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Goodwin G Jinesh, Ashish M Kamat
Cancer stem cells can survive and undergo transformation after apoptosis by initiating robust endocytosis. Endocytosis in-turn drives formation of serpentine filopodia, which promote construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. However, the status and role of macropinocytosis in blebbishields is not known. Here, we show by scanning electron microscopy and by macropinocytosis assays that blebbishields exhibit robust macropinocytosis. Inhibiting dynamin-mediated endocytosis does not affect macropinocytosis in blebbishields or in mitotic cells...
September 27, 2016: BioFactors
Sneha Jagtap, Pragyanshu Khare, Priyanka Mangal, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Mahendra Bishnoi, Kamlesh Kumar Bhutani
Spices and condiments, small but an integral part of the daily diet, are known to affect physiological functions. This study evaluated the effects of mahanimbine, a major carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), against progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic complications in mice (male and female). Mahanimbine at 2 mg/kg (HFD + LD) and 4 mg/kg (HFD + HD) of body weight was administered daily along with HFD feeding for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, male HFD + LD and HFD + HD groups showed 51...
September 24, 2016: BioFactors
Kenichi Watanabe, Remya Sreedhar, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Shanish Antony, Meilei Harima, Masahiko Nakamura, Kenji Suzuki, Hiroshi Suzuki, Hirohito Sone, Somasundaram Arumugam
Cardiac fibrosis is the major hallmark of adverse cardiac remodeling in chronic heart failure (CHF) and its therapeutic targeting might help against cardiac dysfunction during chronic conditions. Diuretic agents are potentially useful in these cases, but their effects on the cardiac fibrosis pathogenesis are yet to be identified. This study was designed to identify and compare the effects of diuretic drugs torasemide and furosemide on cardiac fibrosis in a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy induced by porcine cardiac myosin mediated experimental autoimmune myocarditis...
September 24, 2016: BioFactors
Jyotshna, Puja Khare, Karuna Shanker
Xanthones are naturally synthesized in various biological systems such as plants, lichens, and fungi and are stored as by-products. In addition to taxonomic significance they are also important in the treatment/management of a number of human disorders. Mangiferin and its derived lead molecule have never qualified for use in a clinical trial despite a number of pharmacological studies that have proven its effectiveness as an antioxidant, analgesic, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, chemopreventive, radioprotective, cardiotonic, immunomodulatory, and diuretic...
September 23, 2016: BioFactors
Tahir Mehmood, Amara Maryam, He Zhang, Yongming Li, Muhammad Khan, Tonghui Ma
Deoxyelephantopin (DET), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone present in Chinese medicinal herb, Elephantopus scaber has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer effects in various cancer cells of human origin in vitro. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying DET-induced apoptosis remains largely unexplored, particularly in human hepatocellular carcinoma G2 (HepG2) cells. In the present study, we found that DET inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner...
September 15, 2016: BioFactors
Mei-Tsz Su, Pei-Yin Tsai, Hui-Ling Tsai, Yi-Chi Chen, Pao-Lin Kuo
Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an important regulator for embryo implantation and placental development, and is clinically associated with several obstetric disorders related to insufficient or inappropriate trophoblast invasion, such as recurrent abortion, preeclampsia, and intrauterine fetal growth restriction. This study was performed to identify the microRNAs targeting EG-VEGF, and evaluate the regulatory effect on trophoblast biology. miR-346 and miR-582-3p were initially identified via bioinformatic tools, and their specific binding sites on the EG-VEGF 3'UTR were further confirmed using dual luciferase and a co-transfection assays...
September 13, 2016: BioFactors
Paula B Salazar, Alejandro de Athayde Moncorvo Collado, Verónica Canal-Martínez, Carlos J Minahk
The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human erythrocytes was tested in the presence of the phenolic compounds resveratrol and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Even though the stilbene barely changed this enzymatic activity, EGCG did inhibit AChE. Importantly, it preferentially acted on the membrane-bound enzyme rather than on its soluble form. Actually, it was shown that this flavonoid may bind to the red blood cell membrane surface, which may improve the interaction between EGCG and AChE. Therefore, caution should be taken when screening AChE inhibitors...
September 3, 2016: BioFactors
Marta Piroddi, Adriana Albini, Roberto Fabiani, Lisa Giovannelli, Cristina Luceri, Fausta Natella, Patrizia Rosignoli, Teresa Rossi, Agnese Taticchi, Maurizio Servili, Francesco Galli
Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition...
September 1, 2016: BioFactors
Shweta Shrivastava, Manish Kumar Jeengar, Dinesh Thummuri, Alexey Koval, Vladimir L Katanaev, Srujan Marepally, Naidu V G M
Cardamonin (CD), an active chalconoid, has shown potent anticancer effects in preclinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of CD for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is unclear. This study aims to examine the cytotoxic effects of CD and investigate the underlying mechanism in human TNBC cells. The results show that CD exhibits cytotoxicity by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in TNBC cells via modulation of Bcl-2, Bax, cyt-C, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP. We find that CD significantly increases expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, while reciprocally decreasing expression of mesenchymal markers such as snail, slug, and vimentin in BT-549 cells...
September 1, 2016: BioFactors
Katja Žmitek, Tina Pogačnik, Liljana Mervic, Janko Žmitek, Igor Pravst
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural constituent of foods and is also often used in both functional foods and supplements. In addition, it is a common ingredient of cosmetics where it is believed to reduce the signs of skin ageing. However, the existing data about the effect of dietary intake of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition are scarce. To gain an insight into this issue, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with 33 healthy subjects. Our objective was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of daily supplementation with 50 and 150 mg of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition...
