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International Journal of Radiation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738724/neighbor-effect-penumbra-dose-exposed-neighbor-cells-contribute-to-the-enhanced-survival-of-high-dose-targeted-cells
#1
Min-Ho Lee, Ki-Man Lee, Eun-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: In the last decade, new types of "bystander effect" have been suggested by multiple research groups and have been challenged by others. In this study, we explored a new type of bystander effect, which has been defined in previous studies as the enhancement of the survival of high-dose targeted cells due to the penumbra-dose exposed neighbor cells. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, which is the most widely used treatment modality, generates local regions of gradient doses between targeted and shielded cells throughout the treatment volume; therefore, we were urged to ascertain whether the new type of effect is real and to suggest a revised treatment planning...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738712/diagnosis-of-human-prostate-carcinoma-cancer-stem-cells-enriched-from-du145-cell-lines-changes-with-microscopic-texture-analysis-in-radiation-and-hyperthermia-treatment-using-run-length-matrix
#2
Ali Abbasian Ardakani, Jila Rajaee, Samideh Khoei
PURPOSE: Hyperthermia and radiation have the ability to induce structural and morphological changes on both macroscopic and microscopic level. Normal and damage cells have a different texture but may be perceived by human eye, as having the same texture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore the potential of texture analysis based on run-length matrix, a total of 32 sphere images for each group and treatment regime were used in this study. Cells were subjected to the treatment with different doses of 6 MeV electron radiation (0 2, 4 and 6 Gy), hyperthermia (at 43° C in 0, 30, 60 and 90 min) and radiation + hyperthermia (at 43°C in 30 min with 2, 4 and 6 Gy dose) respectively...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722497/correction-to-wang-y-et-al-association-of-ribosomal-protein-s6-kinase-1-with-cellular-radiosensitivity-of-non-small-lung-cancer
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714761/gamma-irradiation-of-medicinally-important-plants-and-the-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolite-production
#4
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata I Shukla
PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705041/ionizing-radiation-induces-epha2-s897-phosphorylation-in-a-mek-erk-rsk-dependent-manner
#5
Paul R Graves, Shaun U Din, Mark Ashamalla, Hani Ashamalla, Thomas S K Gilbert, Lee M Graves
PURPOSE: The EphA2 tyrosine kinase is frequently overexpressed in human tumors that are also treated with radiation. However, few studies have examined the effect of radiation on the EphA2 receptor itself. The purpose of this project was to investigate the impact of radiation on EphA2 to better understand mechanisms of radioresistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell lines were exposed to X-rays and assayed for changes in EphA2 protein levels and phosphorylation over time by Western blotting...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697312/proteome-analysis-of-irradiated-endothelial-cells-reveals-persistent-alteration-in-protein-degradation-and-the-rhogdi-and-no-signalling-pathways
#6
Omid Azimzadeh, Vikram Subramanian, Susanne Ständer, Juliane Merl-Pham, Donna Lowe, Zarko Barjaktarovic, Simone Moertl, Ken Raj, Michael J Atkinson, Soile Tapio
PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies indicate that radiation doses as low as 0.5 Gy increase the risk of cardiovascular disease decades after the exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this radiation dose causes late molecular alterations in endothelial cells that could support the population-based data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells were irradiated at 0.5 Gy (X-ray) and radiation-induced changes in the proteome were investigated after different time intervals (1, 7 and 14 d) using ICPL technology...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685638/a-review-of-dosimetry-used-in-epidemiological-studies-considered-to-evaluate-the-linear-no-threshold-lnt-dose-response-model-for-radiation-protection
#7
John E Till, Harold L Beck, Helen A Grogan, Emily A Caffrey
BACKGROUND: Accurate dosimetry is key to deriving the dose response from radiation exposure in an epidemiological study. It becomes increasingly important to estimate dose as accurately as possible when evaluating low dose and low dose rate as the calculation of excess relative risk per Gray (ERR/Gy) is very sensitive to the number of excess cancers observed, and this can lead to significant errors if the dosimetry is of poor quality. By including an analysis of the dosimetry, we gain a far better appreciation of the robustness of the work from the standpoint of its value in supporting the shape of the dose response curve at low doses and low dose rates...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627318/effects-of-gamma-rays-on-the-regeneration-of-murine-hair-follicles-in-the-natural-hair-cycle
#8
Kimihiko Sugaya
PURPOSE: This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. RESULTS: The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2nd and 3rd anagen phases...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681635/estimation-of-low-dose-radiation-responsive-proteins-in-the-absence-of-genomic-instability-in-normal-human-fibroblast-cells
#9
Ji-Hye Yim, Jung Mi Yun, Ji Young Kim, Seon Young Nam, Cha Soon Kim
PURPOSE: Low-dose radiation has various biological effects such as adaptive responses, low-dose hypersensitivity, as well as beneficial effects. However, little is known about the particular proteins involved in these effects. Here, we sought to identify low-dose radiation-responsive phosphoproteins in normal fibroblast cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed genomic instability and proliferation of fibroblast cells after γ-irradiation by γ-H2AX foci and micronucleus formation analyses and BrdU incorporation assay, respectively...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657406/a-review-of-radiation-countermeasures-focusing-on-injury-specific-medicinals-and-regulatory-approval-status-part-ii-countermeasures-for-limited-indications-internalized-radionuclides-emesis-late-effects-and-agents-demonstrating-efficacy-in-large-animals-with
#10
Vijay K Singh, Melissa Garcia, Thomas M Seed
