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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004025/implications-of-recent-epidemiologic-studies-for-the-linear-nonthreshold-model-and-radiation-protection
#1
Roy Shore, Harold Beck, John D Boice, Emily Caffrey, Scott Davis, Helen Grogan, F A Mettler, R Julian Preston, John Till, Richard Wakeford, Linda Walsh, Lawrence Dauer
The recently published NCRP Commentary No. 27 evaluated the new information from epidemiologic studies as to their degree of support for applying the linear nonthreshold (LNT) model of carcinogenic effects for radiation protection purposes [1]. The aim was to determine whether recent epidemiologic studies of low-LET radiation, particularly those at low doses and/or low dose rates (LD/LDR), broadly support the LNT model of carcinogenic risk or, on the contrary, demonstrate sufficient evidence that the LNT model is inappropriate for the purposes of radiation protection...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998858/gamma-ray-spectroscopy-for-probing-highly-radioactive-items-behind-thick-shields
#2
David J S Findlay, Goran Skoro, Gordon J Burns
In favourable circumstances, including the availability of prior knowledge, a potential use of gamma-ray spectroscopy with an HPGe detector for probing highly radioactive items behind thick shields is described.
July 12, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995643/shielding-of-beta-and-bremsstrahlung-radiation-with-transparent-bi2o3-b2o3-teo2-glasses-in-therapeutic-nuclear-medicine
#3
Saheed A Tijani, Yas F Al-Hadeethi, Isa Sambo, Fatai Akintunde Balogun
High-energy beta emitters (Yttrium-90, Strontium-89 and Phosphorus-32) are nowadays increasingly used in therapeutic nuclear medicine. Beta particles and bremsstrahlung (photons produced when beta particles interact with materials) are harmful and should be shielded in order to protect the personnel and public from their harmful effects. This work determined the radiation yield, effective atomic number, range and associated with the interaction of beta particles with transparent xBi2O3-30B2O3-(70-x)TeO2 glass system (where x = 40, 50, 60 and 70 mol...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989563/automated-gas-extraction-system-for-the-handling-of-radioactive-waste-gases-from-routine-carbon-11-production
#4
Matthew Shadwell, Nikolas Paneras, Michael Izard, Emmy Hoffmann, Gary James Perkins
Radiopharmaceutical production processes have the ability to produce radioactive waste in both liquid and gases forms. Control of radioactive waste gas emissions continues to be a significant issue for radiochemistry laboratories. As these facilities are often situated within urban areas emissions must be controlled to ensure the public's safety. Various methods have been employed but most of these methods use a passive gas capture bag which is often located within the hotcell where the work is being conducted...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916399/photon-energy-readings-in-osl-dosimeter-filters-an-application-to-retrospective-dose-estimation-for-nuclear-medicine-workers
#5
Daphnée Villoing, Cari M Kitahara, Christopher Passmore, Steven L Simon, R Craig Yoder
This work investigates the applicability of using data from personal monitoring dosimeters to assess photon energies to which medical workers were exposed. Such determinations would be important for retrospective assessments of organ doses to be used in occupational radiation epidemiology studies, particularly in the absence of work history or other information regarding the energy of the radiation source. 
 
 Monthly personal dose equivalents and filter ratios under two different metallic filters contained in the Luxel+® dosimeter were collected from Landauer, Inc...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900877/challenges-assessing-radiation-risk-in-image-guided-treatments-implications-on-optimisation-of-radiological-protection
#6
Anja Almén, Charlotta Lundh, Magnus Bath
The present work explores challenges when assessing organ dose and effective dose concerning image-guided treatments. During these treatments considerable x-ray imaging is employed using technically advanced angiographic x-ray equipment. Thus, the radiation dose to organs and the related radiation risk are relatively difficult to assess. This has implications on the optimisation process, in which assessing radiation dose is one important part.
