Read by QxMD icon Read

Zoo Biology

David M Powell, Candice L Dorsey, Lisa J Faust
Over the last ten years, zoos and aquariums around the world have been coming to grips with the "sustainability crisis" - the realization that most of our collaboratively managed animal populations are not viable for the long-term. Many initiatives have been launched at the regional, zoological association, program, and institutional levels to improve the long-term trajectories of these populations. This Special Issue of Zoo Biology highlights some of the scientific approaches that are aimed at addressing population viability and sustainability challenges...
January 10, 2019: Zoo Biology
Ali Kiani, Marcus Clauss, Sylvia Ortmann, Catharina Vendl, Elizabeth R Congdon, Emilio A Herrera, Michael Kreuzer, Angela Schwarm
The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), the largest living rodent, probably has a "mucus-trap" colonic separation mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we measured the mean retention time of a solute marker (MRTSolute ), 2 mm (MRT2 mm ), 10 mm (MRT10 mm ), and 20 mm (MRT20 mm ) particle markers and nutrient digestibility in adult captive capybaras (27-52 kg body mass (BM), 2-11 yr). In addition, total gut fill and the selectivity factor (MRTSolute /MRT2 mm ) were calculated, and mean faecal particle size and metabolic fecal nitrogen of captive capybaras were compared to those of free-ranging specimens...
January 9, 2019: Zoo Biology
Lisa J Faust, Sarah T Long, Kaitlyn Perišin, Juniper L Simonis
The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) cooperatively manages Species Survival Plans® to create demographically and genetically viable populations. SSPs issue animal-specific recommendations to participating institutions via Breeding and Transfer Plans (BTPs). Fulfillment of recommendations is a crucial step in maintaining viable populations, but there have been no comprehensive evaluations of the system. Using PMCTrack, a database of over 110,000 breeding and transfer recommendations issued from over 200 SSPs from 1999 to 2013, we analyzed fulfillment of recommendations...
January 6, 2019: Zoo Biology
Qiyu Li, Shuyi Luo, Chunsheng Yang, Shuran Li, Jun Guo, Jiasong He, Yaohuan Chen, Chengming Huang, Zhengjun Wu, Weiguo Du
Captive breeding is an important conservation measure that may restore and enhance wild populations of rare and endangered species. Multiple anthropogenic hazards have brought the crocodile lizard, Shinisaurus crocodilurus, to the brink of extinction. We initiated a captive breeding program and quantified female reproductive traits, including reproductive timing, litter size, litter mass, and neonate size. To identify the internal and external factors affecting female reproductive function, we then analyzed how maternal age is related to body size, temperature, and female reproductive traits...
January 6, 2019: Zoo Biology
Lauren Wilson, Candice Dorsey, Donald Moore
Zoos and aquariums accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) cooperatively manage Species Survival Plan(R) (SSP) Program populations to maximize genetic and demographic health and work toward long-term population sustainability. However, recent analyses suggest that only a minority of populations were projected to maintain their sustainability goals over 100 years. As one of the initial steps in addressing this concern, the AZA collaborated with hundreds of members of the zoo and aquarium community to develop the SSP Sustainability Database, a repository of quantitative and qualitative data on SSP Program challenges, population data, and management needs...
January 6, 2019: Zoo Biology
Judy Che-Castaldo, Brent Johnson, Nicole Magrisso, Lauren Mechak, Kayla Melton, Katelyn Mucha, Lauren Terwilliger, Melissa Theis, Sarah Long, Lisa Faust
Recent concerns about the viability of zoo populations have motivated studies on the historic and current status of animal populations in North American and European zoos. However, these evaluations may not accurately reflect the populations' long-term viability in the decades to come. Here, we assessed the projected future status of North American zoo populations by conducting standardized population viability analyses (PVAs) for 137 cooperative breeding programs. We summarized PVA results to describe patterns in viability across populations, and examined whether viability can be predicted by biological or management-based factors...
