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Psychology & Health

Beth A Auslander, Jessica M Meers, Mary B Short, Gregory D Zimet, Susan L Rosenthal
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify factors influencing the vaccine intention-behaviour relationship. DESIGN: A total of 445 parents who received a brief intervention to promote HPV vaccination were categorized based on their intentions post-intervention (yes/unsure/eventually/never) and subsequent adolescents' vaccine status (yes/no). Fifty-one of these parents participated in qualitative interviews. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents described their intentions, decision-making and planning processes towards vaccination...
November 8, 2018: Psychology & Health
Shoshana Shiloh, Irit Heruti, Anastasia Diamis, Sigal Levy, Ronit Avitsur, Daniel Deutscher, Moshe Gutvirtz, Tamar Berkovitz
OBJECTIVES: To test the centrality of injury to self-concept as a moderator of the associations between injury perceptions and outcomes. METHODS: Two concurrent studies on samples of injured individuals. MEASURES: The centrality of injury to one's self concept was measured by the degree of self-injury separation (PRISM); injury perceptions were measured by the injury perception questionnaire; and outcomes by standard scales of self-assessed health, physical, emotional and social functioning, vitality, depression, anxiety and somatisation...
November 8, 2018: Psychology & Health
Danica C Slavish, Jennifer E Graham-Engeland, Christopher G Engeland, Daniel J Taylor, Orfeu M Buxton
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is associated with elevated inflammation; however, studies have not investigated if this relationship is confounded with depression and neuroticism, which are associated with insomnia and inflammation. The current study examined the association of insomnia symptoms with C-reactive protein (CRP) and with interleukin-6 (IL-6), independently and after controlling for depressive symptoms and neuroticism. DESIGN: Fifty-two young adults (mean age = 25...
October 25, 2018: Psychology & Health
K Sindlinger, K Meng, M Dorn, H Faller, M Schuler
OBJECTIVES: Rehabilitation for patients with rheumatic diseases improves both illness representations (IR) and clinical outcomes such as pain and physical functioning (PF). However, it is unclear whether IR may affect and, in turn, are affected by pain and PF. In this study, we examined both between-person associations and within-person associations between IR and pain/PF over time on three measurement occasions. Furthermore, cross-lagged relationships were examined. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This secondary analysis is based on data from N = 186 patients with rheumatic diseases...
October 25, 2018: Psychology & Health
Glen S Jankowski, Brendan Gough, Helen Fawkner, Emma Halliwell, Phillippa C Diedrichs
OBJECTIVE: To examine men's body dissatisfaction qualitatively. DESIGN: Forty-two British men aged 18-45 years took part in a two-session group intervention across 12 groups. The intervention was designed to improve body dissatisfaction by engaging them in a critique of the appearance ideal through written and behavioural exercises. Main outcome measures/results: Analysis of the topics discussed during the intervention generated two core themes. Theme 1 showed that, in general, men minimised the existence of their own body dissatisfaction while (somewhat surprisingly) outlining the ubiquity and potency of the appearance ideal for men in general...
October 18, 2018: Psychology & Health
Darío Moreno-Agostino, Francisco Félix Caballero, Natalia Martín-María, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Pilar López-García, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Josep Maria Haro, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Marta Miret
OBJECTIVE: Although there is some evidence of the association between specific food groups, such as plant foods, and subjective wellbeing, this is the first study to assess the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and subjective wellbeing. DESIGN: Data were collected in 2014-2015, within the Edad con Salud project, a follow-up study of a multistage clustered survey on a representative sample of the population of Spain. The final sample comprised 2397 individuals with ages ranging from 21 to 101 years...
October 15, 2018: Psychology & Health
Iris M Kanera, Charlotte C M van Laake-Geelen, Joop M Ruijgrok, Marielle E J B Goossens, Jeroen R de Jong, Jeanine A Verbunt, Margot Geerts, Rob J E M Smeets, Hanne P J Kindermans
OBJECTIVE: Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is known to negatively affect quality of life. Being physically active is a crucial part of successful diabetes self-management, but regimen adherence is often low. Coping strategies and fears have shown to be related to less physical activity (PA). The aim of the present study was to obtain more in-depth information on psychological risk factors leading to less PA in persons with PDN. DESIGN: Three semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with a representative sample of persons with PDN (N = 12)...
October 15, 2018: Psychology & Health
Liese Exelmans, Jan Van den Bulck
OBJECTIVE: Sleep insufficiency has been related to self-control failure: people fail to go to bed in time and end up sleep deprived. The role of state self-control in predicting bedtime and sleep duration has not yet been investigated. Based on research claiming an overlap between depleted self-control resources and fatigue, self-control depletion may foster earlier bedtimes. Conversely, self-control depletion also increases the propensity to procrastinate bedtime by giving in to the immediate gratification of late night entertainment...
October 11, 2018: Psychology & Health
Sarah Grogan, Emma Turley, Jennifer Cole
OBJECTIVE: To understand women's experiences of coping with endometriosis, and impact on their lives. DESIGN: Women accessed an online questionnaire through a U.K.-based endometriosis charity website. METHODS: Thirty-four women, aged 22-56 years, with self-reported medically-diagnosed endometriosis, 30 of whom were White, responded to open-ended questions, analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants spoke about their lives being a constant struggle, where they tried to maintain their personal and working lives whilst dealing with long-term pain...
October 11, 2018: Psychology & Health
Oddgeir Friborg
OBJECTIVE: Checklists for registering stressful life events (SLEs) generally correlate negatively, but weakly, with mental health outcome measures. Thus, the present study examined various methodological approaches for improving these relationships. DESIGN: A total of 1679 participants (women = 943, men = 736, M age-39.8) were randomly drawn from the general Norwegian population (response rate 34%). This prospective cohort study included two follow-ups at 10 (n = 1181) and 23 months (n = 942)...
