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Saeideh Momtaz, Kamal Niaz, Faheem Maqbool, Mohammad Abdollahi, Luca Rastrelli, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Melanoma or malignant melanocytes appear with the low incidence rate, but very high mortality rate worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds contribute for prevention or treatment of several cancers particularly melanoma. Such findings motivate to dig out novel therapeutic strategies against melanoma, including research toward the development of new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents that can target the tumor cells by different mechanisms. Recently, it has been found that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in many cancer cases surprisingly...
November 29, 2016: BioFactors
Manouchehr Teymouri, Matteo Pirro, Thomas P Johnston, Amirhosein Sahebkar
Curcumin, the bioactive polyphenolic ingredient of turmeric, has been extensively studied for its effects on human papilloma virus (HPV) infection as well as primary and malignant squamous cervical cancers. HPV infections, especially those related to HPV 16 and 18 types, have been established as the leading cause of cervical cancer; however, there are also additional contributory factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancers. Curcumin has emerged as having promising chemopreventive and anticancer effects against both HPV-related and nonrelated cervical cancers...
November 29, 2016: BioFactors
Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Cecilia Prata, Laura Zambonin, Cristina Angeloni, Benedetta Rizzo, Silvana Hrelia, Diana Fiorentini
The modulation of H2 O2 production by NADPH oxidase (Nox), on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulation, affects the redox signaling linked to cancer cell proliferation. H2 O2 signal transduction involves reversible oxidation of thiol proteins, leading to the formation of cysteine sulfenic acids, responsible for the temporary inactivation of many phosphatases. These events imply that H2 O2 reaches its intracellular targets. As Aquaporin-8 (AQP8) has been demonstrated to funnel Nox-produced H2 O2 across the plasma membrane, this study aims to elucidate the role of AQP8 in the redox signaling occurring in human leukaemia B1647 cells that constitutively produce VEGF...
November 15, 2016: BioFactors
Naveen K V Gundala, Vegi G M Naidu, Undurti N Das
OBJECTIVE: We studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells against alloxan-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in vivo and if so, mechanism of this beneficial action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro study was conducted using RIN5F cells while in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. The effect of PUFAs, cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, various eicosanoids and PUFAs metabolites: lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D2 and protectin against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and type 1 DM was studied...
November 15, 2016: BioFactors
Dénes B Horváthy, Melinda Simon, Charlotte M Schwarz, Mariana Masteling, Gabriella Vácz, István Hornyák, Zsombor Lacza
Albumin is a major plasma protein that has become ubiquitous in regenerative medicine research. As such, many studies have examined its structure and advantageous properties. However, a systematic and comprehensive understanding of albumin's role, capabilities and therapeutic potential still eludes the field. In the present work, we review how albumin is applied in tissue engineering, including cell culture and storage, in vitro fertilization and transplantation. Furthermore, we discuss how albumin's physiological role extends beyond a carrier for metal ions, fatty acids, pharmacons and growth factors...
November 11, 2016: BioFactors
Bárbara González-Fernández, Diana I Sánchez, Irene Crespo, Beatriz San-Miguel, Marcelino Álvarez, María J Tuñón, Javier González-Gallego
The sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) system is involved in different pathological processes, including fibrogenesis. Melatonin abrogates activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and attenuates different profibrogenic pathways in animal models of fibrosis, but it is unknown if protection associates with its inhibitory effect on the SphK1/S1P axis. Mice in treatment groups received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) 5 μL g(-1) body wt i.p. twice a week for 4 or 6 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) i...
November 1, 2016: BioFactors
Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Edilia Tapia, Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Omar Noel Medina-Campos, Norma Angélica Macías-Ruvalcaba, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Magdalena Cristóbal, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, José Pedraza-Chaverri
Five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6NX) is a widely used model to study the mechanisms leading to renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, early alterations on renal function, mitochondrial dynamics, and oxidative stress have not been explored yet. Curcumin is an antioxidant that has shown nephroprotection in 5/6NX-induced renal damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of curcumin on early mitochondrial alterations induced by 5/6NX in rats. In isolated mitochondria, 5/6NX-induced hydrogen peroxide production was associated with decreased activity of complexes I and V, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, alterations in oxygen consumption and increased MDA-protein adducts...
