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International Journal of Radiation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905672/the-influence-of-ketogenic-therapy-on-the-5-r-s-of-radiobiology
#1
Rainer J Klement
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay in the treatment of solid tumors and works by inducing free radical stress in tumor cells, leading to loss of reproductive integrity. The optimal treatment strategy has to consider damage to both tumor and normal cells and is determined by five factors known as the 5 R's of radiobiology: Reoxygenation, DNA Repair, Radiosensitivity, Redistribution in the cell cycle and Repopulation. The aim of this review is (i) to present evidence that these 5 R's are strongly influenced by cellular and whole body metabolism that in turn can be modified through ketogenic therapy in form of ketogenic diets and short term fasting, and (ii) to stimulate new research into this field including some research questions deserving further study...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903625/radioprotective-activity-of-curcumin-encapsulated-liposomes-against-genotoxicity-caused-by-gamma-cobalt-60-irradiation-in-human-blood-cells
#2
Minh-Hiep Nguyen, Pham Ngoc Duy, Bingxue Dong, Thi-Huynh-Nga Nguyen, Chi-Bao Bui, Kunn Hadinoto
PURPOSE: While the radioprotective activity of curcumin against genotoxicity has been well established, its poor oral bioavailability has limited its successful clinical applications. Nanoscale formulations, including liposomes, have been demonstrated to improve curcumin bioavailability. The objective of the present work was (1) to prepare and characterize curcumin-encapsulated liposomes (i.e. size, colloidal stability, encapsulation efficiency, and payload), and (2) subsequently to evaluate their radioprotective activity against genotoxicity in human blood cells caused by Gamma Cobalt-60 irradiation...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880740/cytogenetic-monitoring-of-hospital-staff-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-optimize-protocol-considering-dna-repair-genes-variability
#3
Hajer Doukali, Ghada Ben Salah, Bochra Ben Rhouma, Mounira Hajjaji, Amel Jaouadi, Neila Belguith-Mahfouth, Mohamed-Larbi Masmoudi, Leila Ammar-Keskes, Hassen Kamoun
PURPOSE: Chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) induces a wide spectrum of DNA damages. The aim of this study was to assess the frequencies of micronucleus (MN), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and to evaluate their association with XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln and XRCC3 241 Thr/Met polymorphisms in Hospital staff occupationally exposed to IR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire followed by a cytogenetic analysis was concluded for each subject in our study...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880721/role-of-nadph-oxidase-in-radiation-induced-pro-oxidative-and-pro-inflammatory-pathways-in-mouse-brain
#4
Hyung Joon Cho, Won Hee Lee, Olivia Min Ha Hwang, William E Sonntag, Yong Woo Lee
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to investigate our hypothesis that NADPH oxidase plays a role in radiation-induced pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory environments in brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received either fractionated whole brain irradiation or sham-irradiation. The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and MCP-1, were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The protein expression levels of TNF-α, MCP-1, NOX-2 and Iba1 were detected by immunofluorescence staining...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880706/identification-of-cellular-responses-to-low-dose-radiation-by-the-profiling-of-phosphorylated-proteins-in-human-b-lymphoblast-im-9-cells
#5
Hyeon Soo Eom, Hyung Sun Park, Ga Eun You, Ji Young Kim, Seon Young Nam
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the potential for radiation-specific signaling of various LDIR-induced effects in human B-lymphoblast IM-9 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphoblast IM-9 cells were exposed to ionization radiation at 0.1 and 2 Gy using a (137)Cs γ-irradiator at a dose rate of 0.8 Gy/min. Cell viability and DNA fragmentation was determined using MTT assay and TUNEL assay at 24 hr after irradiation. Profiling of protein phosphorylation by radiation was identified using a phospho-antibody array at 4 hr after irradiation and Dataset of the profiling was analyzed by IPA...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799445/molecular-efficacy-of-radio-and-chemotherapy-sequences-from-direct-dna-damage-measurements
#6
Yanfang Dong, Yunfeng Chen, Limei Zhou, Yu Shao, Xianzhi Fu, Yi Zheng
