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Journal of Traumatic Stress

Eliora Porter, Erin G Romero, Melissa D Barone
Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is traditionally delivered individually to patients. To engage more veterans in care, an in vivo exposure group treatment was developed in an urban VA medical center. This treatment represented a modification of the in vivo exposure portion of PE, with the addition of in-session, therapist-assisted in vivo exposures. Here, we describe this 12-week treatment and present preliminary outcome data. Demographics and pre- and posttreatment scores on the PTSD Checklist-Specific (PCL-S) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were extracted from a program evaluation database...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Gurdeeshpal Randhawa, Ataa Azarbar, Huiru Dong, M J Milloy, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
Childhood traumatic experiences can disrupt attachment, influence personality development, and precipitate chronic disease. Although the repercussions of these experiences may also pose a barrier to healthcare, few studies have examined the association between childhood trauma and access to healthcare. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether a history of childhood trauma is associated with self-reported inability to access hospital care among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Data were derived from two prospective cohorts of PWID in Vancouver, Canada...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Madison W Silverstein, Tracy K Witte, Daniel J Lee, Lindsay B Kramer, Frank W Weathers
Posttraumatic growth, defined as positive transformation following trauma, is commonly measured using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) and is postulated to comprise five distinct domains: Changes in Relationships, Life Possibilities, Personal Strength, Spirituality, and Appreciation of Life. However, research has indicated that the model fit is not good and the factors are highly intercorrelated. Further, no studies have formally examined the heterogeneity of correlations of the five factors with external constructs...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Andrea J Phelps, Zachary Steele, Sean Cowlishaw, Olivia Metcalf, Nathan Alkemade, Peter Elliott, Meaghan O'Donnell, Suzy Redston, Katelyn Kerr, Alexandra Howard, Jane Nursey, John Cooper, Renee Armstrong, Lea Fitzgerald, David Forbes
Although effective posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments are available, outcomes for veterans with PTSD are relatively modest. Previous researchers have identified subgroups of veterans with different response trajectories but have not investigated whether PTSD symptom clusters (based on a four-factor model) have different patterns of response to treatment. The importance of this lies in the potential to increase treatment focus on less responsive symptoms. We investigated treatment outcomes by symptom cluster for 2,685 Australian veterans with PTSD...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Meaghan L O'Donnell, Olivia Metcalf, Loretta Watson, Andrea Phelps, Tracey Varker
Adjustment disorder is a common psychiatric disorder, yet knowledge of the efficacious treatments for adjustment disorder is limited. In this systematic review, we aimed to examine psychological and pharmacological interventions that target adjustment disorder in adults to determine which interventions have the best evidence for improving adjustment disorder symptoms. We performed database searches for literature published between January 1980 and September 2016 and identified studies that included both a sample majority of individuals diagnosed with adjustment disorder and findings on adjustment disorder symptom outcomes...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Carol A Keane, Christopher A Magee, Peter J Kelly
Childhood maltreatment and interpersonal trauma experience is an important factor underpinning the apparent perpetuation of the cycle of social disadvantage experienced by homeless adults. This paper aimed to examine longitudinal patterns of psychological distress in a sample of 1,504 socially disadvantaged adult participants from the Journeys Home Study in Australia. The current paper utilized the "conservation of resources" theory and the concept of "risk factor caravans" to investigate the nature and implications of childhood trauma in the context of homelessness...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Mark W G Bosmans, Peter G Van der Velden
Population studies have shown that employed adults are healthier than unemployed adults. In this study, we examined whether this "healthy worker effect" is relevant in postdisaster mental health by examining whether trauma-exposed employed individuals have lower postdisaster initial mental health problems and/or whether they recover faster than trauma-exposed unemployed individuals. We compared the course of postevent intrusion and avoidance reactions, anxiety, depression, and sleeping difficulties of employed residents (n = 291) and unemployed residents (n = 269) affected by a fireworks disaster in a residential area of Enschede, The Netherlands...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Laura E Stayton, Benjamin D Dickstein, Kathleen M Chard
Research suggests that cognitive processing therapy (CPT) may be a particularly well-suited intervention for trauma survivors who endorse self-blame; however, no study has examined the impact of self-blame on response to CPT. Accordingly, the current study compared response to CPT between two groups of veterans seeking residential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In one group, participants endorsed low self-blame at pretreatment (n = 133) and in the other group, participants endorsed high self-blame (n = 133)...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Julie B Kaplow, Britney M Wardecker, Christopher M Layne, Ethan Kross, Amanda Burnside, Robin S Edelstein, Alan R Prossin
This study examined links between the language bereaved children use to describe the death of their caregiver and children's psychological/behavioral functioning and coping strategies. Participants included 44 children (54.5% male) aged 7 to 12 (M = 9.05) years who were bereaved by the death of a caregiver. Children were assessed via self- and caregiver-report measures and an in-person interview regarding the loss of their caregiver. Children's loss narratives gathered through in-person interviews were transcribed and subjected to textual analysis...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Timothy J Sullivan, Feea R Leifker, Amy D Marshall
Impaired emotional processes are related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are implicated in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. To address the interpersonal context of PTSD, emotion, and IPV, we examined interactions among one's own and one's partner's emotional expressivity and PTSD symptom severity in association with IPV perpetration. Heterosexual couples (N = 56) in which at least one partner met screening criteria for PTSD engaged in two video-recorded discussions about negative and positive aspects of their relationships...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Sonia L Rubens, Erika D Felix, Erin P Hambrick
