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Zoo Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221785/comparison-of-the-nutritional-content-of-the-captive-and-wild-diets-of-the-critically-endangered-mountain-chicken-frog-leptodactylus-fallax-to-improve-its-captive-husbandry
#1
Stephanie Jayson, Amanda Ferguson, Matthias Goetz, Andrew Routh, Benjamin Tapley, Luke Harding, Christopher J Michaels, Jeff Dawson
It is vital to provide appropriate nutrition to maintain healthy populations in conservation breeding programs. Knowledge of the wild diet of a species can be used to inform captive diet formulation. The nutritional content of the wild diet of the critically endangered mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) is unknown, like that of most amphibians. In this study, we analyzed the nutritional content of food items that comprise 91% of the wild diet of L. fallax, by dry weight of food items, and all food items offered to captive L...
September 17, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211954/behavioral-responses-of-two-species-of-dolphins-to-novel-video-footage-an-exploration-of-sex-differences
#2
Kelley A Winship, Holli C Eskelinen
This study assessed the interest toward novel video clips as enrichment stimuli in two species of captive dolphins (Tursiops: n = 11; Steno: n = 5). Videos were played at underwater viewing windows while the animals were housed with conspecifics, and responses were subsequently analyzed based on general content of each novel video. Interest levels (i.e., percentage of time watching and behavioral rate) were compared between species and within species across video categories. While the varied video contexts did not produce significant differences among the time spent watching or behaviors observed, species differences and sex differences were noted...
September 13, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203857/prognostic-indicators-for-survival-in-african-penguin-chicks-spheniscus-demersus-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Ari H Fustukjian, Jennifer E Flower, Gayle Sirpenski, Allison D Tuttle
Mystic Aquarium has successfully maintained an active breeding population of African penguins since 1990. Between 1990 and 2015, 477 eggs were laid, 84 of which were recommended for rearing according to the SSP Breeding and Transfer Plan. Sixty-five percent hatched successfully, and total fertility ranged from 56% to 78%. Of the 55 hatchlings, 60% of chicks reached fledgling age (80 days). Of the 22 chicks that died before fledging, 59% died within 7 days of hatching, and 82% within 30 days of hatching. Categories of mortality were broken down into the following categories: failure to thrive (in the absence of a definitive cause of death) (41%), respiratory disease (32%), parent-associated trauma (13%), congenital defects (9%), and gastrointestinal disease (5%)...
September 11, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182447/the-evolving-role-of-zoological-parks-and-aquariums-in-migratory-bird-conservation
#4
REVIEW
Michael Hutchins, Peter P Marra, Ed Diebold, Michael D Kreger, Christine Sheppard, Sara Hallager, Colleen Lynch
As threats to migratory birds in the Western Hemisphere, including North America, intensify and bird populations decline, there is a growing interest among zoo biologists in the conservation and management of these taxa. The purpose of this article is to explore the role that Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited zoos and aquariums either are playing or could play in the conservation and management of migratory birds. Topics explored include: (1) Public education and advocacy; (2) Captive breeding and reintroduction; (3) In situ conservation; (4) Tracking and monitoring; (5) Research/technology development; and (6) Sustainability/green practices; and (7) Partnerships...
September 4, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175497/a-multi-institutional-assessment-of-a-short-form-personality-questionnaire-for-use-with-macaques
#5
Lydia M Hopper, Katherine A Cronin, Stephen R Ross
There are two commonly-used methods for calculating primates' personality dimensions, behavioral assessments and surveys, which can be used separately or in conjunction. However, these methods have limitations. Behavioral assessments, such as the novel object test or human intruder test, often require subjects to be separated and demand highly-controlled conditions. This is likely not feasible in many zoological institutions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to replicate methods across institutions. While surveys are easier to implement, the most commonly used one - the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire (HPQ) - is long and can be time consuming to complete, especially if multiple individuals need assessing...
September 2, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168187/patterns-of-nocturnal-activity-in-captive-greater-flamingos
#6
Paul E Rose, Imogen Lloyd, James E Brereton, Darren P Croft
Wild flamingos are known to forage overnight, but little is known of their nocturnal activity patterns in captivity. Captive flamingos can show daytime inactivity, reflecting natural periods of resting and loafing documented in wild birds. Assessment of behavior outside of normal zoo opening hours can provide more detailed information on how animals use the space provided to them, and highlights how enclosure areas not commonly occupied during the day may still be important for inhabitants at other times. We examine whether captive flamingos at WWT Slimbridge Wetland Centre change their enclosure usage and behavior overnight compared to that observed during daylight...
August 30, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159919/characterization-of-the-behavior-and-reproductive-endocrinology-of-giant-river-otters-pteronura-brasiliensis-in-managed-care
#7
Lara C Metrione, Helen L Bateman, William F Swanson, Linda M Penfold
Propagation of giant river otters (GRO) in zoos is inconsistent: some pairs never reproduce while others are prolific in producing young but can be hindered by low cub survival. Developing effective breeding programs requires understanding normal reproductive parameters and behavior. Fecal samples were collected for 6-16 months from five breeding pairs, two individual females, and one female pair at seven zoos, and analyzed for fecal progesterone, estrogen, testosterone, and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites via enzyme immunoassay...
