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Xiaoyu Wei, Yatang Chen, Wenxiang Huang
Liver fibrosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a complicated etiology and notorious complications, but there is a lack of efficacious therapeutics. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a central role in the course of liver fibrosis, and thus, prevention of the development of EMT may control and even reverse liver fibrosis. This study aimed to examine the beneficial effect of ginsenoside Rg1, a phrenological active component isolated from Ginseng, and interrogate the mechanism in vitro and in vivo, with a focus on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad and Nrf2-mediated signaling pathways...
May 15, 2018: BioFactors
Satoshi Yano, Shusong Wu, Kozue Sakao, De-Xing Hou
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), a major bioactive compound in Wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsum.], has revealed the inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis in rat cancer model although the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53-/- ) to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of 6-MSITC. Interestingly, 6-MSITC inhibited the cell proliferation in both types of cells with similar IC50 value although a light increase in the phosphorylation and accumulation of P53 protein was observed in HCT116 p53+/+ cells at 24 h after treatment...
May 14, 2018: BioFactors
Anna B Liu, Siyao Tao, Mao-Jung Lee, Qi Hu, Xiaofeng Meng, Yong Lin, Chung S Yang
The previous studies have shown that tea polyphenols are metabolized by gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of gut microbiota on the bioavailability, tissue levels, and degradation of tea polyphenols. Mice were treated with antibiotics (ampicillin/sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) in drinking water and the control mice received water for 11 days, and they were given an AIN93M diet enriched with 0.32% of Polyphenon E. The levels of catechins and their metabolites (if present) in the serum, liver, urine, and fecal samples were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
May 8, 2018: BioFactors
Nanako Nihei, Hinako Okamoto, Takahiro Furune, Naoko Ikuta, Kengo Sasaki, Gerald Rimbach, Yutaka Yoshikawa, Keiji Terao
We investigated the effect of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) on the bacterial populations of gut microbiota, production of organic acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and lipid metabolism in obese mice induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to three diet groups: normal diet (ND) (5% [w/w] fat), HFD (35% [w/w] fat), and HFD (35% [w/w] fat) + 5.5% (w/w) α-CD for 16 weeks. Increases in body and epididymal adipose tissue weights were observed in the HFD group compared with the ND group, which were attenuated in the HFD+α-CD group...
May 7, 2018: BioFactors
Chung-Jung Chiu, Naila Rabbani, Sheldon Rowan, Min-Lee Chang, Sherilyn Sawyer, Frank B Hu, Walter Willett, Paul J Thornalley, Attia Anwar, Liliana Bar, Jae H Kang, Allen Taylor
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed upon nonenzymatic reactions of sugars or their metabolites with proteins and other cellular constituents. Many AGEs are long lived. Recent findings suggest that AGEs may predict diabetes and its complications and thus may warrant further study. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of our experimental procedures for measuring AGEs in stored blood sample and to conduct a pilot study for developing AGE biomarkers for diabetes and/or age-related changes of glucose metabolism...
May 2, 2018: BioFactors
Ghedeir M Alshammari, Aristatile Balakrishnan, Thirunavukkarasu Chinnasamy
One of the worldwide metabolic health dilemma is nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Researchers are searching effective drug to manage NAFLD patients. One of the best way to manage the metabolic imperfection is through natural principal isolated from different sources. Butein, a natural compound known to have numerous pharmacological application. In the current study we assessed the therapeutic effect of butein administration on liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidants, lipid abnormalities, serum inflammatory cytokines, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, in rats with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet induced NAFLD...
April 19, 2018: BioFactors
Loureen Dahli, Dana Atrahimovich, Jacob Vaya, Soliman Khatib
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an important role in preventing atherosclerosis. The antioxidant effect of HDL is mostly associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Increasing PON1 activity using nutrients might improve HDL function and quality and thus, decrease atherosclerotic risk. We previously isolated and identified a novel active compound, lyso-DGTS (C20:5,0) from Nannochloropsis sp. ethanol extract. In the present study, its effect on PON1 activities was examined and the mechanism by which the compound affects PON1 activity was explored...
