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Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516892/current-situations-and-discussions-in-japan-in-relation-to-the-new-occupational-equivalent-dose-limit-for-the-lens-of-the-eye
#1
Sumi Yokoyama, Nobuyuki Hamada, Toshiyuki Hayashida, Norio Tsujimura, Hideo Tatsuzaki, Tadahiro Kurosawa, Kuniaki Nabatame, Hiroyuki Ohguchi, Kazuko Ohno, Chiyo Yamauchi-Kawaura, Takeshi Iimoto, Takeshi Ichiji, Yutaka Hotta, Satoshi Iwai, Keiichi Akahane
Since the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended reducing the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye in 2011, extensive discussions have been made in various countries. This paper reviews current situations in radiation protection of the ocular lens and discussions on the potential impact of the new lens dose limit in Japan. Topics include historical changes in the lens dose limit, current situations in occupational lens exposures (e.g., in medical workers, nuclear workers, and Fukushima nuclear power plant workers) and measurements, current status of biological studies and epidemiological studies on radiation cataracts...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510538/measuring-and-assessing-individual-external-doses-during-the-rehabilitation-phase-in-iitate-village-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#2
Wataru Naito, Motoki Uesaka, Tadahiro Kurosawa, Yujiro Kuroda
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, Iitate village was placed under an evacuation order because the level of radioactive materials drifting from the nuclear plant to the village were above a government-set level for allowing residents to live in the area. The evacuation advisory for most of the village was lifted on March 31, 2017. For displaced residents deciding whether or not to return to their homes, it is important to correctly understand and estimate the realistic individual external doses they will receive after returning to the village...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488593/towards-a-new-dose-and-dose-rate-effectiveness-factor-ddref-some-comments
#3
K H Chadwick
The aim of this article is to offer a broader, mechanism-based, analytical tool than that used by (Rühm et al 2016 Ann. ICRP 45 262-79) for the interpretation of cancer induction relationships. The article explains the limitations of this broader analytical tool and the implications of its use in view of the publications by Leuraud et al 2015 (Lancet Haematol. 2 e276-81) and Richardson et al 2015 (Br. Med. J. 351 h5359). The publication by Rühm et al 2016 (Ann. ICRP 45 262-79), which is clearly work in progress, reviews the current status of the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) as recommended by the ICRP...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488591/red-emission-phosphor-s-brightness-deterioration-by-x-ray-and-brightness-recovery-phenomenon-by-heating
#4
Masaaki Nakamura, Koichi Chida, Yohei Inaba, Ryota Kobayashi, Masayuki Zuguchi
There are no feasible real-time and direct skin dosimeters for interventional radiology. One would be available if there were x-ray phosphors that had no brightness change caused by x-ray irradiation, but the emission of the Y2O3:Eu, (Y, Gd, Eu)BO3, and YVO4:Eu phosphors investigated in our previous study was reduced by x-ray irradiation. We found that the brightness of those phosphors recovered, and the purpose of this study is to investigate their recovery phenomena. It is expected that more kinds of phosphors could be used in x-ray dosimeters if the brightness changes caused by x-rays are elucidated and prevented...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474600/estimation-of-counting-efficiencies-of-portable-nai-detector-using-monte-carlo-simulation-for-thyroid-measurement-following-nuclear-accidents
#5
Wi-Ho Ha, Jong Kyung Kim, Young-Woo Jin
Radioiodine can be released from nuclear accidents and cause internal contamination of the thyroid gland of members of the public. In thyroid measurements of the general public, the counting efficiency is very important to accurately determine thyroid activity. Here, we estimated the counting efficiencies of a portable NaI detector using Monte Carlo simulations. Two different types of neck phantoms and a 7.62×7.62 cm2 NaI detector were modeled and the counting efficiencies were calculated depending on the thyroid size and distance from the neck phantom to the detector...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429683/biokinetics-of-yttrium-and-comparison-with-its-geochemical-twin-holmium
#6
Richard Wayne Leggett
