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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169221/gaussian-plume-atmospheric-modelling-and-radiation-exposure-calculations-following-the-cremation-of-a-deceased-thyroid-cancer-patient-treated-with-iodine-131
#1
Phillipe J Calais
Shortly after treatment with 7200 MBq of (131)I, a thyroid cancer patient died and was subsequently cremated. Calculations of the atmospheric emissions of (131)I from the crematorium flue were performed using a standard atmospheric pollution Gaussian Plume Dispersal model. Estimates of whole-body and thyroid dose of those potentially exposed were made using OLINDA/EXM dosimetry software. Under the meteorological conditions prevalent at the time of the cremation, and depending on the actual release rate of the (131)I, the Western Australian legal limit of 3...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141582/radiation-shielding-calculation-for-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-rooms-with-an-updated-workload-survey
#2
Kai Yang, Thomas J Schultz, Xinhua Li, Bob Liu
PURPOSE: To present shielding calculations for clinical digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) rooms with updated workload data from a comprehensive survey and to provide reference shielding data for DBT rooms. METHODS: The workload survey was performed from eight clinical DBT (Hologic Selenia Dimensions) rooms at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) for the time period between 10/1/2014 and 10/1/2015. Radiation output related information tags from the DICOM header, including mAs, kVp, beam filter material and gantry angle, were extracted from a total of 310 421 clinical DBT acquisitions from the PACS database...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141579/rodes-software-for-dose-assessment-of-rats-and-mice-contaminated-with-radionuclides
#3
Maxime Locatelli, Hanane Miloudi, Gwennhael Autret, Daniel Balvay, Aurélie Desbrée, Eric Blanchardon, Jean-Marc Bertho
In order to support animal experiments of chronic radionuclides intake with realistic dosimetry, voxel-based three-dimensional computer models of mice and rats of both sexes and three ages were built from magnetic resonance imaging. Radiation transport of mono-energetic photons of 11 energies and electrons of 7 energies was simulated with MCNPX 2.6c to assess specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of energy emitted from 13 source regions and absorbed in 28 target regions. RODES software was developed to combine SAF with radiation emission spectra and user-supplied biokinetic data to calculate organ absorbed doses per nuclear transformation of radionuclides in source regions (S-factors) and for specific animal experiments with radionuclides...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118157/radon-222-in-groundwater-and-effective-dose-due-to-ingestion-and-inhalation-in-the-city-of-ibadan-nigeria
#4
Janet Ayobami Ademola, Oyebode Akanni Oyeleke
Radon concentration in groundwater collected from the eleven Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ibadan, Nigeria, was analyzed. Annual effective doses due to ingestion and inhalation of radon from the consumption of the water were determined. The arithmetic means (AMs) of radon concentration for the 11 LGAs varied from 2.18 to 76.75 Bq l(-1) with a standard deviation of 1.57 and 70.64 Bq l(-1), respectively. The geometric means (GMs) varied from 1.67 to 49.47 Bq l(-1) with geometric standard deviation of 2.22 and 3...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118156/a-review-of-uncertainties-in-radiotherapy-dose-reconstruction-and-their-impacts-on-dose-response-relationships
#5
Jérémi Vũ Bezin, Rodrigue S Allodji, Jean-Pierre Mège, Guillaume Beldjoudi, Fleur Saunier, Jean Chavaudra, Eric Deutsch, Florent de Vathaire, Valérie Bernier, Christian Carrie, Dimitri Lefkopoulos, Ibrahima Diallo
Proper understanding of the risk of radiation-induced late effects for patients receiving external photon beam radiotherapy requires the determination of reliable dose-response relationships. Although significant efforts have been devoted to improving dose estimates for the study of late effects, the most often questioned explanatory variable is still the dose. In this work, based on a literature review, we provide an in-depth description of the radiotherapy dose reconstruction process for the study of late effects...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118155/the-effects-of-human-height-and-mass-on-the-calculated-induced-electric-fields-at-50-hz-for-comparison-with-the-emf-directive-2013-35-eu
#6
R P Findlay
A worker's height and mass can significantly affect the way in which incident low frequency electric and magnetic fields are absorbed in the body. To investigate this, several anatomically realistic human models were produced for heights between 1.56 and 1.96 m and masses between 33 and 113 kg. The human models were derived from the MAXWEL surface-based phantom, the model previously used in the EMF Directive 2013/35/EU Practical Guide to demonstrate how induced electric fields in the body are calculated. Computer simulations were carried out to calculate the low frequency EMF directive exposure limit value (ELV) quantities, i...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118153/dose-coefficients-for-icrp-reference-pediatric-phantoms-exposed-to-idealised-external-gamma-fields
#7
Lienard A Chang, Steven L Simon, Timothy J Jorgensen, David A Schauer, Choonsik Lee
