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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893457/core-ethical-values-of-radiological-protection-applied-to-fukushima-case-reflecting-common-morality-and-cultural-diversities
#1
Chieko Kurihara, Kunwoo Cho, Richard E Toohey
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 (TG94) to develop a publication to clarify the ethical foundations of the radiological protection system it recommends. This TG identified four core ethical values which structure the system: beneficence and non-maleficence, prudence, justice, and dignity. Since the ICRP is an international organization, its recommendations and guidance should be globally applicable and acceptable. Therefore, first this paper presents the basic principles of the ICRP radiological protection system and its core ethical values, along with a reflection on the variation of these values in Western and Eastern cultural traditions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893456/updated-effective-doses-in-radiology
#2
Jorge Vilar-Palop, José Vilar, Ildefonso Hernández-Aguado, Isabel González-Álvarez, Blanca Lumbreras
The aim of this study was to review recent literature in order to provide updated values of the typical effective doses associated with the top 20 imaging tests for adults and children and for the most widely used set of weights (ICRP60) as well as for the most recent one (ICRP103). We performed a systematic research on radiation dosimetry in radiology published from 2007 onwards through the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library Plus databases. We also included studies backed by scientific or governmental organizations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893455/patient-radiation-doses-in-paediatric-interventional-cardiology-procedures-a-review
#3
R W Harbron, S Dreuil, M-O Bernier, M S Pearce, I Thierry-Chef, C-L Chapple, H Baysson
A large number of investigations into the radiation doses from x-ray guided interventional cardiology procedures in children have been carried out in recent years. A review was conducted of these studies, gathering data on kerma area product (P KA), fluoroscopic screening time (FT), air kerma, and estimates of effective dose and organ doses. The majority of studies focus on P KA and FT with no estimation of dose to the patient. A greater than ten-fold variation in average P KA was found between different studies, even where data were stratified by patient age or weight...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893453/a-geographical-study-of-thyroid-cancer-incidence-in-north-west-england-following-the-windscale-nuclear-reactor-fire-of-1957
#4
Richard J Q McNally, Richard Wakeford, Peter W James, Nermine O Basta, Robert D Alston, Mark S Pearce, Alex T Elliott
The Windscale nuclear reactor fire at Sellafield, United Kingdom, in October 1957 led to an uncontrolled release of iodine-131 (radioactive half-life, 8 d) into the atmosphere. Contamination from the accident was most pronounced in the counties of Cumbria and Lancashire, north-west England. Radioiodine concentrates in the thyroid gland producing an excess risk of thyroid cancer, notably among those exposed as children, which persists into later life. For an initial investigation of thyroid cancer incidence in north-west England, data were obtained on cases of thyroid cancer among people born during 1929-1973 and diagnosed during 1974-2012 while resident in England, together with corresponding populations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893452/confounding-of-the-association-between-radiation-exposure-from-ct-scans-and-risk-of-leukemia-and-brain-tumors-by-cancer-susceptibility-syndromes
#5
Johanna M Meulepas, Cécile M Ronckers, Johannes Merks, Michel E Weijerman, Jay H Lubin, Michael Hauptmann
Recent studies linking radiation exposure from pediatric computed tomography (CT) to increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors lacked data to control for cancer susceptibility syndromes (CSS). These syndromes might be confounders because they are associated with an increased cancer risk and may increase the likelihood of pediatric CT scans. We identify CSS predisposing to leukemia and brain tumors through a systematic literature search and summarize prevalence and risk. Since empirical evidence is lacking in published literature on patterns of CT use for most types of CSS, we estimate confounding bias of relative risks (RR) for categories of radiation exposure based on expert opinion about patterns of CT scans among CSS patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893450/parental-wishes-for-continued-internal-radiation-contamination-screenings-in-fukushima-schoolchildren
#6
