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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398167/effect-of-age-related-baseline-risk-on-radiation-dose-response-for-coronary-heart-disease
#1
Shogo Horita, Tomoko Kusama, Nobuhiko Ban
We attempted to estimate the mortality risk of radiation-associated coronary heart disease (CHD) by using a model in which radiation was assumed to participate in the atherosclerotic process jointly with ageing. Model parameters were determined by fitting the Life Span Study data of atomic bomb survivors. According to the model, the excess relative risk (ERR) varies depending on the baseline risk; when applied to the death statistics of Japan and the USA, the estimated ERR was consistently higher in the Japanese population...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398166/large-scale-individual-thyroid-monitoring-following-nuclear-accidents-by-means-of-non-spectrometric-devices
#2
I Vilardi, G Antonacci, P Battisti, S Bortoluzzi, C-M Castellani, G M Contessa, N Di Marco, I Giardina, G Iurlaro, G La Notte, L Sperandio, S Zicari
In order to properly respond to an emergency caused by an accident in a nuclear power plant with a spread of radionuclides in the atmosphere, we propose a field procedure to perform a large-scale individual thyroid monitoring of internal contamination due to inhalation of 131 I, by means of non-spectrometric equipment, in particular dose rate meters. Specific attention is paid to the individual monitoring of children, because of the very high radiosensitivity of the child's thyroid to the carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375363/body-weight-dependent-dose-coefficients-for-adults-exposed-to-idealised-external-photon-fields
#3
Lienard A Chang, David Borrego, Choonsik Lee
In epidemiological investigations of cancer risk from occupational exposure, it is important to obtain an organ-specific dose for each cohort member for accurate risk analysis. To date, dose conversion coefficients, which convert physical dose measurement to organ dose, are only available for individuals with reference body size, which can differentially bias the estimated organ dose depending on the body mass index of cohort members. In the current study, we calculated the organ dose coefficients applicable to adult males and females with various body weights by using the Monte Carlo radiation transport technique combined with a library of body size-dependent hybrid computational phantoms exposed in six idealised irradiation geometries...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375359/reduction-of-radiation-related-anxiety-promoted-wellbeing-after-the-2011-disaster-fukushima-health-management-survey
#4
Michio Murakami, Mayumi Hirosaki, Yuriko Suzuki, Masaharu Maeda, Hirooki Yabe, Seiji Yasumura, Tetsuya Ohira
After the Fukushima disaster in 2011, affected residents experienced increased radiation-related anxiety and reduced subjective wellbeing. We investigated whether reduction of radiation-related anxiety promoted wellbeing among evacuees in Fukushima and assessed the role of mental health distress as a mediator. We used data from questionnaire surveys of evacuees in the 2011 and 2012 fiscal years (N = 34 312). We used radiation risk perception as an indicator of radiation-related anxiety and the frequency of laughter as an indicator of wellbeing...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277221/peripheral-dose-around-a-mobile-linac-for-intraoperative-radiotherapy-radiation-protection-aspects
#5
F García-Cases, J Perez-Calatayud, F Ballester, J Vijande, D Granero
The aim of this work is to analyse the scattered radiation produced by the mobile accelerator Mobetron 1000. To do so, detailed Monte Carlo simulations using two different codes, Penelope2008 and Geant4, were performed. Measurements were also done. To quantify the attenuation due to the internal structures, present in the accelerator head, on the scattered radiation produced, some of the main structural shielding in the Mobetron 1000 has been incorporated into the geometry simulation. Results are compared with measurements...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264736/dose-area-product-in-estimation-of-effective-dose-of-the-patients-undergoing-dental-cone-beam-computed-tomography-examinations
#6
Ivana Kralik, Dario Faj, Tomislav Lauc, Matko Škarica, Jelena Popić, Hrvoje Brkic
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of the effective dose and dose area product (DAP) in dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations and to propose conversion factors for estimation of effective doses of the patients using DAP. Dependence of organ doses on DAP was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different exposure geometries in Cranex3Dx CBCT device were simulated using Monte Carlo simulation and computational anthropomorphic phantom...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264732/study-of-cdte-detection-efficiency-for-medical-applications-using-geant4-based-stochastic-simulations
