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Psychology & Health

Sofie Prikken, Leen Oris, Jessica Rassart, Lies Christine Missotten, Ilse Weets, Philip Moons, Liesbet Goubert, Koen Luyckx
OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations between the functioning of youth with type 1 diabetes and their parents, including parenting dimensions as intervening mechanisms. The study adds to the existing literature by focusing on (1) the concept of parental illness intrusiveness; (2) the (understudied) periods of adolescence and emerging adulthood; and (3) maternal and paternal functioning. DESIGN: Questionnaires were completed by 317 patient-mother dyads and 277 patient-father dyads...
January 12, 2019: Psychology & Health
Kim M Caudwell, Jacob J Keech, Kyra Hamilton, Barbara A Mullan, Martin S Hagger
OBJECTIVE: Pre-drinking, the practice of consuming alcohol prior to attending a subsequent event, increases the risk of alcohol-related harm, and is common in undergraduate student populations. The current study tested an integrated behaviour change model to identify the motivational, social-cognitive, and implicit predictors of pre-drinking. DESIGN: University students (N = 289) completed an online questionnaire comprising measures of motivational and social-cognitive constructs related to reducing pre-drinking alcohol consumption and past behaviour, and an implicit association test for drinking identity...
January 12, 2019: Psychology & Health
Paul Norman, Thomas L Webb, Abigail Millings
OBJECTIVE: Excessive alcohol consumption, including binge drinking, increases when students enter university. This study tests whether combining messages targeting theory of planned behaviour (TPB) constructs with if-then plans (i.e. implementation intentions) to avoid binge drinking reduces binge drinking in new university students. DESIGN: One month after starting university, students (N = 407) were randomly assigned to condition in a 2 (TPB messages) × 2 (implementation intentions) factorial design...
January 12, 2019: Psychology & Health
Susana Pedras, Isabel Preto, Rui Carvalho, M Graça Pereira
OBJECTIVE: Limited research has focussed on the development of traumatic stress symptoms following an amputation due to a chronic disease such as Diabetes. This study analysed whether coping strategies, anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic and clinical variables were related to traumatic stress symptoms in a sample of patients who had undergone a lower limb amputation. DESIGN: A longitudinal design with three assessments, one month (T1), six (T2) and ten months after an amputation surgery (T3), included 144 patients...
January 11, 2019: Psychology & Health
Thomas V Merluzzi, Andrea Chirico, Samantha Serpentini, Miao Yang, Errol J Philip
OBJECTIVE: Stressful life events (SLEs) impact the quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients. This study investigated the mediation of the relationship between SLEs and QOL (Model 1: Emotional-EQOL and Model 2: Physical/Functional-PFQOL by three types of coping: Action/Planning, Support/Advise-Seeking, and Disengagement/Denial). Design and Main Measures: 662 persons with cancer completed a Stressful Life Events Checklist, the Brief COPE scale, the FACT Emotional, Physical, and Functional Scales, and the Physical Impact Scale of the Sickness Impact Profile...
January 11, 2019: Psychology & Health
Kyler R Rasmussen, Madelynn Stackhouse, Susan D Boon, Karly Comstock, Rachel Ross
OBJECTIVE: We explore meta-analytic associations between health and forgiveness, testing a number of potential theoretical and methodological factors that could alter that association, including the type of forgiveness measure (e.g. state vs. trait), the type of health measure (i.e. physical vs. psychological) and the target of forgiveness (e.g. self- vs. other-forgiveness). DESIGN: Our findings below reflect the meta-analysis of 103 independent samples consisting of 606 correlations with a total sample of 26,043 participants...
January 11, 2019: Psychology & Health
Katja Heyduck-Weides, Jürgen Bengel, Erik Farin, Manuela Glattacker
OBJECTIVES: Given the lack of validated measures assessing illness perceptions in families, the aim of our study was the development and psychometric testing of an adapted version of the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) allowing for Common Sense Model-based dyadic assessment of adolescents' and caregivers' perceptions of a chronic illness in adolescence. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey design, factor structure, reliability and validity of the adapted measure You-IPQ-R were tested in a sample of adolescents with asthma (N = 155) and their primary caregivers (N = 132)...
