteria for PTSD included. Baseline clinical interviews and self-report measures were completed by all participants, who were then randomly assigned to study (n = 33) or waitlist (n = 30) groups. Study participants began 15 weekly SE sessions, whereas waitlist participants waited the same period, after which the second evaluation was conducted...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585746/randomized-clinical-trial-investigating-the-effects-of-an-anxiety-sensitivity-intervention-on-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-a-replication-and-extension
#9
Nicole A Short, Joseph W Boffa, Aaron M Norr, Brian J Albanese, Nicholas P Allan, Norman B Schmidt
A growing body of research suggests the importance of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Specifically, AS cognitive concerns (fears of cognitive dyscontrol) may be particularly relevant for those with elevated PTSS. Preliminary research has suggested that interventions targeting AS may be beneficial in decreasing PTSS, but to date there has been no randomized controlled trial testing the direct and indirect effects of an AS cognitive concerns intervention among a clinical sample of trauma-exposed individuals...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585740/comparing-trauma-exposure-mental-health-needs-and-service-utilization-across-clinical-samples-of-refugee-immigrant-and-u-s-origin-children
#10
Theresa S Betancourt, Elizabeth A Newnham, Dina Birman, Robert Lee, B Heidi Ellis, Christopher M Layne
Most mental health services for trauma-exposed children and adolescents were not originally developed for refugees. Information is needed to help clinicians design services to address the consequences of trauma in refugee populations. We compared trauma exposure, psychological distress, and mental health service utilization among children and adolescents of refugee-origin, immigrant-origin, and U.S.-origin referred for assessment and treatment by U.S. providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585733/life-threat-and-sleep-disturbances-in-adolescents-a-two-year-follow-up-of-survivors-from-the-2011-ut%C3%A3-ya-norway-terror-attack
#11
Grønli Janne, Melinder Annika, Olga Therese Ousdal, Pallesen Ståle, Endestad Tor, Anne Marita Milde
A significant number of adolescents have been exposed to traumatic life events. However, knowledge about the specific sleep disturbance that occurs in individuals after trauma exposure is predominantly based on studies of adults. This study reports specific sleep disturbance in 42 survivors of the 2011 mass shooting at a youth summer camp on the Norwegian island Utøya, mean age = 20.91 years, SD = 2.32, 62.5% females. When compared with matched controls, significantly more survivors reported having sleep disturbances, 52...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556998/sometimes-less-is-more-establishing-the-core-symptoms-of-ptsd
#12
Jessica L Walton, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Amanda M Raines, Desirae N Vidaurri, Nicholas P Allan, Kelly P Maieritsch, C Laurel Franklin
Historically, the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have garnered attention and controversy due to symptom overlap with other disorders. To improve diagnostic specificity, researchers have proposed to reformulate PTSD symptoms into a parsimonious set of core criteria. The core symptoms consisted of recurrent distressing dreams or flashbacks; internal or external avoidance; and hypervigilance or exaggerated startle. The purpose of this study was to examine a previously proposed set of "core" PTSD criteria in identifying cases of PTSD within a veteran sample...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556275/physical-injury-and-somatic-complaints-the-mediating-role-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-young-survivors-of-a-terror-attack
#13
Ingrid Bugge, Grete Dyb, Synne Øien Stensland, Øivind Ekeberg, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Trond H Diseth
Physically injured trauma survivors have particularly high risk for later somatic complaints and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, the potential mediating role of PTSS linking injury to later somatic complaints has been poorly investigated. In this study, survivors (N = 255) were interviewed longitudinally at 2 timepoints after the terror attack on Utøya Island, Norway, in 2011. Assessments included injury sustained during the attack, PTSS (after 4-5 months), somatic complaints (after 14-15 months), and background factors...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544024/contribution-of-perceived-cognitive-functioning-to-quality-of-life-in-service-members-and-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Noah D Silverberg, Magdalena Wojtowicz, Eric Bui, Rebecca Wershba, Ross Zafonte, Lauren M Laifer, Naomi M Simon, Grant L Iverson
Perceived cognitive impairment is a core clinical feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may be an important determinant of quality of life (QOL) in those who suffer from this disorder. Using a clinical data repository, we evaluated this hypothesis in a cross-sectional sample of U.S. military service members and veterans who served after September 11, 2001, and were seeking mental health treatment at a tertiary outpatient clinic. A consecutive series of 117 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PTSD completed a battery of questionnaires at intake, including the PTSD Checklist (Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993), a 4-item Cognitive Symptom subscale of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (Cicerone & Kalmar, 1995), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Endicott, Nee, Harrison, & Blumenthal, 1993)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498555/trauma-related-pain-reexperiencing-symptoms-and-treatment-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-longitudinal-study-of-veterans
