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Zoo Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450906/factors-affecting-the-occurrence-of-enteritis-in-10-to-12-month-old-eastern-grey-kangaroos-macropus-giganteus
#1
Nobuhide Kido, Sohei Tanaka, Yuko Wada, Sumito Sato
Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) younger than 19 months at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, Japan, frequently died of enteritis. The main cause of death was coccidiosis. This study aimed to reveal retrospectively the clinical features of enteritis and factors contributing to its high occurrence. In addition, haematological and serum biochemical parameters in kangaroos younger than 24 months were analyzed. The findings suggested that enteritis occurrence was higher in 10- to 12-month-old kangaroos than other ages and during seasons with high temperature and humidity than during seasons with low temperature and humidity...
February 16, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441656/patterns-of-wounding-in-hamadryas-baboons-papio-hamadryas-in-north-american-zoos
#2
Jodi N Wiley, Austin Leeds, Kamisha D Carpenter, Corinne J Kendall
In North American zoos, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) have traditionally been housed as single one-male units (single male groups). In recent years, efforts have been made to house hamadryas in groups composed of multiple one-male units (multi-male groups) to more closely mirror their natural social structure, in addition to all-male or bachelor groups to manage surplus males. Given that the majority of social conflict in hamadryas occurs between males during the acquisition and defense of females, it was thought that managing hamadryas in these multi-male groups would result in increased rates of wounding...
February 14, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405362/confronting-the-wildlife-trade-through-public-education-at-zoological-institutions-in-chengdu-p-r-china
#3
Susan Clayton, Sarah Bexell, Xu Ping, Zhang Zhihe, Li Wen Jing, Chen Hong Wei, Hu Yan
The wildlife trade poses substantial threats to global biodiversity. China is a significant source of threatened species and also a market for wildlife products. Zoological parks (zoos), which are a popular leisure attraction in China as elsewhere, are increasingly conceptualized as places to educate visitors about both animals and environmental threats more generally. This paper reports on an attempt to inform Chinese zoo visitors about the threats presented by the wildlife trade, and about the opportunity to take personal actions to help protect wildlife...
February 5, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399864/in-house-monitoring-of-steroid-hormone-metabolites-in-urine-informs-breeding-management-of-a-giant-anteater-myrmechophaga-tridactyla
#4
Laura Amendolagine, Tad Schoffner, Lynn Koscielny, Mandi Schook, Debra Copeland, James Casteel, Brianna Duff, Diana Koester
Although numbers of giant anteaters within North American facilities have been steadily increasing for the last 15 years, the population now exhibits an unstable age distribution with genetically valuable individuals nearing reproductive senescence. Contributing to this issue is the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) described lack of standardization of breeding introduction practices and high risk of female injury occurring during such pairings. This report describes the development of a successful breeding protocol at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo based on hormone monitoring and efficient communication between science and animal management teams that minimizes risk of female injury...
February 5, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385275/identification-of-possible-nutritional-and-stress-risk-factors-in-the-development-of-marmoset-wasting-syndrome
#5
Francis Cabana, Rina Maguire, Chia-Da Hsu, Amy Plowman
Marmoset wasting syndrome (MWS) describes a series of symptoms in callitrichids that lead to general weakness and a failure to thrive in captive conditions such as zoological institutions. Though the cause of MWS has not been identified, the majority of hypotheses are linked to deficiencies of specific nutrients and increased stress levels. Questionnaires were sent to zoos requesting information on diets and housing of currently living and dead callitrichids before their deaths, as well as their postmortem reports...
January 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385273/first-report-of-a-hatched-hand-reared-and-released-african-oystercatcher
#6
Romy Klusener, Renata Hurtado, Nicola Stander, Nola J Parsons
The African oystercatcher Haematopus moquini is a near-threatened wader that is endemic to southern Africa. In the past, the species suffered a drastic decrease in nesting success due to human disturbance. We present the case report of an African oystercatcher that was hatched, hand-reared, and released in the Western Cape, South Africa. African oystercatchers are semi-altricial birds that tend to be highly sensitive to stress; as a result, strategies to minimize stress and the employment of surrogate parents and pre-release acclimatization are important to ensure post-release survival of hand-reared chicks...
January 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385270/cognitive-judgement-bias-is-associated-with-frequency-of-anticipatory-behavior-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#7
Isabella L K Clegg, Fabienne Delfour
Many animals display a suite of increased vigilance and/or activity responses in relation to upcoming events, termed "anticipatory behavior." Anticipatory behavior toward positive events has been suggested as a cross-species measure of affective state as it likely reflects the balance of the reward-sensitivity system: various studies suggest that animals in poorer welfare situations show higher or excessive levels of anticipation for positive events. Another tool for evaluating animals' affective state is cognitive bias testing, and although it has been attempted, a link has not yet been made between cognitive bias and anticipatory behavior levels...