#7
Abdul Basit, Muhammad Tariq Siddique, Sikander Majid Mirza, Shakeel Ur Rehman, Muhammad Yousaf Hamza
Determination of detection efficiency and peak-to-total ratios have been performed for rectangular CdTe detectors for various x-ray and low energy γ-ray source configurations including parallel beams, point, and cylindrical sources. Dependence of efficiency values on axial-, off-axial- distances, detector thickness & area and source dimensions have been studied. The detector model developed in this work has been validated by comparing the MC simulated values of detector efficiency for a parallel incident beam with the available published data and good agreement has been found with discrepancies remaining within 2% throughout the energy range...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255853/estimation-of-effective-doses-from-mdct-and-cbct-imaging-of-extremities
#8
John B Ludlow, Brandon K Johnson, Marija Ivanovic
Little research has been published on the radiation burden of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in comparison with multi-row detector computed tomography (MDCT) for extremity imaging. This manuscript reports effective doses produced by standard and reduced dose imaging protocols for a 128 slice MDCT unit and a dedicated extremity imaging device using CBCT technology. Anthropomorphic phantoms with x-ray attenuation characteristics simulating adult hand-wrist, foot-ankle, and knee areas were modified to receive optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSL)...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255851/adaptive-biokinetic-modelling-of-iodine-131-in-thyroid-cancer-treatments-implications-on-individualized-internal-dosimetry
#9
Jacobo Guiu-Souto, Sara Neira Castro, Manuel Sánchez-García, Oscar López-Pouso, Miguel Pombar, Juan Pardo-Montero
Nowadays therapies involving radioiodine (I-131) represents 84% of the total metabolic treatments in Europe, according to the last report of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in relation to treatment planning for molecular radiotherapy. Last recommendations of the European Council, i.e. 2013/59/Euroatom, mandates that metabolic treatments should be planned according to the radiation doses delivered to individual patients, analogous to external beam radiotherapy. In this work, we present a novel biokinetic model for I-131 that allows obtaining realistic activity distributions for particular patients with thyroid cancer in absence of metastasis...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251707/a-novel-method-for-comparing-radiation-dose-and-image-quality-between-and-within-different-x-ray-units-in-a-series-of-hospitals
#10
Sadeq Al-Murshedi, Peter Hogg, Luis Lanca, Andrew England
OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel method for comparing radiation dose and image quality (IQ) to evaluate adult chest x-ray (CXR) imaging among several hospitals. METHODS: CDRAD 2.0 phantom was used to acquire images in eight hospitals (17 digital x-ray units) using local adult CXR protocols. IQ was represented by image quality figure inverse (IQFinv ), measured using CDRAD analyser software. Signal to noise ratio, contrast to noise ratio and conspicuity index were calculated as additional measures of IQ...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246689/rapid-detection-of-heavy-elements-in-blood-extracted-from-wounds-using-x-ray-fluorescence-analysis
#11
Yukie Izumoto, Tsugufumi Matsuyama, Manabu Mizuhira, Hitoshi Imaseki, Tsuyoshi Hamano, Yasuhiro Sakai, Yoshiyuki Oguri, Hiroshi Yoshii
In radiation emergency situations involving persons having plutonium (Pu)-contaminated wounds, rapid assessment of the degree of Pu contamination is required to determine the appropriate course of treatment. Currently, rapid on-site detection of Pu is usually performed by α-particle analysis emitted from adhesive tape peeled off the wound. However, the detection of α-particles is difficult, especially in traumatic skin lesions with oozing blood, because of the low permeability of α-particles in blood. Therefore, we focused on X-ray fluorescence analysis because X-rays pass easily through several millimetres of blood...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238930/errata-internal-doses-from-radionuclides-and-their-health-effects-following-the-fukushima-accident-j-radiol-prot-2018-38-1253-68
#12
Tetsuo Ishikawa, Masaki Matsumoto, Tatsuhiko Sato, Ichiro Yamaguchi, M Kai
This article presents errata on a published article.
