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BioFactors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419584/context-dependent-function-of-ros-in-the-vascular-endothelium-the-role-of-the-notch-pathway-and-shear-stress
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Giorgio Aquila, Francesca Fortini, Mauro Vaccarezza, Paola Secchiero, Paola Rizzo, Gianluca Campo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signal molecules in several biological processes whereas excessive, unregulated, ROS production contributes to the development of pathological conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The maintenance of a healthy endothelium depends on many factors and on their reciprocal interactions; in this framework, the Notch pathway and shear stress (SS) play two lead roles. Recently, evidence of a crosstalk between ROS, Notch, and SS, is emerging. The aim of this review is to describe the way ROS interact with the Notch pathway and SS protecting from-or promoting-the development of endothelial dysfunction...
April 17, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401997/neuroprotective-effects-of-phloretin-and-its-glycosylated-derivative-on-rotenone-induced-toxicity-in-human-sh-sy5y-neuronal-like-cells
#2
Davide Barreca, Monica Currò, Ersilia Bellocco, Silvana Ficarra, Giuseppina Laganà, Ester Tellone, Maria Laura Giunta, Giuseppa Visalli, Daniela Caccamo, Antonio Galtieri, Riccardo Ientile
Phloretin and phlorizin are the two strong natural antioxidants whose biological and pharmacological applications are rapidly growing in different human pathological conditions. The neuroprotective activity of the two flavonoids has been analyzed on cell culture of neuroblastoma cells. The neuroprotective activity of the two flavonoids has been analyzed on cell culture of neuroblastoma cells and evaluated by testing cell vitality, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ROS production, antioxidant enzymes detection, activation of caspase 3, DNA damage, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion scavenging activity...
April 12, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394038/hydrogen-sulfide-attenuates-homocysteine-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-neurochemical-alterations-by-improving-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-levels
#3
Mohit Kumar, Manish Modi, Rajat Sandhir
Hyperomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been associated with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been suggested to be an endogenous modulator of neuronal functions. However, the effect and mechanisms involved in beneficial effect of H2 S has not been investigated in homocysteine (Hcy)-induced cognitive deficits. This study has been designed to evaluate the effect of exogenous H2 S on behavioral deficits and neurochemical alterations in HHcy animals. Hcy levels were significantly elevated in plasma, cortex, and hippocampus of Hcy administered animals...
April 10, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317262/hydroxytyrosol-restores-proper-insulin-signaling-in-an-astrocytic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
M Carmen Crespo, Joao Tomé-Carneiro, Cristina Pintado, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli, Emma Burgos-Ramos
Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrated that diabetes is a risk factor for AD onset and development. Indeed, meta-analyses of longitudinal epidemiologic studies show that diabetes increases AD risk by 50-100%, being insulin resistance (IR) the main binding link between diabetes and AD. Astrocytes are the foremost cerebral macroglial cells and are responsible for converting glucose into lactate and transfer it to neurons that use it as fuel, but Aβ(1-42) impairs insulin signaling and glycogen storage. Recent prospective studies showed that the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of AD...
March 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317253/correlation-between-the-potency-of-flavonoids-for-cytochrome-c-reduction-and-inhibition-of-cardiolipin-induced-peroxidase-activity
#5
Ricardo Lagoa, Alejandro K Samhan-Arias, Carlos Gutierrez-Merino
There are large differences between flavonoids to protect against apoptosis, a process in which cytochrome c (Cyt c) plays a key role. In this work, we show that 7 of 13 flavonoids studied have a capacity to reduce Cyt c similar or higher than ascorbate, the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, flavanol epigallocatechin-gallate, anthocyanidins cyanidin and malvidin, and the flavone luteolin. In contrast, the kaempferol 3(O)- and 3,4'(O)-methylated forms, the flavanone naringenin, and also apigenin and chrysin, had a negligible reducing capacity...
March 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251705/selenium-supplementation-modulates-apoptotic-processes-in-thyroid-follicular-cells
#6
Immacolata C Nettore, Emma De Nisco, Silvio Desiderio, Carmela Passaro, Luigi Maione, Mariarosaria Negri, Luigi Albano, Rosario Pivonello, Claudia Pivonello, Giuseppe Portella, Paola Ungaro, Annamaria Colao, Paolo E Macchia
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient modulating several physiopathological processes in the human body. The aim of the study is to characterize the molecular effects determined by Se-supplementation in thyroid follicular cells, using as model the well-differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL5. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the effects of Se on cell growth, mortality and proliferation and on modulation of pro- and antiapoptotic pathways. The results indicate that Se-supplementation improves FRTL5 growth rate...
