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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30634170/measurement-of-peripheral-dose-to-pelvic-region-and-associated-risk-for-cancer-development-after-breast-intraoperative-electron-radiation-therapy
#1
Seyed Rabie Mahdavi, Mahdieh Tutuni, Bagher Farhood, Shiva Ghasemi, Nahid Nafisi, Hamidreza Mirzaee, Soraya Ahmadi, Ahad Alizadeh
This study aimed to measure received dose to the pelvic region of patients during breast intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT). Furthermore, we compared the findings with those of external beam radiation therapy. Finally, secondary ovary and uterus cancer risks following breast IOERT were estimated. In the current study, the received dose to the pelvic surface of 18 female patients during breast IOERT boost were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-100) chips. All patients were treated with 12 Gy given in a single fraction...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30602145/studies-on-pelletized-lithium-magnesium-borate-tl-material-for-eye-lens-dosimetry
#2
C S Charubala, O Annalakshmi, S Jakathamani, M R Sankaran, B Venkatraman, M T Jose
Recent epidemiological studies in various cohorts confirm that radiation induced cataract may occur at a threshold dose as low as 0.5 Gy. ICRP has recognized the higher radiosensitivity of eye lens and recommended to reduce annual eye lens dose limit from 150 mSv to 20 mSv. Present dosimetry for eye lens is largely based on LiF based dosimeters. The present work is an attempt towards designing TL based eye lens dosimeter using near tissue equivalent lithium borate material namely lithium magnesium borate doped with terbium (LMB:Tb)...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30602144/development-of-an-aperture-type-radiation-regulator-for-shielding-against-secondary-radiation-from-x-ray-tubes-and-collimators-in-computed-tomography
#3
Bon-Yeoul Koo, Hyoun-Joong Kong
During computed tomography (CT) scans, radiation scatters in all directions, increasing radiation exposure. In this study, an aperture-type radiation regulator was developed to provide shielding against secondary radiation from the x-ray tube and collimator in CT scanning. To evaluate the usefulness of the developed aperture-type radiation regulator, 1) the spatial dose distribution within the CT room was measured, 2) the dose intensity at 1 m from the isocenter was compared, 3) the absorbed dose in nearby organs was evaluated using a human equivalent phantom, and 4) noise, CNR, and SNR were compared for assessment of image quality...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30577037/review-of-radiation-effects-in-non-human-species-in-areas-affected-by-the-kyshtym-accident
#4
Sergey Fesenko
The area affected by the Kyshtym accident in 1957 provided a unique chance to long-term field studies of radiation effects in the environment. The biological effects observed in the area varied from the deterministic lethal effects to an enhanced rate of mutations induced by radiation. The severe effects were also observed at the population and the ecosystem levels of a biological organisation. The paper provides a comprehensive review of the long-term studies of biological effects in plants and animals inhabiting the Kyshtym affect areas for more than 50 years...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30569898/increased-radiation-dose-and-projected-radiation-related-lifetime-cancer-risk-in-patients-with-obesity-due-to-projection-radiography
#5
Saeed J M Alqahtani, Richard Welbourn, Judith R Meakin, Rachel M Palfrey, Susan J Rimes, Katharine Thomson, Karen M Knapp
PURPOSE: Primarily to evaluate the radiation dose delivered to patients with obesity in projection radiography and its relationship to the patient's size. A secondary purpose is to estimate the subsequent projected radiation-related lifetime cancer risk to patients with obesity compared to normal-weight patients. METHOD AND MATERIAL: Data from 1964 patients from a bariatric clinic in the UK were reviewed with the relevant permission. 630 patients were identified to have a projection radiography history and were included in the study...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30560811/biokinetics-and-dose-assessment-after-iodine-intake-in-a-thyroidectomized-rat-model
#6
Meriem Mezaguer, Maamar Souidi, Abdelwahab Badreddine, Eric Blanchardon, Jean-Marc Bertho, Mohamed Amine Benadjaoud, Ahcène Baz, Zohra Mokrani-Lounis
Procedures using iodine 131 represent more than 90% of all therapies in nuclear medicine in Algeria. It is important to evaluate the long-term biological effects of iodine treatment on non-target organs in order to improve the patient radiation protection.