September 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238929/validation-of-the-mcnp6-code-for-sfr-shielding-design-analysis
#13
Tuan Quoc Tran, Sanggeol Jeong, Khang Hoang Nhat Nguyen, Hyunsuk Lee, Sooyoung Choi, Peng Zhang, Min Jae Lee, Jae-Yong Lim, Deokjung Lee
In this paper, the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo code MCNP6 for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) shielding design is studied. Shielding analysis, which ensures the radiation safety of the core design, is challenging for the Monte Carlo modeling because it is associated with large uncertainties. In order to evaluate the performance of the MCNP6 for the shielding design of the SFR, four SFR shielding benchmarks from the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) benchmark suit, i.e., JANUS Phase VIII, SDT12, EURAC_Na, and HARMO_Na were selected and analyzed...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226212/estimation-of-blood-and-bone-marrow-doses-of-thyroid-carcinoma-patients-treated-with-131-i-through-gamma-spectrometry
#14
Felipe Albornoz-Castañeda, Gloria Díaz-Londoño, Marcia García-Arencibia, Gianina Sirandoni-Riquelme
131 I therapy is the treatment for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) to ablate remnant thyroid tissue after surgery. The aim of this study was to estimate the absorbed doses to the blood and bone marrow of patients with DTC using gamma spectrometry. The evaluation of the absorbed dose in blood and bone marrow is a good indicator of a patient's response and its radiological protection. The average of low activities administered (AAAL) to ten patients was 3.20 GBq and the average of high activities administered (AAAH) to eight patients was 4...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198859/synthesis-of-osl-nanophosphor-li-sub-3-sub-b-sub-7-sub-o-sub-12-sub-mn-and-its-dosimetric-properties
#15
Mini Agarwal, Asokan Kandasami, Sandeep Kumar Garg, Ekta Dhamija, Pratik Kumar
The present paper reports the structural, morphological and optical properties of nanophosphor Li3B7O12:Mn with the optimized dopant concentration 0.25 mol% and its surface modification under the irradiations of 250 keV proton beams and gamma photons for ion fluence ranging from 1 × 1013 to 6.25 × 1015 ions cm-2 and doses from 100mGy to 100Gy, respectively. This nanophosphor has been synthesised by high temperature solid state reaction method. Its optical properties are characterized by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Thermo luminescence (TL) techniques...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152408/introducing-the-concept-of-the-isodose-for-optimisation-of-decontamination-activities-in-a-radioactive-fallout-scenario
#16
Y Hinrichsen, R Finck, C Rääf, K G Andersson
In the recovery phase after a radioactive release incident, it is important to be able to focus decontamination operations on the areas that contribute most to the radiation dose. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the shielding effect of a building against radiation from various directions, also giving information on the dose contributions at various locations inside the building from specific areas outside. The concept of the isodose was developed to optimise decontamination activities, and was applied as isodose lines to define the smallest areas that lead to a certain dose reduction through decontamination of areas surrounding the building...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152407/professional-ethics-in-radiological-protection
#17
Alexander Brandl, M Tschurlovits
Professionals in the field of radiological protection from sources of ionising radiation are subject to various codes of ethics published by the professional organisations and associations representing the community of radiological scientists and practitioners. The community and its individual members accept those codes' terms and conditions, and understand the professional consequences of non-compliance. However, while those codes of ethics may be prescriptive with respect to the general understanding of "ethical behaviour" or "professional conduct" of radiological protection professionals, they often provide little guidance on an ethical decision making process when conflicting interests and intentions require professional judgment...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124199/internal-doses-from-radionuclides-and-their-health-effects-following-the-fukushima-accident
#18
Tetsuo Ishikawa, Masaki Matsumoto, Tatsuhiko Sato, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Michiaki Kai
This paper presents an overview of current internal dose estimates from the Fukushima accident, potential population specific uncertainties in these estimates are investigated, along with the relative effects of internal and external exposures. Thyroid doses were largely due to 131 I, but variations in thyroid weight and fractional uptake and retention times of 131 I in the thyroid contribute to uncertainties in thyroid dose estimates. Lower values for these parameters in the Japanese population, as compared to international reference assumptions, would lead to underestimation of doses on the basis of reference thyroid weights and overestimation of doses using reference thyroid uptake and retention times...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115815/equivalent-thicknesses-of-beam-hardening-filters-consisting-of-aluminium-copper-al-cu-and-al-gold-combinations-and-plumbiferous-acrylic-for-40-to-150-kvp-diagnostic-spectra
#19
Peter Homolka, Michael Figl
PURPOSE: Beam hardening filters used to reduce patient doses typically consist of aluminium, copper, or a combination of both. Optically transparent filters containing lead in plumbiferous acrylic became available. One vendor also uses a combination of aluminium and gold. Data is provided to compare filter thicknesses in terms of half-value layer (HVL) for clinically relevant kVp. METHODS: Equivalent filter thicknesses were defined by identical kVp and 1st HVL. Equivalent copper filter thicknesses were calculated for aluminium and typical filters found in radiographic and interventional systems...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113314/radiation-interaction-parameters-of-dosimetric-importance-for-some-commonly-used-compensators-in-imrt-using-monte-carlo-simulation-code
#20
Ashok Kumar, Ramandeep Kaur, Mengge Dong, M I Sayyed, Huseyin Ozan Tekin
Radiotherapy is one of the commonly used treatments for cancer. A compensator is a device used in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments to compensate for the irregularities of the body. One can provide more uniform distribution of dose for the treatment of tumor using compensators in IMRT to get better therapeutic outcome. A variety of compensators are used in IMRT. One high Z (cerrobend), two medium Z (brass and steel) and one low Z (lucite) compensators are selected for the present study. The mass attenuation coefficients have been computed in an energy range of 15 keV to 15 MeV using XCOM program and the Monte Carlo N-particle-5 (MCNP5) code...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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