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International Journal of Radiation Biology

Kathryn D Held, Nobuyuki Hamada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Çiğdem Gökçek-Saraç, Hakan Er, Ceren Kencebay Manas, Deniz Kantar Gok, Şükrü Özen, Narin Derin
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Kimihiko Sugaya
PURPOSE: This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1(st) telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. RESULTS: The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) anagen phases...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jonine L Bernstein, Patrick Concannon
PURPOSE: It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with respect to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Sonia M de Toledo, Manuela Buonanno, Andrew L Harris, Edouard I Azzam
PURPOSE: To examine the time window during which intercellular signaling though gap junctions mediates non-targeted (bystander) effects induced by moderate doses of ionizing radiation; and to investigate the impact of gap junction communication on genomic instability in distant progeny of bystander cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A layered cell culture system was developed to investigate the propagation of harmful effects from irradiated normal or tumor cells that express specific connexins to contiguous bystander normal human fibroblasts...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Nobuyuki Hamada, Sisko Salomaa, Kathryn D Held, John D Boice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
John D Boice
PURPOSE: The linear nonthreshold (LNT) model has been used in radiation protection for over 40 years and has been hotly debated. It relies heavily on human epidemiology, with support from radiobiology. The scientific underpinnings include NCRP Report No. 136 ('Evaluation of the Linear-Nonthreshold Dose-Response Model for Ionizing Radiation'), UNSCEAR 2000, ICRP Publication 99 (2004) and the National Academies BEIR VII Report (2006). NCRP Scientific Committee 1-25 is reviewing recent epidemiologic studies focusing on dose-response models, including threshold, and the relevance to radiation protection...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jony M Geraldo, Sérgio Scalzo, Daniela S Reis, Thiago L Leão, Silvia Guatimosim, Luiz O Ladeira, Lídia M Andrade
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of HDR brachytherapy on cellular progression of a radioresistant human squamous cell carcinoma in vitro, based on clinical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An acrylic platform was designed to attach tissue culture flasks and assure source positioning during irradiation. At exponential phase, A431cells, a human squamous cell carcinoma, were irradiated two times up to 1100cGy. Cellular proliferation was assessed by Trypan blue exclusion assay and survival fraction was calculated by clonogenic assay...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Libin Mao, Huiqin Wang, Fenghui Ma, Zhixia Guo, Hongpeng He, Hao Zhou, Nan Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on insulin secretion and explore the mechanisms underlying exposure to SMF-induced insulin secretion in rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: INS-1 cells were exposed to a 400 mT SMF for 72 h, and the proliferation of INS-1 cells was detected by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The secretion of insulin was measured with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), the expression of genes was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of proteins was measured by Western blotting...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
V Licursi, M Cestelli Guidi, G Del Vecchio, C Mannironi, C Presutti, R Amendola, R Negri
PURPOSE: Leptin (LEP) is a peptide hormone with multiple physiological functions. Besides its systemic actions it has important peripheral roles such as a mitogen action on keratinocytes following skin lesions. We previously showed that LEP mRNA is significantly induced in response to neutron irradiation in mouse skin and that the protein increases in the irradiated epidermis and in the related subcutaneous adipose tissue. In this work we investigated on post-transcriptional regulation of LEP by miRNAs and on the conservation of LEP role in radiation response in human...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Marko Miliša, Domagoj Đikić, Tvrtko Mandić, Dino Grozić, Ivan Čolić, Ana Ostojić
PURPOSE: To test the effects of short-term exposure of aquatic organisms to electric field (EF) with negligible magnetic component. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a plate capacitor that served as a source of EF of strengths that can be found in nature near transmission lines. We exposed two cultured protist species Euglena viridis and Paramecium caudatum to EFs for 24 hours and monitored their abundance, morphology, intracellular superoxide anion (by dihydroethidium [DHE]), hydrogen peroxide by (H2DCF) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Magnus Sabel, Marie Kalm, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Birgitta Lannering, Klas Blomgren
PURPOSE: To explore if hypothermia can reduce the harmful effects of ionizing radiation on the neurogenic regions of the brain in young rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postnatal day 9 rats were randomized into two treatment groups, hypo- and normothermia, or a control group. Treatment groups were placed in chambers submerged in temperature-controlled water baths (30 °C and 36 °C) for 8 h, after receiving a single fraction of 8 Gy to the left hemisphere. Seven days' post-irradiation, we measured the sizes of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampus, and counted the number of proliferating (phospho-histone H3+) cells and microglia (Iba1 + cells)...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Xiaoyan Chen, Ping Wang, Fei Guo, Xiangdong Wang, Juan Wang, Jinping Xu, Dexiao Yuan, Jianghong Zhang, Chunlin Shao
