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Psychology & Health

Catherine E Mosher, Rebecca N Adams, Paul R Helft, Bert H O'Neil, Safi Shahda, Nicholas A Rattray, Victoria L Champion
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed positive changes in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and their family caregivers following diagnosis. We compared self-reported positive changes within patient-caregiver dyads as well as self-reports and patient reports of positive changes in caregivers. DESIGN: Individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 patients with advanced colorectal cancer and 23 caregivers. A theoretical thematic analysis of interview transcripts was framed by posttraumatic growth theory...
October 24, 2016: Psychology & Health
Reinhard Fuchs, Harald Seelig, Wiebke Göhner, Martina Schlatterer, Nikos Ntoumanis
OBJECTIVE: The present research introduces an extended conceptualisation of self-concordance, which is considered an attribute not only of goals, but also of goal intentions. Based on a corresponding operationalisation, we investigate the interplay of both intention strength and intention self-concordance in the prediction of physical activity. DESIGN: Data were taken from a longitudinal study of 134 obese people who were asked to fill out a questionnaire three times every six months...
October 24, 2016: Psychology & Health
Rachel C Sumner, Stephen Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: Unemployment is a type of chronic stressor that impacts human health. The reasons for how the stress of unemployment affect health is still a matter of discussion. One of the pathways from chronic stress to ill health is mediated by cortisol, and so we set out to compile extant data on how its secretion is affected by unemployment. DESIGN: A systematic literature search was conducted to establish the cortisol dysregulatory effects of this stressor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Only studies that specifically examined the effects of unemployment on cortisol excretion, and were written in English were included...
October 21, 2016: Psychology & Health
Cristina Ruscitto, Jane Ogden
OBJECTIVE: Jet lag is common place amongst long-haul cabin crew. Timed food has been shown to reset the circadian rhythm in rodents. Implementation intentions have been used to change eating behaviour. Mealtimes could therefore be used as a countermeasure to reduce jet lag and improve alertness in long-haul cabin crew through forming an implementation intention to improve the regularity of meals on days off. DESIGN: Sixty long-haul crew took part in a randomised controlled trial, with two conditions: forming an implementation intention to eat regular meals on days off vs...
October 14, 2016: Psychology & Health
Anne E Münster Halvari, Hallgeir Halvari, Geoffrey C Williams, Edward L Deci
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) intervention designed to promote oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way would predict change in caries competence relative to standard care. Further, to test the SDT process path-model hypotheses with: (1) the intervention and individual differences in Relative Autonomous Locus of Causality (RALOC) predicting increases in caries competence, which in turn would positively predict dental attendance; (2) RALOC negatively predicting dental anxiety, which would negatively predict dental attendance; (3) RALOC and caries disease referred to the dentist after an autonomy-supportive clinical exam directly positively predicting dental attendance; and (4) the intervention moderating the link between RALOC and dental attendance...
October 7, 2016: Psychology & Health
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Steven L Mansberger, Christina Sheppler, Jeffrey Kammer, Timothy Fitzgerald, Malik Y Kahook
OBJECTIVE: Nonadherence reduces glaucoma treatment efficacy. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a well-studied adherence intervention, but has not been tested in glaucoma. Reminder interventions also may improve adherence. DESIGN: 201 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were urn-randomized to receive MI delivered by an ophthalmic technician (OT), usual care, or a minimal behavioral intervention (reminder calls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included electronic monitoring with Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) bottles, two self-report adherence measures, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
Wendy W Jacobs, Enny H H J Das, Sanne S B Schagen
OBJECTIVE: Information about treatment side effects can increase their occurrence; breast cancer (BC) patients showed increased cognitive problem reporting (CPR) and decreased memory performance after information about cognitive side effects. The current study extends previous research on Adverse Information Effects (AIE) by investigating (a) risk factors, (b) underlying mechanisms, and (c) an intervention to reduce AIE. DESIGN: In an online experiment, 175 female BC patients were randomly assigned to one of three conditions...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that disgust responses, known to negatively affect psychological wellbeing, may differ in people with cancer. We performed the first quantitative investigation of three discrete types of disgust trait - disgust propensity, sensitivity and self-directed disgust - in people diagnosed with a broad range of cancers (versus cancer-free controls), and explored their associations with psychological wellbeing. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional survey design, 107 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses, recruited from cancer charities and support groups, were matched with cancer-free controls by age and gender...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
Roos Y Arends, Christina Bode, Erik Taal, Mart A F J Van de Laar
Process evaluations of newly developed interventions are necessary to identify effective and less effective intervention components. First aim of this study was to identify key components of a psychosocial goal management intervention from the perspective of participants, and second aim was to evaluate the intervention's fidelity. A mixed-methods approach was applied to 24 interviews with participants post-intervention and 16 audio recordings of random training sessions. Participants experienced three key components: 1) the content, in which specific exercises helped to raise awareness and (intention to) change goal management behaviour, 2) person-focused approach, specifically, the nurse as trainer and personal fit of the approach, and 3) social mechanisms, including facilitating group processes and interpersonal processes...
