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International Journal of Radiation Biology

Michael T Mumma, Sarah S Cohen, Jennifer L Sirko, Elizabeth D Ellis, John D Boice
PURPOSE: To present the methodology used to determine vital status and obtain cause of death within the Million Person Study of Low-Dose Health Effects (MPS). Data sources and vital status tracing techniques used to obtain vital status and cause of death for six (n=424,238 subjects) of the ~20+ cohorts under study are described. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A multistage approach using multiple sources of vital status information was used to determine vital status (or 'trace') study participants from as early as 1940 to the present...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Akbar Abbasi, Fatemeh Mirekhtiary
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the morbidity excess cancer risk (ECR) due to internal and external exposure to three category levels of natural radionuclides in soil like 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. Although the exposure rate in soil is low but effect this radiation over time can lead to cancer risk and this risk can be calculated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Natural activity concentration levels of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in soil were selected from last reports in three concentration categories including: low, medium and high levels...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
E L Hansen, O C Lind, D H Oughton, B Salbu
PURPOSE: The FIGARO low dose 60 Co gamma irradiation facility at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway, is dedicated to the study of effects on living organisms from acute or chronic ionizing radiation exposures, either alone or in combination with other stressors such as UV radiation, metals or radionuclides. Here, we present a framework of working guidelines and computer software for characterization of absorbed dose rates and accumulated doses to organisms exposed within the continuous gamma field at FIGARO...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
N Yeddanapudi, M A Clay, D P Durham, C M Hoffman, M J Homer, J M Appler
PURPOSE: In the wake of a nuclear detonation, individuals with acute radiation syndrome will be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Mathematical modeling can compare response strategies developed for real-world chaotic conditions after a nuclear blast in order to identify optimal strategies for administering effective treatment to these individuals. To maximize responders' abilities to save lives it is critical to understand how treatment efficacy is impacted by real-world conditions and levels of supportive care...
November 7, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Xiao-Dan Liu, Da-Fei Xie, Yi-Long Wang, Hua Guan, Rui-Xue Huang, Ping-Kun Zhou
PURPOSE: To identify the mRNA and lncRNA expression profiles and explore the lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks associated with the carcinogenesis induced by α-particles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEP2D, and its two malignant transformed cell lines, BERP35T-1 and BERP35T-4, were investigated. The lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles of BEP2D, BERP35T-1 and BERP35T-4 were generated. lncRNAs and mRNAs co-expression analysis was performed...
November 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Vinita Chauhan, Andrea Rowan-Carroll, Rémi Gagné, Byron Kuo, Andrew Williams, Carole L Yauk
PURPOSE: The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recently recommended reducing the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye. Based primarily on a review of epidemiological data, the absorbed dose threshold is now considered to be 0.5 Gy independent of dose-rate and severity of opacifiction, reduced from the previous threshold of 2 Gy. However, direct mechanistic evidence to support an understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of damage is still lacking...
November 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Robert P Balog, Polly Chang, Hal S Javitz, Shirley Lee, Hua Lin, Thomas Shaler, David E Cooper
PURPOSE: There is a need to rapidly triage individuals for absorbed radiation dose following a significant nuclear event. Since most exposed individuals will not have physical dosimeters, we are developing a method to assess exposure dose based on the analysis of a specific panel of blood proteins that can be easily obtained from a fingerstick blood sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In three large non-human primate (NHP) studies, animals were exposed to single acute total body doses of x-ray or gamma radiation...
November 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mohamed A Motaleb, Dina M El-Safoury, Walaa H Abd-Alla, Gehanne A S Awad, Tamer M Sakr
PURPOSE: Ifosfamide as a chemotherapeutic drug is used for the treatment of different cancer types. The purpose of this study is the preparation of 99m Tc-ifosfamide complex to be evaluated as a potential candidate for tumor imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiolabeling of ifosfamide with technetium-99m was carried out by mixing 4mg ifosfamide and 5 μg of SnCl2 .2H2 O with 400 MBq Na99m TcO4 at pH 9 for 30 min at room temperature. Computer simulation studies were performed using Accelrys Discovery Studio 2...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Yohei Fujishima, Syuki Kanahama, Shigeki Hagino, Shiori Natsubori, Hitoshi Saito, Ayaka Azumaya, Kentaro Ariyoshi, Akifumi Nakata, Kosuke Kasai, Kyogo Yamada, Yasushi Mariya, Mitsuaki A Yoshida, Tomisato Miura
PURPOSE: In order to establish suitable protocols of blood culture to obtain sufficient numbers of metaphases for dicentric chromosome assay (DCA), we have examined the effect of storage temperature, storage time, and anticoagulant type. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from five healthy donors with lithium heparin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid dipotassium salt (EDTA-2K). These samples were irradiated with X-rays at 3 Gy or sham; the samples were further divided into groups that were either stored at room temperature (RT), or 5...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jacob Bellman, Emily Wilkinson, Tyler Dant, Alec Thurman, Daniela Stricklin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the impact of accounting for age-based radiation response when estimating radiation casualties in a nuclear detonation scenario. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three nuclear device detonation scenarios were simulated using densely populated regions to compare traditional casualty estimates with age-dependent casualty estimates. Fatalities were estimated using age-based dose-response curves. The surviving population was assumed injured (requiring medical care) if their dose exceeded a lower bound, represented by the minimum dose required to cause deterministic effects, for each age group...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Vinita Chauhan, Zakaria Said, Joseph Daka, Baki Sadi, Deepti Bijlani, Francesco Marchetti, Danielle Beaton, Adelene Gaw, Chunsheng Li, Julie Burtt, Julie Leblanc, Marc Desrosiers, Marilyne Stuart, Mathieu Brossard, Ngoc Q Vuong, Ruth Wilkins, Sami Qutob, James McNamee, Yi Wang, Carole Yauk
