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Zoo Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906018/normal-hematology-and-serum-chemistry-of-northern-fur-seals-callorhinus-ursinus-in-captivity
#1
Kaoru Kohyama, Yasuo Inoshima
Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are endemic to the North Pacific Ocean. They were hunted for their fur and became endangered in the late 1800s, but their populations recovered following the introduction of protection laws. Recently, populations have been decreasing again, although the reasons are unclear. For individuals that are bred and reared in captivity as part of ex situ conservation projects, details of blood characteristics are essential to ensure good health. However, the normal ranges of hematology and serum chemistry of captive northern fur seals have not been defined...
September 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901667/variables-affecting-the-manifestation-of-and-intensity-of-pacing-behavior-a-preliminary-case-study-in-zoo-housed-polar-bears
#2
Isabelle T Cless, Kristen E Lukas
High-speed video analysis was used to quantify two aspects of gait in 10 zoo-housed polar bears. These two variables were then examined as to how they differed in the conditions of pacing versus locomoting for each bear. Percent difference calculations measured the difference between pacing and locomoting data for each bear. We inferred that the higher the percent difference between pacing and locomoting in a given subject, the more intense the pacing may be. The percent difference values were analyzed alongside caregiver survey data defining the locations, frequency, and anticipatory nature of pacing in each bear, as well as each bear's age and sex, to determine whether any variables were correlated...
September 13, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901642/impact-of-mimicking-natural-dispersion-on-breeding-success-of-captive-north-american-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#3
Sierra J Gillman, Karen Ziegler-Meeks, Carol Eager, Thomas A Tenhundfeld, Wendy Shaffstall, Mary Jo Stearns, Adrienne E Crosier
This paper examines the effects of transfer away from natal facility and littermate presence on cheetah breeding success in the AZA Species Survival Plan (SSP) population. Transfer and breeding history data for captive males and females were gathered from seven and four AZA SSP breeding facilities, respectively, to identify factors influencing breeding success. The results indicate that transfer history (p = 0.032), age at transfer (p = 0.013), and female littermate presence/absence (p = 0.04) was associated with breeding success, with females transferred away from their natal facility before sexual maturity and without littermates present accounting for the highest breeding success...
September 13, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901587/serum-estradiol-and-progesterone-profiles-during-estrus-pseudopregnancy-and-active-gestation-in-steller-sea-lions
#4
Renae Sattler, Lori Polasek
While the proximate driver behind the decline of the Western stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus, >80% since 1970s) is likely multifactorial, the population reduction may have been powered by a decrease in fecundity. A harvest of Steller sea lions in the 1970s and 80s revealed a 30% reduction in the proportion of pregnant females from early (October-November) to late gestation (April-May). Identification and quantification of these reproductive failures are difficult when we lack species-specific data on endocrinology associated with discrete stages of the reproductive cycle (i...
September 13, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901580/feeding-live-invertebrate-prey-in-zoos-and-aquaria-are-there-welfare-concerns
#5
REVIEW
Martha Keller
Invertebrates constitute more than 90% of all species on earth, however, as a rule, humans do not regard invertebrates as creatures that can suffer and they are generally seen as creatures that should be eliminated. As a result, the importance of their welfare may be grossly unappreciated. For instance, the feeding of live food is often viewed as a good method of enrichment and invertebrates are commonly used as live prey in many zoological facilities. As a result, zoos may send mixed messages to their patrons in that welfare is considered only for the invertebrates that are part of their zoological collection and not necessarily for the invertebrates used as feed...
September 13, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901631/equine-behavioral-enrichment-toys-as-tools-for-non-invasive-recovery-of-viral-and-host-dna
#6
Peter A Seeber, Sanatana E Soilemetzidou, Marion L East, Chris Walzer, Alex D Greenwood
Direct collection of samples from wildlife can be difficult and sometimes impossible. Non-invasive remote sampling for the purpose of DNA extraction is a potential tool for monitoring the presence of wildlife at the individual level, and for identifying the pathogens shed by wildlife. Equine herpesviruses (EHV) are common pathogens of equids that can be fatal if transmitted to other mammals. Transmission usually occurs by nasal aerosol discharge from virus-shedding individuals. The aim of this study was to validate a simple, non-invasive method to track EHV shedding in zebras and to establish an efficient protocol for genotyping individual zebras from environmental DNA (eDNA)...