March 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247504/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-augments-the-therapeutic-effects-of-benzo-a-pyrene-mediated-lung-carcinogenesis
#7
Meghan M Cromie, Zhongwei Liu, Weimin Gao
Our previous study found curcumin and vitamin E to have protective effects against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The first objective of this study was to determine whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) elicited the same response. Co-treatment with 5 µM BaP and 20 µM EGCG in BEAS-2B promoted a significant reduction in cell viability and greater G2/M cell cycle arrest, induction of ROS, and reductions in BaP-induced CYP1A1/CYP1B1/COMT, EGFR, p-Akt (Ser473), p-p53 (Thr55), and survivin mRNA/protein expression, as well as an increase in p-p53 (Ser15)...
March 1, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218490/comparative-effects-of-energy-restriction-and-resveratrol-intake-on-glycemic-control-improvement
#8
I Milton-Laskibar, L Aguirre, M T Macarulla, U Etxeberria, F I Milagro, J A Martínez, J Contreras, M P Portillo
Resveratrol (RSV) has been proposed as an energy restriction mimetic. This study aimed to compare the effects of RSV and energy restriction on insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Any additive effect of both treatments was also analyzed. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks. They were then distributed in four experimental groups which were either fed a standard control diet (C), or treated with RSV (30 mg/kg/d), or submitted to energy restriction (R, 15%), or treated with RSV and submitted to energy restriction (RR)...
February 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218436/differentially-expressed-haptoglobin-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-type-2-diabetic-mellitus-in-hispanic-population
#9
Zhongwei Liu, Du Feng, Danshan Gu, Richard Zheng, Christina Esperat, Weimin Gao
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement is currently a primary tool for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially for the assessment of chronic hyperglycemia. However, many studies reported the limitation of using HbA1c for T2DM diagnosis/prognosis, such as poor sensitivities, difficult standardization, and variable cut points across ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discover novel biomarkers associated with elevated HbA1c levels as complementary T2DM diagnostic tools...
February 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186655/chronic-transgenerational-vitamin-b12-deficiency-of-severe-and-moderate-magnitudes-modulates-adiposity-probable-underlying-mechanisms
#10
Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra Kumar Sinha, Bojanapalli Muralikrishna, Uday Kumar Putcha, Manchala Raghunath
We have demonstrated previously that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency altered body composition and induced adiposity in female C57BL/6 mice. This study aims to elucidate the effects of chronic transgenerational dietary vitamin B12 restriction on body composition and various biochemical parameters in the F1 generation offspring of our mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency established earlier. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice received, ad libitum, for 4 weeks a (i) control diet, (ii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severely deficient diet), or (iii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderately deficient diet) and then mated with control males...
February 10, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139053/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-the-petasin-phyto-drug-ze339-are-mediated-by-inhibition-of-the-stat-pathway
#11
Sabrina A Steiert, Ulrich M Zissler, Adam M Chaker, Julia Esser-von-Bieren, Daniela Dittlein, Ferdinand Guerth, Constanze A Jakwerth, Guido Piontek, Catherine Zahner, Juergen Drewe, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber, Stefanie Gilles
Ze339, an herbal extract from Petasites hybridus leaves is effective in treatment of allergic rhinitis by inhibition of a local production of IL-8 and eicosanoid LTB4 in allergen-challenged patients. However, the mechanism of action and anti-inflammatory potential in virally induced exacerbation of the upper airways is unknown. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Ze339 on primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) upon viral, bacterial and pro-inflammatory triggers. To investigate the influence of viral and bacterial infections on the airways, HNECs were stimulated with viral mimics, bacterial toll-like-receptor (TLR)-ligands or cytokines, in presence or absence of Ze339...
