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Liansheng Gao, Weilin Xu, Shuangbo Fan, Tao Li, Tengfei Zhao, Guangyu Ying, Jingwei Zheng, Jianru Li, Zhongyuan Zhang, Feng Yan, Yongjian Zhu, Gao Chen
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect and mechanism of action of MANF in attenuating neuronal apoptosis following t-SCI. A clip compressive model was used to induce a crush injury of the spinal cord in a total of 230 rats. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score, spinal cord water content, and blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability were evaluated. The expression levels of MANF and its downstream proteins were examined by western blotting. Immunofluorescence staining of MANF, NeuN, GFAP, Iba-1, cleaved caspase-3, and TUNEL staining were also performed...
May 24, 2018: BioFactors
Xiaoyu Wei, Yatang Chen, Wenxiang Huang
Liver fibrosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a complicated etiology and notorious complications, but there is a lack of efficacious therapeutics. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a central role in the course of liver fibrosis, and thus, prevention of the development of EMT may control and even reverse liver fibrosis. This study aimed to examine the beneficial effect of ginsenoside Rg1, a phrenological active component isolated from Ginseng, and interrogate the mechanism in vitro and in vivo, with a focus on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad and Nrf2-mediated signaling pathways...
May 15, 2018: BioFactors
Satoshi Yano, Shusong Wu, Kozue Sakao, De-Xing Hou
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), a major bioactive compound in Wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsum.], has revealed the inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis in rat cancer model although the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53-/- ) to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of 6-MSITC. Interestingly, 6-MSITC inhibited the cell proliferation in both types of cells with similar IC50 value although a light increase in the phosphorylation and accumulation of P53 protein was observed in HCT116 p53+/+ cells at 24 h after treatment...
May 14, 2018: BioFactors
Anna B Liu, Siyao Tao, Mao-Jung Lee, Qi Hu, Xiaofeng Meng, Yong Lin, Chung S Yang
The previous studies have shown that tea polyphenols are metabolized by gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of gut microbiota on the bioavailability, tissue levels, and degradation of tea polyphenols. Mice were treated with antibiotics (ampicillin/sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) in drinking water and the control mice received water for 11 days, and they were given an AIN93M diet enriched with 0.32% of Polyphenon E. The levels of catechins and their metabolites (if present) in the serum, liver, urine, and fecal samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
May 8, 2018: BioFactors
Nanako Nihei, Hinako Okamoto, Takahiro Furune, Naoko Ikuta, Kengo Sasaki, Gerald Rimbach, Yutaka Yoshikawa, Keiji Terao
We investigated the effect of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) on the bacterial populations of gut microbiota, production of organic acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and lipid metabolism in obese mice induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to three diet groups: normal diet (ND) (5% [w/w] fat), HFD (35% [w/w] fat), and HFD (35% [w/w] fat) + 5.5% (w/w) α-CD for 16 weeks. Increases in body and epididymal adipose tissue weights were observed in the HFD group compared with the ND group, which were attenuated in the HFD+α-CD group...
May 7, 2018: BioFactors
Ghedeir M Alshammari, Aristatile Balakrishnan, Thirunavukkarasu Chinnasamy
One of the worldwide metabolic health dilemma is nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Researchers are searching effective drug to manage NAFLD patients. One of the best way to manage the metabolic imperfection is through natural principal isolated from different sources. Butein, a natural compound known to have numerous pharmacological application. In the current study we assessed the therapeutic effect of butein administration on liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidants, lipid abnormalities, serum inflammatory cytokines, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, in rats with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet induced NAFLD...
April 19, 2018: BioFactors
Chung-Jung Chiu, Naila Rabbani, Sheldon Rowan, Min-Lee Chang, Sherilyn Sawyer, Frank B Hu, Walter Willett, Paul J Thornalley, Attia Anwar, Liliana Bar, Jae H Kang, Allen Taylor
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed upon nonenzymatic reactions of sugars or their metabolites with proteins and other cellular constituents. Many AGEs are long lived. Recent findings suggest that AGEs may predict diabetes and its complications and thus may warrant further study. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of our experimental procedures for measuring AGEs in stored blood sample and to conduct a pilot study for developing AGE biomarkers for diabetes and/or age-related changes of glucose metabolism...