August 29, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088282/screening-and-application-of-microsatellite-markers-for-genetic-diversity-analysis-of-captive-eastern-sarus-crane-grus-antigone-sharpii-blanford-1895-in-thailand
#8
Rangsinee Sankhom, Natapot Warrit, Amporn Wiwegweaw
The eastern sarus crane, Grus antigone sharpii, is distributed in the Indochina area, though it has become extinct in Thailand. The Thai government has tried to repopulate the cranes using wild individuals from Cambodia as initial breeding stock. Although captive breeding can reintroduce species back into the wild, the genetic diversity of the population is also important. This study aimed to screen microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic diversity of G. a. sharpii from two breeding facilities in Thailand and to assess its potential for future conservation programs...
August 7, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070397/causes-of-morbidity-in-captive-african-lions-panthera-leo-in-north-america-2001-2016
#9
Benjamin B Norton, Devin Tunseth, Kali Holder, Michael Briggs, Lee-Ann C Hayek, Suzan Murray
The lion (Panthera leo) is an iconic resident of zoos and wild animal parks throughout the world. Regular assessment of the morbidity of captive lions is necessary to address wellness concerns and improve the healthcare and management of this vulnerable species. In an effort to understand disease morbidity broadly and guide future inquiries into captive lion health, we distributed a questionnaire that emphasized diseases of organ systems rather than individual diagnoses. We sent the questionnaire to 108 American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) institutions housing lions between 2001 and 2016...
August 2, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070393/the-effects-of-increased-hay-to-grain-ratio-on-behavior-metabolic-health-measures-and-fecal-bacterial-communities-in-four-masai-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-tippelskirchi-at-cleveland-metroparks-zoo
#10
Michael L Monson, Patricia M Dennis, Kristen E Lukas, Katherine L Krynak, Sarah R Carrino-Kyker, David J Burke, Mandi W Schook
We evaluated whether increasing the hay-to-grain ratio offered to Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo would reduce oral stereotypies and alter feeding behaviors, maintain or increase serum calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, decrease serum insulin-to-glucose ratio and salivary insulin, and alter fecal bacterial community structure. Giraffe transitioned to a ∼90:10 hay-to-grain ratio in even increments over 8 weeks. A ration balancer was added during the seventh week of transition to ensure proper mineral and nutrient balance...
August 2, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058134/phylogenetic-comparative-methods-harnessing-the-power-of-species-diversity-to-investigate-welfare-issues-in-captive-wild-animals
#11
REVIEW
Emma Mellor, Heather McDonald Kinkaid, Georgia Mason
This paper reviews a way of investigating health and welfare problems in captive wild animals (e.g., those in zoos, aviaries, aquaria, or aquaculture systems) that has great potential, but to date has been little used: systematically comparing species with few or no health and welfare issues to those more prone to problems. Doing so empirically pinpoints species-typical welfare risk and protective factors (such as aspects of their natural behavioral biology): information which can then be used to help prevent or remedy problems by suggesting new ways to improve housing and husbandry, and by identifying species intrinsically best suited to captivity...
July 29, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033606/seasonal-dynamics-of-agonistic-behavior-and-hormones-in-an-ex-situ-all-male-colony-of-large-flying-foxes
#12
Hani D Freeman, Michelle Wood, Mandi W Schook, Katherine A Leighty, Shana R Lavin, Susan Wiebe, Tracy E Blowers, Rachel Daneault, Natalie Mylniczenko, Catharine J Wheaton
Large flying foxes (Pteropus vampyrus) are a socially complex species. In situ colonies typically comprise thousands of individuals in small harems of one male to many females. In ex situ environments, all-male colonies are becoming more common due to a surplus of males in the population. There is limited information describing the hormonal and behavioral patterns of all-male colonies during the breeding season. We assessed seasonal changes in hormones and behavior in an all-male colony of 12 large flying foxes at Disney's Animal Kingdom® ...
July 22, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998463/genetic-tests-reveal-extra-pair-paternity-among-gentoo-penguins-pyogoscelis-papua-ellsworthii-at-loveland-living-planet-aquarium-implications-for-ex-situ-colony-management
#13
Lauren Lee, Nathan Tirrell, Christian Burrell, Scott Chambers, Steve Vogel, Eric T Domyan
Maintenance of ex situ populations for species conservation is a collaborative effort involving multiple agencies, institutions, and individuals around the world. Gentoo penguins (Pyogoscelis papua) are one species involved in such a conservation effort, and a Species Survival Plan (SSP) has been put in place by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) to foster their long-term sustainability. As a part of their SSP, a Breeding and Transfer Plan has been created to support interagency exchanges of specimens...