PURPOSE: To investigate the molecular aspects of the synergy between ionizing radiation and platinum (Pt) chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) by measuring damages induced by low-energy electrons (LEE) to DNA bound to cisplatin. LEE are produced abundantly by any type of ionizing radiation and cisplatin represents a typical Pt-chemotherapeutic agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our strategy involves two parallel administrations of cisplatin and irradiation with a 4...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752783/reactive-oxygen-species-based-measurement-of-the-dependence-of-the-coulomb-nanoradiator-effect-on-proton-energy-and-atomic-z-value
#7
Seung-Jun Seo, Jae-Kun Jeon, Sung-Mi Han, Jong-Ki Kim
PURPOSE: The Coulomb nanoradiator (CNR) effect produces the dose enhancement effects from high-Z nanoparticles under irradiation with a high-energy ion beam. To gain insight into the radiation dose and biological significance of the CNR effect, the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from iron oxide or gold NPs (IONs or AuNPs, respectively) in water was investigated using traversing proton beams. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The dependence of nanoradiator-enhanced ROS production on the atomic Z value and proton energy was investigated...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738724/neighbor-effect-penumbra-dose-exposed-neighbor-cells-contribute-to-the-enhanced-survival-of-high-dose-targeted-cells
#8
Min-Ho Lee, Ki-Man Lee, Eun-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: In the last decade, new types of 'bystander effect' have been suggested by multiple research groups and have been challenged by others. In this study, we explored a new type of bystander effect, which has been defined in previous studies as the enhancement of the survival of high-dose targeted cells due to the penumbra-dose exposed neighbor cells. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, which is the most widely used treatment modality, generates local regions of gradient doses between targeted and shielded cells throughout the treatment volume; therefore, we were urged to ascertain whether the new type of effect is real and to suggest a revised treatment planning...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795608/focus-small-to-find-big-the-microbeam-story
#9
Jinhua Wu, Tom K Hei
PURPOSE: Even though the first ultraviolet microbeam was described by S. Tschachotin back in 1912, the development of sophisticated micro-irradiation facilities only began to flourish in the late 1980s. In this article, we highlight significant microbeam experiments, describe the latest microbeam irradiator configurations and critical discoveries made by using the microbeam apparatus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Modern radiological microbeams facilities are capable of producing a beam size of a few micrometers, or even tens of nanometers in size, and can deposit radiation with high precision within a cellular target...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782442/whole-body-proton-irradiation-causes-acute-damage-to-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-progenitor-and-stem-cells-in-mice
#10
Jianhui Chang, Yingying Wang, Rupak Pathak, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Tamako Jones, Xiao Wen Mao, Gregory Nelson, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
PURPOSE: Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766988/correction-to-held-and-hamada-summary-of-the-bill-morgan-memorial-symposium-part-1-biology-epidemiology-and-radiation-protection
#11
K D Held, N Hamada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764606/low-dose-radiation-induced-risk-in-spermatogenesis
#12
Hisanori Fukunaga, Karl T Butterworth, Akinari Yokoya, Takehiko Ogawa, Kevin M Prise
PURPOSE: To discuss low-dose radiation-induced risks to male fertility focusing on potential mechanisms of low-dose radiation-induced damage on spermatogenesis, epidemiological studies of environmental radiation effects on sperm parameters and transgenerational effects following exposure of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis produces mature male gametes, spermatozoa, which fertilize their counterpart female gametes, oocytes. The robust maintenance system of spermatogenesis is essential for genomic conservation; however, male fertility can be readily impacted by exposure to environmental, chemical and physical factors including ionizing radiation...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763256/cytokine-profile-of-breast-cell-lines-after-different-radiation-doses
#13
Valentina Bravatà, Luigi Minafra, Giusi Irma Forte, Francesco Paolo Cammarata, Giorgio Russo, Federica Maria Di Maggio, Giuseppa Augello, Domenico Lio, Maria Carla Gilardi
