Read by QxMD icon Read

Substance Abuse

Magdalena Greene, J Aaron Johnson, J Paul Seale, Allen Tindol, Kristy B Le, Diana D Clemow, Ann H Barham, David P Miller
BACKGROUND: Over one-quarter of American adults binge drink, resulting in significant alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Though brief interventions can decrease patients' alcohol use, many physicians in training do not provide this service. This study examines the prevalence of binge drinking among primary care residents, and the association of resident drinking behaviors with addressing patients' hazardous alcohol use. METHODS: Between July 2013 and August 2014, the authors surveyed all trainees in six primary care residency programs...
September 20, 2016: Substance Abuse
Corey S Davis, Scott Burris, Leo Beletsky, Ingrid Binswanger
The opioid overdose epidemic claims the lives of tens of thousands of Americans every year. Opioid overdose is reversible by the administration of naloxone, a pure antagonist now available in formulations specifically designed and labeled for layperson use. Despite broad support for layperson access to naloxone from professional organizations, health officials, and clinical experts, qualitative studies suggest that some providers have concerns about legal risks associated with naloxone prescribing, particularly co-prescribing naloxone to pain patients...
September 20, 2016: Substance Abuse
Arthi K Narayanan, John D Harding, Shaddy K Saba, James Conley, Adam J Gordon
The United States faces an addiction health crisis. Presidential election cycles in the United States are cause for creation of political party platforms. These platforms provide general stances and specific policies on a variety of issues. We undertook a review of the addiction policies of the 2016 Republican and Democratic platforms. Despite differences in focus, we found more similarities than differences between the two. We call upon those in political power to use every evidence-based policy at their disposal to promote addiction treatment and prevention...
September 20, 2016: Substance Abuse
Traci M Schwinn, Steven P Schinke, Jessica Hopkins, Bridgette Thom
BACKGROUND: Despite overall reductions in teenage substance use, adolescent girls' rates of substance use remain unacceptably high. This article examines whether girls' substance use is associated with general risk and protective factors (goal setting, problem solving, refusal skills, peer use, and self-efficacy) and gender-specific risk and protective factors (communication style, coping skills, self-esteem, body image, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression). METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected in 2013 via online surveys from a nationwide sample of adolescent girls (N = 788), aged 13 and 14 years, who were recruited through Facebook...
September 20, 2016: Substance Abuse
Daniel P Riggins, Chinazo O Cunningham, Yuming Ning, Aaron D Fox
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. Buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) is an effective means of therapy, but patients with recent criminal justice involvement may need more support during BMT than other patients. We hypothesized that recently incarcerated BMT patients who initiated treatment in primary care would have poorer treatment outcomes than those who were not recently incarcerated. METHODS: We analyzed data from a multi-site cohort study of BMT integrated into HIV care...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
Donna Purviance, Bradley Ray, Abigail Tracy, Erik Southard
BACKGROUND: Opioid intoxication and overdoses are life-threatening emergencies requiring rapid treatment. One response to this has been to train law enforcement to detect the signs of an opioid overdose and train them to administer naloxone to reverse the effects. While not a new concept, few studies have attempted to examine this policy. METHODS: At four different locations in Indiana law enforcement were trained to detect the signs of an opioid related overdose and how to administer naloxone to reverse the effects of the overdose...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
Juliana Tournebize, Valérie Gibaja, Jean-Pierre Kahn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States and Europe. In recent years, a range of new substances with cannabis-like effects - known as synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) - have suddenly burst on the drug scene. However, there is limited information about the clinical hazards linked to the use of these emerging substances. This review summarizes the literature to date relating the health effects of SCs. METHOD: A systematic literature review of original case studies was performed using 'Pubmed' and the 'Web of Science' (January, 1980 - July, 2015)...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
Christine Maynié-François, Debbie M Cheng, Jeffrey H Samet, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Tibor Palfai, Judith Bernstein, Richard Saitz
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy alcohol use (UAU) is common among people who use other drugs, however little information is available about UAU among patients who screen positive for drugs in primary care, where the clinical priority might be assumed to be drug use. We aimed at describing the occurrence of UAU and its association with substance use-related outcomes in such patients. METHODS: This cohort study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial of brief intervention for primary care patients screening positive for drug use...
August 2, 2016: Substance Abuse
Jonathon J Beckmeyer
BACKGROUND: The current study tested the associations between college students' intentions to hookup (i.e., specifically intending to go out and engage in sexual behavior with a non-romantic partner) and self-reported heavy drinking. Further, social and sexual enhancement drinking motives were tested as moderators of those associations. METHODS: College students (N = 238) reported a) if they had specifically intended to hookup (reported separately for non-intercourse and intercourse hookup intentions) in the past 6-months, b) social and sexual enhancement drinking expectancies, and c) heavy drinking (a composite of past 30-day drinking frequency, typical amount consumed per drinking occasion, and how many time they got drunk)...
July 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
Amy A Mericle, Jennifer Miles
BACKGROUND: Having a stable and safe place to live is integral to recovery from addiction. Recovery residences represent an important component in the substance use continuum of care, but research on them has been limited to certain types of recovery residences and has yet to examine quality of life among those who live in them. METHODS: This study presents data on the characteristics of residents (N = 104) living in a stratified random sample of recovery homes in Philadelphia (N = 13) as well as data from a random subsample of residents (N = 27) who participated in 3-month follow-up interviews...
