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International Journal of Radiation Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151050/can-radiation-research-impact-the-estimation-of-risk
#1
R Julian Preston
PURPOSE: This review is a contribution to the memory of Dr William (Bill) Morgan and highlights an area of research and deliberation that he considered extremely important in support of the setting of protective radiation dose limits. Biological research has generally played a minor role in the estimation of adverse health outcomes following exposure to low doses and low dose rates of radiation. The reliance has been on the available, quite extensive data base of epidemiology studies...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151038/cardiovascular-disease-among-atomic-bomb-survivors
#2
Kotaro Ozasa, Ikuno Takahashi, Eric J Grant, Kazunori Kodama
PURPOSE: The profile of cardiovascular disease in Japan has been different from that in Western countries. Hypertension was the major cause not only for hemorrhagic stroke but also for ischemic stroke and heart disease in the past, and the influence of hypertension has decreased with calendar years because of reduced salt intake and westernization of lifestyle, and also improved medical care. The health status of atomic bomb survivors has reflected this profile as well as radiation effects...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051886/static-magnetic-field-reduces-blood-pressure-short-term-variability-and-enhances-baro-receptor-reflex-sensitivity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#3
Tatjana Tasić, Drago M Djordjević, Silvio R De Luka, Alexander M Trbovich, Nina Japundžić-Žigon
PURPOSE: It has been shown that chronic exposure of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to static magnetic field (SMF) delays the development of overt hypertension. Therefore the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of SMF on autonomic cardiovascular control in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed in freely moving spontaneously hypertensive rats equipped with femoral arterial catheter for blood pressure recording...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134027/radiological-impact-assessment-to-the-environment-due-to-waste-from-disposal-of-porcelain
#4
Tarek Morsi, Rehab Hegazy, Wael Badawy
The present study aims to assess the radiological parameters from gamma rays due to the uncontrolled disposal of porcelain waste to the environment. Qualitative and quantitative identification of radionuclides in the investigated samples was carried out by means of High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentrations of the local porcelain samples were measured as 208.28 Bq/kg for (226)Ra, 125.73 Bq/kg for (238)U, 84.94 Bq/kg for (232)Th and 1033.61 Bq/kg for (40)K, respectively...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134023/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-dna-methylation-from-experimental-biology-to-clinical-applications
#5
Isabelle R Miousse, Kristy R Kutanzi, Igor Koturbash
PURPOSE: Ionizing radiation (IR) is a ubiquitous environmental stressor with genotoxic and epigenotoxic capabilities. Terrestrial IR, predominantly a low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, is being widely utilized in medicine, as well as in multiple industrial applications. Additionally, an interest in understanding the effects of high-LET irradiation is emerging due to the potential of exposure during space missions and the growing utilization of LET radiation in medicine. CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effects of IR on DNA methylation, a key epigenetic mechanism regulating the expression of genetic information...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117625/autophagy-influences-the-low-dose-hyper-radiosensitivity-of-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-by-regulating-mlh1
#6
Qiong Wang, Zhuya Xiao, Zhenyu Lin, Jie Zhou, Weihong Chen, Wuyun Jie, Xing Cao, Zhongyuan Yin, Jing Cheng
Purpose To investigate the impact of autophagy on the low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via MLH1 regulation. Materials and methods Immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting, and electron microscopy were utilized to detect autophagy in A549 and H460 cells. shRNA was used to silence MLH1 expression. The levels of MLH1, mTOR, p-mTOR, BNIP3, and Beclin-1 were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. Results A549 cells, which have low levels of MLH1 expression, displayed HRS/induced radioresistance (IRR)...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117624/radiation-interactions-with-biological-system
#7
Md Torequl Islam
PURPOSE: Nowadays, the use of radiation, especially the ionizing radiation (IR) is procuring great attentions in the field of medical sciences. It is to be mentioned that, the IR has both beneficial and harmful effects in biological systems. This study aims to sketch IR-mediated physiological events in a mechanistic way. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evidence from the databases, mainly from PUBMED and SCIENCE DIRECT are considered. RESULTS: IR directly and/or with their lyses products (indirect) cause oxidative stresses to the biological systems...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044469/epigenetic-silencing-and-activation-of-transcription-influence-on-the-radiation-sensitivity-of-glioma-cell-lines