September 12, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804950/non-invasive-assessment-of-adrenocortical-function-as-a-measure-of-stress-in-the-endangered-golden-langur
#7
Jatin Sarmah, Chaya R Hazarika, Elizabeth V Berkeley, Stefanie B Ganswindt, Andre Ganswindt
The golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered primate endemic to northern India and Bhutan. The main stressors to the species are habitat degradation and fragmentation. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) analysis is a powerful tool for assessing stress associated with environmental disturbances in wildlife. However, interspecific differences in glucocorticoid metabolism require careful selection of the antibody used in their quantification. The goals of this study were to: 1) validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to determine fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the golden langur and 2) compare fGCM concentrations between golden langurs living under different environmental conditions...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664631/avian-gametologs-as-molecular-tags-for-sex-identification-in-birds-of-prey-of-iran
#8
Reza Valadan, Foroogh Nejatollahi, Hoda Ehsani-Nori, Hassan Habibi, Hamid Amini, Mansour Aliabadian
Global environmental change and rapid destruction of natural habitats necessitate the conservation of endangered and threatened birds of prey. Recently, molecular sex identification methods based on amplification of introns of chromodomain-helicase DNA binding protein1 (CHD1) have provided valuable tools for ecological study and conservation breeding programs of birds. These methods employ a primer pair flanking an intron which varies considerably in length between the avian gametologs CHD1Z and CHD1W. Herein, we test the applicability of CHD1Z and CHD1W as universal tags for molecular sex identification in birds of prey of Iran...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653455/nocturnal-behavior-of-orphaned-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-calves-in-sri-lanka
#9
Helena Stokes, Vijitha Perera, Nilmini Jayasena, Ayona Silva-Fletcher
Many animals exhibit circadian variation in behavior; thus, studying nocturnal behavior is important to fully understand species activity patterns. The nocturnal behavior of Asian elephants, and specifically calves, has received little previous study. We carried out observational study of the nocturnal behavior of orphaned Asian elephant calves at three age groups: "infant" (0-24 months), "young juvenile" (25-36 months) and "old juveniles" (over 36 months). Project aims were to build a nocturnal activity budget, to investigate key age differences, and whether calves exhibited synchronous behavior patterns...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643409/variability-in-hematology-of-white-spotted-bamboo-sharks-chiloscyllium-plagiosum-in-different-living-environments
#10
Lily A Parkinson, Amy B Alexander, Terry W Campbell
Elasmobranch hematology continues to reveal new peculiarities within this specialized field. This report compares total hematologic values from the same white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) housed in different environments. We compared the hemograms one year apart, using a standardized Natt-Herrick's technique. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts of the sharks were statistically different between the two time points (initial median total WBC count = 18,920 leukocytes/μl, SD = 8,108; 1 year later total WBC count = 1,815 leukocytes/μl, SD = 1,309)...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639408/quantifying-long-term-impact-of-zoo-and-aquarium-visits-on-biodiversity-related-learning-outcomes
#11
Eric A Jensen, Andrew Moss, Markus Gusset
Zoos and aquariums aim to achieve lasting impact on their public audiences' awareness of biodiversity, its value, and the steps they can take to conserve it. Here, we evaluate the long-term educational impact of visits to zoos and aquariums on biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity. A minimum of two years after completing a repeated-measures survey before and after visiting a zoo or aquarium, the same participants were invited to take part in a follow-up online survey...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635047/feeding-asian-pangolins-an-assessment-of-current-diets-fed-in-institutions-worldwide
#12
Francis Cabana, Amy Plowman, Thai Van Nguyen, Shih-Chien Chin, Sung-Lin Wu, Hsuan-Yi Lo, Hirofumi Watabe, Fujio Yamamoto
Pangolins are ant specialists which are under intense threat from the illegal wildlife trade. Nutrition has notoriously been their downfall in captivity and is still an issue in regards to rescue and rehabilitation. We analyzed the nutrient content of diets used by institutions that are successfully keeping Asian pangolins and to assess the variety of the ingredients and nutrients, compared these with the nutritional requirements of potential nutritional model species. We performed intake studies at five institutions and also had data from three other institutions...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635030/plasticity-of-thermoregulatory-behavior-in-leopard-geckos-eublepharis-macularius-blyth-1954
#13
Octavian Craioveanu, Cristina Craioveanu, Vioara Mireşan
Studies on thermoregulation in nocturnal lizards have shown that their thermal regimes are similar to those of diurnal lizards, even though they hide during the daytime and are active mostly at night, when heat sources are very scarce. As a result, nocturnal lizards display an active thermoregulatory behavior consisting of seeking warm shelters to hide during the daytime, using accumulated heat for the nocturnal activity. Based on this information, we hypothesize that when leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius, Blyth 1954) are presented with the choice of safety in cool shelters or vulnerability in heated open areas, suitable temperature will prevail in importance, i...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627010/a-turtle-cognition-research-demonstration-enhances-visitor-engagement-and-keeper-animal-relationships
#14
Andrew C Alba, Katherine A Leighty, Victoria L Pittman Courte, Alison P Grand, Tamara L Bettinger