May 2018: BioFactors
Loureen Dahli, Dana Atrahimovich, Jacob Vaya, Soliman Khatib
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an important role in preventing atherosclerosis. The antioxidant effect of HDL is mostly associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Increasing PON1 activity using nutrients might improve HDL function and quality and thus, decrease atherosclerotic risk. We previously isolated and identified a novel active compound, lyso-DGTS (C20:5,0) from Nannochloropsis sp. ethanol extract. In the present study, its effect on PON1 activities was examined and the mechanism by which the compound affects PON1 activity was explored...
April 16, 2018: BioFactors
Mahsa Ahmadnezhad, Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini, Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Shima Tavallaie, Maryam Tayefi, Susan Darroudi, Hamideh Ghazizadeh, Mohsen Moohebati, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mahmoud Reza Azarpajouh, Gordon A Ferns, Vahid Mogharebzadeh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
There is persuasive evidence that oxidative stress and inflammation are features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We have investigated the relationship between serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), serum uric acid, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in 7,208 participants from the MASHAD study cohort, who were categorized as having MetS, or not, using International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria. Serum hs-CRP was measured by Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-enhanced immunoturbidimetry method using an Alycon analyzer (ABBOTT, Chicago, IL, USA)...
April 11, 2018: BioFactors
Zohra Dhouafli, Manuela Leri, Monica Bucciantini, Massimo Stefani, Hamza Gadhoumi, Borhane Mahjoub, Hichem Ben Jannet, Jérôme Guillard, Riadh Ksouri, Moufida Saidani Tounsi, Claudio Soto, El Akrem Hayouni
Presently, misfolding and aggregation of amyloid-β42 (Aβ42 ) are considered early events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The use of natural products to inhibit the aggregation process and to protect cells from cytotoxicity of early aggregate grown at the onset of the aggregation path is one of the promising strategies against AD. Recently, we have purified a new powerful antioxidant and inhibitor of Aβ42 aggregation from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis. The new compound was identified as a new Lawsoniaside; 1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (THNG)...
March 26, 2018: BioFactors
Dov Lichtenberg, Ilya Pinchuk, Daniela Weber
The commonly used term "oxidative stress" (OS) is intuitively defined as an excess of pro-oxidative compounds, over antioxidants. The redox status is homeostatically controlled because on one hand, pro-oxidants are essential for normal body function, whereas, on the other hand, pro-oxidants (and OS) are associated with many diseases due to the risk of oxidative damage. One reason "to monitor the OS" is to identify people under OS and treat people under high OS by antioxidants, because it is believed that people under OS benefit from antioxidant supplementation more than others...
March 15, 2018: BioFactors
Risto J Kaaja, M Gary Nicholls
Studies in the early 1990s suggested that a hormone identical to ouabain or an isomer of ouabain is secreted by the adrenal glands into the circulation and plays a role in the regulation of arterial pressure and cardiac and renal function. This hormone, known as endogenous ouabain (EO), was claimed to contribute to the pathophysiology of a number of disorders including heart failure, renal failure, pregnancy-induced, and essential hypertension. However, some research groups have been unable to confirm the presence of EO in the human circulation and the issue remains in dispute...
March 10, 2018: BioFactors
Hanna Lewandowska, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Katarzyna Sikorska, Jarosław Sadło, Jakub Dudek, Marcin Kruszewski
In view of the interrelations between NO, Fe, and LDL in the cardiovascular system it appears interesting to find out, if the lipoprotein particles undergo the process of iron-nitrosylation, commonly observed for other proteins and what is the biological fate of iron-nitrosylated LDL particles. Iron-nitrosylated LDL preparation containing Fe(NO)2 motif (DNICLDL) was obtained and characterized for the first time. In order to test its interactions with potential target cells, DNICLDL was administered to the hepatoma HepG2 cells...
