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Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169576/applying-the-integrated-behavior-change-model-to-understanding-physical-activity-among-older-adults-a-qualitative-study
#1
Urska Arnautovska, Frances O'Callaghan, Kyra Hamilton
We explored older adults' experiences of physical activity (PA) and related decision-making processes underlying PA. Twenty Australians (Mage= 73.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and identified themes were matched deductively within motivational, volitional, and implicit processes of the integrated behavior change model for PA. Motivational influences such as participants' time orientation towards health and perceptions of what PA should be like were frequently featured in participants' narratives...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169571/a-preliminary-exploration-of-the-application-of-self-compassion-within-the-context-of-sport-injury
#2
Zenzi Huysmans, Damien Clement
In a prospective study of collegiate athletes (N=117), the application of self-compassion within the context of sport injury was explored. Previous literature indicated that self-compassion enhances adaptive coping and well-being, and reduces anxiety in stress-provoking situations. This research suggested that it could potentially reduce the stress response and subsequent injury risk. Findings indicated that self-compassion may buffer the experience of somatic anxiety (rs=-.436,p<.01) and worry (rs=-.351,p<...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169565/tracing-how-normative-messages-may-influence-physical-activity-intention
#3
René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski, Néstor Duch-Brown
Normative messages have been shown to increase intention to do physical activity (PA). We traced how 'positive' and 'negative' normative messages influenced PA intention by comparing constructs of the model of goal-directed behaviour with descriptive norms (MGDB+DN) across control and treatment groups in an experiment. 16 to 24 year-old respondents (n=1200) in Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania were asked about their age, sex, and levels of PA before being exposed to positive and negative normative messages and completing a questionnaire with MGDB+DN scales...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033036/nonverbal-communication-of-confidence-in-soccer-referees-an-experimental-test-of-darwin-s-leakage-hypothesis
#4
Philip Furley, Geoffrey Schweizer
The goal of the present paper was to investigate whether soccer referees' nonverbal behavior (NVB) differed based on the difficulty of their decisions and whether perceivers could detect these systematic variations. On the one hand, communicating confidence via NVB is emphasized in referee training. On the other hand, it seems feasible from a theoretical point of view that particularly following relatively difficult decisions referees have problems controlling their NVB. We conducted three experiments in order to investigate into this question...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033034/understanding-the-consequences-of-newcomer-integration-processes-the-sport-team-socialization-tactics-questionnaire
#5
Alex J Benson, Mark Eys
The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (Nstudy 2 = 197; Nstudy 3 = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (Nstudy 4 = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033031/a-test-of-basic-psychological-needs-theory-in-a-physical-activity-based-program-for-underserved-youth
#6
Lindley McDavid, Meghan H McDonough, Bonnie T Blankenship, James M LeBreton
This study used a randomized controlled design to test the pathways in basic psychological needs theory where social relationships characterized by autonomy support, involvement, and structure foster psychological need satisfaction and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Participants were recruited from a physical activity-based youth program. A new staff training was implemented to manipulate the use of each interpersonal characteristic by program staff (N=24 observed), and perceptions of each interpersonal characteristic, psychological needs, hope, and self-worth in youth (N=379 surveyed pre- and post-program)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033030/kinesthetic-imagery-provides-additive-benefits-to-internal-visual-imagery-on-slalom-task-performance
#7
Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, Martin G Edwards
Recent brain imaging research demonstrates that the use of internal visual imagery (IVI) or kinesthetic imagery (KIN) activates common and distinct brain areas. In this paper we argue that combining the imagery modalities (IVI & KIN) will lead to a greater cognitive representation (with more brain areas activated), and this will cause a greater slalom-based motor performance compared to when using IVI alone. To examine this assertion, we randomly allocated 56 participants to one of three groups: IVI, IVI & KIN, or a math-control...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033024/the-thin-line-a-phenomenological-study-of-mental-toughness-and-decision-making-in-elite-high-altitude-mountaineers
#8
Lee Crust, Christian Swann, Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson
Mental toughness (MT) is a key psychological variable related to achievement in performance domains and perseverance in challenging circumstances. We sought to understand the lived-experiences of mentally tough high-altitude mountaineers, focusing primarily upon decisions to persevere or abort summit attempts. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with 14 mountaineers including guides, expedition leaders, and doctors (Mage = 44 years). A content analysis was employed to identify key themes in the data...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033023/affective-evaluations-of-exercising-the-role-of-automatic-reflective-evaluation-discrepancy
#9
Ralf Brand, Branziska Antoniewicz
Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the APE model, we measured participants' automatic evaluations of exercise, then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous three months could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033022/students-motivational-profiles-in-the-physical-education-context
#10
John Ck Wang, Alexandre Js Morin, Richard M Ryan, W C Liu
The purpose of the current study is to test Self-Determination Theory (SDT) continuum hypothesis of motivation using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). A total of 3220 school students took part in the study. We compared LPA solutions using the four motivation types versus the two higher-order dimensions to assess their degree of correspondence to SDT continuum hypothesis. To examine the concurrent validity of the profiles, we also verified their associations with three predictors (age, gender, perception of physical education teachers' autonomy-supportive behaviors) and two outcomes variables (perceived competence and intentions to be physically active)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834564/linking-narcissism-motivation-and-doping-attitudes-in-sport-a-multilevel-investigation-involving-coaches-and-athletes
