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International Journal of Radiation Biology

Katia Parodi
PURPOSE: Starting from the birth of high LET radiotherapy in USA in the mid 1970s, the field has continuously evolved and to date over 20,000 patients have been treated with 12C ions worldwide. The purpose of this contribution is to review the advancements in clinical fractionated radiotherapy using high LET radiation in the last decades, with special focus on biological treatment planning. CONCLUSIONS: Along with technological developments for ion acceleration and beam delivery, progress in radiation biology and computational modeling has enabled a remarkable evolution in the planning capabilities of highly conformal, biologically optimized treatment with high LET radiation...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Maria Gomolka, Ursula Oestreicher, Ute Roessler, Daniel Samaga, David Endesfelder, Peter Lang, Klement Neumaier, Claus Belka, Markus Niemeyer, Marion Kiechle, Uwe Hasbargen, Christoph Hübener, Hans-Joachim Kirlum, Ulrike Kulka, Albert Rosenberger, Linda Walsh, Sarah Baatout, Ausra Kesminiene, Carita Lindholm
PURPOSE: Age dependent radiation sensitivity for DNA damage after in vitro blood exposure by computer tomography (CT) was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiation biomarkers (dicentrics and gammaH2AX) in blood samples of newborns, children under 5 years and adults after sham exposure (0 mGy), low dose (41 mGy) and high dose (978 mGy) in vitro CT exposure were analysed. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of dicentric induction were found for the single and combined newborns/children group compared to adults, by a factor of 1...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
M F Ibrahim, N Abdelaziz
Squalene is an eminent vital part of the synthesis of steroid hormones in the body as well as the first specific intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis that plays an essential role in normal embryogenesis. PURPOSE: The present work was designed to test the maternal and embryonic response to the modulating capacity of Squalene (0.4 mL/kg/day), when supplemented to rats from Day 1-18 of pregnancy, against the damaging consequences induced by maternal subjection to 3 Gy gamma irradiation on Day 10 post conception...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Soňa Bálentová, Eva Hajtmanová, Barbora Filová, Veronika Borbélyová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was investigate whether histopathological changes in the neurogenic region correlate with appropriate cognitive impairment in the experimental model of radiation-induced brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats randomized into sham (0 Gy) and 2 experimental groups (survived 30 and 100 days after treatment) received fractionated whole-brain irradiation (one 5Gy fraction/week for 4 weeks) with a total dose of 20 Gy of gamma rays...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mihaela Ghita, Cristian Fernandez-Palomo, Hisanori Fukunaga, Pil M Fredericia, Giuseppe Schettino, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Karl T Butterworth, Stephen J McMahon, Kevin M Prise
PURPOSE: This review follows the development of microbeam technology from the early days of single cell irradiations, to investigations of specific cellular mechanisms and to the development of new treatment modalities in vivo. A number of microbeam applications are discussed with a focus on preclinical modalities and translation towards clinical application. CONCLUSIONS: The development of radiation microbeams has been a valuable tool for the exploration of fundamental radiobiological response mechanisms...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Eric J Grant, John B Cologne, Gerald B Sharp, Hidetaka Eguchi, Richard G Stevens, Shizue Izumi, Young-Min Kim, Amy Berrington de González, Waka Ohishi, Kei Nakachi
PURPOSE: Ionizing radiation and high levels of circulating estradiol are known breast cancer carcinogens. We investigated the risk of first primary postmenopausal breast cancer in relation to the combined effects of whole-body ionizing radiation exposure and prediagnostic levels of postmenopausal sex hormones, particularly bioavailable estradiol (bE2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control study of 57 incident breast cancer cases matched with 110 controls among atomic bomb survivors...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Andrej Rusin, Colin Seymour, Carmel Mothersill
PURPOSE: To investigate biochemical pathways known to be involved in radiation response and in CFIDS to determine if there might be common underlying mechanisms leading to symptoms experienced by those accidentally or deliberately exposed to radiation and those suffering from CFIDS. If such a link were established, to suggest testable hypotheses to investigate the mechanisms with the aim of identifying new therapeutic targets. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence for involvement of the alpha-synuclein, cytochrome c oxidiase, αB-crystallin, RNase L, and lactate dehydrogenase/STAT1 pathways is strong and suggests a common underlying mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by ROS and disruption of ATP production...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Irina Raznitsyna, Polina Kulikova, Dmitry Rogatkin, Dmitry Kulikov, Oleg Bychenkov, Yuliya Chursinova, Maksim Bobrov, Alexey Glazkov
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was evaluating changes in the photosensitizer fluorescence in vivo in the radiation-induced damage area in comparison of intact areas with a simultaneous assessment of changes both in blood parameters and in histological data. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study was conducted in white outbred SHK mice (n = 21). Their right hindlimbs were irradiated with a dose of 25 Gy after the intraperitoneal injections of photosensitizer "Photosens"...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mattia Siragusa, Pil M Fredericia, Mikael Jensen, Torsten Groesser
PURPOSE: We set out to improve the accuracy of absorbed dose calculations for in-vitro measurements of the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water (HTO) for the clonogenic cell survival assay, also considering the influence of the end-of-track Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of low-energy electrons. MATERIAL & METHODS: The COmputation Of Local Electron Release (COOLER) program was adopted to investigate the cell geometry and the tritium full beta-decay spectrum impact on the S-values and subsequently on the RBE of HTO for clonogenic cell survival at similar high dose rates...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Slavisa Tubin, Mansoor M Ahmed, Seema Gupta