Environmental enrichment techniques present animals with cognitive challenges while providing them opportunities to make choices and exert control over their environment. In this way, cognitive research and training is enriching to animals and can be used as a form of enrichment in zoos and aquariums. Cognitive research demonstrations also provide an opportunity to enhance visitor experience, as well as foster interactions between animals and keepers. We investigated how cognitive research sessions involving eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) impacted both the rate of visitors coming to the exhibit and the amount of time they spent engaged...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547779/the-effects-of-environmental-and-visitor-variables-on-the-behavior-of-free-ranging-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-captivity
#15
Courtney Collins, Ilse Corkery, Amy Haigh, Sean McKeown, Thomas Quirke, Ruth O'Riordan
The effect of the zoo environment on captive animals is an increasingly studied area of zoo research, with visitor effects and exhibit design recognized as two of the factors that can contribute to animal welfare in captivity. It is known that in some situations, visitors may be stressful to zoo-housed primates, and this may be compounded by environmental factors such as the weather, the time of day, and zoo husbandry routines. Exhibit design and proximity of the public are also known to influence behavioral response of primates to visitors; however, there is minimal research on free-ranging zoo animals, even though they are potentially subjected to intense interactions with visitors...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544080/the-skin-microbiome-of-cow-nose-rays-rhinoptera-bonasus-in-an-aquarium-touch-tank-exhibit
#16
Patrick J Kearns, Jennifer L Bowen, Michael F Tlusty
Public aquaria offer numerous educational opportunities for visitors while touch-tank exhibits offer guests the ability to directly interact with marine life via physical contact. Despite the popularity of touch-tanks, there is a paucity of research about animal health in these exhibits and, in particular, there is little research on the microbial communities in these highly interactive exhibits. Microbial community structure can have implications for both host health and habitat function. To better understand the microbiome of a touch-tank we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to analyze the microbial community on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of cow-nose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) as well as their environment in a frequently visited touch-tank exhibit at the New England Aquarium...
May 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543832/an-investigation-of-the-impact-of-melbourne-zoo-s-seal-the-loop-donate-call-to-action-on-visitor-satisfaction-and-behavior
#17
Sarah Mellish, Ben Sanders, Carla A Litchfield, Elissa L Pearson
Modern zoos are uniquely positioned to educate the public about environmental issues and promote conservation action. This report investigates the introduction of a donation request during an interactive fur seal presentation (as part of Melbourne Zoo's "Seal-the-Loop" initiative) on visitor satisfaction, perceptions of donation as a way to help wild fur seals, and donation behaviors. Comparisons are made between three groups surveyed upon exit: (1) viewed the interactive fur seal presentation prior to the donation request implementation (pledge-presentation: N = 86; see Mellish, Pearson, Sanders, and Litchfield []; International Zoo Yearbook 129:129-154); (2) viewed the interactive fur seal presentation including the donation request (donate-presentation: N = 82); and (3) viewed the fur seal exhibit and donation point but not the presentation and were not directly asked to make a donation (donate-exhibit: N = 82)...
May 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543739/sound-at-the-zoo-using-animal-monitoring-sound-measurement-and-noise-reduction-in-zoo-animal-management
#18
David A Orban, Joseph Soltis, Lori Perkins, Jill D Mellen
A clear need for evidence-based animal management in zoos and aquariums has been expressed by industry leaders. Here, we show how individual animal welfare monitoring can be combined with measurement of environmental conditions to inform science-based animal management decisions. Over the last several years, Disney's Animal Kingdom® has been undergoing significant construction and exhibit renovation, warranting institution-wide animal welfare monitoring. Animal care and science staff developed a model that tracked animal keepers' daily assessments of an animal's physical health, behavior, and responses to husbandry activity; these data were matched to different external stimuli and environmental conditions, including sound levels...
May 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497618/crocodilian-perivitelline-membrane-bound-sperm-detection
#19
Lauren Augustine
Advanced reproductive technologies (ART's) are often employed with various taxa to enhance captive breeding programs and maintain genetic diversity. Perivitelline membrane-bound (PVM-bound) sperm detection has previously been demonstrated in avian and chelonian species as a useful technique for breeding management. In the absence of embryotic development within an egg, this technique can detect the presence of sperm trapped on the oocyte membrane confirming breeding, male reproductive status, and pair compatibility...
May 11, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295537/investigation-of-techniques-to-measure-cortisol-and-testosterone-concentrations-in-coyote-hair
#20
Christopher J Schell, Julie K Young, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Jill M Mateo, Rachel M Santymire
Long-term noninvasive sampling for endangered or elusive species is particularly difficult due to the challenge of collecting fecal samples before hormone metabolite desiccation, as well as the difficulty in collecting a large enough sample size from all individuals. Hair samples may provide an environmentally stable alternative that provides a long-term assessment of stress and reproductive hormone profiles for captive, zoo, and wild mammals. Here, we extracted and analyzed both cortisol and testosterone in coyote (Canis latrans) hair for the first time...
March 10, 2017: Zoo Biology
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