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Psychology & Health

Cynthia C Forbes, Chris M Blanchard, W Kerry Mummery, Kerry S Courneya
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of an internet-delivered, distance-based physical activity (PA) behaviour change programme on motivation to perform PA in cancer survivors. DESIGN: Breast, prostate and colorectal cancer survivors (N = 95) were randomized to either an online Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-based PA behaviour change programme (UCAN) or usual care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Motivational variables from the TPB including intention, planning, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and underlying beliefs...
November 24, 2016: Psychology & Health
Diarmaid Ó Lonargáin, Dawn Brannigan, Craig Murray
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the psychological experiences of receiving a kidney transplant from a deceased donor and to examine resulting implications for renal services. DESIGN: A qualitative design was utilised within an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) framework. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six adults (male = 5, mean age = 45 yrs) on their experiences of receiving a kidney transplant from a deceased donor...
November 15, 2016: Psychology & Health
Urska Arnautovska, Lena Fleig, Frances O'Callaghan, Kyra Hamilton
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of conscious and non-conscious processes for prediction of older adults' physical activity (PA), we tested a dual-process model that integrated motivational (behavioural intention) and volitional (action planning and coping planning) processes with non-conscious, automatic processes (habit). METHOD: Participants (N = 215) comprised community-dwelling older adults (M = 73.8 years). A longitudinal design was adopted to investigate direct and indirect effects of intentions, habit strength (Time 1), and action planning and coping planning (Time 2) on PA behaviour (Time 3)...
November 14, 2016: Psychology & Health
Michelle R vanDellen, Savannah M Boyd, Krista W Ranby, LeeAnn B Beam
OBJECTIVE: Potential support providers may rely on observable behaviours (e.g. resisting a cigarette vs. smoking) to determine how much and what kind of support to provide. We evaluated the effect of smokers' salient behaviour on partners' likelihood of providing positive and negative support. DESIGN: Partners of smokers (N = 131) were randomly assigned to recall a time when their partner either successfully resisted a cigarette, failed to resist a cigarette or a control condition (no recall)...
November 10, 2016: Psychology & Health
Brittany Merson, Kathy Pezdek, Karen Saywitz
OBJECTIVE: Although research studies increasingly use children as primary reporters in dietary assessments, it is unclear how well children's self-reported intake correlates with independently validated reports of their intake; this meta-analysis assesses that correlation. DESIGN: Moderators of the correlation between self-reported and independently validated intake were predicted a priori: type of dietary intake assessment (24 h recall, food diary and food frequency questionnaires), validation measures, parental assistance and age...
November 2, 2016: Psychology & Health
Catherine E Mosher, Rebecca N Adams, Paul R Helft, Bert H O'Neil, Safi Shahda, Nicholas A Rattray, Victoria L Champion
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed positive changes in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and their family caregivers following diagnosis. We compared self-reported positive changes within patient-caregiver dyads as well as self-reports and patient reports of positive changes in caregivers. DESIGN: Individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 patients with advanced colorectal cancer and 23 caregivers. A theoretical thematic analysis of interview transcripts was framed by posttraumatic growth theory...
October 24, 2016: Psychology & Health
Reinhard Fuchs, Harald Seelig, Wiebke Göhner, Martina Schlatterer, Nikos Ntoumanis
OBJECTIVE: The present research introduces an extended conceptualisation of self-concordance, which is considered an attribute not only of goals, but also of goal intentions. Based on a corresponding operationalisation, we investigate the interplay of both intention strength and intention self-concordance in the prediction of physical activity. DESIGN: Data were taken from a longitudinal study of 134 obese people who were asked to fill out a questionnaire three times every six months...
October 24, 2016: Psychology & Health
Rachel C Sumner, Stephen Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: Unemployment is a type of chronic stressor that impacts human health. The reasons for how the stress of unemployment affect health is still a matter of discussion. One of the pathways from chronic stress to ill health is mediated by cortisol, and so we set out to compile extant data on how its secretion is affected by unemployment. DESIGN: A systematic literature search was conducted to establish the cortisol dysregulatory effects of this stressor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Only studies that specifically examined the effects of unemployment on cortisol excretion, and were written in English were included...
October 21, 2016: Psychology & Health
Cristina Ruscitto, Jane Ogden
OBJECTIVE: Jet lag is common place amongst long-haul cabin crew. Timed food has been shown to reset the circadian rhythm in rodents. Implementation intentions have been used to change eating behaviour. Mealtimes could therefore be used as a countermeasure to reduce jet lag and improve alertness in long-haul cabin crew through forming an implementation intention to improve the regularity of meals on days off. DESIGN: Sixty long-haul crew took part in a randomised controlled trial, with two conditions: forming an implementation intention to eat regular meals on days off vs...
October 14, 2016: Psychology & Health
Anne E Münster Halvari, Hallgeir Halvari, Geoffrey C Williams, Edward L Deci
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) intervention designed to promote oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way would predict change in caries competence relative to standard care. Further, to test the SDT process path-model hypotheses with: (1) the intervention and individual differences in Relative Autonomous Locus of Causality (RALOC) predicting increases in caries competence, which in turn would positively predict dental attendance; (2) RALOC negatively predicting dental anxiety, which would negatively predict dental attendance; (3) RALOC and caries disease referred to the dentist after an autonomy-supportive clinical exam directly positively predicting dental attendance; and (4) the intervention moderating the link between RALOC and dental attendance...
