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Clinical Anatomy

Hyung-Jin Won, Jong Eun Lee, Won-Taek Lee, Hyung-Sun Won
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the morphological variations and histological patterns of the rami communicantes (RCs) arising from the first to the fifth thoracic sympathetic ganglia, and considered the clinical significance of these variations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty upper thoracic portions from 26 adult Korean cadavers were used in this study. RESULTS: There were 731 RCs arising from the first to the fifth thoracic sympathetic ganglia...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
C Jiamton, N Ratreprasatsuk, R Jarayabhand, A Kritsaneephaiboon, T Apivatthakakul
Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of applying MIPO of the humerus via the posterior approach and to observe the tension of the radial nerve in different elbow positions. Materials and methods Two separate incisions were made on the posterior aspect of the humerus in ten fresh cadavers (20 humeri). The radial nerve was identified at the proximal incision and the distances through which the nerve could be elevated from the bone with the elbow in flexion and extension were measured...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Adam Ostrzenski
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the clitoral infrafrenulum layer exists. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This descriptive observational study was conducted using 15 fresh human female cadavers. Macro and micro stratum-by-stratum anatomical dissections of the clitoral frenulum were performed bilaterally. Target tissue biopsies were obtained for microscopic examination and the specimens were stained with eosin and hematoxylin. The principal observations: The skin folds with erectile tissue between them create the superficial stratum of the clitoral frenulum...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Christopher E Talbot, Derrick M Knapik, Shana N Miskovsky
BACKGROUND: Anterior ankle impingement (AAI) results from repetitive microtrauma leading to pain and decreased dorsiflexion due to spur formation and synovial hypertrophy. Information about the prevalence of anterior spur formation in a large population, and the individual contributions of the talus and tibia to osseous impingement, is limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 670 ankle specimens from 344 individuals (n=111 females, n=233 males) aged 20 to 40 years at the time of death were examined...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
S DeSouza, H Yoon, R Singh, M Petrov
INTRODUCTION: There have been many reports of altered pancreas size in diseases of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas, but few attempts to quantify such changes. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review, documenting the methodology and quantitative data in studies reporting on pancreas size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three electronic databases (EMBASE, Scopus, and MEDLINE) were searched by two reviewers independently. Studies of humans were included if they compared pancreas size (reported as pancreas diameters, areas, and/or lengths) between diseased populations and controls...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Hyung-Jin Lee, Kang-Woo Lee, Yong-Woo Lee, Hee-Jin Kim
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between muscle thickness (MT) and cycling power in varsity cyclists using ultrasonography (US) and to identify any differences in MT between short- and long-distance cyclists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve cyclists participated in this study. Real-time two-dimensional B-mode US was used to measure the MT in the anterior thigh, anterior lower leg, and trunk, especially in the abdominal and lumbar regions...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Santiago Rojas, Marisa Ortega, Alfonso Rodríguez-Baeza
INTRODUCTION: Posterior spinal arteries (PSAs) arise from the vertebral (VA) or posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) artery. We identified variations in their origins and their anastomosis with the first posterior radiculomedullary branches in human spinal cords. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spinal cords from male and female cadavers (n = 30) were injected with colored latex through the vertebral, ascending cervical, costocervical trunk and segmental arteries. Specimens were fixed in formalin and the spinal arteries were dissected under a surgical microscope...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Anthony V D'Antoni, Estomih P Mtui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Cho Sh, Chung Ih, Lee Uy
One branch of the radial nerve to the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle (MHN) has been described as accompanying or joining the ulnar nerve. Mostly two MHN branches have been reported, with some reports of one; however, the topographical anatomy is not well documented. We dissected 52 upper limbs from adult cadavers and found one, two, and three MHN branches in 9.6%, 80.8%, and 9.6% of cases, respectively. The MHN accompanying the ulnar nerve was always the superior MHN. The relationship between the ulnar nerve and the MHN was classified into four types according to whether the MHN was enveloped along with the ulnar nerve in the connective tissue sheath and whether it was in contact with the ulnar nerve...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
B Ece, H Yiğit, E Ergün, P N Koşar
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of an elongated transverse aortic arch (ETA), which has been reported to be specific for Turner syndrome, in a population without Turner syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A set of 1012 patients (713 men, 299 women) under 40 years old, who underwent thoracic CT examination in our radiology department between July 2016 and December 2016, were included in the study. CT scans were performed by 16-slice scanners...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Kang-Jae Shin, Hong-San Kim, Jehoon O, Hyun-Jin Kwon, Hun-Mu Yang