#11
Doris Matosic, Nikos Ntoumanis, Ian David Boardley, Andrew Stenling, Constantine Sedikides
Research on coaching (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009) has shown that coaches can display controlling behaviors that have detrimental effects on athletes' basic psychological needs and quality of sport experiences. The current study extends this literature by considering coach narcissism as a potential antecedent of coaches' controlling behaviors. Further, the study tests a model linking coaches' (n = 59) own reports of narcissistic tendencies with athletes' (n = 493) perceptions of coach controlling behaviors, experiences of need frustration, and attitudes toward doping...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834551/an-exercise-in-resistance-inoculation-messaging-as-a-strategy-for-protecting-motivation-during-a-monotonous-and-controlling-exercise-class
#12
James A Dimmock, Marylène Gagné, Lauren Proud, Timothy C Howle, Amanda L Rebar, Ben Jackson
Sustained attention has been devoted to studying the factors that support (or thwart) individuals' enjoyment of, interest in, and value judgments regarding, their exercise activities. We employed a resistance-inducing (i.e., inoculation theory) messaging technique with the aim of protecting these desirable perceptions in the face of environmental conditions designed to undermine one's positive exercise experiences. Autonomously-motivated exercisers (N = 146, Mage = 20.57, SD = 4.02) performed a 25-minute, group-based, instructor-led exercise circuit, in which the activities were deliberately monotonous, and during which the confederate instructor acted in a disinterested, unsupportive, and critical manner...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834550/ironic-and-reinvestment-effects-in-baseball-pitching-how-information-about-an-opponent-can-influence-performance-under-pressure
#13
Rob Gray, Anders Orn, Tim Woodman
Are pressure-induced performance errors in experts associated with novice-like skill execution (as predicted by reinvestment/conscious processing theories) or expert execution towards a result that the performer typically intends to avoid (as predicted by ironic processes theory)? The present study directly compared these predictions using a baseball pitching task with two groups of experienced pitchers. One group was shown only their target while the other was shown the target and an ironic (avoid) zone. Both groups demonstrated significantly fewer target hits under pressure...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834547/moderators-of-implicit-explicit-exercise-cognition-concordance
#14
Tanya R Berry, Wendy M Rodgers, David Markland, Craig R Hall
Investigating implicit-explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance, and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032815/the-digest
#15
Rachel Arnold, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Mary Jung, Lindsay Kipp, Larkin Lamarche, Luc Martin, Kathleen Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736283/development-and-validation-of-the-adolescent-psychological-need-support-in-exercise-questionnaire
#16
Lydia G Emm-Collison, Martyn Standage, Fiona B Gillison
Grounded within self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, in press), three studies were conducted to develop and psychometrically test a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support for exercise (viz., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness): the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire (APNSEQ). In Study 1, 34 items were developed in collaboration with an expert panel. Through categorical confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, responses from 433 adolescents were used to identify the best fitting and performing items in Study 2...
October 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736282/the-quiet-eye-provides-preplanning-and-online-control-support-for-interceptive-task-performance
#17
Guoxiao Sun, Liwei Zhang, Samuel J Vine, Mark R Wilson
Longer quiet eye (QE) periods are associated with better performance across a range of targeting and interceptive tasks. However, the direction of this relationship is still unclear. The two studies presented aimed to narrow this knowledge gap by experimentally manipulating QE duration-by delaying its onset or by truncating its offset-in an aiming interceptive task. In Experiment 1, the early trajectory was occluded, causing significantly shorter QE durations and worse subsequent performance. In Experiment 2, both early and/or late trajectory were occluded...
October 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736280/participant-perceptions-of-character-concepts-in-a-physical-activity-based-positive-youth-development-program
#18
Shaina Riciputi, Meghan H McDonough, Sarah Ullrich-French
Physical activity-based positive youth development (PYD) programs often aim to foster character development. This study examined youth perspectives of character development curricula and the impact these activities have on their lives within and beyond the program. This case study examined youth from low-income families in a physical activity-based summer PYD program that integrated one character concept (respect, caring, responsibility, trust) in each of 4 weeks. Participants (N = 24) included a cross section of age, gender, ethnicity, and past program experience...
October 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736277/he-dies-he-scores-evidence-that-reminders-of-death-motivate-improved-performance-in-basketball
#19
Colin A Zestcott, Uri Lifshin, Peter Helm, Jeff Greenberg
This research applied insights from terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) to the world of sport. According to TMT, self-esteem buffers against the potential for death anxiety. Because sport allows people to attain self-esteem, reminders of death may improve performance in sport. In Study 1, a mortality salience induction led to improved performance in a "one-on-one" basketball game. In Study 2, a subtle death prime led to higher scores on a basketball shooting task, which was associated with increased task-related self-esteem...
October 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736273/transfer-of-training-after-an-organizational-intervention-in-swedish-sports-clubs-a-self-determination-theory-perspective
#20
Andreas Stenling, Susanne Tafvelin
Leadership development programs are common in sports, but seldom evaluated; hence, we have limited knowledge about what the participants actually learn and the impact these programs have on sports clubs' daily operations. The purpose of the current study was to integrate a transfer of training model with self-determination theory to understand predictors of learning and training transfer, following a leadership development program among organizational leaders in Swedish sports clubs. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that autonomous motivation and an autonomy-supportive implementation of the program positively predicted near transfer (i...
October 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
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