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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238930/errata-internal-doses-from-radionuclides-and-their-health-effects-following-the-fukushima-accident-j-radiol-prot-2018-38-1253-68
#1
Tetsuo Ishikawa, Masaki Matsumoto, Tatsuhiko Sato, Ichiro Yamaguchi, M Kai
This article presents errata on a published article.
September 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238929/validation-of-the-mcnp6-code-for-sfr-shielding-design-analysis
#2
Tuan Quoc Tran, Sanggeol Jeong, Khang Hoang Nhat Nguyen, Hyunsuk Lee, Sooyoung Choi, Peng Zhang, Min Jae Lee, Jae-Yong Lim, Deokjung Lee
In this paper, the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo code MCNP6 for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) shielding design is studied. Shielding analysis, which ensures the radiation safety of the core design, is challenging for the Monte Carlo modeling because it is associated with large uncertainties. In order to evaluate the performance of the MCNP6 for the shielding design of the SFR, four SFR shielding benchmarks from the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) benchmark suit, i.e., JANUS Phase VIII, SDT12, EURAC_Na, and HARMO_Na were selected and analyzed...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226212/estimation-of-blood-and-bone-marrow-doses-of-thyroid-carcinoma-patients-treated-with-sup-131-sup-i-through-gamma-spectrometry
#3
Felipe Albornoz, Gloria María Díaz-Londoño, Marcia García Arencibia, Gianina Sirandoni-Riquelme
<sup>131</sup>I therapy is the treatment for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) to ablate remnant thyroid tissue after surgery. The aim of this study was to estimate the absorbed doses to the blood and bone marrow of patients with DTC using gamma spectrometry. The evaluation of the absorbed dose in blood and bone marrow is a good indicator of a patient's response and its radiological protection. The average of low activities administered (AAAL) to 10 patients was 3...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198859/synthesis-of-osl-nanophosphor-li-sub-3-sub-b-sub-7-sub-o-sub-12-sub-mn-and-its-dosimetric-properties
#4
Mini Agarwal, Asokan Kandasami, Sandeep Kumar Garg, Ekta Dhamija, Pratik Kumar
The present paper reports the structural, morphological and optical properties of nanophosphor Li3B7O12:Mn with the optimized dopant concentration 0.25 mol% and its surface modification under the irradiations of 250 keV proton beams and gamma photons for ion fluence ranging from 1 × 1013 to 6.25 × 1015 ions cm-2 and doses from 100mGy to 100Gy, respectively. This nanophosphor has been synthesised by high temperature solid state reaction method. Its optical properties are characterized by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Thermo luminescence (TL) techniques...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152408/introducing-the-concept-of-the-isodose-for-optimisation-of-decontamination-activities-in-a-radioactive-fallout-scenario
#5
Y Hinrichsen, R Finck, C Rääf, K G Andersson
In the recovery phase after a radioactive release incident, it is important to be able to focus decontamination operations on the areas that contribute most to the radiation dose. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the shielding effect of a building against radiation from various directions, also giving information on the dose contributions at various locations inside the building from specific areas outside. The concept of the isodose was developed to optimise decontamination activities, and was applied as isodose lines to define the smallest areas that lead to a certain dose reduction through decontamination of areas surrounding the building...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152407/professional-ethics-in-radiological-protection
#6
Alexander Brandl, M Tschurlovits
Professionals in the field of radiological protection from sources of ionising radiation are subject to various codes of ethics published by the professional organisations and associations representing the community of radiological scientists and practitioners. The community and its individual members accept those codes' terms and conditions, and understand the professional consequences of non-compliance. However, while those codes of ethics may be prescriptive with respect to the general understanding of "ethical behaviour" or "professional conduct" of radiological protection professionals, they often provide little guidance on an ethical decision making process when conflicting interests and intentions require professional judgment...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124199/internal-doses-from-radionuclides-and-their-health-effects-following-the-fukushima-accident
#7
Tetsuo Ishikawa, Masaki Matsumoto, Tatsuhiko Sato, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Michiaki Kai