January 11, 2019: Psychology & Health
Ann-Kristin Beyer, Julia K Wolff, Ellen Freiberger, Susanne Wurm
OBJECTIVE: Longitudinal studies have consistently shown beneficial effects of positive self-perceptions of ageing (SPA) on health. However, SPA are more often negative than positive, particularly in older adults. For this reason, the present study tested the effectiveness of an intervention to promote more positive SPA in the context of an exercise programme for older adults. DESIGN: Eighty-four community-dwelling older adults (66-88 years; M(SD)=76.8(5.29)) were randomly assigned to a group-based exercise programme over 12 weeks with (n = 46) or without (n = 38) a psychological intervention to change SPA, consisting of four intervention units over the programme period...
January 10, 2019: Psychology & Health
Keven Joyal-Desmarais, Richie L Lenne, Mary E Panos, Chloe O Huelsnitz, Rachael E Jones, Lisa A Auster-Gussman, William F Johnson, Jeffry A Simpson, Alexander J Rothman
OBJECTIVE: Interpersonal relationships are important predictors of health outcomes and interpersonal influences on behaviours may be key mechanisms underlying such effects. Most health behaviour theories focus on intrapersonal factors and may not adequately account for interpersonal influences. We evaluate a dyadic extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour by examining whether parent and adolescent characteristics (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions) are associated with not only their own but also each other's intentions/behaviours...
January 8, 2019: Psychology & Health
Sarah Grogan, Daisy O'Brien, Kathryn Brownbridge, Simeon Gill, Jenny Cole, Christopher J Armitage
OBJECTIVE: Whole-body scanning is now available in stores to assist buyers in choosing well-fitting clothes. This study was designed to investigate men's accounts of scanning, body image and expectations of behaviour change. DESIGN: Ten men aged 18-39 years without histories of eating disorders or previous experience of whole-body scanning, took part in semi-structured interviews before and after scanning. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Pre-scan, men's body ideals were tall, slender and relatively muscular...
January 7, 2019: Psychology & Health
Emma L Davies
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore whether constructs within the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) predicted risky drinking as measured by AUDIT-C, drinking harms and unplanned drunkenness in a sample of UK young adults. Previous studies exploring the PWM often do not use validated measures of alcohol consumption, and the outcomes of risky drinking are underexplored. DESIGN: An online prospective study design with 4 week follow-up was employed and 385 young adults completed the study (M age = 21...
January 7, 2019: Psychology & Health
Erin M Ellis, Aric A Prather, Emily G Grenen, Rebecca A Ferrer
OBJECTIVE: Habitual use of emotion regulation strategies may influence physical health. We examined whether the tendencies to employ cognitive reappraisal and suppression were associated with health biomarkers, and whether stress and sleep quality mediated these associations. Design & main outcome measures: Using data from the Biomarkers substudy (n = 1255) of the national Midlife in the U.S. Study, we tested the hypothesis that there would be indirect, but not direct, associations of cognitive reappraisal and suppression to biomarker indicators of multisystem physiological dysregulation, that is, allostatic load (AL)...
January 7, 2019: Psychology & Health
Natasha Ward, Jane Ogden
OBJECTIVE: A minority of patients show sub-optimal outcomes after weight loss surgery. Research has identified predictors of poor outcomes focusing on the patients' perspective. No research has explored surgeons' accounts. DESIGN: Ten Bariatric surgeons were interviewed using a critical incident approach to explore their explanations for sub-optimal outcomes in the context of a real-life case. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three main themes were developed: 'Challenges to success' highlighting the role of psychosocial issues, poor adherence and patient non-disclosure; 'Ideal world solutions' describing who should identify and address psychosocial issues; and 'Real world compromise' reflecting the impact of limited resources and weighing up risk between carrying out versus not carrying out surgery...