INTRODUCTION: There is no standardized approach to the greater occipital nerve (GON) block technique for treating occipital neuralgia. The aim of the present study was to validate the previously-suggested guidelines for conventional injection techniques and to provide navigational guidelines for safe GON block. METHODS & MATERIALS: The GON, lesser occipital nerve (LON) and occipital artery (OA) were carefully dissected in the occipital region of embalmed cadavers...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Jin Liu, Dai-Chao Wu, Li-Hua Qu, Hong-Qing Liao, Mei-Xiang Li
The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, is a serine-threonine protein kinase downstream of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT axis. The pathway can regulate cell growth, proliferation, and survival by activating ribosomal kinases. Recent studies have implicated the mTOR signaling pathway in ovarian neoplasms, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and premature ovarian failure (POF). Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in the control of various ovarian functions...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Robert H Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Tom J Nallikuzhy, Rajasekhar S S S N, Sabin Malik, Dharmaraj W Tamgire, Phoebe Johnson, K Aravindhan
INTRODUCTION: Variations of testicular vessels are more common than supposed. The testicular artery varies because of abnormal regression of the lateral mesonephric arteries in the fetus, whereas variations in the testicular vein are due to abnormalities in the involution of the intersubcardinal anastomosis. Such variations are usually found incidentally during surgical procedures around the renal pedicle and they often lead to complications. Several authors have attempted to classify them...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Ewa Mizia, Przemysław A Pękala, Piotr Chomicki-Bindas, Wojciech Marchewka, Marios Loukas, Alexander G Zayachkowski, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
Introduction When surgeons operate on the foot and ankle, the most common complication that may arise is injury of the cutaneous nerves. The sural nerve (SN) is potentially at risk of being injured when treating fractures involving the distal tibia using the posterolateral approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate how differences in length and position of the surgical treatment of fractures involving the distal tibia can affect the risk of SN injury. Materials and Methods The study involved 40 healthy volunteers (n=80 lower limbs)...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Iwona M Tomaszewska, Anna Jarzębska, Bendik Skinningsrud, Przemysław A Pękala, Sebastian Wroński, Joe Iwanaga
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work was to conduct a radiological micro-CT study and meta-analysis to determine the morphological features of the root canal anatomy of the maxillary molars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiological study included micro-CT scans of 110 maxillary first molars and 98 maxillary second molars. To identify articles eligible for inclusion in our meta-analysis, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were search comprehensively. The following data were extracted: study type (cadaveric, intraoperative or imaging), Vertucci types of canal configuration, presence/number of canals, roots, apical foramina, apical deltas, and inter-canal communications...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Viriginia Hung, William Ericson, Aditya Raghunathan, Robert Spinner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Ahmed Farid Al-Neklawy
In this study, the protective effect of spirulina on corneal injury after formaldehyde (FA) exposure was assessed. Thirty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: twelve rats were divided into two subgroups: I-a (negative control) and I-b (positive control). Group II (spirulina group): six rats received spirulina via an oral gavage feeding needle at a daily dose of 400mg/kg b.w. Group III (FA exposure group): six rats were subjected to 10% FA inhalation for two hours per day for two weeks (five days per week)...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Anna Zurada, Sonja Salandy, Wallisa Roberts, Jerzy Gielecki, Justine Schober, Marios Loukas
An estimated 1.4% of the population worldwide has been diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Gender reassignment, which holistically encompasses psychotherapy, hormonal therapy and genital and nongenital surgeries, is considered the most effective treatment for transgender non-conforming patients afflicted with gender dysphoria. Little research is currently available identifying the psychosocial needs of the transgender population and their access to preventative and primary care during this transitioning process...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Pierre Laumonerie, Fabrice Ferré, Jérémy Cances, E Meagan Tibbo, Mathieu Roumiguié, Pierre Mansat, Vincent Minville
INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in identifying the susprascapular nerve (SSN) limits the success of US-guided regional anesthetic injections. A proximal SSN block could be an effective and reliable approach. The primary objective was to validate the feasibility of the US-guided proximal SSN block. The secondary objective was to quantify the spread of the colored local anesthetic to the phrenic nerve (PN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen brachial plexuses from seven cadavers were included...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
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