The transition metal yttrium (Y, atomic number 39) is chemically similar to elements in the lanthanide family (atomic numbers 57-71) and is found with the lanthanides in rare earth ores. Yttrium and the lanthanide holmium are referred to as geochemical twins because they generally show little fractionation from metamorphic or weathering processes, due to their closely similar chemical properties and nearly identical ionic radii. Extensive measurements on rocks, soils, and meteorites indicate that the Y/Ho mass concentration ratio rarely falls far from the so-called chondritic or solar system ratio of ~26...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429681/microwave-diathermy-in-physiotherapy-units-a-survey-on-spatial-and-time-heterogeneity-of-electromagnetic-field
#7
Andreas Andrikopoulos, Adam Adamopoulos, Ioannis Seimenis, Constantinos Miltiadis Koutsojannis
Microwave diathermy (MWD) is a therapeutic system that is in use for some decades now in all physiotherapy settings, according to national facility establishment regulations. Diathermy devices probably lack validity, as working time passes, introducing the need of control/reset of the device by qualified personnel, in order to maintain its effectiveness in sessions and accurately deliver the energy output the physiotherapist asks for. However, while in the field of physical therapy MWD has been a vital part for practicing the profession of physiotherapist, there is not a clear evidence of health burden due to incorrect usability...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425430/dose-assessment-from-chronic-exposure-to-industrial-norm-in-iron-ore-processing
#8
Franck Dal-Molin, Raymond Fisher, David Frost, David R Anderson, David Read
Radiological exposures due to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) can occur during a wide range of work-related activities in the mineral processing and chemical industries. However, evaluation of such exposures in industrial settings remains a difficult exercise owing inter alia to the large number of personnel, operations and plants affected; assumptions that often have to be made concerning the actual duration and frequency of exposures; the complex chemistry and radioactive disequilibria involved and typically, the paucity of historical data...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418936/deposition-and-spatial-variation-of-thoron-decay-products-in-a-thoron-experimental-house-using-the-direct-thoron-progeny-sensors
#9
R Mishra, M Joshi, O Meisenberg, S Gierl, R Prajith, S D Kanse, R Rout, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya, J Tschiersch
Experiments have been carried out using the deposition-based Direct Thoron Progeny Sensors (DTPS) in a thoron experimental house. The objective was to study the thoron decay product characteristics such as the deposition velocities, spatial variability and dependence on aerosol particle concentrations. Since the deposition velocity is an important characteristic in the calibration of the DTPS, it is very important to study its dependence on aerosol concentration in a controlled environment. At low aerosol concentration (1500 particles/cm(3)) the mean effective deposition velocity was measured to be 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418935/aluminum-vacuum-multilayer-configuration-for-spatial-high-energy-electron-shielding-via-electron-return-effects-induced-by-magnetic-field
#10
Tuo Chen, Xiaobin Tang, Feida Chen, Minxuan Ni, Hai Huang, Yun Zhang, Da Chen
Radiation shielding of high-energy electrons is critical for successful space missions. However, conventional passive shielding systems exhibit several limitations, such as heavy configuration, poor shielding ability, and strong secondary bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, an aluminum/vacuum multilayer structure was proposed based on the electron return effects induced by magnetic field. The shielding property of several configurations was evaluated by using the Monte Carlo method. Results showed that multilayer systems presented improved shielding ability to electrons, and less secondary x-ray transmissions than those of conventional systems...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418934/chromosome-analysis-in-a-case-of-a-plutonium-contaminated-wound
#11
E Janet Tawn, Gillian B Curwen, Anthony E Riddell, David C Lloyd, Elizabeth A Ainsbury
Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was undertaken over a 10 year period following an intake of plutonium through a hand wound. Frequencies of cells with unstable complex aberrations remained high throughout this time, probably reflecting direct exposure of lymphocytes as they passed plutonium which had transferred to regional lymph nodes. Analysis at the final sampling time also revealed cells with stable aberrations at a much higher frequency relative to the number of unstable cells than expected from direct exposure, and is therefore most likely to be reflecting exposure to lymphocyte precursor cells from plutonium that has become deposited on bone surfaces...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397710/comparison-of-computed-tomography-shielding-design-methods-using-radshield
#12