August 22, 2016: BioFactors
Nadezhda G Gumanova, Alexander D Deev, Wei Zhang, Alexander Y Kots, Svetlana A Shalnova
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important functional regulator that contributes to progression of various cardiovascular diseases. We studied associations between nitric oxide metabolites, nitrite and nitrate (NOx), and cardiovascular mortality in a prospective 3-year follow-up cohort study in 1,869 elderly patients aged over 55 years. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was adjusted for multiple factors including sex, age, risk corresponding to preexisting cardiovascular conditions, and serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and leucocytes count)...
August 18, 2016: BioFactors
Kuo-Liang Hou, Sze-Kwan Lin, Ling-Hsiu Chao, Eddie Hsiang-Hua Lai, Cheng-Chi Chang, Chia-Tung Shun, Wan-Yu Lu, Jyh-Horng Wang, Michael Hsiao, Chi-Yuan Hong, Sang-Heng Kok
Elevated glycolytic activity and redox imbalance induced by tissue hypoxia are common phenomena of chronic inflammation, including inflammatory bone diseases such as arthritis. However, relation between glycolysis and redox signaling in the inflammatory milieu is unclear. The histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a crucial modulator of inflammation and glucose metabolism, and it is also involved in cellular protection against oxidative injury. The aims of the study were to examine the connection between glycolysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human osteoblastic cells (HOB) and whether SIRT6 modulates inflammatory response via regulation of glycolytic activity and ROS generation...
August 18, 2016: BioFactors
Ekaterina Vladimirovna Fomenko, Yuling Chi
The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years...
August 18, 2016: BioFactors
Oren Rom, Helana Jeries, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice...
August 12, 2016: BioFactors
Ana E Huerta, Pedro L Prieto-Hontoria, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Xavier Escoté, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga
In obesity, the increment of adiposity levels disrupts the whole body homeostasis, promoting an over production of oxidants and inflammatory mediators. The current study aimed to characterize the transcriptomic changes promoted by supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day), or both (EPA + α-lipoic acid, 1.3 g/day + 0.3 g/day) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from overweight/obese healthy women, who followed a hypocaloric diet (30% of total energy expenditure) during ten weeks, by using a microarray approach...
August 10, 2016: BioFactors
Xiao-Fei Shen, Yan Teng, Kai-Hui Sha, Xin-Yuan Wang, Xiao-Long Yang, Xiao-Juan Guo, Lai-Bin Ren, Xiao-Ying Wang, Jingyu Li, Ning Huang
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the primary uropathogen, adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells (BECs) to establish a successful urinary tract infection (UTI). Emerging antibiotic resistance requires novel nonantibiotic strategies. Our previous study indicated that luteolin attenuated adhesive and invasive abilities as well as cytotoxicity of UPEC on T24 BECs through down-regulating UPEC virulence factors. The aims of this study were to investigate the possible function of the flavonoid luteolin and the mechanisms by which luteolin functions in UPEC-induced bladder infection...
July 25, 2016: BioFactors
Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Rafael Rodríguez-Muñoz, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, María Del Carmen Cárdenas-Aguayo, Omar Noel Medina-Campos, Edilia Tapia, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, José L Reyes, Laura Arreola-Mendoza, José Pedraza-Chaverri
We have previously reported that the antioxidant curcumin exerts nephroprotection in maleate-induced renal damage, a model associated with oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms involved in curcumin protective effect were not explored, to assess this issue, curcumin was administered daily by gavage (150 mg/kg) five days before a single maleate (400 mg/kg)-injection. Curcumin prevented maleate-induced proteinuria, increased heat shock protein of 72 KDa (Hsp72) expression, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity...
July 13, 2016: BioFactors
Deborah Fratantonio, Antonio Speciale, Raffaella Canali, Lucia Natarelli, Daniela Ferrari, Antonina Saija, Fabio Virgili, Francesco Cimino
Hyperglycemia contributes to dysregulate endothelial function associated with diabetes, leading to initiation and propagation of vascular complications and dysfunction. Caffeic acid (CA), a dietary hydroxycinnamic acid abundant in coffee, has been reported to exert antidiabetic effects in rat models. Herein, we investigated the molecular effects of physiological concentrations of CA (10 nM) against endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose (HG) in human endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were exposed to HG 25 mM, to mimic diabetic condition, in presence of CA...
July 13, 2016: BioFactors
Naimur Rahman, Miso Jeon, Yong-Sik Kim
Methyl gallate (MG) is a derivative of gallic acid and a potent antioxidant. In this study, we confirmed that MG treatment effectively inhibits lipid accumulation, which occurred mostly in the early stages of adipogenesis. We also showed that shortly after adipogenic induction, MG facilitated a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Mechanistic studies revealed that MG treatment inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which is a key regulator of the G1- to S-phase transition. Furthermore, MG treatment prevented the adipogenic hormonal stimuli-induced inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) ...
July 13, 2016: BioFactors
Seok-Yeong Yu, Young-In Kwon, Chan Lee, Emmanouil Apostolidis, Young-Cheul Kim
We have previously reported that administration of low molecular weight chitosan oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) significantly suppressed postprandial blood glucose rise with increased plasma adiponectin and HbA1c levels in animals and humans. However, the cellular mechanisms whereby GO2KA1 exerts antihyperglycemic effects still remain to be determined. Using intestinal Caco-2 cells and 3T3-L1 cells, here we show that GO2KA1 has dual modes of antidiabetic action by (1) inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase as well as glucose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 that were distinct from the acarbose effect; (2) enhancing adipocyte differentiation, PPARγ expression and its target genes, such as FABP4, adiponectin, and GLUT4, whereas the effects were abolished by co-treatment with BADGE, a PPARγ antagonist...
July 8, 2016: BioFactors
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