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Zoo Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097684/feeding-asian-pangolins-an-assessment-of-current-diets-fed-in-institutions-worldwide
#1
Francis Cabana, Amy Plowman, Thai Van Nguyen, Shih-Chien Chin, Sung-Lin Wu, Hsuan-Yi Lo, Hirofumi Watabe, Fujio Yamamoto
Pangolins are ant specialists which are under intense threat from the illegal wildlife trade. Nutrition has notoriously been their downfall in captivity and is still an issue in regards to rescue and rehabilitation. We analyzed the nutrient content of diets used by institutions that are successfully keeping Asian pangolins and to assess the variety of the ingredients and nutrients, compared these with the nutritional requirements of potential nutritional model species. We performed intake studies at five institutions and also had data from three other institutions...
January 18, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026882/supplemental-feeding-of-captive-neonatal-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus
#2
Eri Shibata, Izumi Shindo, Etsuko Miyakawa, Nobuhide Kido
Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated...
December 27, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026881/intrinsic-factors-adrenal-gland-morphology-and-disease-burden-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-south-africa
#3
Nina Gillis-Germitsch, Pamela-Rose Vybiral, Daryl Codron, Marcus Clauss, Antoinette Kotze, Emily P Mitchell
Adrenal gland weight (AW) and corticomedullary ratio (ACMR) are used as indicators of stress in animals. Captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have higher ACMRs than free-ranging ones and stress has been linked to gastritis, amyloidosis, glomerulosclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis. We reviewed age, sex, body weight (BW), kidney weight (KW), and left AW and ACMR with necropsy findings in 51 South African captive cheetahs. Eleven common histopathologic lesions were counted for each animal as measure of its disease burden...
December 27, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981610/assessment-of-behavior-and-space-use-before-and-after-forelimb-amputation-in-a-zoo-housed-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#4
Mabel Y L Ang, Marisa A Shender, Stephen R Ross
Primates possess great manual dexterity, and their limbs are integral to many aspects of normal functioning (e.g., climbing, feeding). As such, the loss of a limb carries the risk of significant disability and potentially harmful impairment of species-typical functioning. Limb loss is known to occur in some wild primate populations due to entanglement in hunting snares, but can also occur in captive settings due to injury that necessitates therapeutic amputation. In this study, we conducted a detailed evaluation of the behavior, travel, and space use expressed by a female zoo-housed chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) before and following surgical amputation of her right forelimb...
December 15, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981608/contrasting-results-from-molecular-and-pedigree-based-population-diversity-measures-in-captive-zebra-highlight-challenges-facing-genetic-management-of-zoo-populations
#5
Hideyuki Ito, Rob Ogden, Tanya Langenhorst, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Zoo conservation breeding programs manage the retention of population genetic diversity through analysis of pedigree records. The range of demographic and genetic indices determined through pedigree analysis programs allows the conservation of diversity to be monitored relative to the particular founder population for a species. Such approaches are based on a number of well-documented founder assumptions, however without knowledge of actual molecular genetic diversity there is a risk that pedigree-based measures will be misinterpreted and population genetic diversity misunderstood...
December 15, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870149/development-of-sociality-and-emergence-of-independence-in-a-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-calf-from-birth-to-36-months
#6
Sara Guarino, Heather M Hill, Julie Sigman
Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period...
November 21, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862255/fourteen-tail-feathers-an-autosomal-recessive-trait-in-california-condors-gymnogyps-californianus
#7
Devon Lang Pryor, Katherine Ralls
Eight pairs of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) have produced 12 chicks with 14 tail feathers instead of the normal 12. The 14 tail feather trait appears to follow an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and is not known to be deleterious. The putative allele for the trait was present in at least seven of the 13 founders of the population. The 14 tail feather allele is the second recessive allele discovered in the condor population. Due to the founder effect, which changes the frequency of many formerly rare recessive alleles, and genetic management to minimize mean kinship, which reduces the expression of recessive traits, it is likely that this population carries other recessive alleles that have not yet been detected...
November 15, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862242/seasonal-mortality-in-zoo-ruminants
#8
Lea Carisch, Dennis W H Müller, Jean-Michel Hatt, Laurie Bingaman Lackey, E Eberhard Rensch, Marcus Clauss, Philipp Zerbe
While seasonality has often been investigated with respect to reproduction, seasonality of mortality has received less attention. We investigated whether a seasonal signal of mortality exists in wild ruminants kept in zoos, using data from 60,591 individuals of 88 species. We quantified the mortality in the 3 consecutive months with the highest above-baseline mortality (3 MM). 3 MM was not related to relative life expectancy of species, indicating that seasonal mortality does not necessarily impact husbandry success...
