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Journal of Traumatic Stress

Kelly R Peck, Julie A Schumacher, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are a growing problem in the United States. When OUDs co-occur with problematic drinking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), negative drug-related mental and physical health outcomes may be exacerbated. Thus, it is important to establish whether PTSD treatments with established efficacy for dually diagnosed individuals also demonstrate efficacy in individuals who engage in problematic drinking and concurrent opioid misuse. Adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD and alcohol dependence were recruited from a substance use treatment facility and were randomly assigned to receive either modified prolonged exposure (mPE) therapy for PTSD or a non-trauma-focused comparison treatment...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kim A Baranowski, Melissa H Moses, Jasmine Sundri
The United States permits foreign nationals to apply for asylum if they have experienced persecution or have a fear of future persecution. In order to meet the criteria for persecution, the harm inflicted upon the asylum seeker does not need to be or have been physical and can include psychological sequelae. In an effort to document persecution, lawyers seek the assistance of health professionals when preparing their clients' asylum applications. Mental health professionals work to corroborate psychological evidence of the asylum seeker's report of ill treatment through evaluation and presentation of their findings in the form of legal affidavits...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Marianne Celano, Amanda NeMoyer, Anna Stagg, Nikia Scott
Despite advances in the dissemination of evidence-based therapy for abuse-related traumatic stress, many referred children fail to complete treatment. Using archival data from a sample of children participating in trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) at a hospital-based child advocacy center, analyses explored the impact of baseline child traumatic stress symptoms, a second (nonprimary) caregiver's treatment attendance, and the number of assessment sessions on treatment completion while controlling for demographic variables...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Patricia K Kerig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Hannah Maniates, Tawni B Stoop, Mark W Miller, Lisa Halberstadt, Erika J Wolf
Longitudinal studies have demonstrated transactional associations between psychopathology and stressful life events (SLEs), such that psychopathology predicts the occurrence of new SLEs, and SLEs in turn predict increasing symptom severity. The association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically, and stress generation remains unclear. This study used temporally sequenced data from 116 veterans (87.9% male) to examine whether PTSD symptoms predicted new onset SLEs, and if these SLEs were associated with subsequent PTSD severity...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jordan A Booker, Matthew E Graci, Lauren A Hudak, Tanja Jovanovic, Barbara O Rothbaum, Kerry J Ressler, Robyn Fivush, Jennifer Stevens
In this study, we considered connections between the content of immediate trauma narratives and longitudinal trajectories of negative symptoms to address questions about the timing and predictive value of collected trauma narratives. Participants (N = 68) were individuals who were admitted to the emergency department of a metropolitan hospital and provided narrative recollections of the traumatic event that brought them into the hospital that day. They were then assessed at intervals over the next 12 months for depressive and posttraumatic symptom severity...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Adam P McGuire, Jami M Gauthier, Lisa M Anderson, David W Hollingsworth, Melissa Tracy, Sandro Galea, Scott F Coffey
Social support is a known protective factor against the negative psychological impact of natural disasters. Most past research has examined how the effects of exposure to traumatic events influences whether someone meets diagnostic criteria for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); it has also suggested sequelae of disaster exposure depends on whether survivors are displaced from their homes. To capture the full range of the psychological impact of natural disasters, we examined the buffering effects of social support on depressive symptoms and cluster-specific PTSD symptoms, with consideration of displacement status...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Niveen Rizkalla, Steven P Segal
The Syrian War has created a mass exodus of Syrian citizens to neighboring countries and exposed them to many atrocities. We explored factors affecting well-being and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of refugees residing in Jordan. Participants (N = 250) were surveyed via nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Outcome criteria included a global well-being rating and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Trauma exposure assessment included The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and The War Events Questionnaire. Ordinary least squares regression examined associations between potential contributors to refugee well-being and PTG, including work, age, sex, income, education, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, physical pain, health, NGO assistance, psychotic/affective mental disorder, and length of residence in Jordan...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Ben Porter, Charles W Hoge, Laura E Tobin, Carrie J Donoho, Carl A Castro, David D Luxton, Dennis Faix
Research has shown combat exposure to be associated with negative mental health outcomes. Different combat exposure measures are not composed of the same combat experiences, and few combat exposure measures have been directly compared to another measure. Furthermore, research about the unique associations between specific combat experiences and mental health is lacking. We investigated associations between new-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), new-onset depression, and alcohol-related problems and two commonly used measures of combat among a sample of 20,719 recently deployed U...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kerry Beckman, Jillian Shipherd, Tracy Simpson, Keren Lehavot
There is limited understanding about the frequency of military sexual assault (MSA) in transgender veterans, characteristics associated with MSA, or subsequent mental and behavioral health problems. To address this gap, we used an online national survey of 221 transgender veterans to identify prevalence of MSA and to assess its association with demographic characteristics, past history of sexual victimization, and stigma-related factors. We also evaluated the association between MSA and several mental and behavioral health problems...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Laura E Watkins, Lauren M Sippel, Robert H Pietrzak, Rani Hoff, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem
Although the link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and aggression has been repeatedly demonstrated, to our knowledge no research has examined whether PTSD symptom reductions are linked to less aggression after treatment. The current study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the association between reductions in PTSD symptoms and posttreatment aggression among 2,275 veterans in residential treatment for PTSD across 35 Veterans Health Administration sites. We estimated a multilevel model that examined the effect of clinically significant PTSD symptom change on aggression at 4-month posttreatment follow-up, and found significant within-site and between-site contextual effects of clinically significant changes in PTSD symptoms on follow-up aggression...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Philip Hyland, Mark Shevlin, Claire Fyvie, Thanos Karatzias
The American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization provide distinct trauma-based diagnoses in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), and the forthcoming 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), respectively. The DSM-5 conceptualizes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a single, broad diagnosis, whereas the ICD-11 proposes two "sibling" disorders: PTSD and complex PTSD (CPTSD). The objectives of the current study were to: (a) compare prevalence rates of PTSD/CPTSD based on each diagnostic system; (b) identify clinical and behavioral variables that distinguish ICD-11 CPTSD and PTSD diagnoses; and (c) examine the diagnostic associations for ICD-11 CPTSD and DSM-5 PTSD...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Brett T Litz, Ateka A Contractor, Charla Rhodes, Katherine A Dondanville, Alexander H Jordan, Patricia A Resick, Edna B Foa, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Jim Mintz, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Alan L Peterson
We examined the frequency of trauma types reported in a cohort of service members seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and compared symptom profiles between types. In this observational study, 999 service members (9.2% women; Mage = 32.91 years; 55.6% White) were evaluated using a standardized assessment procedure to determine eligibility for clinical trials. Participants were evaluated for DSM-IV-TR-defined PTSD using the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview; all participants reported a Criterion A event...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Julie B Kaplow, Christopher M Layne, Benjamin Oosterhoff, Hayley Goldenthal, Kathryn H Howell, Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Amanda Burnside, Karen Calhoun, Daphne Marbury, Laura Johnson-Hughes, Molly Kriesel, Mary Beth Staine, Marian Mankin, LaTanya Porter-Howard, Robert Pynoos
The inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) in the DSM-5 appendix signifies a call for research regarding the distinguishing features and clinical utility of proposed PCBD criteria. Rigorously constructed tools for assessing PCBD are lacking, especially for youth. This study evaluated the validity and clinical utility of the PCBD Checklist, a 39-item measure designed to assess PCBD criteria in youth aged 8 to18 years. Test construction procedures involved: (a) reviewing the literature regarding developmental manifestations of proposed criteria, (b) creating a developmentally informed item pool, (c) surveying an expert panel to evaluate the clarity and developmental appropriateness of candidate items, (d) conducting focus groups to evaluate the comprehensibility and acceptability of items, and (e) evaluating psychometric properties in 367 bereaved youth (Mage = 13...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Anu Asnaani, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Kathy Benhamou, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Alan L Peterson, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Elisa V Borah, Katherine A Dondanville, Elizabeth A Hembree, Brett T Litz, Jim Mintz, Edna B Foa
Researchers have suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant healthcare burden and utilization of medical services. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of PTSD symptoms on health functioning among active-duty military personnel. Participants in the study were 366 treatment-seeking service members who had returned from deployment and were participating in a larger PTSD treatment study. Assessments included measures of PTSD symptom severity, combat experiences, life stress, health functioning, alcohol use, and depression...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Adeyinka M Akinsulure-Smith, Adriana Espinosa, Tracy Chu, Ryan Hallock
To promote a better understanding of the impact of refugee resettlement work on refugee resettlement workers, this study examined the prevalence rates of deleterious mental health and occupational outcomes, such as secondary traumatic stress and burnout, among a sample of 210 refugee resettlement workers at six refugee resettlement agencies in the United States. The study also explored coping mechanisms used by service providers to manage work-related stress and the influence of such strategies and emotional intelligence on secondary traumatic stress and burnout...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kallio Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Katarzyna E Wyka, Melissa Peskin, Judith Cukor, Megan Olden, JoAnn Difede
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with functional deficits, poor physical health, and diminished quality of life. Limited research has examined PTSD symptom clusters and their associations with functioning and distress among disaster recovery workers, a population at high risk for PTSD due to potential for repeated trauma. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between overall PTSD severity, as well as PTSD symptom clusters, and social and occupational functioning and subjective distress in World Trade Center (WTC) disaster workers after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (9/11)...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Hilary B Hodgdon, Rachel Liebman, Lia Martin, Michael Suvak, Kari Beserra, Wendy Rosenblum, Joseph Spinazzola
Risk for traumatic sequelae is conveyed directly by risk factors (i.e., exposure to trauma), and via the disruption of developmental competencies. Exposure to caregiver trauma is an especially salient risk factor, as its early and pervasive nature is likely to undermine multiple facets of development, most notably the emergence of cognitive controls (i.e., executive function [EF]). Deficits in EF have been observed among youth exposed to multiple types of trauma and are associated with a range of functional impairments, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and behavioral disorders; they represent a mechanism by which the negative impact of caregiver trauma is conveyed...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kevin Brailey, Mary Alice Mills, Brian P Marx, Susan P Proctor, Karen H Seal, Avron Spiro, Erin W Ulloa, Jennifer J Vasterling
War zone deployment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been associated with morbidity and mortality decades later. Less is known about the associations between these variables and the early emergence of medical disorders in war zone veterans. This prospective study of 862 U.S. Army soldiers (n = 569 deployed; n = 293 nondeployed) examined: (a) associations between Iraq War deployment status (deployed vs. nondeployed) and new medical diagnoses that emerged within six months after return from Iraq among all participants; and (b) associations between combat severity and PTSD symptoms, and new postdeployment medical diagnoses that emerged within 12 months after return from Iraq within deployed participants...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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