Organ and effective dose coefficients have been calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference pediatric phantoms externally exposed to mono-energetic photon radiation (x- and gamma-rays) from 0.01 to 20 MeV. Calculations used Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques. Organ dose coefficients, i.e., organ absorbed dose per unit air kerma (Gy/Gy), were calculated for 28 organs and tissues including the active marrow (or red bone marrow) for 10 phantoms (newborn, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, and 15 year old male and female)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118152/shielding-assessment-of-high-field-qed-experiments-at-the-eli-np-10-pw-laser-system
#8
M A Popovici, I O Mitu, Gh Căta-Danil, F Negoit Ă, C Ivan
High field quantum electrodynamics experiments will be conducted in the E6 experimental area of the Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics building. Here electrons and protons will be accelerated up to relativistic energies by multi-petawatt laser beam-target interactions. In this respect, the requirements for radiological safety measures are similar to those associated with the operation of conventional high energy accelerators. The paper presents a FLUKA simulation approach to the shielding assessment of the individual experiments...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118150/critical-aspects-of-radon-remediation-in-karst-limestone-areas-some-experiences-in-schools-of-south-italy
#9
Tiziana Tunno, Anna Paola Caricato, Manuel Fernandez, Federica Leonardi, Sabrina Tonnarini, Miriam Veschetti, Giovanni Zannoni, Rosabianca Trevisi
The final results of radon monitoring in 438 schools located in the province of Lecce (Puglia Region, South Italy) showed an average radon concentration of 215 ± 20 Bq m(-3) and that 7% of schools exceeded 500 Bq m(-3), the current Italian action level for radon in workplaces, and consequently required remedial actions. The activity described in the present paper includes the main elements of the remediation project in a subgroup of school buildings. The main radon control systems adopted were sub-slab depressurization (in 57% of schools) and the active ventilation of the crawlspace (in 21% of schools)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118149/assessment-of-the-occupational-eye-lens-dose-for-clinical-staff-in-interventional-radiology-cardiology-and-neuroradiology
#10
Artur Omar, Nils Kadesjö, Charlotta Palmgren, Maria Marteinsdottir, Tony Segerdahl, Annette Fransson
In accordance with recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the current European Basic Safety Standards has adopted a reduced occupational eye lens dose limit of 20 mSv yr(-1). The radiation safety implications of this dose limit is of concern for clinical staff that work with relatively high dose x-ray angiography and interventional radiology. Presented in this work is a thorough assessment of the occupational eye lens dose based on clinical measurements with active personal dosimeters worn by staff during various types of procedures in interventional radiology, cardiology and neuroradiology...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002056/radionulide-analyses-of-ingested-water-from-some-estuaries-within-the-coastal-area-of-akwa-ibom-state-nigeria
#11
P I Enyinna, U G Uboh
Radionuclide analyses of ingested water from three selected estuaries within the coastal areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria have been carried out. Fifteen water samples collected at strategic points from the estuaries were pre-treated and each placed on the sodium iodide NaI (Tl) -model 802 detector for 3600 s to obtain the gamma radiation count rate. The activity concentrations and other radiological risk parameters were computed. The effective dose rate of radiation due to ingested water (E.D.I.W.) ranged between 0...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002043/radiation-dose-due-to-radon-and-thoron-progeny-inhalation-in-high-level-natural-radiation-areas-of-kerala-india
#12
Yasutaka Omori, Shinji Tokonami, Sarata Kumar Sahoo, Tetsuo Ishikawa, Atsuyuki Sorimachi, Masahiro Hosoda, Hiromi Kudo, Chanis Pornnumpa, Raghu Ram K Nair, Padmavaty Amma Jayalekshmi, Paul Sebastian, Suminori Akiba
In order to evaluate internal exposure to radon and thoron, concentrations for radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were measured for 259 dwellings located in high background radiation areas (HBRAs, outdoor external dose: 3-5 mGy y(-1)) and low background radiation areas (control areas, outdoor external dose: 1 mGy y(-1)) in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India. The measurements were conducted using passive-type radon-thoron detectors and thoron progeny detectors over two six-month measurement periods from June 2010 to June 2011...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977415/practical-experiences-in-the-transfer-of-clinical-protocols-between-ct-scanners-with-different-atcm-systems
#13
Supawitoo Sookpeng, Colin J Martin, Patsuree Cheebsumon, Thanyawee Pengpan
Automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) systems to aid in optimizing dose and image noise have become standard on computed tomography (CT) scanners over the last decade. ATCM systems of the main vendors modulate tube current in slightly different ways, with some using a control parameter related to image noise (e.g. Toshiba, GE) while others use a quality reference image mAs (e.g. Siemens). The translation of clinical protocols including ATCM operation between CT scanners from different manufacturers in order to obtain similar levels of image quality with optimized exposure variables has become an important issue...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958197/awareness-of-ionizing-radiation-exposure-among-junior-doctors-and-senior-medical-students-in-radiological-investigations
#14
Elfatih Abuelhia
The awareness and knowledge of ionizing radiation exposure in radiological investigations among junior doctors and medical students were studied. The participants were year four to year six senior medical students enrolled at University of Dammam and interns in King Fahad University Hospital. The survey consisted of 22 questions designed online using the software 'QuestionPro' licensed to the University of Dammam. 100 hard copies were also distributed manually and collected. A total of 221 (88.5%) questionnaires were completed...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958195/assessment-of-radiological-protection-systems-among-diagnostic-radiology-facilities-in-north-east-india
#15
Thokchom Dewan Singh, T Jayaraman, B Arunkumar Sharma
This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941226/estimating-head-and-neck-tissue-dose-from-x-ray-scatter-to-physicians-performing-x-ray-guided-cardiovascular-procedures-a-phantom-study
#16
Kenneth A Fetterly, Beth A Schueler, Michael P Grams, Glenn M Sturchio
Physicians performing x-ray guided interventional procedures have a keen interest in radiation safety. Radiation dose to tissues and organs of the head and neck are of particular interest because they are not routinely protected by wearable radiation safety devices. This study was conducted to facilitate estimation of radiation dose to tissues of the head and neck of interventional physicians based on the dose recorded by a personal dosimeter worn on the left collar. Scatter beam qualities maximum energy and HVL were measured for 40 scatter beams emitting from an anthropomorphic patient phantom...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922832/individual-external-dose-monitoring-of-all-citizens-of-date-city-by-passive-dosimeter-5-to-51-months-after-the-fukushima-npp-accident-series-1-comparison-of-individual-dose-with-ambient-dose-rate-monitored-by-aircraft-surveys
#17
Makoto Miyazaki, Ryugo Hayano
Date (da'te) City in Fukushima Prefecture has conducted a population-wide individual dose monitoring program after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, which provides a unique and comprehensive data set of the individual doses of citizens. The purpose of this paper, the first in the series, is to establish a method for estimating effective doses based on the available ambient dose rate survey data. We thus examined the relationship between the individual external doses and the corresponding ambient doses assessed from airborne surveys...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922831/comprehensive-monte-carlo-study-of-patient-doses-from-cone-beam-ct-imaging-in-radiotherapy
#18
T E Marchant, K D Joshi
Accurate knowledge of ionizing radiation dose from cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy is important to allow concomitant risks to be estimated and for justification of imaging exposures. This study uses a Monte Carlo CBCT model to calculate imaging dose for a wide range of imaging protocols for male and female patients. The Elekta XVI CBCT system was modeled using GATE and simulated doses were validated against measurements in a water tank and thorax phantom. Imaging dose was simulated in the male and female ICRP voxel phantoms for a variety of anatomical sites and imager settings (different collimators, filters, full and partial rotation)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922829/a-methodology-to-split-the-total-cumulative-hp-10-dose-into-the-hp-10-i-doses-received-during-various-procedures-performed-by-interventional-cardiologist
#19
Joanna Domienik
The methodology describing how to split the cumulative Hp(10) dose of interventional cardiologists into Hp(10) i doses received during procedures of various types based on procedure-specific ELDO coefficients and Hp(3) doses per procedure is presented. The appropriate equations for Hp(10) i (Hp(10) for procedure type i), depending on the number of various procedure types (i  =  1 … 4) performed by a particular physician, are derived. The methodology can be applied to whole-body doses measured on the lead apron and therefore can be used for optimisation of work practices in those catheterisation labs where routine dosimeter is worn above the apron...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922828/a-new-method-of-estimation-of-dose-conversion-coefficients-for-aquatic-biota
#20
Yang Li, Jiangguo Li, Huijuan Wang, Aijun Wang
In order to develop the basis of an approach, through which we can comprehend the relationships of radiation exposures and dose, and dose and radiological effects, large numbers of dosimetric data are required. It is complex to estimate the dosimetry involved due to enormous variability of organism shapes, masses, and their natural habitats. This paper aims to develop an empirical equation, which correlates dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) with organism volume V, density ρ, source energy E and curve fitting coefficients...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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