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Clinical Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547783/aortic-arch-origin-of-the-left-vertebral-artery-an-anatomical-and-radiological-study-with-significance-for-avoiding-complications-with-anterior-approaches-to-the-cervical-spine
#1
Gabrielle G Tardieu, Bryan Edwards, Fernando Alonso, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Moriyoshi Nakamura, Mayuko Motomura, Raghu Sampath, Joe Iwanaga, Oded Goren, Stephen Monteith, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Complications from anterior approaches to the cervical spine are uncommon with normal anatomy. However, variant anatomy might predispose one to an increased incidence of injury during such procedures. We hypothesized that left vertebral arteries that arise from the aortic arch instead of the subclavian artery might take a more medial path in their ascent making them more susceptible to iatrogenic injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty human adult cadavers were examined for left vertebral arteries having an aortic arch origin and these were dissected along their entire cervical course...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547745/medical-students-and-professional-anatomists-do-not-perceive-gender-bias-within-imagery-featuring-anatomy
#2
Susan Morgan, Odile Plaisant, Baptiste Lignier, Bernard J Moxham
Previous studies suggest that, while both medical students and professional anatomists recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy (Morgan et al., 2014, 2016). To further investigate these issue, we provided second year medical students at Cardiff University (n=293) and at the University of Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (n= 142) and professional anatomists in Europe (n= 208) with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that gender factors within anatomical imagery (both historical and contemporary) hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544131/sclerocorneal-graft-and-sequential-removal-of-melted-cornea-after-severe-corneal-burn-with-perforation
#3
Anja Viestenz, Berthold Seitz, Hans-Gert Struck, Arne Viestenz
INTRODUCTION: Corneal burn grade IV usually leads to blindness. Several different surgical techniques remain challenging owing to the extensive tissue damage. Here, we introduce a novel technique with a 15 mm corneoscleral and limbal homologous graft combined with sequential autologous corneal removal ab interno, with a vitrectomy probe to save the anterior chamber angle. In vivo anatomy with optical coherence tomography is the surgical key. METHOD: A large 15 mm sclerocorneal graft is sutured on top of the remainder of the destroyed cornea and sclera after removal of the epithelium and conjunctiva, with anterior synechiolysis if necessary, peripheral iridectomy and conjunctivoplasty...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524271/histological-characteristics-of-knee-menisci-in-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#4
D McDaniel, E Tilton, K Dominick, K Flory, T Ernest, J C Johnson, D C Main, P Kondrashov
INTRODUCTION: Existing data indicate knee menisci in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) show tearing, maceration, and fragmentation, but little is known about the change in histological structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate change in the menisci histological structure in patients with clinically diagnosed knee OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing surgical treatment of knee OA (OA group) and 14 cadaveric knees (control group) were assessed...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524244/lingual-nerve-in-search-of-a-landmark-for-its-position
#5
LETTER
Hasmukh A Buch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514529/the-effect-of-repeated-freeze-thaw-cycles-on-human-muscle-tissue-visualized-by-post-mortem-computed-tomography-pmct
#6
Anthony C Klop, Marloes E M Vester, Kerri L Colman, Jan M Ruijter, Rick R van Rijn, Roelof-Jan Oostra
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine whether effects of repetitive freeze-thaw cycles, with various thawing temperatures, on human muscle tissue can be quantified using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) technology. An additional objective was to determine the preferred thawing temperature for muscle tissue in this study. MATERIALS & METHODS: Human cadaver upper extremities were divided into two different thawing temperature groups and underwent a series of four freeze-thaw cycles in total...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514526/direct-medial-approach-in-surgical-fixation-of-fractures-in-the-posterior-aspect-of-the-medial-malleolus
#7
Ang Chay-You, Ling Marcus, Koh Joyce Suang-Bee, Howe Tet-Sen
BACKGROUND: Fractures in the posterior aspect of the medial malleolus form an important subset of ankle fractures and the indications for fixation include involvement of > 25% of the articular surface or an articular step off by > 2mm. Several approaches have been described but there has been no recent study on the direct medial approach. METHODS: Five fresh frozen cadaveric ankles were dissected using the direct medial approach. A longitudinal incision of 10cm was centered directly over the medial malleolus and deepened straight down to the bone...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514515/detailed-anatomy-of-the-abducens-nerve-in-the-lateral-rectus-muscle