November 1, 2016: BioFactors
Malte Bachmann, Carlotta Meissner, Josef Pfeilschifter, Heiko Mühl
By generating biologically active factors luminal microbiota shape the intestinal micro-milieu thereby regulating pathological processes such as inflammation and carcinogenesis. Preclinical data suggest that bacterial-derived butyrate and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 activating cytokine interleukin (IL)-22 display concordant protective properties at the inflamed colonic epithelium. Herein, biochemical cooperation between the short-chain fatty acid butyrate and IL-22 was investigated by focusing on human Caco2 colon epithelial/carcinoma cells...
November 1, 2016: BioFactors
Xiao-Fei Shen, Yan Teng, Kai-Hui Sha, Xin-Yuan Wang, Xiao-Long Yang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Lai-Bin Ren, Xiao-Ying Wang, Jingyu Li, Ning Huang
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the primary uropathogen, adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells (BECs) to establish a successful urinary tract infection (UTI). Emerging antibiotic resistance requires novel nonantibiotic strategies. Our previous study indicated that luteolin attenuated adhesive and invasive abilities as well as cytotoxicity of UPEC on T24 BECs through down-regulating UPEC virulence factors. The aims of this study were to investigate the possible function of the flavonoid luteolin and the mechanisms by which luteolin functions in UPEC-induced bladder infection...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Rafael Rodríguez-Muñoz, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, María Del Carmen Cárdenas-Aguayo, Omar Noel Medina-Campos, Edilia Tapia, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, José L Reyes, Laura Arreola-Mendoza, José Pedraza-Chaverri
We have previously reported that the antioxidant curcumin exerts nephroprotection in maleate-induced renal damage, a model associated with oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms involved in curcumin protective effect were not explored, to assess this issue, curcumin was administered daily by gavage (150 mg/kg) five days before a single maleate (400 mg/kg)-injection. Curcumin prevented maleate-induced proteinuria, increased heat shock protein of 72 KDa (Hsp72) expression, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Naimur Rahman, Miso Jeon, Yong-Sik Kim
Methyl gallate (MG) is a derivative of gallic acid and a potent antioxidant. In this study, we confirmed that MG treatment effectively inhibits lipid accumulation, which occurred mostly in the early stages of adipogenesis. We also showed that shortly after adipogenic induction, MG facilitated a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Mechanistic studies revealed that MG treatment inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which is a key regulator of the G1- to S-phase transition. Furthermore, MG treatment prevented the adipogenic hormonal stimuli-induced inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) ...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Susan J Burke, Michael D Karlstad, Adrianna E Eder, Kellie M Regal, Danhong Lu, David H Burk, J Jason Collier
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from immune cell-mediated reductions in function and mass of the insulin-producing β-cells within the pancreatic islets. While the initial trigger(s) that initiates the autoimmune process is unknown, there is a leukocytic infiltration that precedes islet β-cell death and dysfunction. Herein, we demonstrate that genes encoding the chemokines CXCL9, 10, and 11 are primary response genes in pancreatic β-cells and are also elevated as part of the inflammatory response in mouse, rat, and human islets...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Angélica Saraí Jiménez-Osorio, Adriana Monroy, Silvestre Alavez
Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), the main component of the Indian spice turmeric, has been used in traditional medicine to improve diabetes and its comorbidities. Since the last two decades, scientific research has shown that in addition to its antioxidant properties, curcumin could also work as protein homeostasis regulator and it is able to modulate other intracellular pathways. Curcumin supplementation has been proposed to improve insulin resistance (IR) through the activation of the insulin receptor and its downstream pathways in several experimental models, pointing out that its clinical use may be a good and innocuous strategy to improve IR-related diseases...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
H A Hassing, M S Engelstoft, R M Sichlau, A N Madsen, J F Rehfeld, J Pedersen, R M Jones, J J Holst, T W Schwartz, M M Rosenkilde, H S Hansen
The intestinal G protein-coupled receptor GPR119 is a novel metabolic target involving glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-derived insulin-regulated glucose homeostasis. Endogenous and diet-derived lipids, including N-acylethanolamines and 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAG) activate GPR119. The purpose of this work is to evaluate whether 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG) improves glucose tolerance through GPR119, using wild type (WT) and GPR 119 knock out (KO) mice. We here show that GPR119 is essential for 2-OG-mediated release of GLP-1 and CCK from GLUTag cells, since a GPR119 specific antagonist completely abolished the hormone release...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Sayantani Chowdhury, Krishnendu Sinha, Sharmistha Banerjee, Parames C Sil
