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Zoo Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740869/husbandry-of-wild-caught-song-sparrows-melospiza-melodia
#1
Lori Smith, Sara Hallager, Erin Kendrick, Katharine Hope, Raymond M Danner
Conservation and research efforts occasionally rely upon bringing wild animals into human care to establish breeding programs and to understand their biology. Wild-caught birds may have husbandry requirements that differ from captive-reared animals due, in part, to their social development in the wild and potential exposure to novel pathogens. We developed husbandry techniques to minimize stress and monitor health in a population of wild-caught song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We describe enclosure conditions, diet and enrichment, and best practices for stress reduction...
May 8, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740857/genetic-diversity-and-sex-ratio-of-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-zoo-populations
#2
Linh M Chau, Amy M Groh, Emily C Anderson, Micaela O Alcala, Joseph R Mendelson, Stephanie B Slade, Kenton Kerns, Steve Sarro, Clinton Lusardi, Michael A D Goodisman
The naked mole rat, Heterocephalus glaber, is a highly unusual mammal that displays a complex social system similar to that found in eusocial insects. Colonies of H. glaber are commonly maintained in zoo collections because they represent fascinating educational exhibits for the public. However, little is known about the genetic structure or sex ratio of captive populations of H. glaber. In this study, we developed a set of microsatellite markers to examine genetic variation in three captive zoo populations of H...
May 8, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722911/behavioral-responses-of-three-lemur-species-to-different-food-enrichment-devices
#3
Morgan E Shapiro, Hannah G Shapiro, Erin E Ehmke
Environmental enrichment is a tool used to promote the welfare and well-being of captive animals by encouraging the display of species-specific behaviors and reducing the stress or boredom induced by captive environments. Lemurs are highly endangered, yet few studies have analyzed the behavioral impacts of enrichment on captive populations. We studied the impacts of two novel enrichment devices on three lemur species (ring-tailed lemurs [Lemur catta], red-ruffed lemurs [Varecia rubra], and Coquerel's sifaka [Propithecus coquereli]) to determine both the overall and species-specific impacts of enrichment on lemur behavior...
May 3, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722907/use-of-somatic-cell-banks-in-the-conservation-of-wild-felids
#4
REVIEW
Érika A Praxedes, Alana A Borges, Maria V O Santos, Alexsandra F Pereira
The conservation of biological resources is an interesting strategy for the maintenance of biodiversity, especially for wild felids who are constantly threatened with extinction. For this purpose, cryopreservation techniques have been used for the long-term storage of gametes, embryos, gonadal tissues, and somatic cells and tissues. The establishment of these banks has been suggested as a practical approach to the preservation of species and, when done in tandem with assisted reproductive techniques, could provide the means for reproducing endangered species...
May 3, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722905/influence-of-biological-factors-on-hematological-and-serum-biochemistry-values-in-captive-ad%C3%A3-lie-chinstrap-gentoo-and-macaroni-penguins-in-pingtung-taiwan
#5
Shih-Yu Chen, Yi-Lun Tsai, Suen-Chuain Lin, Yeong-Huey Wu, Ming-Huei Liao, Ching-Dong Chang, Tsung-Hsien Li, Hsiao-Kuang Ho
Hematology and serum biochemistry reference values are essential for health evaluation and disease diagnosis in penguins. However, there are currently no published physiological values for captive Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) and Chinstrap penguins (P. antarcticus), nor for wild or captive Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). The present study is the first investigation regarding hematology and serum biochemistry reference values for captive Adélie, Gentoo (P. papua), Chinstrap, and Macaroni penguins in Asia...
May 3, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675871/an-evaluation-of-video-cameras-for-collecting-observational-data-on-sanctuary-housed-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#6
Bethany K Hansen, Amy L Fultz, Lydia M Hopper, Stephen R Ross
Video cameras are increasingly being used to monitor captive animals in zoo, laboratory, and agricultural settings. This technology may also be useful in sanctuaries with large and/or complex enclosures. However, the cost of camera equipment and a lack of formal evaluations regarding the use of cameras in sanctuary settings make it challenging for facilities to decide whether and how to implement this technology. To address this, we evaluated the feasibility of using a video camera system to monitor chimpanzees at Chimp Haven...
April 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671895/visitor-effects-on-a-zoo-population-of-california-sea-lions-zalophus-californianus-and-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina
#7
Amber J de Vere
The effects of visitor presence on zoo and aquarium animals have become increasingly well studied, using measures such as behavioral responses and exhibit usage. Many taxa remain underrepresented in this literature; this is the case for marine mammals, despite widespread public concern for their welfare in managed care settings. The current study therefore used behavioral activity budgets and exhibit usage to assess the responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to visitors at the Seal Cove exhibit at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo CA...
