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International Journal of Radiation Biology

Andrea Ottolenghi, Klaus-Rüdiger Trott, Vere Smyth
PURPOSE: A review is presented of the programme of education and training set up within the DoReMi Network of Excellence. DoReMi was funded by Euratom under the EU 7th Framework Programme to coordinate the EU research into risks from low-dose ionising radiation. It was seen to be necessary to form a network of expert institutions in order to tackle the scientific questions with the resources available. From the start, importance was given to the need to stimulate and support education and training to build up the capability of the research community...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Patryk Zradziński
PURPOSE: In this work, the inter-person variability of hazards caused by a low frequency magnetic field exposure (of various polarisation and homogeneity near to the magneto therapy applicator) to users of BAHA hearing implants were investigated with respect to various head structures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effects of exposure were evaluated by numerical simulations of the electric field (Ein ) induced in head phantoms (regular or with implant model). Phantoms mimic head dimensions and thicknesses of layers of skin, fat, skull bones and brain...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Kim Ngan Tran, Jong-Il Choi
PURPOSE: To study gene expression modulation in response to continuous whole-body exposure to low-dose-rate gamma radiation and improve our understanding of the mechanism of this impact at the molecular basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: cDNA microarray method with complete pooling of samples was used to study expression changes in the transcriptome profile of livers from rats treated with prolonged low-dose-rate ionizing radiation relative to that of sham-irradiated rats...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Haibo Mou, Qin Liao, Xuehua Hou, Te Chen, Yuping Zhu
PURPOSE: The surgery with adjuvant radiation for the treatment of thymoma is still debated. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in a population-based registry of patients with thymoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to compare the outcomes of patients with thymoma who received surgery with or without PORT. RESULTS: Among the 2234 patients of this study, the surgery with PORT group had a longer mean overall survival [OS] and cancer-specific survival [CSS] than did the surgery without PORT group (OS: 172...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
M Britel, M Bourguignon, N Foray
PURPOSES: The term "radiosensitivity" appeared for the first time at the beginning of the 20th century, few years after the discovery of X-rays. Initially used by French and German radiologists, it illustrated the risk of radiation-induced (RI) skin reactions. From the 1950's, "radiosensitivity" was progressively found to describe other features of RI response such as RI cancers or cataracts. To date, such confusion may raise legal issues and complexify the message addressed to general public...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Ignacia Braga-Tanaka, Satoshi Tanaka, Atsushi Kohda, Daisaku Takai, Shingo Nakamura, Tetsuya Ono, Kimio Tanaka, Jun-Ichiro Komura
PURPOSE: This review summarizes the results of experiments conducted in the Institute for Environmental Sciences for the past 21 years, focusing on the biological effects of long-term low dose-rate radiation exposure on mice. Mice were chronically exposed to gamma rays at dose-rates of 0.05, 1 or 20 mGy/day for 400 days to total doses of 20, 400 or 8000 mGy, respectively. The dose rates 0.05 mGy/day is comparable to the dose limit for radiation workers. The parameters examined were lifespan, neoplasm incidence, anti-neoplasm immunity, body weight, chromosome aberration(s), gene mutation(s), alterations in mRNA and protein levels, and trans-generational effects...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Tünde Szatmári, Eszter Persa, Enikő Kis, Anett Benedek, Rita Hargitai, Géza Sáfrány, Katalin Lumniczky
PURPOSE: Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) imply the involvement of complex signaling mechanisms, which can be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Using an in vivo model, we investigated EV-transmitted RIBE in blood plasma and radiation effects on plasma EV miRNA profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were total-body irradiated with 0.1 and 2Gy, bone marrow-derived EVs were isolated, and injected systemically into naïve, "bystander" animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Saeed Bagherzadeh, Nasrollah Jabbari, Hamid Reza Khalkhali
PURPOSE: The present study attempts to calculate organ-absorbed and effective doses for cancer patients to estimate the possible cancer induction and cancer mortality risks resulting from 64-slice abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) simulations for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTTP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 70 patients, who underwent 64-slice abdominopelvic CT scan for RTTP, voluntarily participated in the present study. To calculate organ and effective doses in a standard phantom of 70 kg, the collected dosimetric parameters were used with the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mikko Herrala, Ehab Mustafa, Jonne Naarala, Jukka Juutilainen
PURPOSE: We examined genotoxicity, co-genotoxicity and induced genomic instability (IGI) in primary astrocytes exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were exposed to 872 MHz GSM-modulated or continuous wave (CW) RF radiation at specific absorption rates of 0.6 or 6.0 W/kg for 24 h. Menadione (MQ) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; only in genotoxicity experiments) were used as co-exposures. Alkaline Comet assay and flow cytometric micronucleus scoring were used to detect genetic damage...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Aidan D Meade, Adrian Maguire, Jane Bryant, Daniel Cullen, Dinesh Medipally, Lisa White, Brendan McClean, Laura Shields, John Armstrong, Mary Dunne, Emma Noone, Shirley Bradshaw, Marie Finn, Aoife M Shannon, Orla Howe, Fiona M Lyng
PURPOSE: Liquid biopsies are a potentially rich store of biochemical information that can be linked to an individual's response to therapeutic treatments, including radiotherapy, and which may ultimately play a role in the individualization of treatment regimens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be used for the biochemical profiling of the individual, but also, being living cells, can provide insights into the individuals response to ionizing radiation exposure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study attempts to link the biochemical profile of lymphocytes within PBMCs obtained through Raman spectroscopy, to in-vitro measures of low-dose (< 0...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Fiona Griffin, Laure Marignol