 This experimental radiotoxicology study aims to determine the biokinetic models of iodine contamination. For this purpose, two Wistar rat models, with and without thyroid, have been used to evaluate the biological half-life of iodine and then to perform a biodistribution study of iodine activity in 15 organ and tissues...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30560805/a-survey-of-pediatric-ct-doses-in-the-shanghai-metropolitan-area
#7
Heqing Lu, Wengang Wang, Bin Li, Si Sun, Haowei Zhang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate CT doses in children examinees at different ages throughout the Shanghai metropolitan area. The head and body CT dose index of 50 CT scanners were tested by phantom measurements using standard imaging protocols. The values of CTDIw, CTDIvol, and DLP were calculated and saved in a table along with the parameters of routine head and chest scans for different age groups of children and adults. The effective doses were estimated from the K-factors by age and DLP. The CTDIvol, DLP, and effective dose for MDCT in children during routine head scans were larger than those for SDCT and DDCT...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523808/kerma-conversion-factors-for-modern-glass-buildings-in-radioactively-contaminated-areas
#8
Yvonne Hinrichsen, Kasper Grann Andersson
To improve the estimation of external gamma irradiation from deposited radioactivity in urban environments a model of a modern office or residential building with glass facades was set up with eleven different building heights. Kerma conversion factors for the floors inside the building from contamination on different types of surfaces were determined by using the Monte Carlo code MCNP6 for the primary gamma energies 0.3 MeV, 0.662 MeV and 3.0 MeV and for three different environmental scenarios. The kerma conversion factors were expressed as formulas for each possible deposition area for contaminants...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523984/biokinetics-of-sup-238-sup-pu-oxides-inferences-from-bioassay-data
#9
Deepesh Poudel, Luiz Bertelli, John A Klumpp, Sara Dumit, Tom L Waters
The bioassay data collected from several workers involved in 238Pu inhalation incidents have been analyzed using the most recent biokinetic models described in Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) series of publications. Although all exposures were thought to be to 238Pu oxides, the observed urinary excretion patterns differed in different inhalation incidents. The urinary excretion from individuals involved in one of the incidents increased steadily with time peaking around 2-3 years before decreasing...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511652/formation-of-radioactive-waste-in-estonian-water-treatment-plants
#10
M Leier, M Kiisk, S Suursoo, T Vaasma, K Putk
In northern Estonia, higher levels of Ra-226 and Ra-228 concentrations give rise to problems with water treatment plants (WTPs) using Cambrian-Vendian (Cm-V) aquifer. During water treatment processes, radionuclides accumulate in the filter material to a level where the material could be classified as a radioactive material. In order to understand the scope of the problem, a nation-wide survey was carried out among the Cm-V fed treatment plants. Filter material and water samples were collected from 18 Estonian WTPs to analyse the activity concentration of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in filter materials and also the radium treatment efficiency was determined...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523929/a-european-survey-on-the-regulatory-status-for-the-estimation-of-the-effective-dose-and-the-equivalent-dose-to-the-lens-of-the-eye-when-radiation-garments-are-used
#11
Eleftheria Carinou, Robert Kollaard, Jelena Stankovic Petrovic, Merce Ginjaume
Following the proposal of the ICRP for the reduction of dose limit for the lens of the eye which has been adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Council a lot of concern has been raised about the implementation of proper dose monitoring methods defined in the national regulations and the harmonisation within European countries. EURADOS organised a survey at the end of 2017, through a web questionnaire, regarding the national dose monitoring regulations. The questions were related to: double dosimetry, algorithm for the estimation of the effective dose, methodology for the determination of the equivalent dose to the lens of the eye and structure of the national dose registry...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524082/measurement-of-uv-radiation-in-commercial-aircraft
#12
Kai Schennetten, Matthias M Meier, Markus Scheibinger
Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) is significantly higher at aviation altitudes with respect to sea level. Cockpit windshields protect pilots from UV-B radiation but studies have shown that this is not necessarily the case for UV-A radiation. This work investigates the spectral properties of several windshields under flight conditions. Only one of the investigated windshields showed good UV-A attenuation. Furthermore, the altitude dependence of UV-A irradiance behind a windshield was measured with high spatial resolution...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524057/an-evaluation-of-computed-tomography-dose-index-measurements-using-a-pencil-ionization-chamber-and-small-detectors
#13
Choirul Anam, Toshioh Fujibuchi, Freddy Haryanto, Rena Widita, Idam Arif, Geoff Dougherty
The aim of this study was to compare the values of the computed tomography dose index 100 (CTDI100) obtained using two small detectors (i.e. a small ionization chamber and a small solid state detector) with those obtained from a 100-mm pencil ionization chamber for various input CT parameters: beam width, kVp, mAs, pitch, and head-body phantom variation. The measurement of CTDI100 using the 100-mm pencil chamber was carried out in a single rotation of axial mode, while the measurement using small detectors was carried out in helical mode...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523896/effect-of-the-radiation-protective-apron-on-the-response-of-active-and-passive-personal-dosemeters-used-in-interventional-radiology-and-cardiology
