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BioFactors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317262/hydroxytyrosol-restores-proper-insulin-signaling-in-an-astrocytic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
M Carmen Crespo, Joao Tomé-Carneiro, Cristina Pintado, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli, Emma Burgos-Ramos
Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrated that diabetes is a risk factor for AD onset and development. Indeed, meta-analyses of longitudinal epidemiologic studies show that diabetes increases AD risk by 50-100%, being insulin resistance (IR) the main binding link between diabetes and AD. Astrocytes are the foremost cerebral macroglial cells and are responsible for converting glucose into lactate and transfer it to neurons that use it as fuel, but Aβ(1-42) impairs insulin signaling and glycogen storage. Recent prospective studies showed that the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of AD...
March 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317253/correlation-between-the-potency-of-flavonoids-for-cytochrome-c-reduction-and-inhibition-of-cardiolipin-induced-peroxidase-activity
#2
Ricardo Lagoa, Alejandro K Samhan-Arias, Carlos Gutierrez-Merino
There are large differences between flavonoids to protect against apoptosis, a process in which cytochrome c (Cyt c) plays a key role. In this work, we show that 7 of 13 flavonoids studied have a capacity to reduce Cyt c similar or higher than ascorbate, the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, flavanol epigallocatechin-gallate, anthocyanidins cyanidin and malvidin, and the flavone luteolin. In contrast, the kaempferol 3(O)- and 3,4'(O)-methylated forms, the flavanone naringenin, and also apigenin and chrysin, had a negligible reducing capacity...
March 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251705/selenium-supplementation-modulates-apoptotic-processes-in-thyroid-follicular-cells
#3
Immacolata C Nettore, Emma De Nisco, Silvio Desiderio, Carmela Passaro, Luigi Maione, Mariarosaria Negri, Luigi Albano, Rosario Pivonello, Claudia Pivonello, Giuseppe Portella, Paola Ungaro, Annamaria Colao, Paolo E Macchia
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient modulating several physiopathological processes in the human body. The aim of the study is to characterize the molecular effects determined by Se-supplementation in thyroid follicular cells, using as model the well-differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL5. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the effects of Se on cell growth, mortality and proliferation and on modulation of pro- and antiapoptotic pathways. The results indicate that Se-supplementation improves FRTL5 growth rate...
March 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247504/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-augments-the-therapeutic-effects-of-benzo-a-pyrene-mediated-lung-carcinogenesis
#4
Meghan M Cromie, Zhongwei Liu, Weimin Gao
Our previous study found curcumin and vitamin E to have protective effects against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The first objective of this study was to determine whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) elicited the same response. Co-treatment with 5 µM BaP and 20 µM EGCG in BEAS-2B promoted a significant reduction in cell viability and greater G2/M cell cycle arrest, induction of ROS, and reductions in BaP-induced CYP1A1/CYP1B1/COMT, EGFR, p-Akt (Ser473), p-p53 (Thr55), and survivin mRNA/protein expression, as well as an increase in p-p53 (Ser15)...
March 1, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218490/comparative-effects-of-energy-restriction-and-resveratrol-intake-on-glycemic-control-improvement
#5
I Milton-Laskibar, L Aguirre, M T Macarulla, U Etxeberria, F I Milagro, J A Martínez, J Contreras, M P Portillo
Resveratrol (RSV) has been proposed as an energy restriction mimetic. This study aimed to compare the effects of RSV and energy restriction on insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Any additive effect of both treatments was also analyzed. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks. They were then distributed in four experimental groups which were either fed a standard control diet (C), or treated with RSV (30 mg/kg/d), or submitted to energy restriction (R, 15%), or treated with RSV and submitted to energy restriction (RR)...
February 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218436/differentially-expressed-haptoglobin-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-type-2-diabetic-mellitus-in-hispanic-population
#6
Zhongwei Liu, Du Feng, Danshan Gu, Richard Zheng, Christina Esperat, Weimin Gao
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement is currently a primary tool for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially for the assessment of chronic hyperglycemia. However, many studies reported the limitation of using HbA1c for T2DM diagnosis/prognosis, such as poor sensitivities, difficult standardization, and variable cut points across ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discover novel biomarkers associated with elevated HbA1c levels as complementary T2DM diagnostic tools...