 
 In this study, endovascular aortic repair treatments (EVAR) were investigated...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893714/sudoqu-a-new-dose-assessment-methodology-for-radiological-surface-contamination
#7
Teun van Dillen, Arjan van Dijk
A new methodology has been developed for the assessment of the annual effective dose resulting from removable and fixed radiological surface contamination. It is entitled SUDOQU (SUrface DOse QUantification) and it can for instance be used to derive criteria for surface contamination related to the import of non-food consumer goods, containers and conveyances, e.g., limiting values and operational screening levels. SUDOQU imposes mass (activity)-balance equations based on radioactive decay, removal and deposition processes in indoor and outdoor environments...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882514/a-strategic-framework-for-the-development-and-enhancement-of-safety-culture-in-the-artificial-tanning-sector-in-greece
#8
Aspasia Petri, Efthymios Karabetsos
Herein, the strategic framework for the development and enhancement of safety culture in the artificial tanning sector in Greece is presented. This framework has been designed and promoted by the competent national regulatory authority, which is the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE). The aim is to ensure a common understanding regarding ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and artificial tanning among the artificial tanning professionals, the stakeholders and the general public. The strategic framework is founded on the international organizations' recommendations, the EU requirements and the relevant technical standards...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878896/neutron-flux-measurements-on-a-mock-up-of-a-storage-cask-for-high-level-nuclear-waste-using-2-5-mev-neutrons
#9
H Saurí Suárez, F Becker, A Klix, B Pang, T Döring
To store and dispose spent nuclear fuel, shielding casks are employed to reduce the emitted radiation. To evaluate the exposure of employees handling such casks, Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be employed. Nevertheless, to assess the reliability of these codes and nuclear data, experimental checks are required. In this study, a neutron generator (NG) producing neutrons of 2.5 MeV was employed to simulate neutrons produced in spent nuclear fuel. Different configurations of shielding layers of steel and polyethylene were positioned between the target of the NG and a NE-213 detector...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877193/considerations-on-the-use-of-the-terms-radiosensitivity-and-radiosusceptibility
#10
Andrzej Wojcik, Simon Bouffler, Michael Hauptmann, Preetha Rajaraman
The separate use of the terms 'radiosensitivity' and 'radiosusceptibility' has been suggested to describe variability in the risk of, respectively, adverse tissue reactions (deterministic effect) following radiotherapy and radiation-induced cancer (stochastic effect). The aim of this note is to present arguments against such distinction. We feel that it is premature to make a concrete final judgement on these definitions because of the limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying individual sensitivity to both radiation-related cancers and radiation-related tissue injury...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871999/dosimetric-and-microdosimetric-analyses-for-blood-exposed-to-reactor-derived-thermal-neutrons
#11
F Ali, J Atanackovic, C Boyer, A Festarini, J Kildea, L C Paterson, R Rogge, M Stuart, R B Richardson
Thermal neutrons are found in reactor, radiotherapy, aircraft, and space environments. The purpose of this study was to characterise the dosimetry and microdosimetry of thermal neutron exposures, using three simulation codes, as a precursor to quantitative radiobiological studies using blood samples. An irradiation line was designed employing a pyrolytic graphite crystal or-alternatively-a super mirror to expose blood samples to thermal neutrons from the National Research Universal reactor to determine radiobiological parameters...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856364/establishment-of-detailed-respiratory-tract-model-and-monte-carlo-simulation-of-radon-progeny-caused-dose
#12
Hongyu Zhu, Junli Li, Rui Qiu, Yuxi Pan, Zhen Wu, Chunyan Li, Hui Zhang
As radon is one of the most important natural radiation sources, its radiation hazard has always been a concern. α and β particles emitted by short-lived radioactive radon progeny nuclides could result in a high local dose and induce radiation damage to the respiratory tract. A detailed respiratory tract model needs to be built and dose distribution in the respiratory tract should be studied to reflect the characteristics of energy deposition caused by radon and its progeny. Therefore, in the present work, a dosimetric study was conducted on the respiratory tract and non-uniform dose distribution in the bronchial region was studied...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846179/corrigendum-direct-adjustment-for-confounding-by-smoking-reduces-radiation-related-cancer-risk-estimates-of-mortality-among-male-nuclear-workers-in-japan-1999-2010
#13
Shin'ichi Kudo, Jun'ichi Ishida, Keiko Yoshimoto, Shoichi Mizuno, Sumio Ohshima, Hiroshige Furuta, Fumiyoshi Kasagi
We found some trivial errors which might confuse reader. The errors can be identified as the following two types. 