January 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377272/successful-care-and-propagation-of-the-endangered-amargosa-vole-microtus-californicus-scirpensis-in-captivity
#8
Nora Allan, Risa Pesapane, Janet Foley, Deana Clifford
The Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) is a highlyendangered rodent endemic to a small stretch of the California portion of the Amargosa River basin in Inyo County's Mojave Desert. Although the Amargosa vole has survived in this naturally fragmented ecosystem for thousands of years, recent habitat degradation due to land development, water drainage, and marsh exploitation has further isolated the species and reduced its available habitat. As part of a conservation effort to preserve the species, a captive breeding population was established in 2014 to serve as an insurance colony and as a source of individuals to release into the wild as restored habitat becomes available...
January 29, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377248/characterization-of-estrous-cycles-and-pregnancy-in-somali-wild-asses-equus-africanus-somaliensis-through-fecal-hormone-analyses
#9
Corinne P Kozlowski, Helen L Clawitter, Tim Thier, Martha T Fischer, Cheryl S Asa
Although reproduction in the domestic horse has been well described, less is known about reproduction in wild equids. This study describes endocrine patterns associated with estrous cycles and pregnancy for Somali wild asses (Equus africanus somaliensis), an endangered African equid. Fecal samples were collected three times per week for more than 2 years from five female Somali wild asses at the Saint Louis Zoo; progestagen and estrogen metabolites were quantified using commercially available immunoassays. Progestagen analysis indicated that cycle lengths were 27...
January 29, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315790/a-work-for-food-enrichment-program-increases-exploration-and-decreases-stereotypies-in-four-species-of-bears
#10
Jason D Wagman, Kristen E Lukas, Patricia M Dennis, Mark A Willis, Joe Carroscia, Curt Gindlesperger, Mandi W Schook
Zoo-housed bears are prone to exhibiting stereotypic behaviors, generally considered indicators of negative welfare. We explored the effects of a variable-time feeding enrichment schedule on behavioral indicators of welfare in four bear species at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. We distributed the diets of eight bears in one of five enrichment items, for two consecutive days each, and monitored behavior throughout the day. In Experiment 1, we compared variable-time to fixed-time presentation of enrichment over two, 10-day periods...
January 7, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243311/husbandry-protocols-for-the-band-tailed-pigeon-patagioenas-fasciata-albilinea-at-the-wcs-bronx-zoo-for-future-conservation-management-programs
#11
David A Oehler, Ben J Novak, Susan C Schmid, Ken J Huth, Aniko I Totha, Tapan Audhya
From 2015 to 2016 we determined the husbandry protocols involved in the captive rearing of the Band-tailed Pigeon (BTPI), Patagioenas fascinate albilinea, for use as a tool in the future management of like extant and extinct avian taxa. Current and historical ex-situ conservation management of BTPIs and the closely related Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius, is limited in scope and required further examination. Focus on the BTPI within zoos and private aviculture facilities is currently lacking. New pressures on the wild populations and future examination of the parameters involved in the possible restoration of the Passenger Pigeon may rely on a complete understanding of these conservation management techniques...
December 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239483/the-effects-of-olfactory-stimulation-on-the-behavior-of-captive-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta
#12
Brittanny Baker, Sienna Taylor, V Tamara Montrose
Ring-tailed lemurs reside in many animal collections worldwide. Lemur welfare may be a cause of concern due to some captive individuals exhibiting stereotypic behavior. Despite these concerns, there has been little exploration of methods of environmental enrichment for ring-tailed lemurs. Olfactory stimulation can enhance captive animal welfare by encouraging species-typical behaviors, enhancing behavioral diversity, and decreasing stereotypic behaviors. We aimed to investigate the effects of olfactory stimulation via lavender, peppermint, coconut, and prey odor upon the behavior of eight captive ring-tailed lemurs...
December 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210099/behavioral-and-hormonal-responses-to-the-availability-of-forage-material-in-western-lowland-gorillas-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla
#13
Grace Fuller, Anna Murray, Melissa Thueme, Molly McGuire, Jennifer Vonk, Stephanie Allard
We investigated how forage material affects indicators of welfare in three male Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the Detroit Zoo. In addition to their maintenance diet and enrichment foods, the gorillas generally received forage material four times a week. From this baseline, we systematically manipulated how much forage material the group received on a weekly basis, with either daily or bi (twice)-weekly presentation of browse (mulberry, Morus sp.) or alfalfa hay. We collected behavioral data (60 hr per gorilla) and measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM)...
