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Zoo Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295537/investigation-of-techniques-to-measure-cortisol-and-testosterone-concentrations-in-coyote-hair
#1
Christopher J Schell, Julie K Young, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Jill M Mateo, Rachel M Santymire
Long-term noninvasive sampling for endangered or elusive species is particularly difficult due to the challenge of collecting fecal samples before hormone metabolite desiccation, as well as the difficulty in collecting a large enough sample size from all individuals. Hair samples may provide an environmentally stable alternative that provides a long-term assessment of stress and reproductive hormone profiles for captive, zoo, and wild mammals. Here, we extracted and analyzed both cortisol and testosterone in coyote (Canis latrans) hair for the first time...
March 10, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230329/integrating-trans-abdominal-ultrasonography-with-fecal-steroid-metabolite-monitoring-to-accurately-diagnose-pregnancy-and-predict-the-timing-of-parturition-in-the-red-panda-ailurus-fulgens-styani
#2
Erin Curry, Lissa J Browning, Paul Reinhart, Terri L Roth
Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens styani) exhibit a variable gestation length and may experience a pseudopregnancy indistinguishable from true pregnancy; therefore, it is not possible to deduce an individual's true pregnancy status and parturition date based on breeding dates or fecal progesterone excretion patterns alone. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of transabdominal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in red pandas. Two to three females were monitored over 4 consecutive years, generating a total of seven profiles (four pregnancies, two pseudopregnancies, and one lost pregnancy)...
February 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221675/environmental-changes-and-anthropogenic-factors-modulate-social-play-in-captive-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#3
Agathe Serres, Fabienne Delfour
Social play varies among species and individuals and changes in frequency and duration during ontogeny. This type of play is modulated by environmental changes (e.g., resource availability). In captivity, cetaceans and their environment are managed by humans, and training sessions and/or public presentations punctuate the day as well as other frequent or occasional events. There is a lack of research on the effects of environmental events that occur in captivity and might affect dolphins' behavior. We studied the context in which nine bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) played socially and the events that could potentially impact this social interaction...
February 21, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221674/effects-of-visitor-numbers-on-captive-european-red-squirrels-sciurus-vulgaris-and-impacts-on-visitor-experience
#4
Eleanor E Woolway, Anne E Goodenough
Visitors to zoological collections can have substantial effects on captive animals that vary according to species, enclosure design, visitor proximity, and husbandry methods. One particularly intense form of visitor interaction occurs in immersive exhibits such as walk-through enclosures. Such enclosures are increasingly common but effects on animal behavior are currently understudied. Here, the behavior of captive European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) is studied in relation to visitor numbers in a walk-through enclosure...
February 21, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206675/a-multi-zoo-investigation-of-nutrient-provision-for-captive-red-crested-turacos
#5
Alexander J Hulbert, Kerry A Hunt, Paul E Rose
Turacos (Musophagidae) are common zoo birds; the 14 species of Tauraco being most often exhibited. Turacos possess unique non-structural, copper-based feather pigments, and a specialized dietary strategy. Tauraco inhabit tropical woodlands, foraging for predominantly folivorous and/or frugivorous food items. Using a study population of 16 red-crested turacos (T. erythrolophus) at seven zoos in the United Kingdom, the nutrient composition of diets from diet sheets was calculated, using Zootrition v.2.6, Saint Louis Zoo, USA for analyses of important nutrients within each diet, and compared against an example of currently available literature...
February 16, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198143/demographics-of-polycystic-kidney-disease-and-captive-population-viability-in-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis
#6
Gabriella L Flacke, Joseph L Tomkins, Robert Black, Beatrice Steck
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was previously diagnosed at necropsy in several pygmy hippopotami (Choeropsis liberiensis) from the Smithsonian National Zoo and Zoo Basel, suggesting a threat to the long-term viability of the captive population. We determined the incidence and demographics of PKD in the captive population historically; we tested if the condition is linked to pedigree; we investigated mode of inheritance; we examined effects of PKD on longevity; we conducted survival analysis; and we examined long-term population viability...
