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Journal of Traumatic Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429858/trauma-related-disgust-in-veterans-with-interpersonal-trauma
#1
Jessica Bomyea, Carolyn B Allard
Although traditionally conceptualized as an anxiety disorder, variability in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be explained by individual differences in peri- or posttraumatic disgust. We examined relationships between disgust reactions and other trauma-related symptoms in 100 veterans with a history of interpersonal trauma and gender differences in these variables. We also evaluated the mediating role of posttraumatic disgust and guilt in the relationship between peritraumatic disgust and PTSD symptoms...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422323/validating-a-virtual-environment-for-sexual-assault-victims
#2
Claudie Loranger, Stéphane Bouchard
Virtual reality has shown promising results in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for some traumatic experiences, but sexual assault has been understudied. One important question to address is the relevance and safety of a virtual environment (VE) allowing patients to be progressively exposed to a sexual assault scenario. The aim of this study was to validate such a VE. Thirty women (victims and nonvictims of sexual assault) were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced order to 2 immersions in a virtual bar: a control scenario where the encounter with the aggressor does not lead to sexual assault and an experimental scenario where the participant is assaulted...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407321/stability-and-change-in-posttraumatic-distress-a-7-year-follow-up-study-of-mothers-and-young-children-exposed-to-cumulative-trauma
#3
Ruth Pat-Horenczyk, Sarale Cohen, Yuval Ziv, M Achituv, Sophie Brickman, Tamar Blanchard, Danny Brom
In situations of cumulative trauma, it is often unclear why some people remain resilient, whereas others experience distress, and how likely these responses are to change over time. To investigate the constancy of responses to cumulative trauma, stability and change in posttraumatic distress and resistance (as defined by no evidence of clinical symptoms) were assessed twice in 140 Israeli children and mothers exposed to continual rocket attacks over approximately 7 years, when the children were 2-4 (Time 1) and 9-11 years of age (Time 2)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398626/initial-findings-from-project-recover-overcoming-co-occurring-eating-disorders-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-through-integrated-treatment
#4
Kathryn Trottier, Candice M Monson, Stephen A Wonderlich, Marion P Olmsted
This pilot study is the initial investigation of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for co-occurring eating disorders (ED) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Following a course of intensive hospital-based ED treatment focused on ED behavioral symptom interruption, 10 individuals with ED-PTSD received 16 sessions of CBT that focused on maintaining improvements in ED symptoms outside of the hospital environment and integrated cognitive processing therapy for PTSD. We hypothesized that the treatment would be associated with significant improvements in PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety, as well as sustained improvements in ED symptomatology...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370461/hurricane-sandy-exposure-and-the-mental-health-of-world-trade-center-responders
#5
Evelyn J Bromet, Sean Clouston, Adam Gonzalez, Roman Kotov, Kathryn M Guerrera, Benjamin J Luft
The psychological consequences of a second disaster on populations exposed to an earlier disaster have rarely been studied prospectively. Using a pre- and postdesign, we examined the effects of Hurricane Sandy on possible World Trade Center (WTC) related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist score of ≥ 50) and overall depression (major depressive disorder [MDD]; Patient Health Questionnaire depression score of ≥ 10) among 870 WTC responders with a follow-up monitoring visit at the Long Island WTC Health Program during the 6 months post-Hurricane Sandy...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370328/modern-warfare-video-game-playing-and-posttraumatic-symptoms-in-veterans
#6
Darryl Etter, Charles Kamen, Kelly Etter, Cheryl Gore-Felton
Many of the current generation of veterans grew up with video games, including military first-person shooter (MFPS) video games. In MFPS games, players take the role of soldiers engaged in combat in environments modeled on real-life warzones. Exposure to trauma-congruent game content may either serve to exacerbate or to ameliorate posttraumatic symptoms. The current study examined the relationship between MFPS and other shooter video game playing and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among current and former members of the military (N = 111)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370300/predictive-validity-of-icd-11-ptsd-as-measured-by-the-impact-of-event-scale-revised-a-15-year-prospective-study-of-political-prisoners
#7
Philip Hyland, Chris R Brewin, Andreas Maercker
The 11(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2017) proposes a model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that includes 6 symptoms. This study assessed the ability of a classification-independent measure of posttraumatic stress symptoms, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (Weiss & Marmar, 1996), to capture the ICD-11 model of PTSD. The current study also provided the first assessment of the predictive validity of ICD-11 PTSD. Former East German political prisoners were assessed in 1994 (N = 144) and in 2008-2009 (N = 88) on numerous psychological variables using self-report measures...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329434/integrated-treatment-of-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorders-examination-of-imaginal-exposure-length
#8