Claire Leppold, Masaharu Tsubokura, Yukio Kanazawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893448/in-field-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-ageing-and-fading-effects-on-annual-radon-concentration-measurements-for-two-different-techniques
#7
G Venoso, M Ampollini, S Antignani, C Carpentieri, F Bochicchio
Measurements covering a 1 year period are often used and required by legislation to assess the average radon concentration within a house or a workplace. This kind of long-term measurement-generally carried out with techniques based on nuclear track detectors-can be affected by a reduction in sensitivity due to ageing and fading of latent tracks during the exposure period, thus resulting in an underestimation of the actual average concentration. In order to evaluate in field conditions the ageing and fading effects on annual radon concentration measurements, two different studies in a large sample of rooms in dwellings (162) and in workplaces (432) were conducted using two different techniques (detector and track read-out system): (i) CR-39 plastics readout with a fully automated image analysis system, and (ii) LR 115 films with a spark-counter for track counting...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893444/response-to-criticism-of-the-paper-titled-non-targeted-effects-and-radiation-induced-carcinogenesis-a-review
#8
Julie Burtt, Patsy Thompson, Robert Lafrenie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893443/health-effects-of-the-windscale-pile-fire
#9
Steve Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893442/inconsistency-of-a-recently-proposed-method-for-assessing-magnetic-field-exposure-for-protection-against-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-in-occupational-situations
#10
Gernot Schmid, Rene Hirtl
A non-binding guide to practical implementation of European Directive 2013/35/EU concerning the limitation of occupational exposure against electromagnetic fields has been published recently. With regard to exposure assessment this guide proposes practically applicable assessment methods for non-uniform and non-sinusoidal environmental electric and magnetic fields, respectively. For non-sinusoidal magnetic fields in the low frequency range this guide proposes a time domain assessment (TDA) method, claimed to reduce the overestimation of exposure inherent to other assessment methods while being based on fundamental physiological principles regarding nerve stimulation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893438/communicating-the-significance-of-different-levels-of-dose
#11
G M Smith, M C Thorne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893435/non-targeted-effects-and-radiation-induced-cancer
#12
K H Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861170/monte-carlo-study-of-the-scattered-radiation-field-near-the-eyes-of-the-operator-in-interventional-procedures
#13
Paolo Ferrari, Frank Becker, Eleftheria Carinou, Vadim Chumak, Jad Farah, Zoran Jovanovic, Dragana Krstic, Artem Morgun, Sara Principi, Pedro Teles
Interventional radiology and cardiology guarantee high benefits for patients, but are known to be associated with a high level of radiation exposure of medical staff. The recently suggested decrease of the annual dose limit for the eye lens, from 150 to 20 mSv, caused a need for a reconsideration of practices ensuring sufficient protection for the lens of the eyes of medical staff. In such context the study of the scattered radiation around the operator's head could help in finding the best solutions to be adopted for the ceiling-suspended shield and lead glasses in the most common situations in interventional practices...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798410/comparison-of-the-effective-dose-rate-to-aircrew-members-using-hybrid-computational-phantoms-in-standing-and-sitting-postures
#14
M C Alves, D C Galeano, W S Santos, Choonsik Lee, Wesley E Bolch, John G Hunt, A X da Silva, A B Carvalho
Aircraft crew members are occupationally exposed to considerable levels of cosmic radiation at flight altitudes. Since aircrew (pilots and passengers) are in the sitting posture for most of the time during flight, and up to now there has been no data on the effective dose rate calculated for aircrew dosimetry in flight altitude using a sitting phantom, we therefore calculated the effective dose rate using a phantom in the sitting and standing postures in order to compare the influence of the posture on the radiation protection of aircrew members...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739409/quantitative-assessment-of-provability-of-radiation-related-cancers-considering-unavoidable-existence-of-unadjusted-risk-factors
#15
H Ogino, Y Fujimichi, M Sasaki, N Hamada, T Iwasaki, K Yoshida, T Hattori