PURPOSE: In 2012, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) formally launched the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Programme. The AOP framework has the potential for predictive utility in identifying early biological endpoints linked to adverse effects. It uses the weight of correlative evidence to identify a minimal set of measurable key events that link molecular initiating events to an adverse outcome. AOPs have the capability to identify knowledge gaps and priority areas for future research based on relevance to an adverse outcome...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Qibin Fu, Jing Wang, Tuchen Huang
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy works by generating large amounts of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are the principal cause of tumor radioresistance. Therefore, investigating the dynamics and mechanisms of DNA damage response in CSCs is of great importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 stably transfected with 53BP1-GFP was used to investigate the real-time cellular response to DSBs induced by γ-rays. HT1080 CSCs were sorted based on aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) levels by flow cytometry and verified by mammosphere formation assay...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Edwin S Iversen, Janice M McCarthy, Kirsten Bell Burdett, Gary Lipton, Gary Phillips, Holly Dressman, Joel Ross, Nelson Chao
PURPOSE: Design and characterization of a radiation biodosimetry device are complicated by the fact that the requisite data are not available in the intended use population, namely humans exposed to a single, whole-body radiation dose. Instead, one must turn to model systems. We discuss our studies utilizing healthy, unexposed humans, human bone marrow transplant patients undergoing total body irradiation (TBI), non-human primates subjected to the same irradiation regimen received by the human TBI patients and NHPs given a single, whole-body dose of ionizing radiation...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Stephanie E Combs, Carmen Kessel, Pascal O Berberat, Michael J Atkinson
PURPOSE: We assessed students' expectations to a full two-year Master of Science course regarding workload, extracurricular activities, learning methods, and career plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was handed out to all students in the MSc radiation biology course. Questions evaluated the time for study and lectures expected a desire for specific teaching and testing formats, expectations from extracurricular activities as well as the motivation to study the subject and the future career plans...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
S G R Barnard, J Moquet, S Lloyd, M Ellender, E A Ainsbury, R A Quinlan
PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence regarding the radiosensitivity of the lens of the eye and radiation cataract development has led to changes in the EU Basic Safety Standards for protection of the lens against ionizing radiation. However, mechanistic details of lens radiation response pathways and their significance for cataractogenesis remain unclear. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the potential impairment of repair pathways within the lens epithelium, a cell monolayer that covers the anterior hemisphere of the lens, are likely to be involved...
October 25, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Derek Hagemeyer, Gregory Nichols, Michael T Mumma, John D Boice, Terry A Brock
PURPOSE: As the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) celebrates 50 years of existence, this is an appropriate time to reflect on the innovative and novel system and how it has shaped the study of occupational radiation exposure. It is also fitting to appreciate the vision and initiative of the individuals who recognized the future value of the collection and analysis of this information to better inform regulations, policies, and epidemiologic studies, and thus contribute to the protection of workers and the public from the adverse health effects of radiation exposure...
October 25, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Tyler A Beach, Angela M Groves, Jacqueline P Williams, Jacob N Finkelstein
Models of thoracic irradiation have been developed as clinicians and scientists have attempted to decipher the events that led up to the pulmonary toxicity seen in human subjects following radiation treatment. The most common model is that of whole thorax irradiation (WTI), applied in a single dose. Mice, particularly the C57BL/6J strain, has been frequently used in these investigations, and has greatly informed our current understanding of the initiation and progression of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI)...
October 25, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Seied Rabi Mahdavi, Azam Janati Esfahani, Samideh Khoei, Mohsen Bakhshandeh, Ali Rajabi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was the evaluation of induced DNA damages of human prostate cancer cells, DU-145, treated with a combination of radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia (HT) and teletherapy (EBRT) compared to a combination of teletherapy with high-dose rate brachytherapy (BR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DU-145 cells were cultured as spheroids in 300 micron diameter. Then the following treatments were conducted: (a) EBRT at doses of either 2 Gy or 4 Gy of photon 15 MV, (b) HT for 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes duration at 43 °C from a 13...
October 25, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
E R Szabó, Z Reisz, R Polanek, T Tőkés, Sz Czifrus, Cs Pesznyák, B Biró, A Fenyvesi, B Király, J Molnár, Sz Brunner, B Daroczi, Z Varga, K Hideghéty
PURPOSE: The recent rapid increase of hadron therapy applications requires the development of high performance, reliable in vivo models for preclinical research on the biological effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle radiation. AIM: The aim of this paper was to test the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the zebrafish embryo system at two neutron facilities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Series of viable zebrafish embryos at 24-hour post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to single fraction, whole-body, photon and neutron (reactor fission neutrons (<En = 1 MeV>) and (p (18 MeV)+Be, <En> = 3...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki
The anaerobic metabolism of glucose by cancer cells, even under well-oxygenated conditions, has been documented by Otto Warburg as early as 1927. Micro-environmental hypoxia and intracellular pathways activating the hypoxia-related gene response, shift cancer cell metabolism to anaerobic pathways. In the current review, we focus on a major enzyme involved in anaerobic transformation of pyruvate to lactate, namely lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). The value of LDH5 as a marker of prognosis of cancer patients, as a predictor of response to radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy and, finally, as a major target for cancer treatment and radio-sensitization is reported and discussed...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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