December 6, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193268/what-role-does-heritability-play-in-transgenerational-phenotypic-responses-to-captivity-implications-for-managing-captive-populations
#14
Stephanie K Courtney Jones, Phillip G Byrnea
Animals maintained in captivity exhibit rapid changes in phenotypic traits, which may be maladaptive for natural environments. The phenotype can shift away from the wild phenotype via transgenerational effects, with the environment experienced by parents influencing the phenotype and fitness of offspring. There is emerging evidence that controlling transgenerational effects could help mitigate the effects of captivity, improving the success of captively bred animals post release. However, controlling transgenerational effects requires knowledge of the mechanisms driving transgenerational changes...
November 28, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193216/in-pursuit-of-peak-animal-welfare-the-need-to-prioritize-the-meaningful-over-the-measurable
#15
REVIEW
Jake S Veasey
Despite the diversity of animal welfare definitions, most recognise the centrality of the feelings of animals which are currently impossible to measure directly. As a result, animal welfare assessment is heavily reliant upon the indirect measurement of factors that either affect what animals feel, or are effected by how they feel. Physiological and health orientated measures have emerged as popular metrics for assessing welfare because they are quantifiable, can effect and be affected by how animals feel and have merits regardless of their relationship to the feelings of animals...
November 28, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148093/keeping-and-breeding-the-rescued-sunda-pangolins-manis-javanica-in-captivity
#16
Fuhua Zhang, Jiaming Yu, Shibao Wu, Shaoshan Li, Cuiyun Zou, Qiaoyun Wang, Ruyong Sun
The Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica Desmarest, 1822) is a Critically Endangered species. Given that this species lacks effective policies for in situ conservation and prevention of poaching in the wild, ex situ conservation and a captive breeding program are urgently needed to save this species from extinction. However, techniques for the maintenance and captive breeding of pangolins have not been well developed. In June 2010, we established the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (PRB-SCNU)...
November 17, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134680/vocal-activities-reflect-the-temporal-distribution-of-bottlenose-dolphin-social-and-non-social-activity-in-a-zoological-park
#17
Alice Lima, Alban Lemasson, Martin Boye, Martine Hausberger
Under natural conditions bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) spend their time mostly feeding and then travelling, socializing, or resting. These activities are not randomly distributed, with feeding being higher in early morning and late afternoon. Social activities and vocal behavior seem to be very important in dolphin daily activity. This study aimed to describe the activity time-budget and its relation to vocal behavior for dolphins in a zoological park. We recorded behaviors and vocalizations of six dolphins over 2 months...
November 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134672/quantitative-aspects-of-the-ruminating-process-in-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-fed-with-different-diets
#18
Dominik Schüßler, Hartmut Greven
Giraffes are ruminants feeding on fresh browse and twigs in the wild, but in zoos, their diet is mainly based on alfalfa hay, grains, and pellets occasionally supplemented by twigs and foliage. These diets, which differ in composition and digestibility, affect the behavior of the animals, tooth wear patterns, and chewing efficiency. We quantified several parameters of the rumination process in ten zoo housed giraffes of different sexes and ages fed either with alfalfa hay, fresh browse, or a combination of both...
November 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120094/visitor-effect-on-the-behavior-of-a-group-of-spider-monkeys-ateles-geoffroyi-maintained-at-an-island-in-lake-catemaco-veracruz-mexico
#19
Sergio Pérez-Galicia, Manuel Miranda-Anaya, Domingo Canales-Espinosa, Jairo Muñoz-Delgado
We analyzed the effect of human visitors on the behavior of a group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept on a small tourist island. Although the spider monkey is a common species in zoos, there are very few specific studies on visitor effects on these monkeys. We conducted behavioral observations on the group of spider monkeys to evaluate the effect of visitors. We also used actimetry devices to measure the variations in the spider monkeys' locomotor activity associated with human presence. With regard to the effect on behavior, we found an increase in self-directed behaviors and a decrease in vocalization, both associated with human presence...
November 9, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105825/improved-capture-of-stable-flies-diptera-muscidae-by-placement-of-knight-stick-sticky-fly-traps-protected-by-electric-fence-inside-animal-exhibit-yards-at-the-smithsonian-s-national-zoological-park
#20
Jerome A Hogsette, Gregory A Ose
Stable flies are noxious blood-feeding pests of exotic animals at zoological parks, inflicting painful bites, and causing discomfort to animals. Stable fly management is difficult because of the flies' tendency to remain on the host animals only when feeding. Non-toxic traps can be efficient but traps placed around exhibit perimeters captured fewer-than-expected numbers of flies. By surrounding traps with square electric fence enclosures, traps could be placed in the exhibits with the host animals and compared with an equal number of traps placed along perimeter fences...
November 5, 2017: Zoo Biology
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