PURPOSE: Tumor resistance towards radiation has been a big obstacle in the poor prognosis of lung cancer. It has been reported that hypoxia and autophagy partly contribute to this resistance. However, there is controversy over whether autophagy plays a positive role in cancer therapy or not. We aim to find out the specific mechanism of radiation resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A549 cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) under 12 h hypoxia or normoxia before irradiation, followed by the measurement of clonogenic survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), signal of mitochondria and autophagy flux...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Cong Liu, Jing Liu, Yuhui Hao, Ying Gu, Zhangyou Yang, Hong Li, Rong Li
PURPOSE: 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (T3) is a novel chemically synthesized compound reported in our previous study. This study was designed to explore the radioprotective effect of T3, and if so, its potential mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KunMing mice were exposed to various doses of γ irradiation (60 Co) after being treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or T3. Briefly, survival rate, dose reducing factor (DRF), body weight change (%), spleen index (SI) and thymus index (TI) of irradiated mice with or without different doses of T3 treatment were evaluated routinely...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Soafara Andrianome, Laurent Hugueville, René de Seze, Brahim Selmaoui
PURPOSE: To assess the level of various salivary and urinary markers of patients with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) and to compare them with those of a healthy control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed samples from 30 EHS individuals and a matched control group of 25 individuals (non-EHS) aged between 22 and 66. We quantified cortisol both in saliva and urine, alpha amylase (sAA), immunoglobulin A and C Reactive Protein levels in saliva and neopterin in urine (uNeopterin)...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Noura M Thabet, Enas M Moustafa
PURPOSE: To explore the synergistic effect of a seleno-organic compound Ebselen (Ebs) and/or γ-radiation to exert antitumor effects on human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ebs cytotoxicity at various concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 75 μg), cell proliferation and clonogenic assay of Ebs and/or γ-radiation (at 1, 3 and 6 Gy), expression of p-IκBα and NF-κB, inflammatory cytokines levels (TNF-α, IL-2, INF-γ, IL-10 and TGF-β), apoptotic factors (Caspase-3, Granzyme-B and TRAIL) and angiogenic factor (VEGF) were investigated...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Karim Khoshgard, Parvaneh Kiani, Abbas Haghparast, Leila Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Eivazi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of radiotherapy is to deliver lethal damage to cancerous tissue while preserving adjacent normal tissues. Radiation absorbed dose of the tumoral cells can increase when high atomic nanoparticles are present in them during irradiation. Also, the dose rate is an important aspect in radiation effects that determines the biological results of a given dose. This in vitro study investigated the dose-rate effect on the induced radiosensitivity by dextran-coated iron oxide in cancer cells...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mandar Sengupta, Sarmistha Sen Raychaudhuri
PURPOSE: Environmental changes generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in abiotic stress in plants. This causes alterations in germination, morphology, growth and development ultimately leading to yield loss. Gamma irradiation was used to experimentally induce oxidative damage in an important pulse crop Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek or mung bean. Our research was aimed towards augmentation of oxidative stress tolerance through treatment with a group of aliphatic amines known as polyamines...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Roy Shore, Linda Walsh, Tamara Azizova, Werner Rühm
PURPOSE: Estimated radiation risks used for radiation protection purposes have been based primarily on the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors who received brief exposures at high dose rates, many with high doses. Information is needed regarding radiation risks from low dose-rate (LDR) exposures to low linear-energy-transfer (low-LET) radiation. We conducted a meta-analysis of LDR epidemiologic studies that provide dose-response estimates of total solid cancer risk in adulthood in comparison to corresponding LSS risks, in order to estimate a dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF)...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Akinari Yokoya, Takashi Ito
PURPOSE: In this paper, we review interesting findings reported in the studies of the biological effects induced by inner-shell ionization with the aim of interpreting them from a mechanistic viewpoint, in particular, of the Auger effect of atoms on different biological systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: More than 70 published papers are cited on the Auger effects ranging from DNA-related elements (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorus) to mammalian cells. Externally administrated bromine, iodine, and platinum have also been cited for the present endeavor...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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