April 16, 2018: BioFactors
Mahsa Ahmadnezhad, Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini, Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Shima Tavallaie, Maryam Tayefi, Susan Darroudi, Hamideh Ghazizadeh, Mohsen Moohebati, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mahmoud Reza Azarpajouh, Gordon A Ferns, Vahid Mogharebzadeh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
There is persuasive evidence that oxidative stress and inflammation are features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We have investigated the relationship between serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), serum uric acid, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in 7,208 participants from the MASHAD study cohort, who were categorized as having MetS, or not, using International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria. Serum hs-CRP was measured by Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-enhanced immunoturbidimetry method using an Alycon analyzer (ABBOTT, Chicago, IL, USA)...
April 11, 2018: BioFactors
Zohra Dhouafli, Manuela Leri, Monica Bucciantini, Massimo Stefani, Hamza Gadhoumi, Borhane Mahjoub, Hichem Ben Jannet, Jérôme Guillard, Riadh Ksouri, Moufida Saidani Tounsi, Claudio Soto, El Akrem Hayouni
Presently, misfolding and aggregation of amyloid-β42 (Aβ42 ) are considered early events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The use of natural products to inhibit the aggregation process and to protect cells from cytotoxicity of early aggregate grown at the onset of the aggregation path is one of the promising strategies against AD. Recently, we have purified a new powerful antioxidant and inhibitor of Aβ42 aggregation from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis. The new compound was identified as a new Lawsoniaside; 1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (THNG)...
March 26, 2018: BioFactors
Dov Lichtenberg, Ilya Pinchuk, Daniela Weber
The commonly used term "oxidative stress" (OS) is intuitively defined as an excess of pro-oxidative compounds, over antioxidants. The redox status is homeostatically controlled because on one hand, pro-oxidants are essential for normal body function, whereas, on the other hand, pro-oxidants (and OS) are associated with many diseases due to the risk of oxidative damage. One reason "to monitor the OS" is to identify people under OS and treat people under high OS by antioxidants, because it is believed that people under OS benefit from antioxidant supplementation more than others...
March 15, 2018: BioFactors
Risto J Kaaja, M Gary Nicholls
Studies in the early 1990s suggested that a hormone identical to ouabain or an isomer of ouabain is secreted by the adrenal glands into the circulation and plays a role in the regulation of arterial pressure and cardiac and renal function. This hormone, known as endogenous ouabain (EO), was claimed to contribute to the pathophysiology of a number of disorders including heart failure, renal failure, pregnancy-induced, and essential hypertension. However, some research groups have been unable to confirm the presence of EO in the human circulation and the issue remains in dispute...
March 10, 2018: BioFactors
Deborah Fratantonio, Francesco Cimino, Antonio Speciale, Fabio Virgili
Oxygen is a fundamental element for the life of a large number of living organisms allowing an efficient energetic utilization of substrates. Organisms relying on oxygen evolved complex structures for oxygen delivery and biochemical machineries dealing with its safe utilization and the ability to overcome the potentially harmful consequences of changes in oxygen availability. On fact, cells composing complex Eukaryotic organisms are set to live within an optimum narrow range of oxygen, quite specific for each cell type...
February 27, 2018: BioFactors
Konstantin B Shumaev, Arina L Dudylina, Marina V Ivanova, Igor S Pugachenko, Enno K Ruuge
Mitochondria are widely known as a major source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species for the cardiovascular system. Numerous studies established that superoxide anion radical production by heart mitochondria is only slightly suppressed under conditions of deep hypoxia, but is completely blocked under anoxia. It was found also that dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) compare favourably with other physiologically active derivatives of nitric oxide (NO). DNIC with glutathione effectively scavenge superoxide radicals generated by mitochondria at different partial pressures of oxygen...