October 8, 2018: Psychology & Health
Graeme Smith, Lynn Williams, Christopher O'Donnell, Jim McKechnie
OBJECTIVES: Research supports the ability of social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain physical activity (PA) behaviour, but most studies have examined this theory between individuals in large group studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the interrelationships between SCT constructs and PA within individuals of varying activity levels. DESIGN: Correlational n-of-1 studies. METHODS: Six adults aged 29-65 with varying levels of PA provided daily measures of PA, and completed probe measures over a four-week period of SCT constructs (e...
October 8, 2018: Psychology & Health
Viola Spek, Giesje Nefs, Paula M C Mommersteeg, Jane Speight, Frans Pouwer, Johan Denollet
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether individual differences in Type D personality (combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)) could explain heterogeneity in perceived social support and relationship adjustment (intimate partner relationship) among people living with diabetes. DESIGN: In the Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands survey, 621 adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (54% female, age: 56 ± 14 years) completed measures of Type D personality (DS14), perceived social support and relationship adjustment...
October 8, 2018: Psychology & Health
Helge Giese, F Marijn Stok, Britta Renner
OBJECTIVE: This study examines temporal patterns and individual differences of overestimation in alcohol norm perception within a social network. DESIGN: Hundred psychology freshmen indicated biweekly during their first semester the drinks they consumed, the perceived average of their peers' consumption, and with whom they were acquainted. At baseline, trait self-control was assessed. MAIN OUTCOME: The moderation of alcohol consumption overestimation by time and individual characteristics was explored...
October 8, 2018: Psychology & Health
Magdalena Kruk, Karolina Zarychta, Karolina Horodyska, Monika Boberska, Urte Scholz, Theda Radtke, Aleksandra Luszczynska
BACKGROUND: This longitudinal dyadic study used cross-lagged analyses to examine reciprocal patterns of associations between physical activity (PA) enjoyment and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) among children and their parents. METHODS: At Time 1 (T1) 879 parent-child dyads provided their data. The follow-up (Time 2, T2) took place 7-8-months later. MVPA and PA enjoyment scales were filled out separately by parents and children at T1 and T2. FINDINGS: Child PA enjoyment (T1) predicted a higher level of child MVPA (T2), parental PA enjoyment (T1) explained a higher level of parental MVPA (T2), and parental MVPA (T1) predicted a higher level of parental PA enjoyment (T2)...
October 8, 2018: Psychology & Health
Ainslea J Cross, Gulcan Garip, David Sheffield
OBJECTIVE: A systematic meta-synthesis of qualitative studies was conducted to interpret and synthesise findings from studies investigating the experiences, quality of life, and psychosocial impact of caregiving on adult informal caregivers of people with dementia. DESIGN: The meta-synthesis was conducted according to the principles of meta-ethnography. RESULTS: Fourteen studies describing the experiences of 265 informal caregivers were reviewed...
September 27, 2018: Psychology & Health
F Marijn Stok, Astrid F Junghans, Denise T D de Ridder, Britta Renner, Catharine Evers
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that people consume less food in the dark compared to normal vision conditions. While this effect is commonly attributed to increased attention to internal cues, it could also be caused by increased difficulty to maneuver in a dark setting. This study investigated this potential alternative explanation. DESIGN: A 2 (dark versus normal vision setting) × 2 (highlighted versus non-highlighted utensils) between-subjects design was employed...
August 28, 2018: Psychology & Health
Matthew Reaney, Nik Chmiel, Susan Churchill
OBJECTIVES: People with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) should check their feet and protect them against harm, but few do. Living with a spouse contributes to good foot care behaviour. This study explores awareness, perceived susceptibility of, and concern about, foot problems, and reported foot care behaviour, and ways in which a spouse may or may not contribute to foot care in T2DM. METHODS: 1:1 interviews were conducted with 6 individuals with T2DM. Half had a spouse half did not...
September 2018: Psychology & Health
Julie Wagner, Stephen Armeli, Howard Tennen, Angela Bermudez-Millan, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
OBJECTIVE: Stress management and relaxation (SMR) interventions can reduce symptoms of chronic disease and associated distress. However, there is little evidence that such interventions disrupt associations between symptoms and affect. This study examined whether SMR dampened the link between symptoms of hyperglycemia and proximal levels of affect. We predicted that during periods of increased hyperglycemia, individuals receiving SMR training, relative to controls, would demonstrate smaller increases in negative affect...
September 2018: Psychology & Health
Gregg H Rawlings, Ian Brown, Brendan Stone, Markus Reuber
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of a writing intervention for individuals with epilepsy or psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. METHODS: Individuals were randomised to write about potentially 'therapeutic' topics (n = 43) or about their daily events (n = 25). Participants were asked to write on four separate occasions for at least 20 min. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to investigate change in measures of health-related quality of life (NEWQoL-6D), depression (NDDI-E), anxiety (GAD-7) and illness perception (B-IPQ) from baseline to one and three-month follow-ups...
September 2018: Psychology & Health
Anne Kjeldsen, Mike Stoolmiller, John W Toumbourou, Wendy Nilsen
OBJECTIVE: We examined behaviour problem precursors (i.e. internalising and externalising) in childhood (ages 1.5 to 8.5) and early adolescence (age 12.5) and consequences (i.e. harmful alcohol use) in emerging adulthood (age 19), of developmental trajectories of drinking to intoxication across adolescence (ages 14.5-19). DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Data from 921 children and their parents followed for 18 years from the population-based Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) Study were used to examine adolescent trajectories of drinking to intoxication...
September 2018: Psychology & Health
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