#15
Gregory Bartoszek, Susan M Hannan, Janina Kamm, Barbara Pamp, Kelly P Maieritsch
Research has demonstrated a strong positive association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and physical pain. However, few studies have explored the impact of pain problems on the symptoms and treatment of PTSD, and results remain inconsistent. This longitudinal study examined whether trauma-related and trauma-unrelated pain differentially and uniquely predicted reexperiencing symptoms. We also examined whether levels of reexperiencing symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and posttreatment symptoms of avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal (ANH)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470977/longitudinal-measurement-invariance-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-deployed-marines
#16
Ateka A Contractor, Elisa Bolton, Matthew W Gallagher, Charla Rhodes, William P Nash, Brett Litz
The meaningful interpretation of longitudinal study findings requires temporal stability of the constructs assessed (i.e., measurement invariance). We sought to examine measurement invariance of the construct of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders indexed by the PTSD Checklist (PCL) and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) in a sample of 834 Marines with significant combat experience. PTSD was assessed 1-month predeployment (T0), and again at 1-month (T1), 5-months (T2), and 8-months postdeployment (T3)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644538/protective-factors-coping-appraisals-and-social-barriers-predict-mental-health-following-community-violence-a-prospective-test-of-social-cognitive-theory
#17
Andrew J Smith, Erika D Felix, Charles C Benight, Russell T Jones
This study tested social cognitive theory of posttraumatic adaptation in the context of mass violence, hypothesizing that pre-event protective factors (general self-efficacy and perceived social support) would reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression severity through boosting post-event coping self-efficacy appraisals (mediator). We qualified hypotheses by predicting that post-event social support barriers would disrupt (moderate) the health-promoting indirect effects of pre-event protective factors...
June 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644537/psychosocial-demographic-and-illness-related-factors-associated-with-acute-traumatic-stress-responses-in-parents-of-children-with-a-serious-illness-or-injury
#18
Frank Muscara, Maria C McCarthy, Emma J Thompson, Claire-Marie Heaney, Stephen J C Hearps, Meredith Rayner, Kylie Burke, Jan M Nicholson, Vicki A Anderson
This study investigated factors associated with acute stress symptoms in parents of seriously ill children across a range of illnesses and treatment settings within a pediatric hospital setting. It was hypothesized that psychosocial variables would be more strongly associated with acute stress responses than demographic and child illness variables. Participants were 115 mothers and 56 fathers of children treated within the oncology, cardiology, and intensive care departments of a pediatric hospital. Acute stress, psychosocial, demographic, and medical data were collected within the first 4 weeks of the child's hospital admission...
June 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569390/do-children-and-adolescents-have-different-types-of-trauma-narratives-and-does-it-matter-reliability-and-face-validation-for-a-narrative-taxonomy
#19
Michael S Scheeringa, Megan E Lilly, Allison B Staiger, Maren L Heller, Edward G Jones, Carl F Weems
The construction of trauma narratives is a major component of several psychotherapy approaches for trauma-related problems, but questions remain as to whether fully expressive narratives are necessary and whether it is detrimental to ask avoidant youths to tell their narratives repeatedly. Characteristics of trauma narratives during psychotherapy have not been examined in youths and this represents a salient gap in knowledge. This study aimed to begin filling this gap by identifying categories of trauma narratives and empirically validating them...
June 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561945/beta-blocker-administration-during-emergency-department-evaluation-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-is-associated-with-lower-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-1-month-later
#20
Laura Meli, Bernard P Chang, Daichi Shimbo, Brendan W Swan, Donald Edmondson, Jennifer A Sumner
We examined whether beta blocker administration in the emergency department (ED) during evaluation for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms 1-month later. Participants (N = 350) were enrolled in the Reactions to Acute Care and Hospitalization (REACH) study, an ongoing observational cohort study of ED predictors of medical and psychological outcomes after evaluation for suspected ACS. Beta blockade during evaluation in the ED was extracted from medical records, and PTSD symptoms in response to the experience of suspected ACS were assessed 1-month later via telephone...
June 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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