#8
Yong Seok Nam, In-Beom Kim, Sun Young Shin
INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle (LRM) and the intramuscular innervation pattern using Sihler staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cohort study, 32 eyes of 16 cadavers were assessed. Dissection was performed from the LRM origin to its insertion. The following distances were measured: from LRM insertion to the bifurcation point of the abducens nerve, from LRM insertion to the entry site of the superior branch or inferior branch, from the upper border of the LRM to the entry site of the superior branch, from the lower border of LRM to the entry site of inferior branch, and the widths of the main trunk and superior and inferior branches...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514512/prevalence-of-the-aberrant-right-subclavian-artery-reported-in-a-published-systematic-review-of-cadaveric-studies-the-impact-of-an-outlier
#9
REVIEW
Anthony P Polednak
The aberrant or anomalous right subclavian artery (ARSA), which arises directly from the aortic arch and crosses to the right side usually behind the esophagus, is a rare but clinically important anatomic variant. A published systematic review (SR) of 15 cadaveric studies on ARSA studies reported that prevalence ranged from 0.2% to 13.3% of the general population; the total unweighted prevalence of ARSA was 325 cases in 13,208 bodies or 2.46%. The present review, however, found that the 13.3% figure was for a 133 cases from a larger case series without a denominator...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514510/injury-to-the-infrapatellar-branch-of-the-saphenous-nerve-during-tendon-graft-harvesting-for-knee-ligament-reconstruction-an-ultrasound-simulation-study
#10
Przemysław A Pękala, Ewa Miza, Brandon Michael Henry, Patrick Popieluszko, Marios Loukas, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
INTRODUCTION: The clinical anatomy of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN) is of particular importance during operations in the area of the knee, especially when material for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is harvested. The nerve can easily be injured during the harvesting procedure, leading to postoperative complications that reduce quality of life. Three different skin incisions are commonly used during hamstring tendon harvesting: horizontal, vertical, and oblique...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514509/the-dimensions-of-the-tarsal-sinus-and-canal-in-different-foot-positions-and-its-clinical-implications
#11
R P Kleipool, L Blankevoort, J M Ruijter, G M M J Kerkhoffs, R J Oostra
INTRODUCTION: This study presents a reference for the dimensions of the tarsal sinus and canal in healthy adults in different foot positions to facilitate understanding of the kinematics of the subtalar joint, the effect of an implant, and other clinical issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 3D CT stress test on 20 subjects, the right foot was forced into a neutral and eight different extreme foot positions while CT scans were obtained. The bones were segmented in the neutral foot position...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514504/an-anatomical-variation-of-the-eminentia-hypothenaris
#12
LETTER
Ralf-Bodo Tröbs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514501/intraarticular-capacity-of-the-elbow-joint
#13
Mathias van den Broek, Roger van Riet
INTRODUCTION: The intraarticular capacity of the elbow joint is reported to be 23 ± 4ml on cadaveric elbows. During years, this value was the standard. The aim of this observational study was to reanalyze the volume of the elbow joint on live patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurement of the intraarticular capacity and pressure of the elbow joint was performed on 30 patients (mean age: 43.8 years) undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Intra-articular capacity was recorded when the elbow moved to the maximum lose packed position and/or when there was a sudden drop in pressure, indicating a capsular rupture (maximum capacity)...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514500/histology-of-the-distal-dural-ring
#14
Christopher S Graffeo, Avital Perry, William R Copeland, Aditya Raghunathan, Michael J Link
BACKGROUND: The distal dural ring (DDR) is a conserved intracranial anatomic structure marking the boundary point at which the internal carotid artery (ICA) exits the cavernous sinus (CS) and enters the subarachnoid space. Although the CS has been well described in a range of anatomic studies, to our knowledge no prior study has analyzed the histologic relationship between the ICA and DDR. Correspondingly, our objective was to assess the relationship of the DDR to the ICA and determine whether the DDR can be dissected from the ICA and thus divided, or can only be circumferentially trimmed around the artery...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514499/surface-anatomy-of-major-anatomical-landmarks-of-the-neck-in-an-adult-population-a-ct-evaluation-of-vertebral-level