Adam C Mills, Christal L Badour, Kristina J Korte, Therese K Killeen, Aisling V Henschel, Sudie E Back
Efforts to improve the efficiency of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have demonstrated that reducing the length of imaginal exposures does not negatively affect treatment outcome. A recent adaptation of PE, called Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure [COPE], integrates substance use disorder treatment with PE in the same timeframe (twelve 90-minute sessions, 8 of which include imaginal exposure). The current study, which represents a subanalysis of a larger randomized controlled trial, examined how the length of imaginal exposures (nonrandomized and measured continually) related to PTSD, substance use, and depression in a sample of military veterans (N = 31) who completed the COPE treatment...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329423/does-the-vulnerability-paradox-in-ptsd-apply-to-women-and-men-an-exploratory-study
#9
Michel L A Dückers, Miranda Olff
Recent research suggests that greater country vulnerability is associated with a decreased, rather than increased, risk of mental health problems. Because societal parameters may have gender-specific implications, our objective was to explore whether the "vulnerability paradox" equally applies to women and men. Lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence data for women and men were retrieved from 11 population studies (N = 57,031): conducted in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Lebanon, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329406/treating-veterans-with-ptsd-and-borderline-personality-symptoms-in-a-12-week-intensive-outpatient-setting-findings-from-a-pilot-program
#10
Laura Meyers, Emily K Voller, Ethan B McCallum, Paul Thuras, Sandra Shallcross, Tina Velasquez, Laura Meis
Rates of comorbidity between borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are high in veteran populations, and clinicians are hesitant to treat PTSD given high rates of suicidality. Given promising early work integrating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy, we created a 12-week intensive outpatient program combining these two treatments. PE and DBT were provided concurrently to 33 veterans with PTSD symptoms and BPD symptoms at a large, midwestern Veteran Affairs medical center...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273379/the-amplification-of-common-somatic-symptoms-by-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-firefighters
#11
Josie S Milligan-Saville, Helen M Paterson, Emily L Harkness, Annabel M Marsh, Mark Dobson, Richard I Kemp, Richard A Bryant, Samuel B Harvey
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in emergency service personnel and other trauma-exposed populations is known to be associated with a variety of physical health problems. However, little attention has been paid to the health of ageing emergency service personnel, who may be forced into early medical retirement because of a combination of these issues. Currently employed (N = 274) Australian firefighters completed a cross-sectional survey using validated, self-report measures of PTSD and somatic symptoms...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273371/sleep-disordered-breathing-impact-on-efficacy-of-prolonged-exposure-therapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Christopher Reist, Andrea Gory, Michael Hollifield
There is growing evidence that sleep disturbances may impede the utility of existing therapeutic interventions for people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This retrospective medical record review examined the hypothesis that sleep disturbance affects the outcome of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for PTSD. We identified 18 combat veterans with PTSD who had completed PE therapy. There were 6 subjects who had sleep-disordered breathing, 5 of whom were documented by sleep polysomnography. All subjects in the sleep-disordered group took part in a minimum of 10 sessions; the mean number of sessions was comparable between the sleep-disordered group and the group without a sleep disorder...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141895/domestic-civil-support-missions-can-aggravate-negative-mental-health-outcomes-among-national-guardsmen-the-moderating-role-of-economic-difficulties
#13
Dale W Russell, Josh B Kazman, David M Benedek, Robert J Ursano, Cristel A Russell
Little research has addressed potentially negative health outcomes associated with domestic civil-oriented operations, but has focused instead on traditional military operations (e.g., combat). This study, conducted following a United States Defense Support to Civilian Authorities mission undertaken by National Guard forces (N = 330), showed that responding to such missions was linked to more negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (β = 0.23) and depression (β = 0.23), but only among those who reported difficulty meeting their basic socioeconomic needs and not among those who did not have difficulty meeting their basic needs...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190267/inaugural-editorial
#14
EDITORIAL
Patricia K Kerig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103415/predictors-of-ptsd-symptom-change-among-outpatients-in-the-u-s-department-of-veterans-affairs-health-care-system
#15
Rebecca K Sripada, Paul N Pfeiffer, Jessica Rampton, Dara Ganoczy, Sheila A M Rauch, Melissa A Polusny, Kipling M Bohnert
Although the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has prioritized care for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), many patients with PTSD remain symptomatic. Patterns of PTSD symptom change are not well understood. Thus, the current study was designed to categorize and investigate potential predictors of symptom trajectories in patients with PTSD. The sample comprised 2,237 VA patients who were diagnosed with PTSD in 2013 and completed at least 4 PTSD Checklist (PCL) assessments over 12 weeks. Latent trajectory analysis was used to identify latent classes of patients based on PCL scores...