Although exposure to natural disasters can lead to diverse mental health (MH) outcomes in youth, most child disaster MH research has focused on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). To highlight the likelihood of other MH outcomes, we meta-analyzed studies that have examined other (non-PTSS) internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in youth exposed to natural disasters. We used PRISMA guidelines to systematically gather studies that have examined the association between natural disaster exposure and non-PTSS internalizing and/or externalizing problems in samples of children and adolescents...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
John T Nanney, Rachel A Wamser-Nanney, Lance H Linke, Joseph I Constans, Jeffrey M Pyne
Belief in one's ability to exert power and control over outcomes following trauma has long been understood as protective against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The role of pretrauma beliefs about power and control, however, remains unclear. Though a strong pretrauma belief in power and control may similarly be protective, we predicted such a belief may actually be a diathesis for PTSD. When exposed to trauma, individuals with a strong pretrauma belief in power and control may believe they should have prevented the trauma and/or their acute reactions...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kelly R Peck, Julie A Schumacher, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are a growing problem in the United States. When OUDs co-occur with problematic drinking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), negative drug-related mental and physical health outcomes may be exacerbated. Thus, it is important to establish whether PTSD treatments with established efficacy for dually diagnosed individuals also demonstrate efficacy in individuals who engage in problematic drinking and concurrent opioid misuse. Adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD and alcohol dependence were recruited from a substance use treatment facility and were randomly assigned to receive either modified prolonged exposure (mPE) therapy for PTSD or a non-trauma-focused comparison treatment...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kim A Baranowski, Melissa H Moses, Jasmine Sundri
The United States permits foreign nationals to apply for asylum if they have experienced persecution or have a fear of future persecution. In order to meet the criteria for persecution, the harm inflicted upon the asylum seeker does not need to be or have been physical and can include psychological sequelae. In an effort to document persecution, lawyers seek the assistance of health professionals when preparing their clients' asylum applications. Mental health professionals work to corroborate psychological evidence of the asylum seeker's report of ill treatment through evaluation and presentation of their findings in the form of legal affidavits...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Marianne Celano, Amanda NeMoyer, Anna Stagg, Nikia Scott
Despite advances in the dissemination of evidence-based therapy for abuse-related traumatic stress, many referred children fail to complete treatment. Using archival data from a sample of children participating in trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) at a hospital-based child advocacy center, analyses explored the impact of baseline child traumatic stress symptoms, a second (nonprimary) caregiver's treatment attendance, and the number of assessment sessions on treatment completion while controlling for demographic variables...
June 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Brett T Litz, Ateka A Contractor, Charla Rhodes, Katherine A Dondanville, Alexander H Jordan, Patricia A Resick, Edna B Foa, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Jim Mintz, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Alan L Peterson
We examined the frequency of trauma types reported in a cohort of service members seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and compared symptom profiles between types. In this observational study, 999 service members (9.2% women; Mage = 32.91 years; 55.6% White) were evaluated using a standardized assessment procedure to determine eligibility for clinical trials. Participants were evaluated for DSM-IV-TR-defined PTSD using the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview; all participants reported a Criterion A event...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Julie B Kaplow, Christopher M Layne, Benjamin Oosterhoff, Hayley Goldenthal, Kathryn H Howell, Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Amanda Burnside, Karen Calhoun, Daphne Marbury, Laura Johnson-Hughes, Molly Kriesel, Mary Beth Staine, Marian Mankin, LaTanya Porter-Howard, Robert Pynoos
The inclusion of Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) in the DSM-5 appendix signifies a call for research regarding the distinguishing features and clinical utility of proposed PCBD criteria. Rigorously constructed tools for assessing PCBD are lacking, especially for youth. This study evaluated the validity and clinical utility of the PCBD Checklist, a 39-item measure designed to assess PCBD criteria in youth aged 8 to18 years. Test construction procedures involved: (a) reviewing the literature regarding developmental manifestations of proposed criteria, (b) creating a developmentally informed item pool, (c) surveying an expert panel to evaluate the clarity and developmental appropriateness of candidate items, (d) conducting focus groups to evaluate the comprehensibility and acceptability of items, and (e) evaluating psychometric properties in 367 bereaved youth (Mage = 13...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Anu Asnaani, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Kathy Benhamou, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Alan L Peterson, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Elisa V Borah, Katherine A Dondanville, Elizabeth A Hembree, Brett T Litz, Jim Mintz, Edna B Foa
Researchers have suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant healthcare burden and utilization of medical services. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of PTSD symptoms on health functioning among active-duty military personnel. Participants in the study were 366 treatment-seeking service members who had returned from deployment and were participating in a larger PTSD treatment study. Assessments included measures of PTSD symptom severity, combat experiences, life stress, health functioning, alcohol use, and depression...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Adeyinka M Akinsulure-Smith, Adriana Espinosa, Tracy Chu, Ryan Hallock
To promote a better understanding of the impact of refugee resettlement work on refugee resettlement workers, this study examined the prevalence rates of deleterious mental health and occupational outcomes, such as secondary traumatic stress and burnout, among a sample of 210 refugee resettlement workers at six refugee resettlement agencies in the United States. The study also explored coping mechanisms used by service providers to manage work-related stress and the influence of such strategies and emotional intelligence on secondary traumatic stress and burnout...
April 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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