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Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology

Scott A Graupensperger, Alex J Benson, M Blair Evans
The authors examined athletes' conformity to teammates' risky behaviors through a performance-based manipulation paradigm. They hypothesized that athletes who strongly identified with their team would be at increased risk of conforming to teammates' behaviors. Athletes (N = 379) from 23 intact National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) teams completed surveys (e.g., social identity) and reported the extent to which they would engage in risky behavior scenarios (e.g., drinking and driving). Then, researchers displayed ostensible responses that were manipulated to appear as though teammates reported high engagement in the risky behaviors...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Stefanie Hüttermann, Werner F Helsen, Koen Put, Daniel Memmert
In recent years, several publications examined the underlying mechanisms that might have an impact on decision-making processes under time pressure. This study investigated how individual differences in attentional capability relate to decision making in complex dynamic offside events. A total of 24 professional football assistant referees (ARs) performed an offside decision-making task and an attention-demanding task. ARs with higher attentional capability along the horizontal meridian of their attentional focus made fewer mistakes when judging offside situations in football than ARs with lower capability...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Navin Kaushal, Ryan E Rhodes, John T Meldrum, John C Spence
BACKGROUND: A recent randomized controlled trial found that an intervention focused on developing an exercise habit increased weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over 8 wk compared to a control group. The purpose of the current study was to test if changes in habit, as well as other behavioral strategy constructs from the Multi-Process Action Control Test, mediated between group condition and MVPA (self-report and accelerometry). METHODS: Inactive new gym members (N = 94) were randomized into control or experimental (habit-building) groups...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Tanya R Berry, Wendy M Rodgers, Alison Divine, Craig Hall
Discrepancies between automatically activated associations (i.e., implicit evaluations) and explicit evaluations of motives (measured with a questionnaire) could lead to greater information processing to resolve discrepancies or self-regulatory failures that may affect behavior. This research examined the relationship of health and appearance exercise-related explicit-implicit evaluative discrepancies, the interaction between implicit and explicit evaluations, and the combined value of explicit and implicit evaluations (i...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Nicholas J Smeeton, Matyas Varga, Joe Causer, A Mark Williams
The ability to disguise and deceive action outcomes was examined by manipulating sports garments. In Experiment 1, those with higher and lower skill levels in anticipation predicted the throw direction of an opponent who wore a garment designed to disguise kinetic-chain information. Higher skill anticipators were more adversely affected by the disguise garment than the lower skill anticipators, demonstrating that disguise removed the anticipation advantage. In Experiment 2, using the same occlusion methodology, the effect of deception was examined using 2 garments designed to create visual illusions of motion across the proximal-to-distal sequence of the thrower's action and compared with a white-garment control...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
André Klostermann, Ralf Kredel, Ernst-Joachim Hossner
The quiet-eye (QE) phenomenon has been found to predict subsequent motor performance. However, it remains unclear whether this effect also holds for considerably extended QE durations. Therefore, in 2 ball-throwing studies, QE durations of 400-3,200 ms were experimentally induced. Inferior performance was found in short QE-duration conditions; however, there was no difference between the long QE-duration conditions. Extrapolations beyond the observed QE values showed performance gains up to 2,000 ms and a shallow interval of optimality at a QE duration of about 3,000 ms...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Desmond McEwan, Bruno D Zumbo, Mark A Eys, Mark R Beauchamp
The purpose of this research was to develop a questionnaire to assess the multidimensional construct of teamwork in sport and to examine various aspects of validity related to that instrument. A preliminary questionnaire was first created, and feedback on this instrument was then obtained from a sample of team-sport athletes (n = 30) and experts in sport psychology (n = 8). A modified version of the questionnaire was then completed by 607 athletes from 48 teams, and 5 multilevel confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the structural properties of data derived from this instrument...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Itay Basevitch, Gershon Tenenbaum
The authors studied gaze behaviors in high- and intermediate-skill tennis players while they performed tennis serve returns. Participants returned 40 serves in 4 serve locations while wearing a mobile eye tracker. The ball's flight path was deconstructed into 3 distinct locations (i.e., ball before bouncing on surface, the bounce area, and ball after bouncing on surface), and gaze behaviors along with quiet-eye (QE) onset and durations were recorded. Results revealed that (a) high-skill players exhibited better return shots than their lower skill counterparts, (b) high-skill players and high-score shots were characterized by longer fixation durations on the ball at prebounce, and (c) longer QE durations were observed for high-skill players and high-score shots...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Kathleen Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Kathleen Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Brittany N Semenchuk, Shaelyn M Strachan, Michelle Fortier