April 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655202/development-of-a-body-condition-score-for-the-mountain-chicken-frog-leptodactylus-fallax
#8
Stephanie Jayson, Luke Harding, Christopher J Michaels, Benjamin Tapley, Joanna Hedley, Matthias Goetz, Alberto Barbon, Gerardo Garcia, Javier Lopez, Edmund Flach
The Critically Endangered mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) has undergone drastic population decline due to habitat loss, hunting, invasive species, and chytridiomycosis. In response, several partner institutions initiated a conservation breeding program. It is important to maintain the captive population in good health. Therefore the program partners have recommended establishment of protocols for health examination of the species, including body condition assessment. Visual body condition scoring is a useful means to assess body condition in zoo animals for which regular bodyweight measurements are impractical or associated with capture-related stress...
April 14, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600558/when-elephants-fall-asleep-a-literature-review-on-elephant-rest-with-case-studies-on-elephant-falling-bouts-and-practical-solutions-for-zoo-elephants
#9
Christian Schiffmann, Stefan Hoby, Christian Wenker, Therese Hård, Robert Scholz, Marcus Clauss, Jean-Michel Hatt
Little attention has been paid to the resting and sleeping behavior of zoo elephants so far. An important concern is when elephants avoid lying down, due to degenerative joint and foot disease, social structure, or stressful environmental changes. Inability or unwillingness to lie down for resting is an important welfare issue, as it may impair sleep. We emphasize the importance of satisfying rest in elephants by reviewing the literature on resting behavior in elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) as well as the documentation of four cases from European zoos and our own direct observations in a zoo group of four female African elephants during 12 entire days...
March 30, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664122/effects-of-changes-in-photoperiod-and-temperature-on-the-estrous-cycle-of-a-captive-female-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#10
Trisha T N Tay, Desheng Li, Yan Huang, Pengyan Wang, Tasha Tahar, Josephine Kawi
The female giant panda's estrus is known to be photoperiod sensitive, triggered by increasing day length. A pair of giant pandas was brought to Singapore in September 2012 and exposed to a constant temperature and photoperiod during the first 2 years. The female did not show any signs of estrus during that period. In November 2014, photoperiod and temperature were manipulated to simulate seasonal changes, to investigate the effects of environmental factors on the sexual behavior of the giant pandas. This paper documents the changes and observations carried out from 2012 to 2016, in the attempt to breed this vulnerable species...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527718/stress-and-social-behaviors-of-maternally-deprived-captive-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis
#11
Leila Siciliano-Martina, Jason P Martina
Maternal deprivation can cause long-term behavioral changes in captive mammals. Studies regarding captive ungulates have also indicated behavioral shifts in the presence of the animal keeping staff; however, little is known about these effects in captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). To examine this, we observed a population of reticulated giraffes composed of maternally raised and maternally deprived individuals by direct and camera observations at Binder Park Zoo, Battle Creek, Michigan. We conducted observations using a unique ethogram with special regard for behaviors that might indicate stress or anti-social tendencies...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512188/current-husbandry-situation-of-red-pandas-in-japan
#12
Ai Tanaka, Tadatoshi Ogura
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered semi-arboreal folivore with a specialized diet of bamboo leaves. Zoos worldwide maintain red pandas under a variety of housing environments and husbandry procedures that may affect the reproductive success and longevity of captive red pandas. The aims of the present study were to investigate how red pandas are kept in Japan and to obtain useful insights to increase their longevity by comparing the results from a questionnaire sent to Japanese zoos and those from a previous survey conducted in other countries...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450906/factors-affecting-the-occurrence-of-enteritis-in-10-to-12-month-old-eastern-grey-kangaroos-macropus-giganteus
#13
Nobuhide Kido, Sohei Tanaka, Yuko Wada, Sumito Sato
Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) younger than 19 months at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, Japan, frequently died of enteritis. The main cause of death was coccidiosis. This study aimed to reveal retrospectively the clinical features of enteritis and factors contributing to its high occurrence. In addition, haematological and serum biochemical parameters in kangaroos younger than 24 months were analyzed. The findings suggested that enteritis occurrence was higher in 10- to 12-month-old kangaroos than other ages and during seasons with high temperature and humidity than during seasons with low temperature and humidity...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441656/patterns-of-wounding-in-hamadryas-baboons-papio-hamadryas-in-north-american-zoos
#14
Jodi N Wiley, Austin Leeds, Kamisha D Carpenter, Corinne J Kendall