#8
Ali Sak, Dennis Kübler, Kristina Bannik, Michael Groneberg, Sonja Strunz, Ralf Kriehuber, Martin Stuschke
PURPOSE: To uncover the role of EZH2 and its opponent ASHL2, a polycomb and trithorax group protein, respectively, on the radioresponsiveness of glioma cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of EZH2 and ASHL2 was inhibited by siRNA in glioma cell lines. The effect on histone methylation, gene expression, DNA damage repair signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and tumor control were evaluated. RESULTS: Inhibition of EZH2 (EZH2i) led to a transcriptional dysregulation with upregulation of 544 and downregulation of 445 genes...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112567/cardiovascular-effects-of-fission-neutron-or-60-co-%C3%AE-exposure-in-the-b6cf1-mouse
#9
David G Hoel, Bruce A Carnes
In this study, the B6CF1 mice from the JANUS program at the Argonne National Laboratory were analyzed for increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality from (60)Co γ ray or fission neutron exposures administered in either a single dose or protracted weekly doses. The data used for this study represent the last studies conducted at Argonne and have been archived for at least 15 years. CVD mortality increased in a dose-dependent manner from γ rays as well as from neutron exposures. The RBE for neutrons is about 4 or 5...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112006/a-biosafety-evaluation-of-synchrotron-radiation-x-ray-to-skin-and-bone-marrow-single-dose-irradiation-study-of-rats-and-macaques
#10
Yifan Lu, Guanghui Tang, Hui Lin, Xiaojie Lin, Lu Jiang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
PURPOSE: Very limited experimental data is available regarding the safe dosages related to synchrotron radiation (SR) procedures. We used young rats and macaques to address bone marrow and skin tolerance to various doses of synchrotron radiation. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 25, or 100 Gy local SR X-ray irradiation at left hind limb. Rat blood samples were analyzed at 2 to 90 days after irradiation. The SR X-ray irradiated skin and tibia were sectioned for morphological examination...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110593/new-insight-into-mitochondrial-changes-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-irradiated-by-gamma-ray
#11
Shunying Hu, Yajing Gao, Hao Zhou, Fanxuan Kong, Fengjun Xiao, Pingkun Zhou, Yundai Chen
PURPOSE: To investigate alterations of mitochondria in irradiated endothelial cells so that to further elucidate the mechanism underlying radiation-induced heart disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were irradiated with single gamma ray dose of 0Gy, 5Gy, 10Gy, 20Gy, respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry at 24h, 48h, 72h post-irradiation, respectively. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) at 24h post- irradiation...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067111/extremely-low-level-microwaves-attenuate-immune-imbalance-induced-by-inhalation-exposure-to-low-level-toluene-in-mice
#12
Elena G Novoselova, Olga V Glushkova, Maxim O Khrenov, Tatyana V Novoselova, Sergey M Lunin, Eugeny E Fesenko
PURPOSE: To clarify whether extremely low-level microwaves (MW) alone or in combination with p38 inhibitor affect immune cell responses to inhalation exposure of mice to low-level toluene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytokine profile, heat shock proteins expression, and the activity of several signal cascades, namely, NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IRF-3, p38 MAPK, and TLR4 were measured in spleen lymphocytes of mice treated to air-delivered toluene (0.6 mg/m(3)) or extremely low-level microwaves (8...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067097/evidences-for-amelioration-of-reserpine-induced-fibromyalgia-in-rat-by-low-dose-of-gamma-irradiation-and-duloxetine
#13
Eman E Shibrya, Rasha R Radwan, Mai A Abd El Fattah, Esmat A Shabaan, Sanaa A Kenawy
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia is a prevalent disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and complex symptoms. This study was conducted to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of low-dose irradiation (LDI) alone or in combination with duloxetine on the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia in rats. METHODS: Fibromyalgia was induced by administration of reserpine (1 mg/kg/s.c) for 3 consecutive days. Duloxetine (30 mg/kg, p.o) was administered 60 min before a forced swimming test (FST), and rats were exposed to a single dose of γ-radiation (0...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067096/differential-response-of-normal-and-transformed-mammary-epithelial-cells-to-combined-treatment-of-anti-mir-21-and-radiation
#14
