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Substance Abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080324/the-40-th-annual-meeting-of-amersa-highlights-abstracts-and-awards
#1
Adam J Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075715/abstracts-of-the-18th-annual-meeting-of-the-international-society-of-addiction-medicine-isam-2016
#2
Adam J Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027019/screening-and-brief-intervention-in-high-schools-school-nurse-practices-and-attitudes-in-massachusetts
#3
Julie Lunstead, Elissa R Weitzman, Dylan Kaye, Sharon Levy
BACKGROUND: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is recommended as a strategy to prevent or reduce adolescent substance use. Offering SBIRT in schools may provide an opportunity to reach adolescents not accessing primary care. Our objective is to assess school nurses' attitudes and practices regarding adolescent SBIRT. METHODS: We administered electronically and in person a questionnaire including 29 items on SBIRT attitudes and practices to school nurses registered for the Northeastern University's School Health Institute Summer Program in Massachusetts (N = 168)...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027016/opioid-overdose-prevention-training-with-naloxone-an-adjunct-to-basic-life-support-training-for-first-year-medical-students
#4
Noah Berland, Aaron Fox, Babak Tofighi, Kathleen Hanley
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths have reached epidemic proportions in the United States. This problem stems from both licit and illicit opioid use. Physicians play a role in prescribing opioids, recognizing risky use, and initiating prevention, including Opioid Overdose Prevention Training (OOPT). The American Heart Association (AHA) modified their basic life support (BLS) algorithms to consider naloxone in high risk populations and when a pulse is appreciated; however, the AHA did not provide OOPT...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027011/smokeless-tobacco-use-among-united-states-air-force-trainees
#5
Brittany D Linde, Jon O Ebbert, Darrell R Schroeder, Andy C Hanson, G Wayne Talcott, Robert C Klesges
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in the United States Air Force (USAF) exceeds civilian use rates. We assessed the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use and evaluated the correlates of smokeless tobacco use in a sample of United States Air Force trainees. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of USAF Technical Training school personnel at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland and Fort Sam Houston (N = 14,810). Survey completion rate was 78%. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between demographic variables, tobacco use, and social factors for both regular and infrequent smokeless tobacco (e...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925868/overlapping-buprenorphine-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-prescriptions-among-veterans-dually-enrolled-in-department-of-veterans-affairs-and-medicare-part-d
#6
Walid F Gellad, Xinhua Zhao, Carolyn T Thorpe, Joshua M Thorpe, Florentina E Sileanu, John P Cashy, Maria Mor, Jennifer A Hale, Thomas Radomski, Leslie R M Hausmann, Michael J Fine, Chester B Good
BACKGROUND: Buprenorphine is a key tool in the management of opioid use disorder, but there are growing concerns about abuse, diversion, and safety. These concerns are amplified for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), whose patients may receive care concurrently from multiple prescribers within and outside VA. To illustrate the extent of this challenge, we examined overlapping prescriptions for buprenorphine, opioids, and benzodiazepines among veterans dually enrolled in VA and Medicare Part D...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-residents
#7
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. We evaluate whether psychosocial stressors, and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of U...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925866/there-s-something-about-molly-the-underresearched-yet-popular-powder-form-of-ecstasy-in-the-united-states
#8
Joseph J Palamar
Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in the United States since the early 2000s; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of "Molly," although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") that the name "Molly" may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925865/public-health-messages-about-perinatal-marijuana-use-in-an-evolving-policy-context
#9
Marian Jarlenski, Jennifer Zank, Jill Tarr, Judy C Chang
BACKGROUND: Marijuana is a commonly used substance in pregnancy in the United States. It is unknown what public health messages about perinatal marijuana use are being disseminated in the changing policy landscape. METHODS: The authors systematically searched 51 state and 5 federal public health agencies' Web sites in February 2016 for information about perinatal marijuana use. Of these, 1 federal agency and 10 state agencies had published information about perinatal marijuana use...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925864/intravenous-use-of-intranasal-naloxone-a-case-of-overdose-reversal
#10
Smita Das, Nina Shah, Murtuza Ghadiali
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a growing concern in the United States and internationally. Prehospital or pre-medical personnel (layperson) administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, to reverse overdose, is an expanding mode of harm reduction. Recently, community clinics, methadone clinics, needle exchanges, some pharmacies, and other health care facilities have made naloxone available to the community. CASE: This case describes heroin overdose reversal of a 28-year-old male who had been using about a gram of heroin intravenously for 3 years but recently reduced frequency of use in an attempt to stop...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925860/-alcoholic-or-person-with-alcohol-use-disorder-applying-person-first-diagnostic-terminology-in-the-clinical-domain
#11
Sean M Robinson
A recent publication by Broyles et al. has recommended extending the use of diagnostically accurate, person-first language (e.g., "person with alcohol use disorder") as an alternative to non-diagnostic, idiosyncratic terms (e.g., "addict", "alcoholic") when describing individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) in academic publications. Given the high levels of stigma towards individuals with SUDs in both the public and professional community alike, however, the present commentary advocates for extending the use of appropriate terminology in the description of individuals with SUDs beyond the academic arena- i...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897966/behavioral-characteristics-and-injection-practices-associated-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-community-based-observational-study
#12
Disa Dahlman, Anders Håkansson, Alex H Kral, Lynn Wenger, Elizabeth L Ball, Scott P Novak
