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Zoo Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870149/development-of-sociality-and-emergence-of-independence-in-a-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-calf-from-birth-to-36-months
#1
Sara Guarino, Heather M Hill, Julie Sigman
Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period...
November 21, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862255/fourteen-tail-feathers-an-autosomal-recessive-trait-in-california-condors-gymnogyps-californianus
#2
Devon Lang Pryor, Katherine Ralls
Eight pairs of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) have produced 12 chicks with 14 tail feathers instead of the normal 12. The 14 tail feather trait appears to follow an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and is not known to be deleterious. The putative allele for the trait was present in at least seven of the 13 founders of the population. The 14 tail feather allele is the second recessive allele discovered in the condor population. Due to the founder effect, which changes the frequency of many formerly rare recessive alleles, and genetic management to minimize mean kinship, which reduces the expression of recessive traits, it is likely that this population carries other recessive alleles that have not yet been detected...
November 15, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862242/seasonal-mortality-in-zoo-ruminants
#3
Lea Carisch, Dennis W H Müller, Jean-Michel Hatt, Laurie Bingaman Lackey, E Eberhard Rensch, Marcus Clauss, Philipp Zerbe
While seasonality has often been investigated with respect to reproduction, seasonality of mortality has received less attention. We investigated whether a seasonal signal of mortality exists in wild ruminants kept in zoos, using data from 60,591 individuals of 88 species. We quantified the mortality in the 3 consecutive months with the highest above-baseline mortality (3 MM). 3 MM was not related to relative life expectancy of species, indicating that seasonal mortality does not necessarily impact husbandry success...
November 15, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911480/instructions-for-contributors
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911479/announcements
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911478/modulation-of-whistle-production-related-to-training-sessions-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-under-human-care
#6
Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862246/a-retrospective-analysis-of-mortality-in-captive-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-from-1912-to-2014
#7
Gabriella L Flacke, Suzana Tkalčić, Beatrice Steck, Kristin Warren, Graeme B Martin
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species (CITES Appendix II) that has been housed in zoological collections since 1912. As wild populations continue to decline throughout the species' range, successful ex situ breeding and management, including an understanding of morbidity and mortality, are of utmost importance. This study is the first comprehensive review of mortality data from the captive population since 1982 and significantly expands on previous analyses. We solicited necropsy reports from 129/187 zoological institutions worldwide that currently or previously held pygmy hippos and received data for 404 animals (177 ♂, 220 ♀, 7 undermined sex), representing 43% of pygmy hippos that have died in captivity...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801957/a-new-marker-based-on-the-avian-spindlin-gene-that-is-able-to-sex-most-birds-including-species-problematic-to-sex-with-chd-markers
#8
Deborah A Dawson, Natalie Dos Remedios, Gavin J Horsburgh
We have developed a new marker (Z43B) that can be successfully used to identify the sex of most birds (69%), including species difficult or impossible to sex with other markers. We utilized the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata EST microsatellite sequence (CK309496) which displays sequence homology to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the avian spindlin gene. This gene is known to be present on the Z and W chromosomes. To maximize cross-species utility, the primer set was designed from a consensus sequence created from homologs of CK309496 that were isolated from multiple distantly related species...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735990/a-global-survey-of-banteng-bos-javanicus-housing-and-husbandry
#9
Lewis J Rowden, Paul E Rose
Banteng (Bos javanicus) are an example of a species of conservation concern without current "best practice" guidance, as they have been the focus of little applied husbandry research. Despite their elevated conservation status, and established, increasing global captive population, zoos do not yet have information on optimal husbandry. To help address this problem, a husbandry survey was distributed to all global holders of banteng. Questions focused on herd demographic structure, exhibit features (including mixed-species exhibition), dietary provision, and behavioral management...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704614/variation-in-food-availability-mediate-the-impact-of-density-on-cannibalism-growth-and-survival-in-larval-yellow-spotted-mountain-newts-neurergus-microspilotus-implications-for-captive-breeding-programs
#10
Somaye Vaissi, Mozafar Sharifi
