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Journal of Traumatic Stress

Jennifer J Esala, Sopheap Taing
Testimony therapy can provide low-cost, brief, simple, and culturally adaptable psychosocial services in low-income countries (Agger, Raghuvanshi, Khan, Polatin, & Laursen, 2009). Nonetheless, there have been no well-controlled studies of testimony therapy. We report the analyses of a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of testimony therapy plus a culturally adapted ceremony in reducing mental health symptoms among Khmer Rouge torture survivors from across Cambodia. Using multilevel modeling, we compared symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression between a treatment (n = 45) and a control group (n = 43) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Evaldas Kazlauskas, Paulina Zelviene, Jonas Eimontas
Lithuanian National Health Insurance (NHI) registry data from 2014 and 2015 were used to estimate the annual rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders in Lithuania. A large gap was found between 12-month PTSD prevalence based on epidemiological data and annual PTSD rates based on health care service utilization in Lithuania. Estimations from the health care service's utilization data revealed that only about 0.01% to 0.02% of the population in Lithuania is diagnosed with PTSD annually, indicating that the national health care system identifies only about 1% of potential PTSD cases in Lithuania...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Ihori Kobayashi, Thomas A Mellman, Duaa Altaee, Mary Katherine Howell, Joseph Lavela
Sleep has been implicated in learning processes that appear to underlie recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The importance of quality and timing of sleep following exposure-based therapies has been suggested. The present study evaluated relationships between sleep and adaptive emotional processing following written narrative exposure (WNE) to memories of traumatic events experienced by participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Participants included 21 urban-residing nontreatment-seeking adults with full or subthreshold symptoms of PTSD who completed 4 sessions of 30-min WNE with the first session either in the evening or the morning...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Nancy Kassam-Adams, Meghan L Marsac
With millions of children experiencing acute traumatic events, validated screening tools are needed in both research and service contexts. We aimed to identify and evaluate short forms of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children in English (ASC-Kids) and Spanish (Cuestionario de Estrés Agudo-Niños [CEA-N]), using data from 4 samples (Ns of 254, 225, 176, and 80) of children with recent acute trauma. Confirmatory factor analyses of the full checklist in the largest sample guided item selection for 6-item and 3-item short forms...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Gadi Zerach, Zahava Solomon
Indirect exposure to the aversive details of the primary victim's traumatic event(s) has been introduced in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) as a new event criterion (Criterion A4). However, this new criterion has been criticized for its significant emphasis on the exposure to trauma "details" or trauma narrative. This study assessed the associations between reported exposure to details about captivity and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among 2 groups of family members of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs): spouses (n = 115) and adult offspring (n = 78)...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jan A Lindsay, Colt Keo-Meier, Sonora Hudson, Annette Walder, Lindsey A Martin, Michael R Kauth
Little is known about military sexual trauma (MST) in transgender veterans. To address this gap, we examined archival data regarding transgender veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. There were 332 transgender veterans treated at the Veterans Health Administration between 2000 and 2013 (78 men, 254 women; mean age 33.86 years), with most being non-Hispanic White. Transgender status and mental health conditions were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision (ICD-9; World Health Organization, 1980) codes and chart review...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Sarah E Ullman, Mark Relyea
Social support and coping affect each other after stressful life events, including sexual assault (Taylor & Stanton, 2007). The present study examined the associations among assault-specific support, maladaptive coping, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) over 3 years in a sample of female sexual assault survivors from a large metropolitan area (N = 1,863). A 3-wave cross-lagged panel model revealed significant weak-to-moderate reciprocal associations between maladaptive coping and PTSS (βs = .09 to ...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Daisuke Ito, Shunsuke Koseki, Tetsuhiro Ohtani
This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a brief school-based cognitive-behavioral intervention program for Japanese adolescents exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. The participants were 22 adolescents with severe posttraumatic stress symptoms at the time of the study in March 2014. They completed a single-session 4-step intervention program based on Ehlers and Clark's (2000) model at their school. Symptom status was assessed at 3 time points (preintervention, postintervention, and 4-month follow-up) using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (Weiss, 2004) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977)...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Elisabeth Ponce-Garcia, Amy N Madewell, Marina E Brown
The literature on sexual assault (SA) typically has been generalized to women and children. However, both men and women experience SA. Research shows that not all individuals experience the negative impacts of SA in the same way. The ability to buffer the negative effects of SA may lie in specific protective factors that determine resilience. Resilience scales used in adult populations have not been validated for use in SA samples. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the factor structure of a resilience scale, the Scale of Protective Factors (SPF), in a sample of emerging adults (n = 571) and to validate the replicated model on a subsample of the participants who reported SA (n = 173)...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Samuli Kangaslampi, Raija-Leena Punamäki, Samir Qouta, Marwan Diab, Kirsi Peltonen