#14
Mercè Ginjaume, Eleftheria Carinou, Marcin Brodecki, Isabelle Clairand, Joanna Domienik-Andrzejewska, Lukas Exner, Paolo Ferrari, Zoran Jovanović, Dragana Krstic, Sara Principi, Olivier Van Hoey, Filip Vanhavere
In fluoroscopy guided interventional procedures, workers use protective garments and often two personal dosemeters, the readings of which are used for the estimation of the effective dose; whereas the dosemeter above the protection can be used for the estimation of the equivalent dose of the lens of the eye. When a protective apron is worn the scattered field that reaches the dosemeter is different from the case where no protection is used; this study analyses the changes in the response of seven passive and eight active personal dosemeters (APDs) when they are placed above a lead or lead equivalent garment for S-Cs and x-ray diagnostic qualities...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524032/uncertainties-associated-with-assessing-ontario-uranium-miners-exposure-to-radon-daughters
#15
Garthika Navaranjan, Douglas Chambers, Patsy A Thompson, Minh Do, Colin Berriault, Paul J Villeneuve, Paul A Demers
The Ontario uranium miners study is a large (n=28 546) cohort with low levels of radon exposure relative to other miner cohorts. Multiple methods were used over time to estimate annual occupational exposure to radon daughters including: mine-specific extrapolations by mining engineers, area sampling in limited areas of the mines combined with approximate working time and lastly, consistent exposure sampling in different locations of the mine combined with workers' time cards. Nonetheless, estimating exposures involves assumptions that lead to some uncertainty in occupational exposure characterization arising from the assessment approach and variability within workplace, over time and by individual...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524002/a-simple-method-to-monitor-the-dose-rate-of-secondary-cosmic-radiation-at-altitude
#16
Frank Wissmann, Thorsten Klages
Monitoring the ambient dose equivalent rate at aviation altitudes is an ambitious task which requires sophisticated dosemeter systems and the possibility to carry out such measurements on board aircraft. A rather simple approach has been investigated in this study: soundings with weather balloons up to an altitude of 30 km. This paper summarizes the measurements carried out between 2011 and 2016. The results indicate that annual measurements 
 of the ambient dose equivalent rate at altitudes of around 20 km are a reliable tool to monitor the variation of
 the dose rate in the atmosphere owing to the solar activity...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523912/dosimetry-of-indigenously-developed-177lu-patch-source-for-surface-brachytherapy-experimental-and-monte-carlo-methods
#17
Sridhar Sahoo, Vandana Srivastava, T Palani Selvam, A K Bakshi, Rajesh Kumar, Rama Prajith, D Datta, Chinnaesakki S, S K Saxena, Yogendra Kumar, A Dash
This paper describes the evaluation of dosimetry characteristics of an in-house developed 177Lu skin patch source for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer. A 177Lu skin patch source based on Nafion-115 membrane backbone containing 3.46 ± 0.01 mCi of activity was used. Activity measurement of the patch source was based on gamma ray spectrometry using a HPGe detector. The efficiencies of the HPGe detector were fitted using an orthogonal polynomial function. The absorbed dose rate to water at 5 µm depth in water was determined using an extrapolation chamber, EBT3 Gafchromic film and compared with Monte Carlo methods...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475744/highlights-of-articles-in-this-issue
#18
(no author information available yet)
Highlights of the articles in this issue are given in the PDF file.
December 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468680/-68-ga-dota-tate-a-source-of-eye-lens-exposure-for-nuclear-medicine-department-workers
#19
M Wrzesień, Ł Albiniak
INTRODUCTION: Obtaining 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE (a radioconjugate consisting of the somatostatin analogue tyrosine-3-octreotate (Tyr3-octreotate or TATE) labelled with the positron emission tomography tracer gallium 68 Ga via the macrocyclic chelating agent dodecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA)) is a complex process and, as with any radiopharmaceutical whose basis is a short-lived radionuclide generator, it is based on a sequence of procedures beginning from the 68 Ge/68 Ga generator elution, labelling ligands with a radioisotope, dispensing doses of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE for patients and finally injection of the preparation to patients...
December 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398167/effect-of-age-related-baseline-risk-on-radiation-dose-response-for-coronary-heart-disease
#20
Shogo Horita, Tomoko Kusama, Nobuhiko Ban
We attempted to estimate the mortality risk of radiation-associated coronary heart disease (CHD) by using a model in which radiation was assumed to participate in the atherosclerotic process jointly with ageing. Model parameters were determined by fitting the Life Span Study data of atomic bomb survivors. According to the model, the excess relative risk (ERR) varies depending on the baseline risk; when applied to the death statistics of Japan and the USA, the estimated ERR was consistently higher in the Japanese population...
December 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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