PURPOSE: Many cell lines with anaerobic metabolism do not show cytotoxic abscopal effect (AE) following irradiation. Further, there is no existing data on the radiation- and hypoxia (H)-induced AE. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the status of radiation-induced abscopal effect (RIAE) in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. METHODS: Lung cancer cells (A549, H460) were exposed either to hypoxia or normoxia and then irradiated (2 or 10Gy). After 24h, unirradiated hypoxic (H-CM) or normoxic (NCM) conditioned media (CM) and irradiated hypoxic (H-RCM) or normoxic (N-RCM) CM was collected...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Maedeh Hamzeh, Ramezan Ali Naeim, Arash Ghasemi, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
PURPOSE: Kidneys are exposed to ionizing radiation during radiotherapy in patients with abdominal malignancy. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of atorvastatin (ATV) against ionizing radiation-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups (10 mice per group); control, irradiation (IR), IR plus ATV (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg) and only ATV (50 mg/kg). ATV groups were received ATV for 7 days via oral gavage before exposure to IR...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Derya Öztürk Okatan, Haydar Kaya, Yüksel Aliyazıcıoğlu, Selim Demir, Serdar Çolakoğlu, Ersan Odacı
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to use histological and biochemical methods in order to evaluate changes taking place in the ovaria of rats exposed to the effect of a 900-Megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) in middle and late adolescence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four 34-day-old female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned equally into control, sham and EMF groups. EMF group rats were exposed to the effect of a 900-MHz EMF for 1 hour a day, at the same time every day between postnatal days 35 and 59, while inside an EMF cage...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Patryk Zradziński, Jolanta Karpowicz, Krzysztof Gryz
PURPOSE: The aim was to model the effects of exposure to a low or intermediate frequency electromagnetic field (LIF-EMF), characterised by the electric field induced in the body, in order to evaluate how the type of insulin needle and the way it is injected influences the exposed user of a wearable insulin pump. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Numerical models of exposure scenarios (sources of LIF-EMF, with a dominant magnetic component: 50Hz-1MHz; the insulin needle type; the way it is injected and insulin pump user) were worked out...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Valeriya N Antipova, Milena G Lomaeva, Nadezhda V Zyrina
THE PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to estimate the presence of large mtDNA deletions in brain and spleen tissues of mice four months after exposure to 2 and 5 Gy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The male BALB/c mice underwent X-ray total-body acute radiation. Four months after irradiation the mice were decapitated, and the samples of spleen and brain tissues were examined. A long-distance PCR was used to detect mtDNA deletions and their levels in samples of brain and spleen tissues...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Elizabeth Claridge Mackonis, Lauren Hammond, Ana I S Esteves, Natalka Suchowerska
PURPOSE: Cell culture studies are frequently used to evaluate the effects of cancer treatments such as radiotherapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, nanoparticle enhancement and to determine any synergies between the treatments. To achieve valid results, the absorbed dose of each therapy needs to be well known and controlled. In this study, we aim to determine the uncertainty associated to radiation exposure in different experimental conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have performed an in-depth evaluation of the absorbed dose and dose distribution that would be delivered to a cell sample when cultivated in a number of the more popular designs of culture vessels...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Ayman Khalil, Hasan Omran
PURPOSE: The effects of a low rate (100 mGy/min) fractionated whole body gamma irradiation (FWBGI) at different doses were assessed using a real time PCR technique on the expression of some target genes implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in high fat diet (HFD) Wistar rats. METHOD: HFD Wistar rats were exposed to different doses (12, 24 and 48 Gy) divided into 24 fractions (three times a week for two months), thus, the daily doses were 0...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Vladimir N Bykov, Igor S Drachev, Sergey Yu Kraev, Mikhail A Maydin, Ekaterina A Gubareva, Sergey E Pigarev, Vladimir N Anisimov, Irina A Baldueva, Elena I Fedoros, Andrey V Panchenko
PURPOSE: There remains an unmet medical need for radioprotective and mitigative agents. BP-C2 is a novel lignin-derived polyphenolic composition with ammonium molybdate, developed as radioprotector/radiomitigator. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated BP-C2 for mitigation of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). METHODS: A total-body irradiation mouse model (TBI, 4.0 - 8.0 Gy) was used in the study. RESULTS: In a 30-day survival study, performed in CBA mice, BP-C2, at a dosage of 81...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Benjamin J Blyth
PURPOSE: Despite decades of research into radiation-induced adaptive responses, where prior irradiation changes the response to subsequent irradiations, the field of radiation oncology relies upon models of tumour control that assume that each radiation therapy fraction reproduces the same effect, known as iso-effect per fraction. Can these radiobiology principles both be true, forming a paradox, or is only one of them right? Here, the apparent co-existence of these two contradictory observations is considered, examining how adaptive responses might apply in radiotherapy scenarios which are inconsistent with the majority of adaptive response experimental designs...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mark A Hill
PURPOSE: Understanding the mechanisms behind induced biological response following exposure to ionizing radiation is not only important in assessing the risk associated with human exposure, but potentially can help identify ways of improving the efficacy of radiotherapy. Over the decades, there has been much discussion on what is the key biological target for radiation action and its associated size. It was already known in the 1930s that microscopic features of radiation significantly influenced biological outcomes...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Gayle E Woloschak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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