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Substance Abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166464/implementation-of-a-pharmacy-consult-to-reduce-co-prescribing-of-opioids-and-benzodiazepines-in-a-veteran-population
#1
Deborah Pardo, Lacey Miller, Dana Chiulli
BACKGROUND: The dangers of co-administration of opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs) are well documented. The combination of OPRs and BZDs make up the majority of medications involved in prescription drug-related overdose and are often used concomitantly. This pattern is consistent among the Veteran population where mental health illness and substance abuse are prominent. The Veterans Health Administration implemented the Opioid Safety Initiative (OSI) aimed at improving patient safety surrounding OPRs...
February 6, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113039/smartphone-application-for-unhealthy-alcohol-use-a-pilot-study
#2
Nicolas Bertholet, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Jennifer McNeely, Vlad Kushnir, John A Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Technology-delivered interventions are useful tools for addressing unhealthy alcohol use. Smartphones in particular offer opportunities to deliver interventions at the user's convenience. We developed a smartphone application with 5 modules (personal feedback, self-monitoring of drinking, designated driver tool, blood alcohol content calculator, information). We assessed its acceptability and associations between use and drinking outcomes. METHODS: 130 adults with unhealthy alcohol use (>14 (men)/ >7 (women) drinks/week or > = 1 episode/month with 6 or more drinks) recruited in Switzerland (n = 70) and Canada (n = 60) were offered to use the application...
January 23, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113004/development-of-an-opioid-related-overdose-risk-behavior-scale-orbs
#3
Enrique R Pouget, Alex S Bennett, Luther Elliott, Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Ramona Almeñana, Peter C Britton, Andrew Rosenblum
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose has emerged as the leading cause of injury-related death in the U.S., driven by prescription opioid (PO) misuse, polysubstance use and use of heroin. To better understand opioid-related overdose risks that may change over time and across populations there is a need for a more comprehensive assessment of related risk behaviors. We developed the opioid-related Overdose Risk Behavior Scale (ORBS), drawing on existing research, formative interviews, and discussions with community and scientific advisors...
January 23, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027019/screening-and-brief-intervention-in-high-schools-school-nurse-practices-and-attitudes-in-massachusetts
#4
Julie Lunstead, Elissa R Weitzman, Dylan Kaye, Sharon Levy
BACKGROUND: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is recommended as a strategy to prevent or reduce adolescent substance use. Offering SBIRT in schools may provide an opportunity to reach adolescents not accessing primary care. Our objective is to assess school nurses' attitudes and practices regarding adolescent SBIRT. METHODS: We administered electronically and in person a questionnaire including 29 items on SBIRT attitudes and practices to school nurses registered for the Northeastern University's School Health Institute Summer Program in Massachusetts (N = 168)...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027016/opioid-overdose-prevention-training-with-naloxone-an-adjunct-to-basic-life-support-training-for-first-year-medical-students
#5
Noah Berland, Aaron Fox, Babak Tofighi, Kathleen Hanley
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths have reached epidemic proportions in the United States. This problem stems from both licit and illicit opioid use. Physicians play a role in prescribing opioids, recognizing risky use, and initiating prevention, including Opioid Overdose Prevention Training (OOPT). The American Heart Association (AHA) modified their basic life support (BLS) algorithms to consider naloxone in high risk populations and when a pulse is appreciated; however, the AHA did not provide OOPT...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027011/smokeless-tobacco-use-among-united-states-air-force-trainees
#6
Brittany D Linde, Jon O Ebbert, Darrell R Schroeder, Andy C Hanson, G Wayne Talcott, Robert C Klesges
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in the United States Air Force (USAF) exceeds civilian use rates. We assessed the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use and evaluated the correlates of smokeless tobacco use in a sample of United States Air Force trainees. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of USAF Technical Training school personnel at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland and Fort Sam Houston (N = 14,810). Survey completion rate was 78%. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between demographic variables, tobacco use, and social factors for both regular and infrequent smokeless tobacco (e...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-us-residents
#7
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus, people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. The authors evaluate whether psychosocial stressors and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of US residents and assess whether psychosocial stressors mediate identified associations...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080324/the-40th-annual-meeting-of-amersa-highlights-abstracts-and-awards
#8
Adam J Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075715/abstracts-of-the-18th-annual-meeting-of-the-international-society-of-addiction-medicine-isam-2016
#9
Adam J Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925868/overlapping-buprenorphine-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-prescriptions-among-veterans-dually-enrolled-in-department-of-veterans-affairs-and-medicare-part-d
#10
Walid F Gellad, Xinhua Zhao, Carolyn T Thorpe, Joshua M Thorpe, Florentina E Sileanu, John P Cashy, Maria Mor, Jennifer A Hale, Thomas Radomski, Leslie R M Hausmann, Michael J Fine, Chester B Good
BACKGROUND: Buprenorphine is a key tool in the management of opioid use disorder, but there are growing concerns about abuse, diversion, and safety. These concerns are amplified for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), whose patients may receive care concurrently from multiple prescribers within and outside VA. To illustrate the extent of this challenge, we examined overlapping prescriptions for buprenorphine, opioids, and benzodiazepines among veterans dually enrolled in VA and Medicare Part D...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925866/there-s-something-about-molly-the-underresearched-yet-popular-powder-form-of-ecstasy-in-the-united-states
#11
Joseph J Palamar
Molly has been the street name for powder or crystalline ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in the United States since the early 2000s; however, few studies have examined Molly use or included Molly in the definition of ecstasy/MDMA. Prevalence of self-reported ecstasy use is being underreported on surveys due to the lack of inclusion of "Molly," although Molly is often so adulterated with novel psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") that the name "Molly" may no longer adequately represent ecstasy/MDMA...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925865/public-health-messages-about-perinatal-marijuana-use-in-an-evolving-policy-context