Oxidative stress, ER stress, inflammation, and apoptosis results in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in the ameliorating effect of taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, against cisplatin-mediated cardiac ER stress dependent apoptotic death and inflammation. Mice were simultaneously treated with taurine (150 mg kg(-1) body wt, i.p.) and cisplatin (10 mg kg(-1) body wt, i.p.) for a week. Cisplatin exposure significantly altered serum creatine kinase and troponin T levels...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Vasudevan Sekar, Suresh Kumar Anandasadagopan, Sudhandiran Ganapasam
Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality, worldwide. Cancer stem cells are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions since their abnormal growth may trigger tumor initiation, progression, and recurrence. Colon cancer in rats were induced with 1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) and treated with genistein, an isoflavone rich in the soy food products, which also possesses various biological activities. Genistein treatment regulates enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants in the DMH-induced colonic tissue microenvironment...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Luis A Videla, Virginia Fernández, Romina Vargas, Pamela Cornejo, Gladys Tapia, Nelson Varela, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Allan Arenas, Javier Fernández, María C Hernández-Rodas, Bárbara Riquelme
Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion liver injury is achieved by a combined omega-3 and thyroid hormone (T3 ) protocol, which may involve peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α)-fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) signaling supporting energy requirements. Combined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; daily doses of 300 mg/kg for 3 days) plus 0.05 mg T3 /kg given to fed rats elicited higher hepatic DHA contents and serum T3 levels, increased PPAR-α mRNA and its DNA binding, with higher mRNA expression of the PPAR-α target genes for carnitine-palmitoyl transferase 1α, acyl-CoA oxidase, and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2, effects that were mimicked by 0...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Juan Decara, Sergio Arrabal, Daniel Beiroa, Patricia Rivera, Antonio Vargas, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Joan Ballesteros, Carlos Dieguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Juan Suárez
To investigate the role of glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in peripheral lipid metabolism. Both lean and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO) rats were used to compare the peripheral effects of the subcutaneous and repeated administration of the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide on the expression of key regulators involved in lipid metabolism, β-oxidation and thermogenesis in liver, abdominal muscle, and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). We observed that liraglutide reduced caloric intake, body weight, and plasma levels of triglycerides and VLDL in a diet-independent manner...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Alvaro Sarmiento, Javier Diaz-Castro, Mario Pulido-Moran, Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, Naroa Kajarabille, Ignacio Chirosa, Isabel M Guisado, Luis Javier Chirosa, Rafael Guisado, Julio J Ochoa
Studies about Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) supplementation on strenuous exercise are scarce, especially those related with oxidative stress associated with physical activity and virtually nonexistent with the reduced form, Ubiquinol. The objective of this study was to determine, for the first time, whether a short-term supplementation with Ubiquinol can prevent oxidative stress associated to strenuous exercise. The participants (n = 100 healthy and well trained, but not on an elite level) were classified in two groups: Ubiquinol (experimental group), and placebo group (control)...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
Chia-Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Paolo Bovicelli, Giuliana Righi, Luciano Saso
Negletein has been shown to have therapeutic potential for inflammation-associated diseases, but its effect on neurite outgrowth is still unknown. The present study showed that negletein alone did not trigger PC12 cells to differentiate and extend neurites. When compared with the cells in the untreated control, a significant (P < 0.05) induction and a higher neurite outgrowth activity was observed when the cells were cotreated with negletein (10 µM) and a low dose of nerve growth factor (NGF; 5 ng/mL)...
November 12, 2016: BioFactors
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