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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429683/biokinetics-of-yttrium-and-comparison-with-its-geochemical-twin-holmium
#1
Richard Wayne Leggett
The transition metal yttrium (Y, atomic number 39) is chemically similar to elements in the lanthanide family (atomic numbers 57-71) and is found with the lanthanides in rare earth ores. Yttrium and the lanthanide holmium are referred to as geochemical twins because they generally show little fractionation from metamorphic or weathering processes, due to their closely similar chemical properties and nearly identical ionic radii. Extensive measurements on rocks, soils, and meteorites indicate that the Y/Ho mass concentration ratio rarely falls far from the so-called chondritic or solar system ratio of ~26...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429681/microwave-diathermy-in-physiotherapy-units-a-survey-on-spatial-and-time-heterogeneity-of-electromagnetic-field
#2
Andreas Andrikopoulos, Adam Adamopoulos, Ioannis Seimenis, Constantinos Miltiadis Koutsojannis
Microwave diathermy (MWD) is a therapeutic system that is in use for some decades now in all physiotherapy settings, according to national facility establishment regulations. Diathermy devices probably lack validity, as working time passes, introducing the need of control/reset of the device by qualified personnel, in order to maintain its effectiveness in sessions and accurately deliver the energy output the physiotherapist asks for. However, while in the field of physical therapy MWD has been a vital part for practicing the profession of physiotherapist, there is not a clear evidence of health burden due to incorrect usability...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425430/dose-assessment-from-chronic-exposure-to-industrial-norm-in-iron-ore-processing
#3
Franck Dal-Molin, Raymond Fisher, David Frost, David R Anderson, David Read
Radiological exposures due to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) can occur during a wide range of work-related activities in the mineral processing and chemical industries. However, evaluation of such exposures in industrial settings remains a difficult exercise owing inter alia to the large number of personnel, operations and plants affected; assumptions that often have to be made concerning the actual duration and frequency of exposures; the complex chemistry and radioactive disequilibria involved and typically, the paucity of historical data...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418936/deposition-and-spatial-variation-of-thoron-decay-products-in-a-thoron-experimental-house-using-the-direct-thoron-progeny-sensors
#4
R Mishra, M Joshi, O Meisenberg, S Gierl, R Prajith, S D Kanse, R Rout, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya, J Tschiersch
Experiments have been carried out using the deposition-based Direct Thoron Progeny Sensors (DTPS) in a thoron experimental house. The objective was to study the thoron decay product characteristics such as the deposition velocities, spatial variability and dependence on aerosol particle concentrations. Since the deposition velocity is an important characteristic in the calibration of the DTPS, it is very important to study its dependence on aerosol concentration in a controlled environment. At low aerosol concentration (1500 particles/cm(3)) the mean effective deposition velocity was measured to be 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418935/aluminum-vacuum-multilayer-configuration-for-spatial-high-energy-electron-shielding-via-electron-return-effects-induced-by-magnetic-field
#5
Tuo Chen, Xiaobin Tang, Feida Chen, Minxuan Ni, Hai Huang, Yun Zhang, Da Chen
Radiation shielding of high-energy electrons is critical for successful space missions. However, conventional passive shielding systems exhibit several limitations, such as heavy configuration, poor shielding ability, and strong secondary bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, an aluminum/vacuum multilayer structure was proposed based on the electron return effects induced by magnetic field. The shielding property of several configurations was evaluated by using the Monte Carlo method. Results showed that multilayer systems presented improved shielding ability to electrons, and less secondary x-ray transmissions than those of conventional systems...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418934/chromosome-analysis-in-a-case-of-a-plutonium-contaminated-wound
#6
E Janet Tawn, Gillian B Curwen, Anthony E Riddell, David C Lloyd, Elizabeth A Ainsbury
Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was undertaken over a 10 year period following an intake of plutonium through a hand wound. Frequencies of cells with unstable complex aberrations remained high throughout this time, probably reflecting direct exposure of lymphocytes as they passed plutonium which had transferred to regional lymph nodes. Analysis at the final sampling time also revealed cells with stable aberrations at a much higher frequency relative to the number of unstable cells than expected from direct exposure, and is therefore most likely to be reflecting exposure to lymphocyte precursor cells from plutonium that has become deposited on bone surfaces...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397710/comparison-of-computed-tomography-shielding-design-methods-using-radshield
#7
Matthew DeLorenzo, Kai Yang, Dee Wu, Weiyuan Wang, I Rutel
PURPOSE: To comprehensively compare four computed tomography (CT) scanner shielding design methods using RadShield, a Java-based Graphical User Interface (GUI). METHODS: RadShield, a floor plan based graphical user interface (GUI), was extended to calculate air kerma and barrier thickness using accepted methods from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the British Institute of Radiology (BIR), and a method using isodose maps, for spatially distributed points beyond user defined barriers...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253202/evaluation-of-the-shielding-in-a-treatment-room-with-an-electronic-brachytherapy-unit
#8
Blanca Ibanez-Rosello, Juan Antonio Bautista-Ballesteros, Cristian Candela-Juan, Juan Ignacio Villaescusa, Facundo Ballester, Javier Vijande, Jose Perez-Calatayud
Esteya® (Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal, The Netherlands) is an electronic brachytherapy (eBT) system based on a 69.5 kVp x-ray source and a set of collimators of 1 to 3 cm in diameter, used for treating non-melanoma skin cancer lesions. This study aims to estimate room shielding requirements for this unit. The non-primary (scattered and leakage) ambient dose equivalent rates were measured with a Berthold LB-133 monitor (Berthold Technologies, Bad Wildbad, Germany). The latter ranges from 17 mSv h(-1) at 0...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253201/a-multiple-methods-approach-radiation-associated-cataracts-and-occupational-radiation-safety-practices-in-interventionalists-in-south-africa
#9
A Rose, W I D Rae, P Chikobvu, W Marais
Ionising radiation is a modality used in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The technology has improved and resulted in lower dose exposure but there has been an escalation in the quantity of procedures, their duration and complexity. These factors have meant increased occupational radiation exposure for interventionalists. Ionising radiation exposure can have detrimental health effects and includes radiation skin burns, various carcinomas, genetic and chromosomal aberrations and cataractogenesis of the lenses of the eye...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253200/conversion-coefficients-for-h-3-%C3%AE-for-photons
#10
Rolf Behrens
In this work, conversion coefficients for the operational quantity H'(3;Ω) have been calculated for both mono-energetic photons from 2 keV to 50 MeV for angles of incidence from 0° up to 180° in steps of 15° (to complement ICRU 57) as well as for photon reference radiation qualities (to complement ISO 4037). Finally, parameters necessary to determine the influence of the air density on the conversion coefficients have been determined.