#12
Marian Jarlenski, Jennifer Zank, Jill Tarr, Judy C Chang
BACKGROUND: Marijuana is a commonly used substance in pregnancy in the United States. It is unknown what public health messages about perinatal marijuana use are being disseminated in the changing policy landscape. METHODS: The authors systematically searched 51 state and 5 federal public health agencies' Web sites in February 2016 for information about perinatal marijuana use. Of these, 1 federal agency and 10 state agencies had published information about perinatal marijuana use...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925864/intravenous-use-of-intranasal-naloxone-a-case-of-overdose-reversal
#13
Smita Das, Nina Shah, Murtuza Ghadiali
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a growing concern in the United States and internationally. Prehospital or pre-medical personnel (layperson) administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, to reverse overdose, is an expanding mode of harm reduction. Recently, community clinics, methadone clinics, needle exchanges, some pharmacies, and other health care facilities have made naloxone available to the community. CASE: This case describes heroin overdose reversal of a 28-year-old male who had been using about a gram of heroin intravenously for 3 years but recently reduced frequency of use in an attempt to stop...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925860/-alcoholic-or-person-with-alcohol-use-disorder-applying-person-first-diagnostic-terminology-in-the-clinical-domain
#14
Sean M Robinson
A recent publication by Broyles et al. has recommended extending the use of diagnostically accurate, person-first language (e.g., "person with alcohol use disorder") as an alternative to non-diagnostic, idiosyncratic terms (e.g., "addict", "alcoholic") when describing individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) in academic publications. Given the high levels of stigma towards individuals with SUDs in both the public and professional community alike, however, the present commentary advocates for extending the use of appropriate terminology in the description of individuals with SUDs beyond the academic arena- i...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897966/behavioral-characteristics-and-injection-practices-associated-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-community-based-observational-study
#15
Disa Dahlman, Anders Håkansson, Alex H Kral, Lynn Wenger, Elizabeth L Ball, Scott P Novak
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Although SSTIs pose significant health risks, little is known about their prevalence and characteristics in the population of PWID in the United States. This study investigates whether behavioral factors related to skin and equipment hygiene and tissue-damaging injection practices are associated with recent SSTIs among PWID. METHODS: Active PWID were recruited using targeted sampling in San Francisco in 2011-2013...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897965/factors-associated-with-substance-use-in-older-homeless-adults-results-from-the-hope-home-study
#16
Matthew A Spinelli, Claudia Ponath, Lina Tieu, Emily E Hurstak, David Guzman, Margot Kushel
BACKGROUND: The median age of the single adult homeless population is 50 and rising. Although the prevalence of substance use decreases as individuals age, older adults now have a higher prevalence of substance use than older adults did 10 years ago. Homeless individuals have a higher prevalence of substance use disorders than the general population. However, little is known about substance use in older homeless adults. METHODS: The objective of the study was to examine prevalence of and factors associated with substance use in a population-based sample (N = 350) of homeless individuals aged 50 and older in Oakland, California...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897918/buprenorphine-shared-medical-appointments-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-dependence-in-a-homeless-clinic
#17
Sara L Doorley, Cheryl J Ho, Elizabeth Echeverria, Charles Preston, Huy Ngo, Ahmad Kamal, Chinazo O Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse and dependence are prevalent and rising problems in the United States. Treatment with buprenorphine is a successful treatment option for individuals with opioid dependence. This study describes and preliminarily evaluates a unique delivery system that provides buprenorphine treatment via a shared medical appointment. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review on all 77 opioid-dependent patients referred for a buprenorphine shared medical appointment in a homeless clinic from 2010 to 2012...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897471/use-of-risk-mitigation-practices-by-family-nurse-practitioners-prescribing-opioids-for-the-management-of-chronic-nonmalignant-pain
#18
Sahil Chaudhary, Peggy Compton
BACKGROUND: Ongoing opioid analgesic use in patients suffering from chronic nonmalignant pain (CNMP) has been associated with the development of opioid misuse, abuse, addiction, and overdose. To prevent these adverse outcomes, it is important that family nurse practitioners (FNPs) implement recommended risk mitigation practices (RMPs) when treating CNMP patients with opioids. METHODS: A national sample of 856 FNPs was invited to answer an online survey about their utilization of opioids and RMPs in treating CNMP...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897470/faculty-development-efforts-to-promote-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-sbirt-in-an-internal-medicine-faculty-resident-practice
#19
Alanna Stone, Maria Wamsley, Patricia O'Sullivan, Jason Satterfield, Derek D Satre, Katherine Julian
BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a practical means to address substance misuse in primary care. Important barriers to implementing SBIRT include adequacy of training and provider confidence as well as logistical hurdles and time constraints. A faculty development initiative aimed at increasing SBIRT knowledge and treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) should lead to increased use of SBIRT by faculty and the residents they teach. This study examined how a faculty development program to promote SBIRT influenced faculty practice and resident teaching...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897468/commitment-and-capacity-for-providing-evidence-based-tobacco-treatment-in-us-drug-treatment-facilities
#20
Kimber P Richter, Jamie J Hunt, A Paula Cupertino, Byron J Gajewski, Yu Jiang, Janet Marquis, Peter D Friedmann
BACKGROUND: Although people with mental illness, including substance use disorders, consume 44% of cigarettes in the United States, few facilities provide tobacco treatment. This study assesses staff- and facility-level drivers of tobacco treatment in substance use treatment. METHODS: Surveys were administered to 405 clinic directors selected from a comprehensive inventory of 3800 US outpatient facilities. The main outcome was the validated 7-item Index of Tobacco Treatment Quality...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
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