PURPOSE: The threat of a radiological/nuclear event is a critical concern for all government agencies involved in national security and public health preparedness. Countermeasures that are safe, easily administered, and effective at diminishing or eliminating adverse health effects to individuals and the overall public health impact of radiation exposure are urgently needed. Radiation countermeasures included in this three-part series have been classified under various subheadings based specifically on their developmental stages for United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657400/a-review-of-radiation-countermeasures-focusing-on-injury-specific-medicinals-and-regulatory-approval-status-part-iii-countermeasures-under-early-stages-of-development-along-with-standard-of-care-medicinal-and-procedures-not-requiring-regulatory-approval-for
#11
Vijay K Singh, Briana K Hanlon, Paola T Santiago, Thomas M Seed
PURPOSE: Terrorist attacks, with their intent to maximize psychological and economic damage as well as inflicting sickness and death on given targeted populations, are an ever-growing worldwide concern in government and public sectors as they become more frequent, violent, and sensational. If given the chance, it is likely that terrorists will use radiological or nuclear weapons. To thwart these sinister efforts, both physical and medical countermeasures against these weapons are currently being researched and developed so that they can be utilized by the first responders, military, and medical providers alike...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650707/a-review-of-radiation-countermeasures-focusing-on-injury-specific-medicinals-and-regulatory-approval-status-part-i-radiation-sub-syndromes-animal-models-and-fda-approved-countermeasures
#12
Vijay K Singh, Thomas M Seed
PURPOSE: The increasing global risk of nuclear and radiological accidents or attacks has driven renewed research interest in developing medical countermeasures to potentially injurious exposures to acute irradiation. Clinical symptoms and signs of a developing acute radiation injury, i.e. the acute radiation syndrome, are grouped into three sub-syndromes named after the dominant organ system affected, namely the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and neurovascular systems. The availability of safe and effective countermeasures against the above threats currently represents a significant unmet medical need...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649877/retrospective-cohort-study-and-biobanking-of-patients-treated-for-hemangioma-in-childhood-telomeres-as-biomarker-of-aging-and-radiation-exposure
#13
Monika Frenzel, Michelle Ricoul, Mohamed Amine Benadjaoud, Marion Bellamy, Aude Lenain, Nadia Haddy, Ibrahima Diallo, Christine Mateus, Florent de Vathaire, Laure Sabatier
PURPOSE: Cohorts allowing joint epidemiological and biological analyses are essential for radiation risk assessment. The French Hemangioma Cohort (FHC), studied within the European project EpiRadBio, is one of the rare cohorts suitable for studying the effect of low dose radiation exposure (<100 mGy at organs), with a long-term follow-up. This highly homogeneous cohort consists of healthy individuals belonging to a normal population, except for the presence of skin hemangioma (age at exposure: between 6 months and 3 years of age)...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635554/summary-of-the-bill-morgan-memorial-symposium-part-1-biology-epidemiology-and-radiation-protection
#14
Kathryn D Held, Nobuyuki Hamada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565929/effects-of-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-both-900%C3%A2-mhz-and-2100%C3%A2-mhz-electromagnetic-radiation-on-glutamate-receptor-signaling-pathway
#15
Çiğdem Gökçek-Saraç, Hakan Er, Ceren Kencebay Manas, Deniz Kantar Gok, Şükrü Özen, Narin Derin
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627265/atm-radiation-and-the-risk-of-second-primary-breast-cancer
#16
Jonine L Bernstein, Patrick Concannon
PURPOSE: It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with respect to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565963/genomic-instability-induced-in-distant-progeny-of-bystander-cells-depends-on-the-connexins-expressed-in-the-irradiated-cells
#17
Sonia M de Toledo, Manuela Buonanno, Andrew L Harris, Edouard I Azzam
PURPOSE: To examine the time window during which intercellular signaling though gap junctions mediates non-targeted (bystander) effects induced by moderate doses of ionizing radiation; and to investigate the impact of gap junction communication on genomic instability in distant progeny of bystander cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A layered cell culture system was developed to investigate the propagation of harmful effects from irradiated normal or tumor cells that express specific connexins to contiguous bystander normal human fibroblasts...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612672/introduction-to-the-bill-morgan-memorial-special-issue-on-biology-epidemiology-and-implications-for-radiation-protection
#18
Nobuyuki Hamada, Sisko Salomaa, Kathryn D Held, John D Boice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532210/the-linear-nonthreshold-lnt-model-as-used-in-radiation-protection-an-ncrp-update
#19
John D Boice
PURPOSE: The linear nonthreshold (LNT) model has been used in radiation protection for over 40 years and has been hotly debated. It relies heavily on human epidemiology, with support from radiobiology. The scientific underpinnings include NCRP Report No. 136 ('Evaluation of the Linear-Nonthreshold Dose-Response Model for Ionizing Radiation'), UNSCEAR 2000, ICRP Publication 99 (2004) and the National Academies BEIR VII Report (2006). NCRP Scientific Committee 1-25 is reviewing recent epidemiologic studies focusing on dose-response models, including threshold, and the relevance to radiation protection...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609167/hdr-brachytherapy-decreases-proliferation-rate-and-cellular-progression-of-a-radioresistant-human-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-vitro
#20
Jony M Geraldo, Sérgio Scalzo, Daniela S Reis, Thiago L Leão, Silvia Guatimosim, Luiz O Ladeira, Lídia M Andrade
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of HDR brachytherapy on cellular progression of a radioresistant human squamous cell carcinoma in vitro, based on clinical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An acrylic platform was designed to attach tissue culture flasks and assure source positioning during irradiation. At exponential phase, A431cells, a human squamous cell carcinoma, were irradiated two times up to 1100cGy. Cellular proliferation was assessed by Trypan blue exclusion assay and survival fraction was calculated by clonogenic assay...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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