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Although SSTIs pose significant health risks, little is known about their prevalence and characteristics in the population of PWID in the United States. This study investigates whether behavioral factors related to skin and equipment hygiene and tissue-damaging injection practices are associated with recent SSTIs among PWID. METHODS: Active PWID were recruited using targeted sampling in San Francisco in 2011-2013...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897965/factors-associated-with-substance-use-in-older-homeless-adults-results-from-the-hope-home-study
#13
Matthew A Spinelli, Claudia Ponath, Lina Tieu, Emily E Hurstak, David Guzman, Margot Kushel
BACKGROUND: The median age of the single adult homeless population is 50 and rising. Although the prevalence of substance use decreases as individuals age, older adults now have a higher prevalence of substance use than older adults did 10 years ago. Homeless individuals have a higher prevalence of substance use disorders than the general population. However, little is known about substance use in older homeless adults. METHODS: The objective of the study was to examine prevalence of and factors associated with substance use in a population-based sample (N = 350) of homeless individuals aged 50 and older in Oakland, California...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897918/buprenorphine-shared-medical-appointments-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-dependence-in-a-homeless-clinic
#14
Sara L Doorley, Cheryl J Ho, Elizabeth Echeverria, Charles Preston, Huy Ngo, Ahmad Kamal, Chinazo O Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse and dependence are prevalent and rising problems in the United States. Treatment with buprenorphine is a successful treatment option for individuals with opioid dependence. This study describes and preliminarily evaluates a unique delivery system that provides buprenorphine treatment via a shared medical appointment. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review on all 77 opioid-dependent patients referred for a buprenorphine shared medical appointment in a homeless clinic from 2010 to 2012...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897471/use-of-risk-mitigation-practices-by-family-nurse-practitioners-prescribing-opioids-for-the-management-of-chronic-non-malignant-pain
#15
Sahil Chaudhary, Peggy Compton
BACKGROUND: Ongoing opioid analgesic use in patients suffering from chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP) has been associated with the development of opioid misuse, abuse, addiction, and overdose. To prevent these adverse outcomes, it is important that family nurse practitioners (FNPs) implement recommended risk mitigation practices (RMPs) when treating CNMP patients with opioids. METHODS: A national sample of 856 FNPs was invited to answer an online survey about their utilization of opioids and RMPs in treating CNMP...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897470/faculty-development-efforts-to-promote-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-sbirt-in-an-internal-medicine-faculty-resident-practice
#16
Alanna Stone, Maria Wamsley, Patricia O'Sullivan, Jason Satterfield, Derek D Satre, Katherine Julian
BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a practical means to address substance misuse in primary care. Important barriers to implementing SBIRT include adequacy of training and provider confidence as well as logistical hurdles and time constraints. A faculty development initiative aimed at increasing SBIRT knowledge and treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) should lead to increased use of SBIRT by faculty and the residents they teach. This study examined how a faculty development program to promote SBIRT influenced faculty practice and resident teaching...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897468/commitment-and-capacity-for-providing-evidence-based-tobacco-treatment-in-us-drug-treatment-facilities
#17
Kimber P Richter, Jamie J Hunt, A Paula Cupertino, Byron J Gajewski, Yu Jiang, Janet Marquis, Peter D Friedmann
BACKGROUND: Although people with mental illness, including substance use disorders, consume 44% of cigarettes in the United States, few facilities provide tobacco treatment. This study assesses staff- and facility-level drivers of tobacco treatment in substance use treatment. METHODS: Surveys were administered to 405 clinic directors selected from a comprehensive inventory of 3800 US outpatient facilities. The main outcome was the validated 7-item Index of Tobacco Treatment Quality...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897467/alcohol-and-marijuana-use-in-pathways-of-risk-for-sexually-transmitted-infection-in-white-and-black-adolescent-females
#18
Tammy Chung, Feifei Ye, Alison E Hipwell, Stephanie D Stepp, Elizabeth Miller, Sonya Borrero, Mary Hawk
BACKGROUND: Some types of sexually transmitted infection (STI) have higher prevalence in females than males, and among black, relative to white, females. Identifying mechanisms of STI risk is critical to effective intervention. The authors tested a model in which alcohol and marijuana use serve as mediating factors in the associations between depression and conduct problems with sexual risk behavior (SRB) and STI in adolescent females. METHODS: The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal observational study of females who have been followed annually to track the course of mental and physical health conditions...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897465/predicting-young-adults-risk-for-engaging-in-prescription-drug-misuse-in-daily-life-from-individual-partner-and-relationship-factors
#19
Lauren M Papp, Chrystyna D Kouros
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence based on retrospective and global assessments has established associations between prescription drug misuse and illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, mental health problems, risky sexual behaviors, and overdose deaths. However, there is a notable absence of identified risk and protective factors for an individual's likelihood of engaging in misuse in real-world environments. METHODS: Using an experience sampling approach, the authors collected repeated moments of young adults' (n = 95 participants drawn from 49 romantic couples) prescription drug misuse instances in daily life and tested multiple factors associated with the misuse...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874326/alcohol-use-patterns-and-alcohol-use-disorders-among-young-adult-ethnically-diverse-bariatric-surgery-patients
#20
Christine E Spadola, Eric F Wagner, Veronica H Accornero, Denise C Vidot, Nestor de la Cruz-Munoz, Sarah E Messiah
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that young adults and racial/ethnic minorities are at an increased risk for problematic alcohol use. Recent studies have also documented patterns of problematic alcohol use among a subset of weight loss surgery (WLS) patients. However, to date, there are no published studies investigating the intersection of these demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: This study used descriptive and inferential analyses to examine alcohol use patterns, prevalence of pre- and post-WLS alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and predictors of increased alcohol use and problematic alcohol use post-WLS among young adult (mean age 26...
November 22, 2016: Substance Abuse
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