January 31, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419655/cytokine-and-adipokine-are-biofactors-can-act-in-blood-and-colostrum-of-obese-mothers
#12
Mahmi Fujimori, Eduardo Luzia França, Tassiane Cristina Morais, Vanessa Fiorin, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Adenilda Cristina Honório-França
Breast milk contains bioactive components that contribute to newborn development. However, colostrum may undergo biochemical and immunological changes as a function of maternal overweight and obesity. To investigate this hypothesis, this study determined the levels of hormones and immunological markers in the serum and colostrum of overweight and obese mothers. Colostrum and serum samples were collected from 15 normoweight, 15 overweight, and 15 obese women for determination of leptin, adiponectin, cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186649/bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-bmp-7-augments-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-by-potentiating-pi3k-akt-pathway
#13
Tandrika Chattopadhyay, Rajiv Ranjan Singh, Sarika Gupta, Avadhesha Surolia
A direct link between development of insulin resistance and the presence of chronic inflammation, in case of obesity exists, with cytokines playing an important role in glucose metabolism. Members of TGF-β superfamily, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been shown to be involved in islet morphogenesis, establishment of β-cell mass and adipose cell fate determination. Here, we demonstrate a novel and direct role of BMP-4 and -7 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862460/intracellular-cysteine-oxidation-is-modulated-by-aquaporin-8-mediated-hydrogen-peroxide-channeling-in-leukaemia-cells
#14
Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Cecilia Prata, Laura Zambonin, Cristina Angeloni, Benedetta Rizzo, Silvana Hrelia, Diana Fiorentini
The modulation of H2 O2 production by NADPH oxidase (Nox), on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulation, affects the redox signaling linked to cancer cell proliferation. H2 O2 signal transduction involves reversible oxidation of thiol proteins, leading to the formation of cysteine sulfenic acids, responsible for the temporary inactivation of many phosphatases. These events imply that H2 O2 reaches its intracellular targets. As Aquaporin-8 (AQP8) has been demonstrated to funnel Nox-produced H2 O2 across the plasma membrane, this study aims to elucidate the role of AQP8 in the redox signaling occurring in human leukaemia B1647 cells that constitutively produce VEGF...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862450/arachidonic-acid-and-lipoxin-a4-attenuate-alloxan-induced-cytotoxicity-to-rin5f-cells-in-vitro-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-vivo
#15
Naveen K V Gundala, Vegi G M Naidu, Undurti N Das
OBJECTIVE: We studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells against alloxan-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in vivo and if so, mechanism of this beneficial action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro study was conducted using RIN5F cells while in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. The effect of PUFAs, cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, various eicosanoids and PUFAs metabolites: lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D2 and protectin against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and type 1 DM was studied...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801960/inhibition-of-the-sphk1-s1p-signaling-pathway-by-melatonin-in-mice-with-liver-fibrosis-and-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#16
Bárbara González-Fernández, Diana I Sánchez, Irene Crespo, Beatriz San-Miguel, Marcelino Álvarez, María J Tuñón, Javier González-Gallego
The sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) system is involved in different pathological processes, including fibrogenesis. Melatonin abrogates activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and attenuates different profibrogenic pathways in animal models of fibrosis, but it is unknown if protection associates with its inhibitory effect on the SphK1/S1P axis. Mice in treatment groups received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) 5 μL g(-1) body wt i.p. twice a week for 4 or 6 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) i...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801955/curcumin-prevents-mitochondrial-dynamics-disturbances-in-early-5-6-nephrectomy-relation-to-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#17
Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Edilia Tapia, Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Omar Noel Medina-Campos, Norma Angélica Macías-Ruvalcaba, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Magdalena Cristóbal, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, José Pedraza-Chaverri
Five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6NX) is a widely used model to study the mechanisms leading to renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, early alterations on renal function, mitochondrial dynamics, and oxidative stress have not been explored yet. Curcumin is an antioxidant that has shown nephroprotection in 5/6NX-induced renal damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of curcumin on early mitochondrial alterations induced by 5/6NX in rats. In isolated mitochondria, 5/6NX-induced hydrogen peroxide production was associated with decreased activity of complexes I and V, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, alterations in oxygen consumption and increased MDA-protein adducts...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801948/cooperation-between-the-bacterial-derived-short-chain-fatty-acid-butyrate-and-interleukin-22-detected-in-human-caco2-colon-epithelial-carcinoma-cells
#18
Malte Bachmann, Carlotta Meissner, Josef Pfeilschifter, Heiko Mühl
By generating biologically active factors luminal microbiota shape the intestinal micro-milieu thereby regulating pathological processes such as inflammation and carcinogenesis. Preclinical data suggest that bacterial-derived butyrate and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 activating cytokine interleukin (IL)-22 display concordant protective properties at the inflamed colonic epithelium. Herein, biochemical cooperation between the short-chain fatty acid butyrate and IL-22 was investigated by focusing on human Caco2 colon epithelial/carcinoma cells...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671897/blebbishields-and-mitotic-cells-exhibit-robust-macropinocytosis
#19
Goodwin G Jinesh, Ashish M Kamat
Cancer stem cells can survive and undergo transformation after apoptosis by initiating robust endocytosis. Endocytosis in-turn drives formation of serpentine filopodia, which promote construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. However, the status and role of macropinocytosis in blebbishields is not known. Here, we show by scanning electron microscopy and by macropinocytosis assays that blebbishields exhibit robust macropinocytosis. Inhibiting dynamin-mediated endocytosis does not affect macropinocytosis in blebbishields or in mitotic cells...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663177/effect-of-mahanimbine-an-alkaloid-from-curry-leaves-on-high-fat-diet-induced-adiposity-insulin-resistance-and-inflammatory-alterations
#20
Sneha Jagtap, Pragyanshu Khare, Priyanka Mangal, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Mahendra Bishnoi, Kamlesh Kumar Bhutani
Spices and condiments, small but an integral part of the daily diet, are known to affect physiological functions. This study evaluated the effects of mahanimbine, a major carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), against progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic complications in mice (male and female). Mahanimbine at 2 mg/kg (HFD + LD) and 4 mg/kg (HFD + HD) of body weight was administered daily along with HFD feeding for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, male HFD + LD and HFD + HD groups showed 51...
March 2017: BioFactors
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