PURPOSE: Ionizing radiation (IR) treatment activates inflammatory processes causing the release of a great amount of molecules able to affect the cell survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytokine signature of conditioned medium produced by non tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A, as well as MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, after single high doses of IR in order to understand their role in high radiation response. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cytokine profile of irradiated conditioned media of MCF10A, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines treated with 9 or 23 Gy, by Luminex and ELISA analyses...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749244/radiation-protection-and-mitigation-potential-of-phenylbutyrate-delivered-via-oral-administration
#14
Alexandra C Miller, Rafael Rivas, Robert McMahon, Karvelisse Miller, Leonard Tesoro, Vilmar Villa, Daminik Yanushkevich, Paul Lison
PURPOSE: Phenylbutyrate (PB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has demonstrated radiation protection in both in vitro and in vivo models. Studies previously demonstrated that PB and other HDAC inhibitors could inhibit radiation lethality in vivo by subcutaneous (s.c) injection. The objective of this study was to test the ability of oral PB treatment to protect against or to mitigate acute gamma radiation-induced lethality in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human osteoblasts cells were used to evaluate radiation survival when PB was delivered pre- or post-radiation...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747141/biochemical-and-pathological-changes-in-the-male-rat-kidney-and-bladder-following-exposure-to-continuous-900-mhz-electromagnetic-field-on-postnatal-days-22-59
#15
Sibel Türedi, Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Tolga Mercantepe, Ersan Odacı
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect on male rat kidney and bladder tissues of exposure to 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) applied on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 21 days, were used. These were divided equally into one of three groups, control (CG), sham (SG) or EMF (EMFG). CG was not exposed to any procedure. SG rats were kept inside a cage, without being exposed to the effect of EMF, for 1 h a day on postnatal days 22-59, inclusive...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627265/atm-radiation-and-the-risk-of-second-primary-breast-cancer
#16
Jonine L Bernstein, Patrick Concannon
PURPOSE: It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with regard to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738712/diagnosis-of-human-prostate-carcinoma-cancer-stem-cells-enriched-from-du145-cell-lines-changes-with-microscopic-texture-analysis-in-radiation-and-hyperthermia-treatment-using-run-length-matrix
#17
Ali Abbasian Ardakani, Jila Rajaee, Samideh Khoei
PURPOSE: Hyperthermia and radiation have the ability to induce structural and morphological changes on both macroscopic and microscopic level. Normal and damage cells have a different texture but may be perceived by human eye, as having the same texture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore the potential of texture analysis based on run-length matrix, a total of 32 sphere images for each group and treatment regime were used in this study. Cells were subjected to the treatment with different doses of 6 MeV electron radiation (0 2, 4 and 6 Gy), hyperthermia (at 43° C in 0, 30, 60 and 90 min) and radiation + hyperthermia (at 43°C in 30 min with 2, 4 and 6 Gy dose) respectively...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722497/correction-to-wang-y-et-al-association-of-ribosomal-protein-s6-kinase-1-with-cellular-radiosensitivity-of-non-small-lung-cancer
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714761/gamma-irradiation-of-medicinally-important-plants-and-the-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolite-production
#19
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata I Shukla
PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705041/ionizing-radiation-induces-epha2-s897-phosphorylation-in-a-mek-erk-rsk-dependent-manner
#20
Paul R Graves, Shaun U Din, Mark Ashamalla, Hani Ashamalla, Thomas S K Gilbert, Lee M Graves
PURPOSE: The EphA2 tyrosine kinase is frequently overexpressed in human tumors that are also treated with radiation. However, few studies have examined the effect of radiation on the EphA2 receptor itself. The purpose of this project was to investigate the impact of radiation on EphA2 to better understand mechanisms of radioresistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell lines were exposed to X-rays and assayed for changes in EphA2 protein levels and phosphorylation over time by Western blotting...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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