January 7, 2019: Psychology & Health
Bruno E Aldaz, Roisin S M Hegarty, Tamlin S Conner, David Perez, Gareth J Treharne
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the daily relationship between illness uncertainty, avoidance of uncertainty, well-being and treatment-related distress among patients with cancer receiving treatment with curative intent. It was hypothesised that daily illness uncertainty, daily avoidance of uncertainty and daily treatment-related distress would be negatively associated with daily well-being. It was also hypothesised that daily illness uncertainty and daily avoidance of uncertainty would be positively associated with daily treatment-related distress...
January 4, 2019: Psychology & Health
Patti C Parker, Judith G Chipperfield, Raymond P Perry, Jeremy M Hamm, Christiane A Hoppmann
OBJECTIVES: Although physical activity is recognised as a health-promoting behaviour for older adults, notable barriers exist that may reduce physical activity in this age group. Limited research has explored causal beliefs (attributions) as a barrier to physical activity. Our study assessed associations between older adults' attributions about physical activity and objective health outcomes. METHODS: We examined the role of attributions as a predictor of everyday physical activity (EPA) and subsequent mortality risk over a 10-year period (2006-2016) in a sample of older adults (Mage  = 87, N = 261)...
December 31, 2018: Psychology & Health
Mark S Allen, Davina A Robson
OBJECTIVE: There is some evidence that personality relates to childbearing in adulthood but the importance of personality for reproductive capacity is unknown. This study explored cross-time associations between the major dimensions of trait personality and self-reported fertility and fecundity. METHODS: A representative sample of young Australian adults [n = 4501; age range ≈ 18-44 (women), 18-54 (men)] provided information on personality, fertility, fertility intentions, fecundity and lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) in 2006 and again in 2016...
December 31, 2018: Psychology & Health
Stephanie A Robinson, Alycia N Bisson, Matthew L Hughes, Jane Ebert, Margie E Lachman
OBJECTIVE: A common barrier to exercise is a perceived lack of time. The current pilot study examined the effects of an implementation intention intervention to enhance exercise self-efficacy, increase confidence to exercise when facing time constraints, and increase physical activity in middle-aged adults (n = 63, aged 35-69). DESIGN: Participants received a pedometer (Fitbit) to objectively measure activity and were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention condition...
December 30, 2018: Psychology & Health
Dorien Brouwer-Goossensen, Lenneke van Genugten, Hester F Lingsma, Diederik W J Dippel, Peter J Koudstaal, Heleen M den Hertog
OBJECTIVE: To assess levels of self-efficacy for health-related behaviour change and its correlates in patients with TIA or ischemic stroke. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 92 patients with TIA or ischemic stroke completed questionnaires on self-efficacy for health-related behaviour change and fear, social support and depressive symptoms. Relations between fear, social support, depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment, vascular risk factors and history and demographic characteristics and low-self-efficacy were studied with univariable and multivariable logistic regression...
December 30, 2018: Psychology & Health
Yuanyuan An, Dominik Schoebi, Wei Xu
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness has been found to be associated with less adverse stress response. However, little is known about how mindfulness modulates stress response in the real daily life. The current study investigated the relation between daily stress and negative emotions, and explored a mediational link via perceived loss of control, and moderation by dispositional mindfulness, to better understand this association. DESIGN: A total of 95 college students were recruited to complete a questionnaire and to report on their stress, perceived loss of control and negative emotions in daily life...
December 28, 2018: Psychology & Health
Evangelos C Karademas, Eirini Barouxi, Georgios Mavroeides
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether illness representations of control and consequences mediate the relation of cardiac patients' affect to well-being. A further aim was to examine this indirect relationship at a dyadic level (i.e. patient and spouse). DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: One hundred and four patients with a cardiovascular disease and their spouses participated in the study. Positive and negative affect was assessed at baseline; illness representations were assessed 2 months later, and physical and psychological well-being 4 months later...
December 27, 2018: Psychology & Health
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