#15
Masroor Badshah, Roger Soames, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Jaffar Khan, Adnan Khan
Introduction To compare the projectional surface anatomy of healthy individuals in an adult population with those with a thyroid mass, using computed tomography (CT). Methods Sixteen slice CT images of 101 individuals were analyzed using a 32-bit Radiant DICOM viewer to establish the relationships among major anatomical landmarks in the neck and their vertebral levels. The structures investigated included: hard palate (HP), hyoid bone (HB) including body and lesser horns, soft palate (SP), thyroid gland (TG) (both superior and inferior poles), thyroid gland anteroposterior (APD) and superoinferior (SID) diameters, thyroid isthmus (TI) superoinferior dimension, epiglottis, vertebral arteries (right and left), and both right and left parotid glands (superior and inferior extents)...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514496/a-reappraisal-of-children-s-thoracic-surface-anatomy
#16
Nicholas Fischer, Jonty Morreau, Ramanen Sugunesegran, Kiarash Taghavi, Ali Mirjalili
Accurate knowledge of surface anatomy is fundamental to safe clinical practice. A paucity of evidence in the literature regarding thoracic surface anatomy in children was identified. The associations between surface landmarks and internal structures were meticulously analyzed by reviewing high quality computed tomography (CT) images of 77 children aged from four days to 12 years. The results confirmed that the sternal angle is an accurate surface landmark for the azygos-superior vena cava junction in a plane through to the level of upper T4 from birth to age four, and to lower T4 in older children...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514492/ordering-by-the-numbers-in-anatomy-and-by-letters-too
#17
Paul E Neumann, Robert Baud, Pierre Sprumont
Here new rules of Latin anatomical nomenclature are proposed to deal with cases not covered by existing or other recommended rules. Determiners (e.g., numerals, letters, alphanumeric strings and Latin names of Greek letters) should follow the noun they specify or limit, just as it is recommended that adjectives should follow the noun they modify. In general, Roman numerals, Latin letters and Latin names of Greek letters are preferable to Arabic numerals and Greek letters in Latin anatomical terms. It is also noted that the word typus ("type") appears to be superfluous and unnecessary in the Latin anatomical nomenclature...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514491/3d-image-based-morphometric-analysis-of-the-scapular-neck-length-in-subjects-undergoing-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty
#18
P Simon, M Diaz, M Cusick, B Santoni, M Frankle
INTRODUCTION: Scapular notching after RSA may, in part, be related to a patient's scapular morphology. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel 3D measurement technique to describe infraglenoid tubercle morphometry. We hypothesize that the parameters describing infraglenoid tubercle would be normally distributed and would correlate with individual's demographics and glenoid morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 110 subjects treated with RSA were evaluated...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514490/brain-ultrasound-rehearsal-before-surgery-a-pilot-cadaver-study
#19
Carlo Giussani, Matteo Riva, Valentin Djonov, Simone Beretta, Francesco Prada, Erik Sganzerla
Introduction It has been shown that brain ultrasonography (US) is an efficient tool for improving three-dimensional (3D) spatial orientation during neurosurgical interventions. However, it necessitates specific training as it is highly operator-dependent. To date, neurosurgeons have relied solely on intraoperative practice to improve their mastery of brain US; this has obvious limitations. Herein, we consider whether a study of brain US on human cadavers could enable a training platform for neurosurgeons and residents to be developed...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509432/feasibility-assessment-of-shear-wave-elastography-to-lumbar-back-muscles-a-radioanatomic-study
#20
Maud Creze, Krystel Nyangoh Timoh, Olivier Gagey, Laurence Rocher, Marie-France Bellin, Marc Soubeyrand
INTRODUCTION: Low back pain is often associated with tensional changes in the paraspinal muscles detected by palpatory procedures. Shear wave elastography (SWE), recently introduced, allows the stiffness of muscles to be assessed non-invasively. The aim of our work was to study the feasibility of using SWE on the three main lumbar back muscles (multifidus, longissimus and iliocostalis) in vivo after analyzing their muscular architecture ex vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the orientation of fibers in the multifidus, longissimus and iliocotalis muscles in seven fresh cadavers using gross anatomy and B-Mode ultrasound imaging...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
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