September 23, 2016: Psychology & Health
Jie Xu
OBJECTIVE: Based on the Limited Capacity Model of Motivated Mediated Message Processing (LC4MP), this study explored the effects of smoking cues in antismoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) on message processing among intermittent/light smokers and nonsmokers. METHOD: A 2 (smoking cues: present vs. absent) x 2 (smoking status: smokers vs. nonsmokers) mixed experimental design was conducted. Self-report measures and two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined...
September 12, 2016: Psychology & Health
Gyongyi Kokonyei, Edina Szabo, Natalia Kocsel, Andrea Edes, Nora Eszlari, Dorottya Pap, Mate Magyar, David Kovacs, Terezia Zsombok, Rebecca Elliott, Ian Muir Anderson, John Francis William Deakin, Gyorgy Bagdy, Gabriella Juhasz
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Nicola S Schutte, Suresh K A Palanisamy, James R McFarlane
OBJECTIVE: Longer telomeres are associated with better health and longevity. This research investigated the relationship between positive psychological dispositional traits and telomere length. Positive traits examined were typical high positive affect, typical low negative affect, life satisfaction, trait mindfulness, trait emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy and optimism. DESIGN AND MEASURES: One hundred and twenty women and men, with a mean age of 40...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Ya-Fang Ho, I-Chuan Li
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to generate evidence regarding the relationships of different dialysis modalities with HR-QOL. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted to investigate the HR-QOL of patients treated with different dialysis modalities. METHODS: A literature search was conducted for English language articles in the CINAHL, Medline and PubMed databases published from January 1990 through May 2016. Specifically, we sought articles that would compare the HR-QOL of hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in terms of physiological, psychological and social functioning, as well as disease symptoms...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Laura Lee, Gillian Murphy, Lisa Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Low well-being during pregnancy can have significant adverse outcomes for mother and child. The effects of mindfulness interventions on prenatal maternal well-being are increasingly examined but outcomes have yet to be systematically evaluated. The aims of the current paper are to systematically evaluate intervention effects and current research approaches with pregnant groups. DESIGN: A systematic review of eight studies examining mindfulness intervention effects on prenatal well-being...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Jack K Garlovsky, Jane Simpson, Richard A Grünewald, Paul G Overton
OBJECTIVES: Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have previously almost exclusively been considered to result from anti-parkinsonian medication. However, this biomedical perspective has failed to achieve a full understanding of the phenomenon and it is argued that a failure to consider psychological factors is a critical omission. DESIGN: The present study examined the predictive relationship between ICDs in PD and a range of psychological measures, whilst controlling for a number of biomedical determinants...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Tim Bogg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Psychology & Health
Ashley E Moncrieft, Maria M Llabre, Linda C Gallo, Jianwen Cai, Franklyn Gonzalez, Patricia Gonzalez, Natania W Ostrovsky, Neil Schneiderman, Frank J Penedo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if hostility is associated with physical and mental health-related quality of life (QoL) in US. Hispanics/Latinos after accounting for depression and anxiety. METHODS: Analyses included 5313 adults (62% women, 18-75 years) who completed the ancillary sociocultural assessment of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, Spielberger Trait Anger Scale, Cook-Medley Hostility cynicism subscale and Short Form Health Survey...
November 2016: Psychology & Health
Myutan Kulendran, Dominic King, Kelly Ann Schmidtke, Claire Curtis, Paul Gately, Ara Darzi, Ivo Vlaev
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a rising problem in adolescents related to unhealthy behaviours. Commitment devises are one type of behavioural intervention that may help people change their behaviours. The current pilot trial tests whether commitment devices delivered via text message help adolescents maintain their recent weight loss. METHODS: During a 12-week pilot trial, adolescents who attended a weight loss camp were randomly assigned to either received text messages that contained only information, i...
November 2016: Psychology & Health
Betina Yanez, Melinda Maggard Gibbons, Patricia I Moreno, Alexandra Jorge, Annette L Stanton
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the unique contributions of socio-ecological, cultural and cancer treatment-related factors in predicting depressive symptoms and cancer-specific distress among Latinas.  DESIGN: Participants were 140 English or Spanish-speaking Latinas (Mage = 50.6) with non-metastatic breast cancer who were assessed within two years of diagnosis (Time 1) and three months later (Time 2). MAIN MEASURES: Hierarchical regression analyses identified predictors of depressive symptoms and cancer-specific distress at Time 1 and 2...
November 2016: Psychology & Health
H Y Ng, K Griva, H A Lim, J Y S Tan, R Mahendran
OBJECTIVE: This study explores (1) the motivations and challenges facing family caregiving for cancer in Singapore and (2) suggests a possible framework to guide culturally sensitive future work on caregivers. DESIGN: Twenty caregivers of patients being treated for cancer at a public hospital in Singapore were interviewed. A semi-structured interview format and inductive thematic analysis were used to analyse the data. Caregivers were asked about their motivations for caregiving and the challenges they faced...
November 2016: Psychology & Health
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