January 4, 2019: Zoo Biology
Colleen McCann, David M Powell
Zoos select species for exhibition to meet goals of recreation, education, research, and conservation. However, many zoo populations are not sustainable and institutional collection plans (ICPs) come under criticism for their lack of conservation importance. We explore the species selection process with two main questions. First, are zoos doing all they can with their available space to maintain sustainable populations? And second, are the species recommended for management in Regional Collection Plans (RCPs) important for conservation? To answer the former, we assessed how much space is allocated to recommended species versus non-recommended species in four mammalian taxa in ICPs of 36 zoos and whether species occur in populations that are minimally robust (n = 100) or robust (n > 250) for meeting viability goals...
December 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
Robert C Lacy
Population viability analysis (PVA) has been used for three decades to assess threats and evaluate conservation options for wildlife populations. What has been learned from PVA on in situ populations are valuable lessons also for assessing and managing viability and sustainability of ex situ populations. The dynamics of individual populations are unpredictable, due to limited knowledge about important factors, variability in the environment, and the probabilistic nature of demographic events. PVA considers such uncertainty within simulations that generate the distribution of likely fates for a population; management of ex situ populations should also take into consideration the uncertainty in our data and in the trajectories of populations...
December 26, 2018: Zoo Biology
Heather M Hill, Sarah Dietrich, Sara Guarino, Magdalena Banda, Kristie Lacy
Although many animals, including odontocetes, exhibit interactions involving mouths (e.g., mouthing, nuzzling, biting), a limited number of animals display mouth-to-mouth social interactions that involve mutual coordination and collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly a spontaneous and unexpected mouth-to-mouth social interaction between beluga calves in human care during their first year of life. Forty-seven independent events were identified after event sampling from more than 345 hr of observations of four mother-calf pairs and their companions...
December 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
Natalia A Prado, Stephen W Paris, Janine L Brown
Hyperprolactinemia is a common disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and a cause of ovarian dysfunction in women. Currently, over half of non-cycling African elephant females in North America also are hyperprolactinemic, suggesting a similar link between these two conditions may exist. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between acyclicity and prolactin status by comparing mean prolactin concentrations of bi-weekly samples collected over a 1-year period in 2012 with 20 years of historical weekly progestagen data to assess cyclicity...
December 18, 2018: Zoo Biology
Jilian M Fazio, Elizabeth W Freeman, Erika Bauer, Larry Rockwood, Edward C M Parsons
The ex situ population of fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus) face many challenges to its sustainability such as mate incompatibility, low founder numbers and disease prevalence. The North American population was monitored for a three-year period during institutional transfers and breeding introductions. In total, 26 fishing cats, including 15 different breeding pairs were monitored during 20 transfers. Most institutional transfers occurred in the fall months (September, October and November; 62%; n = 13) and males were transferred more often (62%; n = 13)...
December 17, 2018: Zoo Biology
Kelly S Spratt, Jeffrey S Spratt, Joan E Bauman, Charles Ray Chandler
For species that form dominance hierarchies, such as group-living ungulates, aggressive interactions can pose a challenge to successful captive management. For example, Jackson's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), a rare antelope of east Africa, can be difficult to maintain in captivity because aggression within female dominance hierarchies can lead to injury and death. We quantified behavioral and endocrine correlates of dominance in a captive herd of ten female hartebeest with the goal of understanding how to minimize dangerous interactions...
December 13, 2018: Zoo Biology
Kendra C Abts, Jamie A Ivy, J Andrew DeWoody
Many factors have been shown to affect mating behavior. For instance, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are known to influence mate choice in a wide variety of vertebrate species. The genetic management of captive populations can be confounded if intrinsic mate choice reduces or eliminates reproductive success between carefully chosen breeding pairs. For example, the San Diego Zoo koala colony only has a 45% copulation rate for matched individuals. Herein, we investigated determinants of koala mating success using breeding records (1984-2010) and genotypes for 52 individuals at four MHC markers...
