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Mycotoxin Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147915/use-of-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-to-screen-for-aflatoxins-ochratoxin-a-and-deoxynivalenol-in-dry-pet-foods
#1
Tara A Okuma, Thu P Huynh, Rosalee S Hellberg
The objective of this study was to perform a market survey on dry pet foods using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect total aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), and deoxynivalenol (DON). Pet food products (n = 58) marketed for dogs, cats, birds, and rabbits were tested in duplicate with ELISA, and results above the limit of quantitation were confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). OTA was detected in one product (rabbit food) and AFs were detected in two products (one dog treat and one bird treat)...
November 16, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143925/production-of-fumonisins-by-endophytic-strains-of-tolypocladium-cylindrosporum-and-its-relation-to-fungal-virus-infection
#2
Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa, Amador Alvarez, Noemi Herrero, Beatriz R Vazquez-de-Aldana
Fumonisins were first discovered in Fusarium verticillioides, a fungus associated to disease and asymptomatic infections in maize. Afterwards, other fungal taxa have been found to produce fumonisins. The entomopathogenic ascomycete Tolypocladium cylindrosporum has been isolated from soil and also as an endophyte from leaves of grasses. The objectives of this work were to determine the in vitro production of fumonisin B (FB) mycotoxins and the immunosuppressive compound cyclosporine A (CyA) in several strains of T...
November 16, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143924/blood-plasma-biomarkers-of-citrinin-and-ochratoxin-a-exposure-in-young-adults-in-bangladesh
#3
Nurshad Ali, Khaled Hossain, Gisela H Degen
Citrinin (CIT) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins which can co-occur in food commodities, resulting in internal exposure. Studies in many countries reported on the presence of OTA in human blood; however, such biomonitoring data for CIT is still scarce. This study was conducted to characterize both CIT and OTA biomarker levels in plasma of volunteers since food analysis data are insufficient to assess human exposure in Bangladesh. In total 104 blood samples were collected from university students in 2013 (sampling 1: n = 64, midsummer) and 2014 (sampling 2: n = 40, end winter) for analysis of CIT and OTA and their metabolites HO-CIT and OTα by LC-MS/MS and HPLC-FD techniques, respectively...
November 16, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130148/interaction-of-zearalenone-with-bovine-serum-albumin-as-determined-by-fluorescence-quenching
#4
Liang Ma, Chris M Maragos, Yuhao Zhang
The major aim of this study was to examine the binding of zearalenone (ZEN) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) by measuring the quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein under aqueous conditions. The results suggest that ZEN has a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static mechanism. The hydrophobicity of the microenvironment around the tyrosine (Tyr) residues in BSA was increased in the presence of ZEN. The quenching constants, ratio of protein with ZEN, and thermodynamic parameters were determined...
November 13, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942532/sterigmatocystin-and-aflatoxin-b1-contamination-of-corn-soybean-meal-and-formula-feed-in-japan
#5
Masayo Nomura, Koji Aoyama, Takayuki Ishibashi
Sterigmatocystin (STC) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were analyzed in 246 corn samples, 126 soybean meal samples, and 861 formula feed samples from the Japanese market between April 2010 and March 2015. The detection rate, the highest concentration, and the mean concentration of STC were respectively 14%, 6.4 μg/kg, and 1.2 μg/kg for corn; 14%, 1.1 μg/kg, and 0.63 μg/kg for soybean meal; and 43%, 9.1 μg/kg, and 0.97 μg/kg for formula feed. The detection rate, the highest concentration, and the mean concentration of AFB1 were respectively 46%, 24 μg/kg, and 3...
September 23, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891008/determination-of-ochratoxin-a-in-fruit-juice-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-after-vortex-assisted-emulsification-microextraction-based-on-solidification-of-floating-organic-drop
#6
Mohammad Asadi
A rapid, simple, and green vortex-assisted emulsification microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop was developed for the extraction and determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) with high-performance liquid chromatography. Some factors influencing the extraction efficiency of OTA such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, sample pH, salt concentration, vortex time, and sample volume were optimized. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve exhibited linearity in the range of 50...
September 10, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856595/determination-of-ochratoxin-a-in-tissues-of-wild-boar-sus-scrofa-l-by-enzymatic-digestion-ed-coupled-to-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-a-fluorescence-detector-hplc-fld
#7
Giacomo Luci, Luigi Intorre, Guido Ferruzzi, Danilo Mani, Lorella Giuliotti, Carlo Pretti, Rosalba Tognetti, Simone Bertini, Valentina Meucci
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary toxic metabolite synthesized by Aspergillus or Penicillium species, which can contaminate various crops. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified OTA as a group 2B possible human carcinogen. The aim of the present study was to assess OTA concentrations in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Tuscany (Italy). Over a period of 2 years, samples of muscle, liver, and kidney from 48 wild boars were collected and concentrations of OTA were determined by enzymatic digestion (ED) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD)...