July 11, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992613/the-effects-of-zoo-visitors-on-quokka-setonix-brachyurus-avoidance-behavior-in-a-walk-through-exhibit
#14
Mark James Learmonth, Sally Sherwen, Paul H Hemsworth
The behavior of zoo animals may be influenced by visitors, with possible implications on animal welfare. We examined the effects of the presence of visitors on the presence and visibility of free-ranging quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) in preferred areas of a walk-through enclosure at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. In a controlled experiment, two visitor treatments were randomly imposed: (1) enclosure open to visitors as normal ("Open") and (2) enclosure closed to visitors ("Closed"). Treatments were imposed for 2-day periods, with five replicates of each treatment (10 2-day periods in total)...
July 10, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974991/relative-response-to-digital-tablet-devices-and-painting-as-sensory-enrichment-in-captive-chimpanzees
#15
Priscilla P Grunauer, Justin W Walguarnery
Digital devices, including tablet computers and other touchscreens, can potentially serve as flexible and convenient means for providing behavioral enrichment activities to captive primates. Despite increased interest in incorporating technology into enrichment programs, no direct quantitative comparison has previously been made between the effectiveness of typical tactile enrichment activities and enrichment activities on digital devices. One way in which these activities differ is in the degree of controllability afforded the animals in interacting with the enrichment objects, since digital devices will be limiting to varying degrees based on the particulars of software and the interface format...
July 5, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974496/management-of-respiratory-complications-in-a-western-lowland-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-born-by-cesarean-section
#16
REVIEW
Mary I Thurber, Mark Greenberg, Dawn Weiss, Lynn Richardson, Andrew Stallard, Nadine Lamberski
A female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) infant was delivered by cesarean section (C-section) to an 18-year-old primiparous dam after prolonged labor. The infant required resuscitation at birth and was hospitalized for management of pneumonia and associated respiratory distress secondary to the aspiration of meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The infant received nine days of intensive care with respiratory support, antibiotics, intravenous fluid therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators, and chest physiotherapy...
July 4, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971828/sources-of-morbidity-in-lorises-and-pottos-in-north-american-zoos-a-retrospective-review-1980-2010
#17
Gail M Simpson, Grace Fuller, Kristen E Lukas, Christopher W Kuhar, Helena Fitch-Snyder, Jessica Taylor, Patricia M Dennis
Delineating patterns of morbidity can reveal management practices in need of reassessment to improve individual welfare, as well as population health and sustainability. We reviewed medical records from 38 North American zoological institutions for 276 slender lorises, slow lorises, and pottos born between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2010. This sample included animals identified as 116 Nycticebus pygmaeus, 84 N. coucang, 48 Loris tardigradus tardigradus, 6 L.t. nordicus (now classified as L. lydekkerianus nordicus), and 22 Perodicticus potto...
July 3, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923213/microchips-for-macropods-first-use-of-a-microchip-automated-door-by-a-bridled-nailtail-wallaby-onychogalea-fraenata
#18
Sabrina J Muns, Julia M Hoy, Peter J Murray
Commercially available microchip-automated devices for companion animals also have potential application with captive wildlife. To explore this potential, a captive bridled nailtail wallaby was trained to use a SureFlap Microchip Pet Door. Throughout the 62 day study the wallaby's interactions with the door increased in frequency and intensity, culminating in the repeated use of the microchip-automated door. This was the first record of any captive macropod being trained to use a microchip-automated device and demonstrates proof-of-concept that captive macropods can successfully utilize commercially available microchip-automated devices...
June 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900582/reactions-of-female-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-to-urine-volatiles-from-males-of-varying-genetic-distance
#19
Regina H Mossotti, Eli A Baskir, Corinne P Kozlowski, Ashley D Franklin, George A Feldhamer, Cheryl S Asa
Understanding the factors used by female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to make mate choice decisions could benefit zoo breeding programs, which currently assign mates based primarily on genetic distance. Because transporting animals between institutions is costly and can be stressful, females are often limited in the number of males available for mating. One solution would be to determine if an easily transported substance could be used to gauge interest by a female to a potential mate. Here, we investigate female interest in urine samples from males of different genetic distances...
June 13, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722907/use-of-somatic-cell-banks-in-the-conservation-of-wild-felids
#20
REVIEW
Érika A Praxedes, Alana A Borges, Maria V O Santos, Alexsandra F Pereira
The conservation of biological resources is an interesting strategy for the maintenance of biodiversity, especially for wild felids who are constantly threatened with extinction. For this purpose, cryopreservation techniques have been used for the long-term storage of gametes, embryos, gonadal tissues, and somatic cells and tissues. The establishment of these banks has been suggested as a practical approach to the preservation of species and, when done in tandem with assisted reproductive techniques, could provide the means for reproducing endangered species...
May 3, 2018: Zoo Biology
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