Melatonin is an endogenous hormone primirarily known for its action on the circadian rhythms. But preclinical studies are reporting both its radioprotective and radiosensitising properties, possibly mediated through an interaction between melatonin and the regulation of estrogens. Melatonin pre-treatment prior to ionising radiation was associated with a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in p53 mRNA expression, leading to an increase in the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells. At the same time, a decrease in radiation- induced side effects was described in breast cancer patients and in rodent models...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Masoud Najafi, Elahe Motevaseli, Alireza Shirazi, Ghazale Graily, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Farzad Norouzi, Saeed Rezapoor, Hamid Abdollahi
PURPOSE: Cancer treatment is one of the most challenging diseases in the present era. Among a few modalities for cancer therapy, radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in more than half of all treatments alone or combined with other cancer treatment modalities. Management of normal tissue toxicity induced by radiation is one of the most important limiting factors for an appropriate radiation treatment course. The evaluation of mechanisms of normal tissue toxicity has shown that immune responses especially inflammatory responses play a key role in both early and late side effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR)...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mahnaz Joghatai, Ladan Barari, Seyyed Hossein Mousavie Anijdan, Maryam Mitra Elmi
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women all over the world. Many of these women resist the common treatments. Therefore, it is important to find new products to increase the efficacy of the treatment process. Legume beans, with their various pharmacological properties, can be regarded as a sensitizer when they are combined with radiation. The present study strove to survey the radio-sensitivity effect of proteins isolated from mung bean aqueous extract on the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), human cervical cancer cells (Hela) and the human dermal fibroblast cell line...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Jiong Ren, Yuhui Hao, Rui Gao, Ying Zhang, Yonghong Ran, Jing Liu, Xiaotian Dai, Wei Xiong, Yongping Su, Rong Li
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a lavage solution containing methoxypolyethylene glycol 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamino)-4-oxobutanoate (MDO) for whole lung lavage (WLL) in dogs after the inhalation of depleted uranium (DU) dust at a dose of 30 mg U kg-1 . MATERIALS AND METHODS: WLL was performed using lavage solutions made of normal saline (saline group) or normal saline plus MDO (MDO group) at 2 days post DU exposure. Meanwhile, a control group was set up without any treatment...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Eui-Baek Byun, Hye-Min Kim, Nak-Yun Sung, Mi-So Yang, Woo Sik Kim, DaeSeong Choi, Sajid Mushtaq, Seung Sik Lee, Eui-Hong Byun
PURPOSE: The changes in molecular structure and the physiological properties of a gamma-irradiated aloe-emodin were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aloe-emodin was gamma-irradiated at doses ranging from 0 to 150 kGy, and the molecular structure was then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AGS cells were cultured in RPMI medium and treated gamma irradiated aloe-emodin. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Junfeng Liu, Yu Liu, Tao Xie, Longjun Luo, Cheng Xu, Qinglei Gao, Lu Shen, Feng Wan, Ting Lei, Fei Ye
PURPOSE: To systematically study the cell cycle alterations of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSLCs) after irradiation, possibly enriching the mechanisms of radioresistance of GSLCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GSLCs were enriched and identified, and then the radioresistance of GSLCs was validated by analyzing cell survival, cell proliferation and radiation-induced apoptosis. The discrepancy of the cell cycle distribution and expression of cell cycle-related proteins between GSLCs and glioblastoma differentiated cells (GDCs) after irradiation was completely analyzed...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Michael V Accardi, Oreola Donini, Adam Rumage, Alexis Ascah, Julius Haruna, Mylène Pouliot, Kim Bujold, Hai Haung, Wieslaw Wierzbicki, John Stamatopoulos, Houman Naraghi, Thomas Measey, Simon Authier
PURPOSE: Characterization of a novel partial body irradiation (PBI) shielding strategy in nonhuman primates (NHP; rhesus macaques), aimed at protecting the oral cavity, with respect to various gastrointestinal (GI-ARS) syndrome parameters as well as buccal ulceration development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NHPs were irradiated using a Cobalt-60 gamma source, in a single uniform dose, ranging from 9-13 Gy and delivered at 0.60-0.80 Gy min -1 . Animals were either partially shielded via oral cavity shielding (PBI OS ) or underwent total body irradiation (TBI)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Behnaz Piroozfar, Gholamreza Raisali, Behrouz Alirezapour, Mohammad Mirzaii
PURPOSE: In this study, the effect of 111In position and Auger electron energy on direct induction of DSBs was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Geant4-DNA simulation toolkit was applied using a simple B-DNA form extracted from PDBlib library. First, the simulation was performed for electrons with energies of 111In and equal emission probabilities to find the most effective electron energies. Then, 111In Auger electrons' actual spectrum was considered and their contribution in DSB induction analysed...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Serge M Candéias, Sylwia Kabacik, Ann-Karin Olsen, Dag M Eide, Dag A Brede, Simon Bouffler, Christophe Badie
PURPOSE: To determine whether low dose/low dose rate radiation-induced genetic instability may result from radiation-induced inactivation of mechanisms induced by the ATM-dependent DNA damage response checkpoint. To this end, we analysed the faithfulness of T cell receptor (TR) gene rearrangement by V(D)J recombination in DNA from mice exposed to a single dose of X-ray or chronically exposed to low dose rate γ radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA obtained from the blood or the thymus of wild type or Ogg1-deficient mice exposed to low (0...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
S Muñoz, J L Sebastián, P Antoranz, J P García-Cambero, A Sanchis-Otero
PURPOSE: This paper studies the variation of the electromagnetic parameters of a suspension of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to assess its potential applications to toxicological and biomedical research areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, the dielectric impedance spectroscopy technique is applied to a modified coaxial line enclosing the biological suspension to be characterized in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. The electrical parameters of the suspension under test were obtained by fitting the impedance spectra to the resulted from the simulation of the test fixture using finite elements (FE)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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