This paper presents an overview of current internal dose estimates from the Fukushima accident, potential population specific uncertainties in these estimates are investigated, along with the relative effects of internal and external exposures. Thyroid doses were largely due to 131 I, but variations in thyroid weight and fractional uptake and retention times of 131 I in the thyroid contribute to uncertainties in thyroid dose estimates. Lower values for these parameters in the Japanese population, as compared to international reference assumptions, would lead to underestimation of doses on the basis of reference thyroid weights and overestimation of doses using reference thyroid uptake and retention times...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115815/equivalent-thicknesses-of-beam-hardening-filters-consisting-of-aluminium-copper-al-cu-and-al-gold-combinations-and-plumbiferous-acrylic-for-40-to-150-kvp-diagnostic-spectra
#8
Peter Homolka, Michael Figl
PURPOSE: Beam hardening filters used to reduce patient doses typically consist of aluminium, copper, or a combination of both. Optically transparent filters containing lead in plumbiferous acrylic became available. One vendor also uses a combination of aluminium and gold. Data is provided to compare filter thicknesses in terms of half-value layer (HVL) for clinically relevant kVp. METHODS: Equivalent filter thicknesses were defined by identical kVp and 1st HVL. Equivalent copper filter thicknesses were calculated for aluminium and typical filters found in radiographic and interventional systems...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113314/radiation-interaction-parameters-of-dosimetric-importance-for-some-commonly-used-compensators-in-imrt-using-monte-carlo-simulation-code
#9
Ashok Kumar, Ramandeep Kaur, Mengge Dong, M I Sayyed, Huseyin Ozan Tekin
Radiotherapy is one of the commonly used treatments for cancer. A compensator is a device used in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments to compensate for the irregularities of the body. One can provide more uniform distribution of dose for the treatment of tumor using compensators in IMRT to get better therapeutic outcome. A variety of compensators are used in IMRT. One high Z (cerrobend), two medium Z (brass and steel) and one low Z (lucite) compensators are selected for the present study. The mass attenuation coefficients have been computed in an energy range of 15 keV to 15 MeV using XCOM program and the Monte Carlo N-particle-5 (MCNP5) code...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089707/response-to-comments-on-j-radiol-prot-37-2017-761-779-environmental-monitoring-through-the-use-of-silica-based-tld
#10
Siti Rozaila Zahariman, M U Khandaker, Siti Fairus Abdul Sani, Siti Norbaini Sabtu, Yusoff Mohd Amin, Mohd Jamil Maah, David A Bradley
The sensitivity of a novel silica-based fibre-form thermoluminescence dosimeter is tested off-site of a rare-earths processing plant, investigating the potential for obtaining baseline measurements of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The dosimeter, a Ge-doped collapsed Photonic Crystal Fibre (PCFc) co-doped with B, has been calibrated against commercially available TLD (TLD-200 and TLD-100) using a bremsstrahlung (tube-based) x-ray source. Eight sampling sites within 1 to 20 km of the perimeter of the rare-earths facility have been identified, TLDs (silica-as well as TLD-200 and TLD-100) in each case being buried within soil at fixed depth, allowing measurements to be obtained, in this case for protracted periods of exposure of between two to eight months...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019693/influence-of-the-spect-calibration-source-position-on-the-absorbed-dose-calculation-for-131-i-nai-therapy-using-gate-simulations
#11
Samira M Carvalho, Ana P M Costa, Celso D Ramos, João H M Castelo, Sérgio Q Brunetto, Daniel A B Bonifácio
Many research groups have studied nuclear medicine image quantification to improve its accuracy in dose estimation. This work aims to evaluate the influence of the source calibration position for absorbed dose calculation for a 131 I-NaI therapy using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The calibration approach consisted of a cylindrical phantom filled with water. A cylindrical 131 I source with 361.1 ± 3.6 kBq ml-1 was positioned at the center of the phantom and its outer part. Images were acquired with 150 00 counts per projection image acquired with SPECT detector (high counts density-HCD) and 3000 counts per projection (low counts density-LCD)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095080/performance-of-radon-monitors-in-a-purpose-built-radon-chamber
#12
Marta Fuente, Daniel Rabago, Sixto Herrera, Luis Quindos, Ismael Fuente, Mark Foley, Carlos Sainz
The purpose of this paper is to benchmark several different radon monitors, by quantifying their accuracy and response time. Radon monitors with different characteristics were tested in a purpose-built radon chamber under reference conditions. The radon concentration in the chamber was controlled and maintained at a stable radon concentration of (2648 ± 85) Bq m-3 to evaluate the accuracy and precision of these monitors. The response time of the monitors was analysed for two time intervals. To assess the response time of the monitors, radon concentration was varied from a theoretical value of 0-6441 Bq m-3 and then from 6441 to 2648 Bq m-3 ...