The attribution of stochastic effects to exposure to ionizing radiation has been qualitatively discussed by introducing two distinct concepts of provability and probability. This study aims to develop a method of quantitatively assessing the provability of radiation-related cancers. To this end, the 'minimum provable dose' (MPD) was developed and applied to actual cancer mortality in Japan. The background lifetime risk of cancer mortality was calculated for the esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, lungs, skin, breasts, ovaries, bladder, and bone marrow as well as the age-specific risk coefficients reproducing those given in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739408/transit-dose-comparisons-for-60-co-and-192-ir-hdr-sources
#16
Vicent Giménez-Alventosa, Javier Vijande, Facundo Ballester, Jose Perez-Calatayud
The goal of this study is to evaluate the ambient dose due to the transit of high dose rate (HDR) (60)Co sources along a transfer tube as compared to (192)Ir ones in a realistic clinical scenario. This goal is accomplished by evaluating air-kerma differences with Monte Carlo calculations using PENELOPE2011. Scatter from both the afterloader and the patient was not taken into account. Two sources, mHDR-v2 and Flexisource Co-60, (Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal, the Netherlands) have been considered. These sources were simulated within a standard transfer tube located in an infinite air phantom...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739403/evaluation-of-mean-conversion-coefficients-from-air-kerma-to-h-10-using-secondary-and-transmitted-x-ray-spectra-in-the-diagnostic-radiology-energy-range
#17
A H Lopez Gonzales, J C Santos, L Mariano, A Tomal, P R Costa
Ambient dose equivalent H (*)(10) is an operational quantity recommended by the IAEA to establish dose constraints in area monitoring for external radiation. The direct measurement of H (*)(10) is not common due to the complexity in the calibration procedures of radiation monitors involving the use of expanded and aligned radiation fields. Therefore, conversion coefficients are used to assess H (*)(10) from the physical quantity air-kerma. Conversion coefficients published by international commissions, ICRU and ICRP, present a correlation with the radiation beam quality...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725342/hand-exposure-of-workers-in-18-f-fdg-production-centre
#18
Małgorzata Wrzesień, Łukasz Albiniak
(18)F-FDG is the most popular radiopharmaceutical used, among others, in oncological diagnostics by PET technique. The production of (18)F-FDG is a multistep process that begins by obtaining the radioisotope (18)F, and subsequently labelling the radiopharmaceutical, as well as quality control of the resulting compound. In each of these stages, the employee has contact with ionizing radiation. The production of (18)F requires the use of a cyclotron device. Currently in Poland, there are 9 centres equipped with a cyclotron for the production of positron-emitting radioisotopes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725341/source-terms-shielding-calculations-and-soil-activation-for-a-medical-cyclotron
#19
J Konheiser, B Naumann, A Ferrari, C Brachem, S E Müller
Calculations of the shielding and estimates of soil activation for a medical cyclotron are presented in this work. Based on the neutron source term from the (18)O(p,n)(18)F reaction produced by a 28 MeV proton beam, neutron and gamma dose rates outside the building were estimated with the Monte Carlo code MCNP6 (Goorley et al 2012 Nucl. Technol. 180 298-315). The neutron source term was calculated with the MCNP6 code and FLUKA (Ferrari et al 2005 INFN/TC_05/11, SLAC-R-773) code as well as with supplied data by the manufacturer...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725339/balancing-theory-and-practicality-engaging-non-ethicists-in-ethical-decision-making-related-to-radiological-protection
#20
Nicole Martinez, Daniel Wueste
This paper discusses an approach for engaging radiation protection professionals in the ethical aspects of decision-making, with discussion on how this approach fits in with the existing system of radiological protection. It explores finding common ground between ethical and scientific theory, how to present relevant moral theory in accessible language, and provides a practical framework for dealing with real-world problems. Although establishing the ethical theory behind the system of radiological protection is an important ongoing endeavour within the community, it is equally important to communicate this information in a way that is useful to non-ethicists...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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