November 15, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911480/instructions-for-contributors
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911479/announcements
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911478/modulation-of-whistle-production-related-to-training-sessions-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-under-human-care
#11
Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862246/a-retrospective-analysis-of-mortality-in-captive-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-from-1912-to-2014
#12
Gabriella L Flacke, Suzana Tkalčić, Beatrice Steck, Kristin Warren, Graeme B Martin
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species (CITES Appendix II) that has been housed in zoological collections since 1912. As wild populations continue to decline throughout the species' range, successful ex situ breeding and management, including an understanding of morbidity and mortality, are of utmost importance. This study is the first comprehensive review of mortality data from the captive population since 1982 and significantly expands on previous analyses. We solicited necropsy reports from 129/187 zoological institutions worldwide that currently or previously held pygmy hippos and received data for 404 animals (177 ♂, 220 ♀, 7 undermined sex), representing 43% of pygmy hippos that have died in captivity...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801957/a-new-marker-based-on-the-avian-spindlin-gene-that-is-able-to-sex-most-birds-including-species-problematic-to-sex-with-chd-markers
#13
Deborah A Dawson, Natalie Dos Remedios, Gavin J Horsburgh
We have developed a new marker (Z43B) that can be successfully used to identify the sex of most birds (69%), including species difficult or impossible to sex with other markers. We utilized the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata EST microsatellite sequence (CK309496) which displays sequence homology to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the avian spindlin gene. This gene is known to be present on the Z and W chromosomes. To maximize cross-species utility, the primer set was designed from a consensus sequence created from homologs of CK309496 that were isolated from multiple distantly related species...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735990/a-global-survey-of-banteng-bos-javanicus-housing-and-husbandry
#14
Lewis J Rowden, Paul E Rose
Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704614/variation-in-food-availability-mediate-the-impact-of-density-on-cannibalism-growth-and-survival-in-larval-yellow-spotted-mountain-newts-neurergus-microspilotus-implications-for-captive-breeding-programs
#15
Somaye Vaissi, Mozafar Sharifi
In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684732/why-do-captive-pied-tamarins-give-birth-during-the-day
#16
Eluned C Price, Catherine Payne, Dominic Wormell
Diurnal primates typically give birth at night, when it is presumed that they are safer at a very vulnerable time, and this is reflected in an overwhelmingly nocturnal pattern of delivery in most species of Callitrichidae. However, over half (51.1%) of 88 births to pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) at Durrell Wildlife Park occurred during the day (0800-1700), almost always in the afternoon. Nearly three quarters of breeding females (17/23) had at least one diurnal birth, including females from all generations in captivity from wild-caught to fifth captive-born generation, and from all six matrilines represented at Durrell...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623542/increasing-the-dietary-supply-of-carotenoids-through-forage-supplementation-effect-on-nitrogen-and-mineral-retention-in-captive-golden-pheasants-chrysolophus-pictus
#17
Singray Saleb Kullu, Asit Das, Mohini Saini, Anil Kumar Garg, Ravindra Kumar Yogi, Shyamal Kumar Soren, Anil Kumar Sharma
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of green forages on feed consumption, nutrient and mineral utilization in Golden pheasants (GP). Twenty-seven female GP (BW 617-635 g) were randomly distributed into three groups of nine birds each in an experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD). Birds in group T1 were fed a conventional zoo diet containing 1.4% green forages; however, the diets of the birds in groups T2 and T3 contained 2.7% and 5.0% of green forages, respectively...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623487/aggressive-behavior-and-hair-cortisol-levels-in-captive-dorcas-gazelles-gazella-dorcas-as-animal-based-welfare-indicators
#18
Marina Salas, Déborah Temple, Teresa Abáigar, Mariano Cuadrado, Maria Delclaux, Conrad Enseñat, Vanessa Almagro, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Miguel Ángel Quevedo, Annaïs Carbajal, Oriol Tallo-Parra, Maria Sabés-Alsina, Marta Amat, Manel Lopez-Bejar, Hugo Fernández-Bellon, Xavier Manteca
Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas)...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588696/characterization-of-multiple-pathways-modulating-aggression-in-the-male-clouded-leopard-neofelis-nebulosa
#19
Heather B DeCaluwe, Nadja C Wielebnowski, JoGayle Howard, Katharine M Pelican, Mary Ann Ottinger
Breeding clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) ex situ has been a challenge, primarily due to extreme and often fatal male aggression toward females. This study's aim was to determine the degree to which two possible mechanisms-serotonergic pathways and circulating testosterone levels-affect aggressive behavior. Male clouded leopard behavioral and hormonal data were collected during a series of behavior tests administered before and after treatment with either an anxiety-reducing tricyclic antidepressant (clomipramine) or a GnRH agonist (deslorelin)...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569261/changes-in-the-dominance-hierarchy-of-captive-female-japanese-macaques-as-a-consequence-of-merging-two-previously-established-groups
#20
Emily J Anderson, Robert B Weladji, Patrick Paré
Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
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