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253199/basis-for-the-icrp-s-updated-biokinetic-model-for-carbon-inhaled-as-co2
#11
Rich Leggett
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for occupational intake of radionuclides (OIR) in a series of reports called the OIR series. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP's updated biokinetic model for inhalation of radiocarbon as carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The updated model is based on biokinetic data for carbon isotopes inhaled as carbon dioxide or injected or ingested as bicarbonate [Formula: see text] The data from these studies are expected to apply equally to internally deposited (or internally produced) carbon dioxide and bicarbonate based on comparison of excretion rates for the two administered forms and the fact that carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are largely carried in a common form (CO2-H[Formula: see text] in blood...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253197/assessment-of-the-skin-dose-for-aircrew
#12
Matthias M Meier, Daniel Matthiä
Epidemiological studies are a useful instrument for investigating the influence of environmental factors on human health. In this context, the determination and quantification of the corresponding exposure is a demanding challenge. With regard to the investigation of the potential health effects in aircrew due to cosmic radiation, their occupational exposure at aviation altitudes is usually assessed in terms of the radiation protection quantity effective dose, which is stored in and available from official dose registers in many countries...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247851/innovation-technical-and-social
#13
M C Thorne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245205/icrp-international-symposium-on-the-system-of-radiological-protection-and-european-radiological-protection-research-week-10-12-october-2017-paris-france
#14
Simon Bouffler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245204/academies-outline-principles-of-good-science-publishing
#15
Richard Wakeford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245203/10-january-2017-news-release
#16
Charlene Matthewman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245202/response-to-pentreath-radiological-protection-and-the-exposure-of-animals-as-patients-in-veterinary-medicine-2016-j-radiol-prot-36-n42-5
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245196/challenges-dilemmas-and-quality-criteria-for-safety-reviews
#18
Carl Rollenhagen, Thomas Falk, Sven Ove Hansson
Five generic dilemmas shared by most safety reviews are identified, namely the complexity dilemma, the specialisation dilemma, the criteria dilemma, the independence dilemma and the ethical dilemma. These dilemmas are not always made sufficiently transparent, which may lead to a too optimistic view of what can be achieved by safety reviews. A two-dimensional characterisation of safety reviews is suggested; the dimensions are the degree of independence and the scope of the review. In conclusion ten quality criteria are proposed that can be used to cope with the dilemmas of conducting safety reviews...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245194/the-polonium-210-poisoning-of-mr-alexander-litvinenko
#19
John Harrison, Tim Fell, Rich Leggett, David Lloyd, Matthew Puncher, Mike Youngman
Mr Litvinenko died on 23 November 2006 after having been poisoned with polonium-210 on 1 November. Measurements of the polonium-210 content of post-mortem tissue samples and samples of urine and blood showed the presence of large amounts of (210)Po. Autoradiography of hair samples showed two regions of (210)Po activity, providing evidence of an earlier poisoning attempt during October 2006, resulting in absorption to blood of about one-hundredth of that estimated for 1 November. Intake by ingestion on 1 November was estimated to be around 4 GBq, assuming 10% absorption to blood, and the resulting organ doses reached estimated values that were generally in a range from about 20 Gy to over 100 Gy...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169221/gaussian-plume-atmospheric-modelling-and-radiation-exposure-calculations-following-the-cremation-of-a-deceased-thyroid-cancer-patient-treated-with-iodine-131
#20
Phillipe J Calais
Shortly after treatment with 7200 MBq of (131)I, a thyroid cancer patient died and was subsequently cremated. Calculations of the atmospheric emissions of (131)I from the crematorium flue were performed using a standard atmospheric pollution Gaussian Plume Dispersal model. Estimates of whole-body and thyroid dose of those potentially exposed were made using OLINDA/EXM dosimetry software. Under the meteorological conditions prevalent at the time of the cremation, and depending on the actual release rate of the (131)I, the Western Australian legal limit of 3...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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