February 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103414/a-meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-appraisals-of-trauma-and-posttraumatic-stress-in-children-and-adolescents
#16
Ryan Mitchell, Kate Brennan, David Curran, Donncha Hanna, Kevin F W Dyer
Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) place an emphasis on the role of negative appraisals of traumatic events. It is suggested that the way in which the event is appraised determines the extent to which posttraumatic stress symptoms will be experienced. Therefore, a strong relationship between trauma appraisals and symptoms of PTSD might be expected. However, this relationship is not as firmly established in the child and adolescent literature. A systematic literature review of this relationship returned 467 publications, of which 11 met full eligibility criteria...
February 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103412/what-determines-posttraumatic-stress-and-growth-following-various-traumatic-events-a-study-in-a-turkish-community-sample
#17
Ervin Gul, A Nuray Karanci
This study aimed to examine the roles of personality traits, traumatic event types, coping, rumination, and social support in explaining posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in a representative community sample of 498 Turkish adults. The results of 2 multiple regression analyses showed that PTS was associated with neuroticism, experiencing events involving intentional/assaultive violence, intrusive and deliberate rumination, and fatalistic coping. In contrast, PTG was related to conscientiousness, openness to experience, injury/shocking and sudden-death type of events, deliberate rumination, problem-solving coping, and perceived social support...
February 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103407/the-course-and-correlates-of-combat-related-ptsd-in-australian-vietnam-veterans-in-the-three-decades-after-the-war
#18
Brian I O'Toole, Stanley V Catts
Australian male Vietnam veterans (N = 388) were assessed 22 and 36 years after their return to Australia using standardized diagnostic interviews, with added data from Army records and self-report questionnaires. Among veterans who ever had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 50.3% had a current diagnosis at the second assessment; of those who had a current diagnosis at Wave 1, 46.9% were also current at Wave 2. Late onset occurred for 19.0% of veterans, of whom 60.8% were current at Wave 2. Multivariate analysis compared veterans with no history of PTSD (n = 231) with veterans who had ever had PTSD (n = 157) to assess risk factors for PTSD incidence; and veterans with a history, but not current PTSD (n = 78) with veterans who had current PTSD at the second assessment (n = 79) to assess risk factors for failure to remit...
February 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103401/maintenance-and-reach-of-exposure-psychotherapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-18-months-after-training
#19
Craig S Rosen, Afsoon Eftekhari, Jill J Crowley, Brandy N Smith, Eric Kuhn, Lindsay Trent, Nicole Martin, Thuy Tran, Josef I Ruzek
This study examined aspects of clinicians' work environment that facilitated sustained use of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy. Surveys were completed by 566 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs clinicians 6 and 18 months after intensive training in PE. The number of patients treated with PE at 18 months (reach) was modeled as a function of clinician demographics, clinician beliefs about PE, and work context factors. There were 342 clinicians (60.4%) who used PE at 6 and 18 months after training, 58 (10.2%) who used PE at 18 but not 6 months, 95 (16...
February 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103399/for-whom-does-time-heal-wounds-individual-differences-in-stability-and-change-in-posttraumatic-stress-after-the-2011-oslo-bombing
#20
Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Marianne Bang Hansen, Ines Blix, Øivind Solberg, Trond Heir
Prospective studies describing and predicting individual differences in the course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after disasters are scarce. The present study aimed to describe and predict individual differences in both the level and the rate of change in PTSS after the 2011 Oslo bombing, a terrorist attack directed at the Norwegian government. Survey data from ministerial employees (N = 256) were collected 10, 22, and 34 months after the bombing. We used latent growth modeling to examine the development of PTSS, and to identify the strength of predictor variables...
February 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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