November 29, 2018: Zoo Biology
Crystal L Egelkamp, Stephen R Ross
In the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of zoo-based touchscreen studies of animal cognition around the world. Such studies have contributed to the field of comparative cognition despite the fact research has only been performed at a relatively small number of institutions and with a narrow range of species. Nonetheless, zoo-based touchscreen studies are increasingly recognized as both having the potential to be enriching for captive animals by providing them with opportunities for choice, as well as potentially being a tool with which to measure changes in welfare...
November 27, 2018: Zoo Biology
Colleen Lynch
Maintaining sustainable living collections is at the core of every zoo's and aquarium's mission. In spite of increasing awareness of sustainability challenges, few practical applications to support collection sustainability have been developed. In addition, much of the onus to address issues regarding collection sustainability has fallen to regional zoo associations, rather than on individual collection managers, creating a "tragedy of the commons." Responsibility for sustainability, however, ultimately defaults to each individual institution; as active participants in an association and the population management system, other institutions are the most reliable source of animals...
November 27, 2018: Zoo Biology
Meghan S Martin-Wintle, Nathan J P Wintle, María Díez-León, Ronald R Swaisgood, Cheryl S Asa
Many breeding programs managed by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums' (AZA) Species Survival Plans® (SSPs) are not meeting goals for population size and genetic diversity due to failure of recommended pairs to breed successfully. According to AZA Population Management Center analyses, as many as 80% of recommended breeding pairs fail to produce young before the next breeding and transfer plan is issued. Determining reasons for failure and ensuring that a specific pairing produces offspring can be challenging...
November 26, 2018: Zoo Biology
Robert L Hill, Sarah M Huskisson, Emily Weigel, Joseph R Mendelson
Many husbandry routines in zoo herpetology are based on tradition, authoritarianism, anecdote, or speculation. However, relatively few empirical studies underlie many very common practices. We compared growth rates among littermates of Boa constrictor raised under two feeding regimes that were identical in terms of the mass of food ingested, but differed in weekly versus bi-weekly schedules. The growth rate of the group fed weekly was greater than the rate for the biweekly group. Snakes fed 10% of their body mass on a weekly regimen grew to a larger size, and at a faster rate, than did snakes fed 20% of their body mass on a biweekly regimen...
November 26, 2018: Zoo Biology
Devin Edmonds, Tahinienne Razaiarimahefa, Ethan Kessler, Matthias Goetz
Many reptiles require ultraviolet-B radiation between 290 and 315 nm (UV-B) to synthesize vitamin D3 and process dietary calcium. In captivity, exposure to too little or too much UV-B can result in health problems such as metabolic bone disease. While it is recognized that UV-B is necessary to successfully maintain many reptiles in captivity, the actual levels of UV-B that species are exposed to in nature is poorly known. We measured the UV-B exposure of two species of chameleon (Calumma brevicorne and C...
November 26, 2018: Zoo Biology
Anita J Norman, Andrea S Putnam, Jamie A Ivy
The global zoo and aquarium community widely recognizes that its animal collections and cooperative breeding programs are facing a sustainability crisis. It has become commonly accepted that numerous priority species cannot be maintained unless new management strategies are adopted. While molecular data have the potential to greatly improve management across a range of scenarios, they have been generally underutilized by the zoo and aquarium community. This failure to effectively apply molecular data to collection management has been due, in part, to a paucity of resources within the community on which to base informed decisions about when the use of such data is appropriate and what steps are necessary to successfully integrate data into management...
November 22, 2018: Zoo Biology
Yaduraj Khadpekar, John P Whiteman, Barbara S Durrant, Megan A Owen, Sant Prakash
Animal keepers at zoos and wildlife rescue centers often possess in-depth knowledge of the health and behavior of the individuals under their care. While it is often not feasible for keepers to regularly collect behavior data through formal scientific methods, efforts should be made to find alternative means to capture this knowledge. We investigated the use of keeper feedback to study the behavior of sloth bears at the Agra Bear Rescue Facility (ABRF; Agra, India). We prepared a survey with 5 questions focused on behaviors indicative of playfulness, boldness, aggressiveness, and the tendency to express self-directed behaviors (SDB)...
November 22, 2018: Zoo Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"