Self-compassion facilitates health behavior self-regulation; few studies have examined self-compassion and exercise. This online, cross-sectional study investigated self-compassion's relationship with exercise self-regulation of an exercise setback. Adults (N = 105) who had experienced an exercise setback within the last 6 months completed baseline measures, recalled an exercise setback, and completed questionnaires assessing self-regulation in this context. Self-compassion associated with self-determined motivations and exercise goal reengagement, and negatively related to extrinsic motivations, state rumination, and negative affect...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen, Thomas Schack
A team's cognitions of interpersonally coordinated actions are a crucial component for successful team performance. Here, we present an approach to practice team action by way of imagery and examine its impact on team cognitions in long-term memory. We investigated the impact of a 4-week team action imagery intervention on futsal players' mental representations of team-level tactics. Skilled futsal players were assigned to either an imagery training group or a no imagery training control group. Participants in the imagery training group practiced four team-level tactics by imagining team actions in specific game situations for three times a week...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
We assessed the effect of an acute intense exercise bout on the adaptation and consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task in children. We also sought to assess if exercise and learning task presentation order could affect task consolidation. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) exercise before the learning task, (b) exercise after the learning task, and (c) only learning task. Baseline performance was assessed by practicing the learning task in a 0° rotation condition...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Florence-Emilie Kinnafick, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Sam O Shepherd, Oliver J Wilson, Anton J M Wagenmakers, Christopher S Shaw
Using guidance from the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance evaluation framework, we aimed to qualitatively evaluate the participant experiences of a workplace high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention. Twelve previously insufficiently active individuals (four males and eight females) were interviewed once as part of three focus groups. Perceptions of program satisfaction, barriers to and facilitators of adherence, and persistence to exercise were explored. HIIT initiates interest because of its novelty, provides a sense of accomplishment, and overcomes the barriers of perceived lack of time...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin, Kathleen Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Daniel J Brown, Rachel Arnold, Martyn Standage, David Fletcher
Although considerable research exists on performers' responses to sporting encounters, little is known about thriving in sport contexts. The current study examined if distinct response patterns existed between sport performers who thrived in competitive encounters compared with those who did not. Participants were 535 sport performers (134 women; Mage  = 23.60 years, SDage  = 8.08; Mcompeting  = 11.84 years, SDcompeting  = 7.11). Results of factor mixture analysis supported a four-profile solution comprising a thriving group (n = 146), a low-functioning group (n = 38), and two groups characterized by scores marginally above (n = 131) and below (n = 209) the sample mean...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Denver M Y Brown, Steven R Bray
Physical performance is impaired following cognitive control exertion. Incentives can ameliorate adverse carryover effects of cognitive control exertion but have not been investigated for physical endurance. This study examined the effect of monetary incentives on physical performance and muscle activation following exposure to a mentally fatiguing, cognitive control task. Participants (N = 82) performed two isometric endurance handgrip trials separated by a 12-min cognitive control manipulation using a 2 (high cognitive control [HCC]/low cognitive control [LCC]) × 2 (incentive/no incentive) design...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Timothy C Howle, James A Dimmock, Nikos Ntoumanis, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis, Cassandra Sparks, Ben Jackson
We tested the effects of advertisements about a fictitious exercise class-derived using the theoretical constructs of agency and communion-on recipients' perceptions about, and interest in, the class. The final sample consisted of 150 adults (Mage  = 44.69, SD = 15.83). Results revealed that participants who received a communal-oriented message reported significantly greater exercise task self-efficacy and more positive affective attitudes relative to those who received an agentic-oriented message. Communal (relative to agentic) messages were also indirectly responsible for greater intentions to attend the class, via more positive self-efficacy beliefs and affective attitudes...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J Smith, Nazanin Derakshan
Optimum levels of attentional control are essential to prevent athletes from experiencing performance breakdowns under pressure. The current study explored whether training attentional control using the adaptive dual n-back paradigm, designed to directly target processing efficiency of the main executive functions of working memory (WM), would result in transferrable effects on sports performance outcomes. A total of 30 tennis players were allocated to an adaptive WM training or active control group and underwent 10 days of training...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Jenna D Gilchrist, David E Conroy, Catherine M Sabiston
This study examined how experienced and anticipated pride and shame were related to time spent training and effort expended toward training the following week. Participants (N = 158, 76% women; Mage  = 35.51, SD = 10.29 years) training for a marathon/half-marathon completed a weekly online questionnaire for 5 weeks leading up to a race. In the multilevel models, time spent training was positively predicted by race proximity, age, and effort expended that week. Effort expended toward training was predicted by the current week's effort, the amount of time spent training that week, and was greater for participants who usually reported experiencing more pride than others...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
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