February 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186655/chronic-transgenerational-vitamin-b12-deficiency-of-severe-and-moderate-magnitudes-modulates-adiposity-probable-underlying-mechanisms
#7
Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra Kumar Sinha, Bojanapalli Muralikrishna, Uday Kumar Putcha, Manchala Raghunath
We have demonstrated previously that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency altered body composition and induced adiposity in female C57BL/6 mice. This study aims to elucidate the effects of chronic transgenerational dietary vitamin B12 restriction on body composition and various biochemical parameters in the F1 generation offspring of our mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency established earlier. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice received, ad libitum, for 4 weeks a (i) control diet, (ii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severely deficient diet), or (iii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderately deficient diet) and then mated with control males...
February 10, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186649/bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-bmp-7-augments-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-by-potentiating-pi3k-akt-pathway
#8
Tandrika Chattopadhyay, Rajiv Ranjan Singh, Sarika Gupta, Avadhesha Surolia
A direct link between development of insulin resistance and the presence of chronic inflammation, in case of obesity exists, with cytokines playing an important role in glucose metabolism. Members of TGF-β superfamily, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been shown to be involved in islet morphogenesis, establishment of β-cell mass and adipose cell fate determination. Here, we demonstrate a novel and direct role of BMP-4 and -7 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance...
February 10, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139053/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-the-petasin-phyto-drug-ze339-are-mediated-by-inhibition-of-the-stat-pathway
#9
Sabrina A Steiert, Ulrich M Zissler, Adam M Chaker, Julia Esser-von-Bieren, Daniela Dittlein, Ferdinand Guerth, Constanze A Jakwerth, Guido Piontek, Catherine Zahner, Juergen Drewe, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber, Stefanie Gilles
Ze339, an herbal extract from Petasites hybridus leaves is effective in treatment of allergic rhinitis by inhibition of a local production of IL-8 and eicosanoid LTB4 in allergen-challenged patients. However, the mechanism of action and anti-inflammatory potential in virally induced exacerbation of the upper airways is unknown. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Ze339 on primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) upon viral, bacterial and pro-inflammatory triggers. To investigate the influence of viral and bacterial infections on the airways, HNECs were stimulated with viral mimics, bacterial toll-like-receptor (TLR)-ligands or cytokines, in presence or absence of Ze339...
January 31, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128482/piceatannol-extends-the-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-via-daf-16
#10
Peiyi Shen, Yiren Yue, Quancai Sun, Nandita Kasireddy, Kee-Hong Kim, Yeonhwa Park
Piceatannol is a natural stilbene with many beneficial effects, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic activities; however, its role on aging is not known. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model to study the effect of piceatannol on its lifespan and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that 50 and 100 µM piceatannol significantly extended the lifespan of C. elegans without altering the growth rate, worm size and progeny production. Piceatannol delayed the age-related decline of pumping rate and locomotive activity, and protected the worms from heat and oxidative stress...
January 27, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628030/deoxyelephantopin-induces-apoptosis-in-hepg2-cells-via-oxidative-stress-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#11
Tahir Mehmood, Amara Maryam, He Zhang, Yongming Li, Muhammad Khan, Tonghui Ma
Deoxyelephantopin (DET), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone present in Chinese medicinal herb, Elephantopus scaber has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer effects in various cancer cells of human origin in vitro. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying DET-induced apoptosis remains largely unexplored, particularly in human hepatocellular carcinoma G2 (HepG2) cells. In the present study, we found that DET inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591048/differential-inhibition-of-human-erythrocyte-acetylcholinesterase-by-polyphenols-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-resveratrol-relevance-of-the-membrane-bound-form
#12
Paula B Salazar, Alejandro de Athayde Moncorvo Collado, Verónica Canal-Martínez, Carlos J Minahk
The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human erythrocytes was tested in the presence of the phenolic compounds resveratrol and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Even though the stilbene barely changed this enzymatic activity, EGCG did inhibit AChE. Importantly, it preferentially acted on the membrane-bound enzyme rather than on its soluble form. Actually, it was shown that this flavonoid may bind to the red blood cell membrane surface, which may improve the interaction between EGCG and AChE. Therefore, caution should be taken when screening AChE inhibitors...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580701/nutrigenomics-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Marta Piroddi, Adriana Albini, Roberto Fabiani, Lisa Giovannelli, Cristina Luceri, Fausta Natella, Patrizia Rosignoli, Teresa Rossi, Agnese Taticchi, Maurizio Servili, Francesco Galli
Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548886/the-effect-of-dietary-intake-of-coenzyme-q10-on-skin-parameters-and-condition-results-of-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Katja Žmitek, Tina Pogačnik, Liljana Mervic, Janko Žmitek, Igor Pravst
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural constituent of foods and is also often used in both functional foods and supplements. In addition, it is a common ingredient of cosmetics where it is believed to reduce the signs of skin ageing. However, the existing data about the effect of dietary intake of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition are scarce. To gain an insight into this issue, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with 33 healthy subjects. Our objective was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of daily supplementation with 50 and 150 mg of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535000/serum-nitrite-and-nitrate-levels-nox-can-predict-cardiovascular-mortality-in-the-elderly-in-a-3-year-follow-up-study
#15
Nadezhda G Gumanova, Alexander D Deev, Wei Zhang, Alexander Y Kots, Svetlana A Shalnova
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important functional regulator that contributes to progression of various cardiovascular diseases. We studied associations between nitric oxide metabolites, nitrite and nitrate (NOx), and cardiovascular mortality in a prospective 3-year follow-up cohort study in 1,869 elderly patients aged over 55 years. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was adjusted for multiple factors including sex, age, risk corresponding to preexisting cardiovascular conditions, and serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and leucocytes count)...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517171/supplementation-with-linoleic-acid-rich-soybean-oil-stimulates-macrophage-foam-cell-formation-via-increased-oxidative-stress-and-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase1-mediated-triglyceride-biosynthesis
#16
Oren Rom, Helana Jeries, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507611/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-epa-and-or-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-on-adipose-tissue-transcriptomic-profile-of-healthy-overweight-obese-women-following-a-hypocaloric-diet
#17
Ana E Huerta, Pedro L Prieto-Hontoria, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Xavier Escoté, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga
In obesity, the increment of adiposity levels disrupts the whole body homeostasis, promoting an over production of oxidants and inflammatory mediators. The current study aimed to characterize the transcriptomic changes promoted by supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day), or both (EPA + α-lipoic acid, 1.3 g/day + 0.3 g/day) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from overweight/obese healthy women, who followed a hypocaloric diet (30% of total energy expenditure) during ten weeks, by using a microarray approach...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412371/low-nanomolar-caffeic-acid-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-in-primary-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-by-affecting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nrf2-pathways
#18
Deborah Fratantonio, Antonio Speciale, Raffaella Canali, Lucia Natarelli, Daniela Ferrari, Antonina Saija, Fabio Virgili, Francesco Cimino
Hyperglycemia contributes to dysregulate endothelial function associated with diabetes, leading to initiation and propagation of vascular complications and dysfunction. Caffeic acid (CA), a dietary hydroxycinnamic acid abundant in coffee, has been reported to exert antidiabetic effects in rat models. Herein, we investigated the molecular effects of physiological concentrations of CA (10 nM) against endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose (HG) in human endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were exposed to HG 25 mM, to mimic diabetic condition, in presence of CA...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388525/antidiabetic-effect-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-go2ka1-is-mediated-via-inhibition-of-intestinal-alpha-glucosidase-and-glucose-transporters-and-ppar%C3%AE-expression
#19
Seok-Yeong Yu, Young-In Kwon, Chan Lee, Emmanouil Apostolidis, Young-Cheul Kim
We have previously reported that administration of low molecular weight chitosan oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) significantly suppressed postprandial blood glucose rise with increased plasma adiponectin and HbA1c levels in animals and humans. However, the cellular mechanisms whereby GO2KA1 exerts antihyperglycemic effects still remain to be determined. Using intestinal Caco-2 cells and 3T3-L1 cells, here we show that GO2KA1 has dual modes of antidiabetic action by (1) inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase as well as glucose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 that were distinct from the acarbose effect; (2) enhancing adipocyte differentiation, PPARγ expression and its target genes, such as FABP4, adiponectin, and GLUT4, whereas the effects were abolished by co-treatment with BADGE, a PPARγ antagonist...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355903/modulation-of-camp-levels-by-high-fat-diet-and-curcumin-and-regulatory-effects-on-cd36-fat-scavenger-receptor-fatty-acids-transporter-gene-expression
#20
Jean-Marc Zingg, Syeda T Hasan, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Elisa Canepa, Roberta Ricciarelli, Luis Villacorta, Angelo Azzi, Mohsen Meydani
Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of fatty acid transport proteins (CD36/FAT, FABP4/aP2) in peritoneal macrophages. In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin (500, 1000, 1500 mg/kg diet, for 4 months) may influence plasma and tissue lipid levels in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed an HFD...
January 2, 2017: BioFactors
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