October 7, 2016: Psychology & Health
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Steven L Mansberger, Christina Sheppler, Jeffrey Kammer, Timothy Fitzgerald, Malik Y Kahook
OBJECTIVE: Nonadherence reduces glaucoma treatment efficacy. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a well-studied adherence intervention, but has not been tested in glaucoma. Reminder interventions also may improve adherence. DESIGN: 201 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were urn-randomized to receive MI delivered by an ophthalmic technician (OT), usual care, or a minimal behavioral intervention (reminder calls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included electronic monitoring with Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) bottles, two self-report adherence measures, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
Wendy W Jacobs, Enny H H J Das, Sanne S B Schagen
OBJECTIVE: Information about treatment side effects can increase their occurrence; breast cancer (BC) patients showed increased cognitive problem reporting (CPR) and decreased memory performance after information about cognitive side effects. The current study extends previous research on Adverse Information Effects (AIE) by investigating (a) risk factors, (b) underlying mechanisms, and (c) an intervention to reduce AIE. DESIGN: In an online experiment, 175 female BC patients were randomly assigned to one of three conditions...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that disgust responses, known to negatively affect psychological wellbeing, may differ in people with cancer. We performed the first quantitative investigation of three discrete types of disgust trait - disgust propensity, sensitivity and self-directed disgust - in people diagnosed with a broad range of cancers (versus cancer-free controls), and explored their associations with psychological wellbeing. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional survey design, 107 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses, recruited from cancer charities and support groups, were matched with cancer-free controls by age and gender...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
Roos Y Arends, Christina Bode, Erik Taal, Mart A F J Van de Laar
Process evaluations of newly developed interventions are necessary to identify effective and less effective intervention components. First aim of this study was to identify key components of a psychosocial goal management intervention from the perspective of participants, and second aim was to evaluate the intervention's fidelity. A mixed-methods approach was applied to 24 interviews with participants post-intervention and 16 audio recordings of random training sessions. Participants experienced three key components: 1) the content, in which specific exercises helped to raise awareness and (intention to) change goal management behaviour, 2) person-focused approach, specifically, the nurse as trainer and personal fit of the approach, and 3) social mechanisms, including facilitating group processes and interpersonal processes...
September 23, 2016: Psychology & Health
Jie Xu
OBJECTIVE: Based on the Limited Capacity Model of Motivated Mediated Message Processing (LC4MP), this study explored the effects of smoking cues in antismoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) on message processing among intermittent/light smokers and nonsmokers. METHOD: A 2 (smoking cues: present vs. absent) x 2 (smoking status: smokers vs. nonsmokers) mixed experimental design was conducted. Self-report measures and two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined...
September 12, 2016: Psychology & Health
Gyongyi Kokonyei, Edina Szabo, Natalia Kocsel, Andrea Edes, Nora Eszlari, Dorottya Pap, Mate Magyar, David Kovacs, Terezia Zsombok, Rebecca Elliott, Ian Muir Anderson, John Francis William Deakin, Gyorgy Bagdy, Gabriella Juhasz
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Nicola S Schutte, Suresh K A Palanisamy, James R McFarlane
OBJECTIVE: Longer telomeres are associated with better health and longevity. This research investigated the relationship between positive psychological dispositional traits and telomere length. Positive traits examined were typical high positive affect, typical low negative affect, life satisfaction, trait mindfulness, trait emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy and optimism. DESIGN AND MEASURES: One hundred and twenty women and men, with a mean age of 40...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Ya-Fang Ho, I-Chuan Li
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to generate evidence regarding the relationships of different dialysis modalities with HR-QOL. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted to investigate the HR-QOL of patients treated with different dialysis modalities. METHODS: A literature search was conducted for English language articles in the CINAHL, Medline and PubMed databases published from January 1990 through May 2016. Specifically, we sought articles that would compare the HR-QOL of hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in terms of physiological, psychological and social functioning, as well as disease symptoms...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Laura Lee, Gillian Murphy, Lisa Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Low well-being during pregnancy can have significant adverse outcomes for mother and child. The effects of mindfulness interventions on prenatal maternal well-being are increasingly examined but outcomes have yet to be systematically evaluated. The aims of the current paper are to systematically evaluate intervention effects and current research approaches with pregnant groups. DESIGN: A systematic review of eight studies examining mindfulness intervention effects on prenatal well-being...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Jack K Garlovsky, Jane Simpson, Richard A Grünewald, Paul G Overton
OBJECTIVES: Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have previously almost exclusively been considered to result from anti-parkinsonian medication. However, this biomedical perspective has failed to achieve a full understanding of the phenomenon and it is argued that a failure to consider psychological factors is a critical omission. DESIGN: The present study examined the predictive relationship between ICDs in PD and a range of psychological measures, whilst controlling for a number of biomedical determinants...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
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