Matthew DeLorenzo, Kai Yang, Dee Wu, Weiyuan Wang, I Rutel
PURPOSE: To comprehensively compare four computed tomography (CT) scanner shielding design methods using RadShield, a Java-based Graphical User Interface (GUI). METHODS: RadShield, a floor plan based graphical user interface (GUI), was extended to calculate air kerma and barrier thickness using accepted methods from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the British Institute of Radiology (BIR), and a method using isodose maps, for spatially distributed points beyond user defined barriers...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253202/evaluation-of-the-shielding-in-a-treatment-room-with-an-electronic-brachytherapy-unit
#13
Blanca Ibanez-Rosello, Juan Antonio Bautista-Ballesteros, Cristian Candela-Juan, Juan Ignacio Villaescusa, Facundo Ballester, Javier Vijande, Jose Perez-Calatayud
Esteya® (Elekta Brachytherapy, Veenendaal, The Netherlands) is an electronic brachytherapy (eBT) system based on a 69.5 kVp x-ray source and a set of collimators of 1 to 3 cm in diameter, used for treating non-melanoma skin cancer lesions. This study aims to estimate room shielding requirements for this unit. The non-primary (scattered and leakage) ambient dose equivalent rates were measured with a Berthold LB-133 monitor (Berthold Technologies, Bad Wildbad, Germany). The latter ranges from 17 mSv h(-1) at 0...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253201/a-multiple-methods-approach-radiation-associated-cataracts-and-occupational-radiation-safety-practices-in-interventionalists-in-south-africa
#14
A Rose, W I D Rae, P Chikobvu, W Marais
Ionising radiation is a modality used in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The technology has improved and resulted in lower dose exposure but there has been an escalation in the quantity of procedures, their duration and complexity. These factors have meant increased occupational radiation exposure for interventionalists. Ionising radiation exposure can have detrimental health effects and includes radiation skin burns, various carcinomas, genetic and chromosomal aberrations and cataractogenesis of the lenses of the eye...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253200/conversion-coefficients-for-h-3-%C3%AE-for-photons
#15
Rolf Behrens
In this work, conversion coefficients for the operational quantity H'(3;Ω) have been calculated for both mono-energetic photons from 2 keV to 50 MeV for angles of incidence from 0° up to 180° in steps of 15° (to complement ICRU 57) as well as for photon reference radiation qualities (to complement ISO 4037). Finally, parameters necessary to determine the influence of the air density on the conversion coefficients have been determined.
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253199/basis-for-the-icrp-s-updated-biokinetic-model-for-carbon-inhaled-as-co2
#16
Rich Leggett
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for occupational intake of radionuclides (OIR) in a series of reports called the OIR series. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP's updated biokinetic model for inhalation of radiocarbon as carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The updated model is based on biokinetic data for carbon isotopes inhaled as carbon dioxide or injected or ingested as bicarbonate [Formula: see text] The data from these studies are expected to apply equally to internally deposited (or internally produced) carbon dioxide and bicarbonate based on comparison of excretion rates for the two administered forms and the fact that carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are largely carried in a common form (CO2-H[Formula: see text] in blood...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253197/assessment-of-the-skin-dose-for-aircrew
#17
Matthias M Meier, Daniel Matthiä
Epidemiological studies are a useful instrument for investigating the influence of environmental factors on human health. In this context, the determination and quantification of the corresponding exposure is a demanding challenge. With regard to the investigation of the potential health effects in aircrew due to cosmic radiation, their occupational exposure at aviation altitudes is usually assessed in terms of the radiation protection quantity effective dose, which is stored in and available from official dose registers in many countries...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247851/innovation-technical-and-social
#18
M C Thorne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245205/icrp-international-symposium-on-the-system-of-radiological-protection-and-european-radiological-protection-research-week-10-12-october-2017-paris-france
#19
Simon Bouffler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245204/academies-outline-principles-of-good-science-publishing
#20
Richard Wakeford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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