February 22, 2018: BioFactors
Hanna Lewandowska, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Katarzyna Sikorska, Jarosław Sadło, Jakub Dudek, Marcin Kruszewski
In view of the interrelations between NO, Fe, and LDL in the cardiovascular system it appears interesting to find out, if the lipoprotein particles undergo the process of iron-nitrosylation, commonly observed for other proteins and what is the biological fate of iron-nitrosylated LDL particles. Iron-nitrosylated LDL preparation containing Fe(NO)2 motif (DNICLDL) was obtained and characterized for the first time. In order to test its interactions with potential target cells, DNICLDL was administered to the hepatoma HepG2 cells...
March 2018: BioFactors
Yosuke Horikoshi, Kouki Kamizaki, Takehiko Hanaki, Masaki Morimoto, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Kazuhiro Nakaso, Chiaki Kusumoto, Tatsuya Matsura
In many developed countries including Japan, how to care the bedridden elderly people with chronic wounds such as decubitus becomes one of the most concerned issues. Although antioxidant micronutrients including vitamin E, especially α-tocopherol (α-Toc), are reported to shorten a period of wound closure, the promoting effect of α-Toc on wound healing independent of its antioxidant activity remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether α-Toc affects wound-mediated HaCaT keratinocyte polarization process including the recruitment of polarity regulating proteins, leading to wound repair independently of its antioxidant activity...
March 2018: BioFactors
Alexei Medvedev, Olga Buneeva, Oksana Gnedenko, Pavel Ershov, Alexis Ivanov
Isatin (indole-2,3-dione) is an oxidized indole. It is widely distributed in mammalian tissues and body fluids, where isatin concentrations vary significantly from <0.1 to > 10 µM. Isatin output is increased under conditions of stress. Exogenously administered isatin is characterized by low toxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity in vivo. Cytotoxic effects of isatin on various cell cultures are usually observed at concentrations exceeding 100 µM. Binding of [3 H]isatin to rat brain sections is consistent with its physiological concentrations...
March 2018: BioFactors
Neha Mishra, Sonam Lata, Priyanka Deshmukh, Kajal Kamat, Avadhesha Surolia, Tanushree Banerjee
Cellular stress like ER and oxidative stress are the principle causative agents of various proteinopathies. Multifunctional protein PARK7/DJ-1 provides protection against cellular stress. Recently, insulin/IGF also has emerged as a neuro-protective molecule. However, it is not known whether DJ-1 and insulin/IGF complement each other for cellular protection in response to stress. In this study, we show for the first time, that in human and mouse neuronal cell lines, down regulation of DJ-1 for 48 h leads to compensatory upregulation of insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway genes, namely, insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate, and Akt under normal physiological conditions as well as in cellular stress conditions...
February 7, 2018: BioFactors
Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Oren Rom, Shadi Hamoud, Nina Volkova, Tony Hayek, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Michael Aviram
Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages...
February 5, 2018: BioFactors
Francesca Beretti, Manuela Zavatti, Francesca Casciaro, Giuseppina Comitini, Fabrizia Franchi, Veronica Barbieri, Giovanni B La Sala, Tullia Maraldi
It is widely accepted that the therapeutic potential of stem cells can be largely mediated by paracrine factors, also included into exosomes. Thus, stem cell-derived exosomes represent a major therapeutic option in regenerative medicine avoiding, if compared to stem cells graft, abnormal differentiation and tumor formation. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) induce damaged tissue repair, and can also exert immunomodulatory effects on the differentiation, activation and function of different lymphocytes...
January 16, 2018: BioFactors
Yue Zhao, Ranran Zhao, Jintao Wu, Qian Wang, Kunkun Pang, Qingqing Shi, Qing Gao, Yanlai Hu, Xiaoguang Dong, Jing Zhang, Jinhao Sun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a kind of neurodegenerative disorder associated with age. Investigations suggest that amyliod-β (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The accumulation of Aβ in the brain causes oxidative stress and synaptic toxicity, leads to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Previous investigations suggest that melatonin an endogenous hormone can counteract Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of Aβ-induced toxicity and melatonin treatment remain elusive...
January 11, 2018: BioFactors
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