 
 (1) The one is that misuse of "ERR" and "ERR/Sv". We denoted "Table 4 shows ERRs/Sv and 90% CIs ..." in line 7 of page 366. While we denoted "ERR and 90% CI for all cancers, excluding leukaemia, by dose category ..." in title of Table 4. The values described in Table 4 were ERR by dose category and not ERR/Sv. In addition, the explanation about the model that derived ERR by dose category is better to be added...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844249/reanalysis-of-risks-of-childhood-leukaemia-with-distance-from-overhead-power-lines-in-the-uk
#14
John Swanson, Kathryn Bunch
Our previous study of childhood leukaemia and distance to high-voltage overhead power lines in the UK has been included in an international pooled analysis. That pooled analysis used different distance categories to us, which has focussed attention on the effect of that choice. We re-analyse our previous subjects, using finer distance categories. In the 1960s and 1970s, when we principally found an elevated risk, the risk did not fall monotonically with distance from the power line but had a maximum at 100-200 m...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786616/derivation-of-new-diagnostic-reference-levels-for-neuro-paediatric-computed-tomography-examinations-in-switzerland
#15
Franca Wagner, Julie Bize, Damien Racine, Régis Le Coultre, Francis Verdun, Philipp R Trueb, Reto Treier
PURPOSE: Definition of new national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol ) and dose length product (DLP) for neuro-paediatric CT examinations depending on the medical indication. METHODS: Paediatric cranial CT data sets acquired between January 2013 and December 2016 were retrospectively collected between July 2016 and March 2017 from eight of the largest university and cantonal hospitals that perform most of the neuro-paediatric CTs in Switzerland...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786603/natural-levels-of-polonium-210-in-urine
#16
Alan Hodgson
This paper presents a review and analysis of available data on background levels of polonium-210 in urine. It was established that 819 measurements could be considered to correspond to natural background levels, excluding a large number of values identified by the original investigators as potentially due to an artificial source or due to recognised enhancement of dietary intake. Almost 550 measurements were extracted from studies reported in the literature; additional measurements were contributions of previously unpublished data by authors of more recent papers...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780037/past-and-present-work-practices-of-european-interventional-cardiologists-in-the-context-of-radiation-protection-of-the-eye-lens-results-of-the-euraloc-study
#17
Joanna Domienik-Andrzejewska, Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac, Panagiotis Askounis, Peter Covens, Octavian Dragusin, Sophie Jacob, Jad Farah, Emilio Gianicolo, Renato Padovani, Pedro Teles, Anders Widmark, Lara Struelens
This paper investigates over five decades of work practices in interventional cardiology, with an emphasis on radiation protection. The analysis is based on data from more than 400 cardiologists from various European countries recruited for a EURALOC study and collected in the period from 2014 to 2016. Information on the types of procedures performed and their annual mean number, fluoroscopy time, access site choice, x-ray units and radiation protection means used was collected using an occupational questionnaire...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769434/virtual-reality-based-adaptive-dose-assessment-method-for-arbitrary-geometries-in-nuclear-facility-decommissioning
#18
Yong-Kuo Liu, Nan Chao, Hong Xia, Min-Jun Peng, Abiodun Ayodeji
This paper presents an improved and efficient virtual reality-based adaptive dose assessment method (VRBAM) applicable to the cutting and dismantling tasks in nuclear facility decommissioning. The method combines the modeling strength of virtual reality with the flexibility of adaptive technology. The initial geometry is designed with the three-dimensional computer-aided design tools, and a hybrid model composed of cuboids and a point-cloud is generated automatically according to the virtual model of the object...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769433/medical-imaging-dose-optimisation-from-ground-up-expert-opinion-of-an-international-summit
#19
Ehsan Samei, Hannu Järvinen, Mika Kortesniemi, George Simantirakis, Charles Goh, Anthony Wallace, Eliseo Vano, Adrian Bejan, Madan Rehani, Jenia Vassileva
As in any medical intervention, there is either a known or an anticipated benefit to the patient from undergoing a medical imaging procedure. This benefit is generally significant, as demonstrated by the manner in which medical imaging has transformed clinical medicine. At the same time, when it comes to imaging that deploys ionising radiation, there is a potential associated risk from radiation. Radiation risk has been recognised as a key liability in the practice of medical imaging, creating a motivation for radiation dose optimisation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749344/usefulness-of-cancer-free-survival-in-estimating-the-lifetime-attributable-risk-of-cancer-incidence-from-radiation-exposure
#20
Songwon Seo, Dal Nim Lee, Young Woo Jin, Won Jin Lee, Sunhoo Park
Risk projection models estimating the lifetime cancer risk from radiation exposure are generally based on exposure dose, age at exposure, attained age, gender and study-population-specific factors such as baseline cancer risks and survival rates. Because such models have mostly been based on the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the baseline risks and survival rates in the target population should be considered when applying the cancer risk. The survival function used in the risk projection models that are commonly used in the radiological protection field to estimate the cancer risk from medical or occupational exposure is based on all-cause mortality...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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