Vanja Radulovic, Theresa Heider, Sabine Richter, Simone Moertl, Michael J Atkinson, Nataša Anastasov
PURPOSE: MicroRNA miR-21 has emerged as a therapeutic target in the treatment of breast cancer. This study was designed to compare the responses of breast cancer cells and non-transformed breast epithelial cells to a combined regimen of miR-21 inhibition and radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MDA-MB-361 (breast cancer) and MCF-10A (non-transformed mammary epithelial) cell lines were used for the comparison in this in vitro study. The stable knockdown of miR-21 was performed by using lentiviral approach...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067089/metabolomic-applications-in-radiation-biodosimetry-exploring-radiation-effects-through-small-molecules
#15
Evan L Pannkuk, Albert J Fornace, Evagelia C Laiakis
PURPOSE: Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation has increased in the past decades, primarily due to long distance travel and medical procedures. On the other hand, accidental exposures, nuclear accidents, and elevated threats of terrorism with the potential detonation of a radiological dispersal device or improvised nuclear device in a major city, all have led to increased needs for rapid biodosimetry and assessment of exposure to different radiation qualities and scenarios...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054831/lessons-learned-from-an-unstable-genomic-landscape
#16
Charles L Limoli
PURPOSE: This brief historical perspective will highlight the many accomplishments of the late William "Bill" Morgan, and how his laboratory during the mid-1990s shaped the field of genomic instability. Bill focused on the processes responsible for radiation-induced genomic instability, and while ionizing radiation was known to induce this phenomenon, the precise causes were poorly understood. Here we revisit Bill's unique approach to these problems, as he advocated the use of novel mammalian cell lines to tease apart the mechanisms responsible for destabilizing an otherwise stable nuclear genome...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045339/imaging-biodistribution-and-efficacy-evaluation-of-188-re-human-serum-albumin-microspheres-via-intraarterial-route-in-an-orthotopic-hepatoma-model
#17
Liang-Cheng Chen, Ya-Jen Chang, Su-Jung Chen, Wan-Chi Lee, Chih-Hsien Chang, Te-Wei Lee, Jui-Hung Shien
Purpose Liver cancer is the second most common cause of death worldwide. This study was to investigate the SPECT/CT, ultrasound, biodistribution and therapeutic evaluation of (188)Re-human serum albumin microspheres ((188)Re-HSAM) in the GP7TB orthotopic hepatoma rat model. Materials and methods HSAM was labeled with (188)Re by using home-made kit and microwave system. The (188)Re-HSAM was administered via intraarterial route. The in vivo distribution of (188)Re-HSAM was determined by biodistribution analysis and nanoSPECT/CT system...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044470/gold-nanoparticles-as-dose-enhancement-agent-for-kilovoltage-x-ray-therapy-of-melanoma
#18
So-Ra Kim, Eun-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: Melanoma is mainly treated by surgery and rarely with radiation because of the high radio-resistance of this tumor. Nevertheless, radiotherapy is the preferred treatment modality for unresectable lesions and avoiding cosmetic disfigurement caused by surgical excision. This study investigated the therapeutic advantage of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for kilovoltage X-ray treatment of melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Commercial AuNPs were evaluated for cytotoxicity and cellular internalization...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899034/ionizing-radiation-sensitivity-of-the-ocular-lens-and-its-dose-rate-dependence
#19
Nobuyuki Hamada
PURPOSE: In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection reduced the threshold for the lens effects of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. On one hand, the revised threshold of 0.5 Gy is much lower than previously recommended thresholds, but mechanisms behind high radiosensitivity remain incompletely understood. On the other hand, such a threshold is independent of dose rate, in contrast to previously recommended separate thresholds each for single and fractionated/protracted exposures...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000521/proteomic-analysis-of-irradiated-lung-tissue-of-mice-using-gel-based-proteomic-approach
#20
Shabir Hussain, Ajaswrata Dutta, Ashish Sarkar, Abhinav Singh, Manju Lata Gupta, Sagarika Biswas
PURPOSE: Exposure to radiation causes severe alterations of protein expression level inside the cell, thus it may influence the biological events and stress response. In the present investigation, we have demonstrated the effect of radiation on mice lung tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF was used to check the expression changes in lung proteome profile of strain 'A' female mice after exposure to lethal doses of gamma irradiation at different time periods (24 and 48 h)...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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