July 21, 2016: Substance Abuse
David Marcovitz, Julie V Cristello, John F Kelly
BACKGROUND: Substance-use disorders (SUD) are highly prevalent among primary care patients. One evidence-based, cost-effective referral option are ubiquitous mutual-help organizations (MHOs) like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA) and SMART Recovery, however, little is known about how to effectively increase trainee knowledge and confidence with these referrals. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether a single 45-minute combined lecture and role play-based didactic for primary care residents could enhance knowledge, improve attitudes and bolster confidence in referring patients with addictions to community MHOs...
July 20, 2016: Substance Abuse
Eric M Schmidt, Shalini Gupta, Thomas Bowe, Laura S Ellerbe, Tyler E Phelps, John W Finney, Steven M Asch, Keith Humphreys, Jodie Trafton, Megan Vanneman, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: Measures of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment quality are essential tools for performance improvement. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) developed a measure of access to and engagement in intensive outpatient programs (IOP) for SUD. However, predictive validity, or associations between this measure and treatment outcomes, has not been examined. METHODS: Data on veterans with SUD came from three samples: the Outcomes Monitoring Project (N = 5,436), a national evaluation of VHA mental health services (N = 339,887), and patients receiving detoxification services (N = 23,572)...
July 19, 2016: Substance Abuse
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Substance Abuse
Adam J Gordon, Shaddy K Saba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Substance Abuse
Charlene M Dewey, Marine V Ghulyan, William H Swiggart
BACKGROUND: Controlled prescription drug (CPD) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Most physicians attending a 3-day continuing medical education (CME) professional development program (PDP) lack training in identifying risk and in managing patients who misuse CPDs. To address this issue, the authors conducted an evaluation of a PDP that trains physicians on proper prescribing, identifying substance abuse, utilizing screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT), and implementing motivational interviewing (MI)...
July 2016: Substance Abuse
Jasmine B MacDonald, Anthony J Saliba, Gene Hodgins
BACKGROUND: Journalists' exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), high levels of job stress, and anecdotal reports within the industry seem to suggest that journalists are at greater risk than the general population to experience substance use disorders. The present systematic literature review (SLR) aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to journalists' experience of substance use. METHODS: The systematic review method adopted within the present study was based on that prescribed by Fink in the 2010 book, Conducting systematic literature reviews: From the internet to paper, 3rd ed...
July 2016: Substance Abuse
Traci Rieckmann, John Muench, Mary Ann McBurnie, Michael C Leo, Phillip Crawford, Daren Ford, Jennifer Stubbs, Conall O'Cleirigh, Kenneth H Mayer, Kevin Fiscella, Nicole Wright, Maya Doe-Simkins, Matthew Cuddeback, Elizabeth Salisbury-Afshar, Christine Nelson
BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act increases access to treatment services for people who suffer from substance use disorders (SUDs), including alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and opioid use disorders (OUDs). This increased access to treatment has broad implications for delivering health services and creates a dramatic need for transformation in clinical care, service lines, and collaborative care models. Medication assisted treatments (MAT) are effective for helping SUD patients reach better outcomes...
May 24, 2016: Substance Abuse
Jeremy Mennis, Michael Mason
BACKGROUND: This study investigates whether residential exposure to tobacco outlets (i.e. convenience stores and other stores selling tobacco) is associated with attitudes towards smoking among a sample of urban, primarily African American, adolescent smokers. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data for 197 adolescents were integrated with spatial data on tobacco outlets via subject home addresses. Ordinal regression was employed to test hypotheses that closer proximity to, and higher concentrations of, tobacco outlets are associated with higher measures of intention to continue to smoke in the future, weaker self-efficacy related to stopping smoking, and more accepting social norms related to smoking, while controlling for characteristics of age, gender, family and peer smoking contexts, and level of nicotine dependence...
May 12, 2016: Substance Abuse
Amy Bachyrycz, Shikhar Shrestha, Barry E Bleske, Dale Tinker, Ludmila N Bakhireva
BACKGROUND: Given that opioid misuse/abuse and opioid overdose have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S., expansion of naloxone access programs are desperately needed. The objective of this study was to describe emerging trends in Naloxone Rescue Kit (NRK) prescription patterns by pharmacists in New Mexico as an example of a unique healthcare delivery system. METHODS: The study presents cross-sectional analysis of the data on NRK prescriptions by pharmacists who received Naloxone Pharmacist Prescriptive Authority Certification since 2013...
May 10, 2016: Substance Abuse
Sarah E Wakeman, Genevieve Pham-Kanter, Karen Donelan
BACKGROUND: Previous research demonstrates that most primary care physicians feel unprepared to diagnose and treat substance use disorder (SUD). Confidence in SUD management has been associated with improved clinical practices. METHODS: A Cross-sectional survey of 290 inpatient and outpatient general internists in an academic medical center evaluating attitudes, preparedness, and clinical practice related to SUD. RESULTS: 149 general internists responded, a response rate of 51%...
May 10, 2016: Substance Abuse
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"