In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684732/why-do-captive-pied-tamarins-give-birth-during-the-day
#11
Eluned C Price, Catherine Payne, Dominic Wormell
Diurnal primates typically give birth at night, when it is presumed that they are safer at a very vulnerable time, and this is reflected in an overwhelmingly nocturnal pattern of delivery in most species of Callitrichidae. However, over half (51.1%) of 88 births to pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) at Durrell Wildlife Park occurred during the day (0800-1700), almost always in the afternoon. Nearly three quarters of breeding females (17/23) had at least one diurnal birth, including females from all generations in captivity from wild-caught to fifth captive-born generation, and from all six matrilines represented at Durrell...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623542/increasing-the-dietary-supply-of-carotenoids-through-forage-supplementation-effect-on-nitrogen-and-mineral-retention-in-captive-golden-pheasants-chrysolophus-pictus
#12
Singray Saleb Kullu, Asit Das, Mohini Saini, Anil Kumar Garg, Ravindra Kumar Yogi, Shyamal Kumar Soren, Anil Kumar Sharma
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of green forages on feed consumption, nutrient and mineral utilization in Golden pheasants (GP). Twenty-seven female GP (BW 617-635 g) were randomly distributed into three groups of nine birds each in an experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD). Birds in group T1 were fed a conventional zoo diet containing 1.4% green forages; however, the diets of the birds in groups T2 and T3 contained 2.7% and 5.0% of green forages, respectively...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623487/aggressive-behavior-and-hair-cortisol-levels-in-captive-dorcas-gazelles-gazella-dorcas-as-animal-based-welfare-indicators
#13
Marina Salas, Déborah Temple, Teresa Abáigar, Mariano Cuadrado, Maria Delclaux, Conrad Enseñat, Vanessa Almagro, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Miguel Ángel Quevedo, Annaïs Carbajal, Oriol Tallo-Parra, Maria Sabés-Alsina, Marta Amat, Manel Lopez-Bejar, Hugo Fernández-Bellon, Xavier Manteca
Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas)...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588696/characterization-of-multiple-pathways-modulating-aggression-in-the-male-clouded-leopard-neofelis-nebulosa
#14
Heather B DeCaluwe, Nadja C Wielebnowski, JoGayle Howard, Katharine M Pelican, Mary Ann Ottinger
Breeding clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) ex situ has been a challenge, primarily due to extreme and often fatal male aggression toward females. This study's aim was to determine the degree to which two possible mechanisms-serotonergic pathways and circulating testosterone levels-affect aggressive behavior. Male clouded leopard behavioral and hormonal data were collected during a series of behavior tests administered before and after treatment with either an anxiety-reducing tricyclic antidepressant (clomipramine) or a GnRH agonist (deslorelin)...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569261/changes-in-the-dominance-hierarchy-of-captive-female-japanese-macaques-as-a-consequence-of-merging-two-previously-established-groups
#15
Emily J Anderson, Robert B Weladji, Patrick Paré
Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569067/technique-for-venipuncture-of-the-transverse-facial-vein-in-the-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis
#16
Justin R Schlanser, George W Bohart, Deborah W Paperd, Cynthia Wagner, Mark Marquardt, Tara M Harrison
Through the use of operant conditioning, the authors developed a technique to facilitate obtaining blood samples from a black rhinoceros diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The technique involved operant conditioning to facilitate venipuncture of the transverse facial vein, at an anatomic landmark on the lateral side of the face ventral to the medial canthus of the eye, and dorsal to the lateral commissure of the mouth. The investigators used standard operant conditioning protocols to train the animal for desensitization to a needle puncture in the facial vein...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455912/dietary-management-husbandry-and-body-weights-of-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-during-successful-pregnancies-at-disney-s-animal-kingdom
#17
Kathleen Sullivan, Katherine Kerr, Rachel Wanty, Bryan Amaral, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Eduardo Valdes
Successful pregnancy in African elephants is influenced by biological and environmental factors. For managed elephants many of these factors are set directly or indirectly by their human care takers, including nutrition and husbandry. While African elephants often struggle to conceive and produce healthy offspring under human care, Disney's Animal Kingdom (DAK) has effectively managed six gestations to fruition in three cows. Despite differences between mothers in terms of BW and growth curves during gravidity, each pregnancy successfully resulted in the birth of a healthy calf...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731945/forthcoming-in-zoo-biology
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731944/announcements
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731943/instructions-for-contributors
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Zoo Biology
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