March 2018: BioFactors
Yosuke Horikoshi, Kouki Kamizaki, Takehiko Hanaki, Masaki Morimoto, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Kazuhiro Nakaso, Chiaki Kusumoto, Tatsuya Matsura
In many developed countries including Japan, how to care the bedridden elderly people with chronic wounds such as decubitus becomes one of the most concerned issues. Although antioxidant micronutrients including vitamin E, especially α-tocopherol (α-Toc), are reported to shorten a period of wound closure, the promoting effect of α-Toc on wound healing independent of its antioxidant activity remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether α-Toc affects wound-mediated HaCaT keratinocyte polarization process including the recruitment of polarity regulating proteins, leading to wound repair independently of its antioxidant activity...
March 2018: BioFactors
Alexei Medvedev, Olga Buneeva, Oksana Gnedenko, Pavel Ershov, Alexis Ivanov
Isatin (indole-2,3-dione) is an oxidized indole. It is widely distributed in mammalian tissues and body fluids, where isatin concentrations vary significantly from <0.1 to > 10 µM. Isatin output is increased under conditions of stress. Exogenously administered isatin is characterized by low toxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity in vivo. Cytotoxic effects of isatin on various cell cultures are usually observed at concentrations exceeding 100 µM. Binding of [3 H]isatin to rat brain sections is consistent with its physiological concentrations...
March 2018: BioFactors
Claudia Rebosio, Matilde Balbi, Mario Passalacqua, Roberta Ricciarelli, Ernesto Fedele
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been shown to mediate cognitive-enhancing and neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system. However, little is known about their physiological roles on central neurotransmission, especially at the presynaptic level. Using purified synaptosomal preparations and immunofluorescence techniques, here we show for the first time that GLP-1Rs are localized on mouse cortical and hippocampal synaptic boutons, in particular on glutamatergic and GABAergic nerve terminals...
March 2018: BioFactors
Urban Alehagen, Jan Aaseth, Jan Alexander, Erland Svensson, Peter Johansson, Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: In an intervention study where 221 healthy elderly persons received selenium and coenzyme Q10 as a dietary supplement, and 222 received placebo for 4 years we observed improved cardiac function and reduced cardiovascular mortality. As fibrosis is central in the aging process, we investigated the effect of the intervention on biomarkers of fibrogenic activity in a subanalysis of this intervention study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present subanalysis 122 actively treated individuals and 101 controls, the effect of the treatment on eight biomarkers of fibrogenic activity were assessed...
March 2018: BioFactors
Pragna Bachewal, Chayanika Gundu, Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Aparna Areti, Ashutosh Kumar
Morin, a bioflavonoid with diverse pharmacological effects against various diseases; in most cases morin protective effects were attributed to its detoxifying effect against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a chronic, debilitating neuronal pain associated with intense generation of free radicals and proinflammatory cytokine accumulation in peripheral neurons. We investigated the pharmacological effect of morin against metabolic excess mediated mitochondrial ROS generation and corresponding effect on Nrf2, NF-κB pathways in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose insulted Mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro 2A (N2A)...
March 2018: BioFactors
Qin Hu, Ting Zhang, Long Yi, Xi Zhou, Mantian Mi
Increasing evidence demonstrates that pyroptosis, pro-inflammatory programmed cell death, is linked to atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid, was reported to exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. However, the effect of DHM on atherosclerosis-related pyroptosis has not been studied. In the present study, palmitic acid (PA) treatment led to pyroptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as evidenced by caspase-1 activation, LDH release, and propidium iodide-positive staining; enhanced the maturation and release of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome; and markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels...
March 2018: BioFactors
Khan Mohammad Imran, Dahyeon Yoon, Yong-Sik Kim
Obesity poses a substantial threat of a worldwide epidemic and requires better understanding of adipose-tissue biology as well as necessitates research into the etiology and therapeutic interventions. In this study, Medicarpin (Med), a natural pterocarpan, was selected (by screening) as a small-molecule inducer of adipocyte differentiation among 854 candidates by using C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell; a cellular model of adipogenesis. Med induced the expression of brown-adipocyte commitment marker Bmp7 as well as the early regulators of brown fat fate Pparγ, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α during differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells...
March 2018: BioFactors
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