February 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198048/olfactory-enrichment-and-scent-cue-associative-learning-in-captive-birds-of-prey
#7
Melissa Nelson Slater, Mark E Hauber
As the use of enrichment in zoos has become a standardized husbandry practice, the continued improvement of enrichment programs should be concomitant with empirical validation of those practices. The role of scent as enrichment remains an unexplored avenue for many bird species. We conducted a multi-phase experiment to introduce wrapped food packages and scent cuing to indicate food presence into the exhibits of several birds of prey species at the Bronx Zoo, New York City, to assess if scent can function as enrichment in these species...
February 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198035/testing-the-effect-of-dietary-carotenoids-on-larval-survival-growth-and-development-in-the-critically-endangered-southern-corroboree-frog
#8
Phillip G Byrne, Aimee J Silla
The success of captive breeding programs (CBPs) for threatened species is often limited due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional conditions required for optimal growth and survival. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants known to accelerate vertebrate growth and reduce mortality. However, the effect of carotenoids on amphibian life-history traits remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to use a manipulative laboratory experiment to test the effect of dietary-carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage on the survival, growth and development of the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree)...
February 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394461/successful-treatment-of-infertility-in-a-female-sumatran-orangutan-pongo-abelii
#9
Neil Maclachlan, Gordon Hunt, Sarah Fowkes, Melissa Frost, John Miller, Gari Purcell-Jones, Peter Sullivan, Alberto Barbon, Andrew Routh, Francisco J López, Eluned C Price
In 2011, a female Sumatran orangutan housed at Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust became infertile following a massive antepartum hemorrhage in labor and the delivery of a stillborn infant. The placenta was infected with Pantoea sp. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) revealed blocked fallopian tubes, and pressurized fallopian tube perfusion was used to reverse the tubal occlusion. She subsequently conceived and following an intensive training program, we were able to measure umbilical artery waveform analysis for fetal well-being and placental localization to exclude placenta previa, which could complicate pregnancy and lead to catastrophic hemorrhage...
March 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114737/a-comparison-of-fecal-steroid-metabolite-concentrations-between-harem-and-bachelor-stallions-in-a-free-ranging-population-of-przewalski-s-horses-equus-ferus-przewalskii
#10
Maureen D'Souza-Anjo, Bruce W Christensen, Kristin Brabender, Waltraut Zimmermann, Philip H Kass, Franz Schwarzenberger
The aim of this study was to determine whether concentrations of reproductive steroid hormone metabolites significantly differed between harem stallions and bachelor stallions in the free ranging group of Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) at the Hortobágy National Park in Hungary. Throughout the study, fecal samples were collected from 21 harem stallions and 15 bachelor stallions and analyzed for immunoreactive estrogen and androgen metabolites. Harem stallions demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of estrogen (P < 0...
January 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097684/feeding-asian-pangolins-an-assessment-of-current-diets-fed-in-institutions-worldwide
#11
Francis Cabana, Amy Plowman, Thai Van Nguyen, Shih-Chien Chin, Sung-Lin Wu, Hsuan-Yi Lo, Hirofumi Watabe, Fujio Yamamoto
Pangolins are ant specialists which are under intense threat from the illegal wildlife trade. Nutrition has notoriously been their downfall in captivity and is still an issue in regards to rescue and rehabilitation. We analyzed the nutrient content of diets used by institutions that are successfully keeping Asian pangolins and to assess the variety of the ingredients and nutrients, compared these with the nutritional requirements of potential nutritional model species. We performed intake studies at five institutions and also had data from three other institutions...