Cognitive theories point to reduction in dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions (PTCs) as one mechanism involved in recovery from posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), yet research findings have shown individual differences in the recovery process. We tested the cognitive mediation hypothesis above in a previously published psychosocial group intervention among war-affected children. We also examined heterogeneity in children's PTCs during the intervention. We used a cluster randomized trial of Smith et al...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Damion J Grasso, Amélie Petitclerc, David B Henry, Kimberly J McCarthy, Lauren S Wakschlag, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan
Young children can experience violence directly or indirectly in the home, with some children exposed to multiple forms of violence. These polyvictims often experience violence that is severe, chronic, and multifaceted. The current study used latent class analysis to identify and examine the pattern of profiles of exposure to family violence (i.e., violence directed towards the child and between caregivers) among a sample of 474 children ages 3-6 year who were drawn from the Multidimensional Assessment of Preschoolers Study (Wakschlag et al...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Michel L A Dückers, Chris R Brewin
An earlier study (Dückers, Alisic, & Brewin, 2016) found that countries with greater social and economic resources were characterized by a higher lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we present a similar analysis of national population survey data to examine this vulnerability paradox in relation to other disorders. We predicted the lifetime prevalence of any mental health disorder (i.e., anxiety, mood, substance, and externalizing disorders) in 17 countries based on trauma exposure and country vulnerability data...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Laurie Zandberg, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Carmen P McLean, Leslie Rescorla, Elna Yadin, Edna B Foa
The present study evaluated secondary emotional and behavioral outcomes among adolescents who received prolonged exposure (PE-A) or client-centered therapy (CCT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 61 adolescent girls (age: M = 15.33, SD = 1.50 years) with sexual abuse related PTSD seeking treatment at a community mental health clinic. Multilevel modeling was employed to evaluate group differences on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) over acute treatment and 12-month follow-up...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Hagai Maoz, Yiftach Goldwin, Yael Doreen Lewis, Yuval Bloch
The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory (DRRI) is a widely used questionnaire assessing deployment-related risk and resilience factors among war veterans. Its successor, the DRRI-2, has only been validated and used among veterans deployed for overseas military missions, but because many countries still enforce compulsory military service, validating it among nonclinical samples of healthy discharged soldiers following mandatory service is also a necessity. In the current study, a sample of 101 discharged Israeli soldiers (39 males, 62 females; mean time since discharge 13...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Janeese A Brownlow, Carmen P McLean, Philip R Gehrman, Gerlinde C Harb, Richard J Ross, Edna B Foa
Chronic insomnia and recurrent nightmares are prominent features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evidence from adult research indicates that these sleep disturbances do not respond as well to cognitive-behavioral therapies for PTSD and are associated with poorer functional outcomes. This study examined the effect of prolonged exposure therapy for adolescents versus client-centered therapy on posttraumatic sleep disturbance, and the extent to which sleep symptoms impacted global functioning among adolescents with sexual abuse-related PTSD...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Haya Itzhaky, Karni Kissil, Shlomit Weiss-Dagan
There is a scarcity of research exploring the experiences of foreign travelers exposed to natural disasters while abroad. This qualitative study explored the experiences of the 2015 earthquake in Nepal among international travelers immediately following the earthquake. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 Israeli backpackers who were traveling in Nepal at the time of the earthquake. Thematic analysis revealed 4 themes: emotional turmoil, quick recovery, springing into action, and connection to the army...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Guia Guffanti, Lupo Geronazzo-Alman, Bin Fan, Cristiane S Duarte, George J Musa, Christina W Hoven
Patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) will very likely not share all of the same symptoms, a consequence of the polythetic approach used in the DSM. We examined heterogeneity in the latent structure of PTSD symptoms using data from a previously published sample of 8,236 youth a subset of which had been exposed to the September 11, 2001 attacks (N = 6,670; Hoven et al...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Sarah R Lowe, Laura Sampson, Oliver Gruebner, Sandro Galea
Persons living in communities with limited resources are at heightened risk of posttraumatic stress (PTS) after disasters, especially if they were highly exposed. The support deterrence desistence model and the conservation of resources theory suggest that this risk might increase in the longer-term aftermath of disasters. In the present study, we aimed to test this hypothesis. Two population-based samples of New York City residents in communities affected by Hurricane Sandy were surveyed at either 13-16 months (Time 1; n = 421) or 25-28 months (Time 2; n = 420) postdisaster...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Katie A Ragsdale, Sarah C Voss Horrell
This retrospective analysis of previously existing nonrandomized clinical data examined the effectiveness of completing prolonged exposure (PE) or cognitive processing therapy (CPT) in a sample of 41 U.S. veterans at a Veterans Affairs medical center. The sample included 19 veterans with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 22 veterans with PTSD only. Diagnostic groups did not significantly differ on PTSD and depression symptom reduction, F(2, 36) = 0.05, p = ...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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