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089709/radiation-therapy-facility-risk-analysis-in-brazil-with-sevrra-software
#13
G S Joana, M S Nogueira, E Sandrini, G Bittencourt, H Salmon, L Fairbanks, S S Fortes, C Salata, F C Teixeira, M Gonçalves
Risk assessment deals with processes, accident-initiating events, barriers and risk ratings to unveil the fragility and weakness of some processes; within this study, specifically related to radiation therapy facilities. Barriers are technical or organizational safety measures put in place to avoid, prevent, detect, control, reduce or mitigate the consequences of an accident once an initiating event has occurred. In this work, radiological risk analysis was performed for a set of 20 Brazilian radiotherapy facilities making use of the freeware sevrra risk-management software...
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073976/comment-on-radiological-protection-and-the-exposure-of-animals-as-patients-in-veterinary-medicine
#14
C H Clement
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063218/uranium-content-in-groundwater-by-laser-fluorimetry-method-validation-and-dose-assessment
#15
A Al-Muqrin, A El-Sharkawy, W M Abdellah
In this study, the total uranium concentration was determined in groundwater samples used for irrigation and/or drinking purposes and collected from private wells in Al Sharqiya region, Saudi Arabia. The uranium concentrations were measured by laser fluorimetry preceded by radiochemical treatment to eliminate the quenching effect due to the high total dissolved solids content in the groundwater samples. For method validation, some of the measured samples were analyzed for uranium isotopic activities and measured by alpha spectrometry...
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045998/validation-of-a-novel-radiation-mapping-platform-for-the-reduction-of-operator-induced-shielding-effects
#16
P G Martin, C Hutson, L Payne, D Connor, O D Payton, Y Yamashiki, T B Scott
With extensive remediation currently ongoing because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, there exists the even greater need to provide a system with which the distribution of radiation (specifically radiocesium) can be rapidly determined across extensive areas, yet at high (metre or sub-metre) spatial resolutions. Although a range of potential survey methods have been utilised (e.g. fixed-wing aircraft, helicopter, vehicular and more-recently unmanned aerial vehicle) to characterise the distribution of radiological contamination, ground-based (on-foot) methods that employ human operatives to traverse sites of interest remains one of the primary methods through which to perform routine radiological site surveys...
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019690/strategies-to-optimise-occupational-radiation-protection-in-interventional-cardiology-using-simultaneous-registration-of-patient-and-staff-doses
#17
Eliseo Vano, Roberto M Sanchez, Jose M Fernandez
The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that occupational protection and patient protection be managed in an integrated approach. This paper describes the experience and the initial results of a system able to register and to process simultaneously staff and patient doses in interventional cardiology and the practical use of this system in the optimisation of occupational exposure. The system used simultaneously collects and manages patient and staff doses for all radiation events...
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004025/implications-of-recent-epidemiologic-studies-for-the-linear-nonthreshold-model-and-radiation-protection
#18
R E Shore, H L Beck, J D Boice, E A Caffrey, S Davis, H A Grogan, F A Mettler, R J Preston, J E Till, R Wakeford, L Walsh, L T Dauer
The recently published NCRP Commentary No. 27 evaluated the new information from epidemiologic studies as to their degree of support for applying the linear nonthreshold (LNT) model of carcinogenic effects for radiation protection purposes (NCRP 2018 Implications of Recent Epidemiologic Studies for the Linear Nonthreshold Model and Radiation Protection, Commentary No. 27 (Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements)). The aim was to determine whether recent epidemiologic studies of low-LET radiation, particularly those at low doses and/or low dose rates (LD/LDR), broadly support the LNT model of carcinogenic risk or, on the contrary, demonstrate sufficient evidence that the LNT model is inappropriate for the purposes of radiation protection...
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998858/gamma-ray-spectroscopy-for-probing-highly-radioactive-items-behind-thick-shields
#19
D J S Findlay, G P Škoro, G J Burns
In favourable circumstances, including the availability of prior knowledge, a potential use of gamma-ray spectroscopy with an HPGe detector for probing highly radioactive items behind thick shields is described.
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995643/shielding-of-beta-and-bremsstrahlung-radiation-with-transparent-bi-2-o-3-b-2-o-3-teo-2-glasses-in-therapeutic-nuclear-medicine
#20
S A Tijani, Y Al-Hadeethi, Isa Sambo, F A Balogun
High-energy beta emitters (yttrium-90, strontium-89 and phosphorus-32) are nowadays increasingly used in therapeutic nuclear medicine. Beta particles and bremsstrahlung (photons produced when beta particles interact with materials) are harmful and should be shielded in order to protect the personnel and public from their harmful effects. This work determined the radiation yield, effective atomic number and range associated with the interaction of beta particles with a transparent xBi2 O3 -30B2 O3 -(70-x)TeO2 glass system (where x = 40, 50, 60 and 70 mol%) using the ESTAR database and programme; and other relevant equations...
September 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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