January 18, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186700/retrospective-study-of-mortality-in-asiatic-lions-panthera-leo-persica-in-the-european-breeding-population-between-2000-and-2014
#12
Olivia Metz, Jonathan Williams, Rikke Kruse Nielsen, Nic Masters
Although the European population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) has been managed under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. This study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 Asiatic lions living in the EEP between 2000 and 2014. A total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. The mortality rate for under 1 year olds was 54%, while the odds of survival of cubs within a litter increased if the dam had had litters previously...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186699/activity-budget-and-social-interactions-in-semi-captive-gray-woolly-monkeys-lagothrix-lagotricha-cana-living-in-an-ex-situ-conservation-area-in-central-amazonia
#13
Bárbara Cartagena-Matos, Thierry Gasnier, Mariana Cravo-Mota, Bruna Martins Bezerra
Areas holding primates in semi-captivity conditions represent an excellent opportunity for collecting data on rare, little known, and endangered taxa, contributing with insightful information to help in their conservation. Here, we present information on the activity budget and social interactions of the elusive gray woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha cana, in an ex situ conservation area in central Amazonia. We studied the behavior of 18 semi-captive individuals through instantaneous scan and focal animal samplings during 4 months in the wet season...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186698/added-dietary-vegetables-and-fruits-improved-coat-quality-of-capybara-in-seoul-zoo-republic-of-korea-a-case-study
#14
Hyungeun Shim, Ellen S Dierenfeld
Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111821/digestibility-of-a-new-diet-for-captive-short-beaked-echidnas-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#15
Hayley J Stannard, Jamie M Bekkers, Julie M Old, Bronwyn M McAllan, Michelle E Shaw
Short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) are myrmecophages, or ant and termite insectivore specialists, and replicating their exact diet in captivity is problematic. Diets for captive animals often incorporate raw meat, eggs and cat food mixed together with water, and vitamin and mineral supplements. These diets have promoted a number of health problems in captive echidnas, such as gastritis, cystitis, gut impaction, obesity, and diarrhea. A manufactured diet was designed and three echidnas from two zoos were transitioned onto this diet to assess the acceptability and digestibility of this diet for echidnas...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111787/the-flehmen-response-and-pseudosuckling-in-a-captive-juvenile-southern-sea-otter-enhydra-lutris-nereis
#16
Heide D Island, Julia Wengeler, Hannah Claussenius-Kalman
A juvenile, female sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) was observed in 43 instances of the flehmen response over 19 days from May through July of 2015 at the Oregon Zoo. In all flehmen grimace observations, the juvenile sea otter engaged in nibbling, nosing, or licking the peri-mammary or anogenital areas of a non-lactating, geriatric female sea otter. The flehmen behavior observed was consisted with the sequences of behavior documented in other mammals, lifting the head, elevating the nose to the air, retracting the upper lip slightly, and manipulating her mystacial vibrissae back and forth while rapidly inspiring air through her mouth in quick succession, tongue extruded...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026882/supplemental-feeding-of-captive-neonatal-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus
#17
Eri Shibata, Izumi Shindo, Etsuko Miyakawa, Nobuhide Kido
Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026881/intrinsic-factors-adrenal-gland-morphology-and-disease-burden-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-south-africa
#18
Nina Gillis-Germitsch, Pamela-Rose Vybiral, Daryl Codron, Marcus Clauss, Antoinette Kotze, Emily P Mitchell
Adrenal gland weight (AW) and corticomedullary ratio (ACMR) are used as indicators of stress in animals. Captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have higher ACMRs than free-ranging ones and stress has been linked to gastritis, amyloidosis, glomerulosclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis. We reviewed age, sex, body weight (BW), kidney weight (KW), and left AW and ACMR with necropsy findings in 51 South African captive cheetahs. Eleven common histopathologic lesions were counted for each animal as measure of its disease burden...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981610/assessment-of-behavior-and-space-use-before-and-after-forelimb-amputation-in-a-zoo-housed-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#19
Mabel Y L Ang, Marisa A Shender, Stephen R Ross
Primates possess great manual dexterity, and their limbs are integral to many aspects of normal functioning (e.g., climbing, feeding). As such, the loss of a limb carries the risk of significant disability and potentially harmful impairment of species-typical functioning. Limb loss is known to occur in some wild primate populations due to entanglement in hunting snares, but can also occur in captive settings due to injury that necessitates therapeutic amputation. In this study, we conducted a detailed evaluation of the behavior, travel, and space use expressed by a female zoo-housed chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) before and following surgical amputation of her right forelimb...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981608/contrasting-results-from-molecular-and-pedigree-based-population-diversity-measures-in-captive-zebra-highlight-challenges-facing-genetic-management-of-zoo-populations
#20
Hideyuki Ito, Rob Ogden, Tanya Langenhorst, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Zoo conservation breeding programs manage the retention of population genetic diversity through analysis of pedigree records. The range of demographic and genetic indices determined through pedigree analysis programs allows the conservation of diversity to be monitored relative to the particular founder population for a species. Such approaches are based on a number of well-documented founder assumptions, however without knowledge of actual molecular genetic diversity there is a risk that pedigree-based measures will be misinterpreted and population genetic diversity misunderstood...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
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