In North American zoos, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) have traditionally been housed as single one-male units (single male groups). In recent years, efforts have been made to house hamadryas in groups composed of multiple one-male units (multi-male groups) to more closely mirror their natural social structure, in addition to all-male or bachelor groups to manage surplus males. Given that the majority of social conflict in hamadryas occurs between males during the acquisition and defense of females, it was thought that managing hamadryas in these multi-male groups would result in increased rates of wounding...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405362/confronting-the-wildlife-trade-through-public-education-at-zoological-institutions-in-chengdu-p-r-china
#15
Susan Clayton, Sarah Bexell, Xu Ping, Zhang Zhihe, Li Wen Jing, Chen Hong Wei, Hu Yan
The wildlife trade poses substantial threats to global biodiversity. China is a significant source of threatened species and also a market for wildlife products. Zoological parks (zoos), which are a popular leisure attraction in China as elsewhere, are increasingly conceptualized as places to educate visitors about both animals and environmental threats more generally. This paper reports on an attempt to inform Chinese zoo visitors about the threats presented by the wildlife trade, and about the opportunity to take personal actions to help protect wildlife...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385275/identification-of-possible-nutritional-and-stress-risk-factors-in-the-development-of-marmoset-wasting-syndrome
#16
Francis Cabana, Rina Maguire, Chia-Da Hsu, Amy Plowman
Marmoset wasting syndrome (MWS) describes a series of symptoms in callitrichids that lead to general weakness and a failure to thrive in captive conditions such as zoological institutions. Though the cause of MWS has not been identified, the majority of hypotheses are linked to deficiencies of specific nutrients and increased stress levels. Questionnaires were sent to zoos requesting information on diets and housing of currently living and dead callitrichids before their deaths, as well as their postmortem reports...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385270/cognitive-judgement-bias-is-associated-with-frequency-of-anticipatory-behavior-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#17
Isabella L K Clegg, Fabienne Delfour
Many animals display a suite of increased vigilance and/or activity responses in relation to upcoming events, termed "anticipatory behavior." Anticipatory behavior toward positive events has been suggested as a cross-species measure of affective state as it likely reflects the balance of the reward-sensitivity system: various studies suggest that animals in poorer welfare situations show higher or excessive levels of anticipation for positive events. Another tool for evaluating animals' affective state is cognitive bias testing, and although it has been attempted, a link has not yet been made between cognitive bias and anticipatory behavior levels...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399864/in-house-monitoring-of-steroid-hormone-metabolites-in-urine-informs-breeding-management-of-a-giant-anteater-myrmechophaga-tridactyla
#18
Laura Amendolagine, Tad Schoffner, Lynn Koscielny, Mandi Schook, Debra Copeland, James Casteel, Brianna Duff, Diana Koester
Although numbers of giant anteaters within North American facilities have been steadily increasing for the last 15 years, the population now exhibits an unstable age distribution with genetically valuable individuals nearing reproductive senescence. Contributing to this issue is the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) described lack of standardization of breeding introduction practices and high risk of female injury occurring during such pairings. This report describes the development of a successful breeding protocol at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo based on hormone monitoring and efficient communication between science and animal management teams that minimizes risk of female injury...
January 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385273/first-report-of-a-hatched-hand-reared-and-released-african-oystercatcher
#19
Romy Klusener, Renata Hurtado, Nicola Stander, Nola J Parsons
The African oystercatcher Haematopus moquini is a near-threatened wader that is endemic to southern Africa. In the past, the species suffered a drastic decrease in nesting success due to human disturbance. We present the case report of an African oystercatcher that was hatched, hand-reared, and released in the Western Cape, South Africa. African oystercatchers are semi-altricial birds that tend to be highly sensitive to stress; as a result, strategies to minimize stress and the employment of surrogate parents and pre-release acclimatization are important to ensure post-release survival of hand-reared chicks...
January 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377272/successful-care-and-propagation-of-the-endangered-amargosa-vole-microtus-californicus-scirpensis-in-captivity
#20
Nora Allan, Risa Pesapane, Janet Foley, Deana Clifford
The Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) is a highlyendangered rodent endemic to a small stretch of the California portion of the Amargosa River basin in Inyo County's Mojave Desert. Although the Amargosa vole has survived in this naturally fragmented ecosystem for thousands of years, recent habitat degradation due to land development, water drainage, and marsh exploitation has further isolated the species and reduced its available habitat. As part of a conservation effort to preserve the species, a captive breeding population was established in 2014 to serve as an insurance colony and as a source of individuals to release into the wild as restored habitat becomes available...
January 2018: Zoo Biology
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