August 30, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844121/a-rapid-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-moniliformin-and-occurrence-of-this-mycotoxin-in-maize-products-from-the-bavarian-market
#8
Jörg Barthel, Martin Rapp, Heinrich Holtmannspötter, Christoph Gottschalk
A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of moniliformin (MON) in maize and applied for the analysis of samples within the official food surveillance. The homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrile/water 50/50 (v/v) which proved to have the highest extraction efficiency compared to other tested solvents. The centrifuged extracts were diluted with acetonitrile and were measured after chromatographic separation by HILIC (hydrophobic interaction liquid chromatography)-HPLC without any cleanup (dilute and shoot approach)...
August 26, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844113/effect-of-uv-irradiation-on-aflatoxin-reduction-a-cytotoxicity-evaluation-study-using-human-hepatoma-cell-line
#9
Ankit Patras, Sharath Julakanti, Sudheer Yannam, Rishipal R Bansode, Mallory Burns, Matthew J Vergne
In this proof-of-concept study, the efficacy of a medium-pressure UV (MPUV) lamp source to reduce the concentrations of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and aflatoxin G1 (AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1) in pure water is investigated. Irradiation experiments were conducted using a collimated beam system operating between 200 to 360 nm. The optical absorbance of the solution and the irradiance of the lamp are considered in calculating the average fluence rate. Based on these factors, the UV dose was quantified as a product of average fluence rate and treatment time...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791630/survey-of-moniliformin-in-wheat-and-corn-based-products-using-a-straightforward-analytical-method
#10
Marta Herrera, Ruud van Dam, Martien Spanjer, Joyce de Stoppelaar, Hans Mol, Monique de Nijs, Patricia López
A straightforward analytical method was developed and validated to determine the mycotoxin moniliformin in cereal-based foods. Moniliformin is extracted with water and quantified with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and its presence confirmed with liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was validated for flour, bread, pasta and maize samples in terms of linearity, matrix effect, recovery, repeatability and limit of quantification. Quantification was conducted by matrix-matched calibration...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785910/occurrence-of-aflatoxins-and-its-management-in-diverse-cropping-systems-of-central-tanzania
#11
Anitha Seetha, Wills Munthali, Harry W Msere, Elirehema Swai, Yasinta Muzanila, Ethel Sichone, Takuji W Tsusaka, Abhishek Rathore, Patrick Okori
The staple crops, maize, sorghum, bambara nut, groundnut, and sunflower common in semi-arid agro-pastoral farming systems of central Tanzania are prone to aflatoxin contamination. Consumption of such crop produce, contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), affects growth and health. In this paper, aflatoxin contamination in freshly harvested and stored crop produce from central Tanzania was examined, including the efficacy of aflatoxin mitigation technologies on grain/kernal quality. A total of 312 farmers were recruited, trained on aflatoxin mitigation technologies, and allowed to deploy the technologies for 2 years...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755328/alternaria-toxins-in-south-african-sunflower-seeds-cooperative-study
#12
Sebastian Hickert, Lena Hermes, Lucas Maciel Mauriz Marques, Christine Focke, Benedikt Cramer, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Bradley Flett, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Sunflower seed samples (N = 80) from different sunflower cultivars originating from different localities in South Africa were analyzed for 15 toxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria by means of a simple one-step extraction dilute-and-shoot HPLC-MS/MS approach. References for valine-tenuazonic acid (Val-TeA), altenusin (ALTS), and altenuisol (ALTSOH) were isolated from fungal culture extracts and spectroscopically characterized. Additionally, valine-tenuazonic acid was tested regarding its cytotoxicity in comparison with tenuazonic acid (TeA) and showed less activity on HT-29 cells...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741250/effects-of-deoxynivalenol-don-and-its-microbial-biotransformation-product-deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-dom-1-on-a-trout-pig-mouse-and-human-cell-line
#13
Elisabeth Mayer, Barbara Novak, Alexandra Springler, Heidi E Schwartz-Zimmermann, Veronika Nagl, Nicole Reisinger, Sabine Hessenberger, Gerd Schatzmayr
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene produced by various Fusarium species, is one of the most prevalent food- and feed-associated mycotoxins. The effects of DON and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) were assessed in five different cell lines from different tissues and species starting from the first line of defense, the trout gill (RTgill-W1) and pig intestinal cells (IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2) over immune cells, as second line of defense (mouse macrophages RAW 264.7) to human liver cells (HepG2). Viability was assessed with a WST-1 assay, except for RTgill-W1, where a neutral red (NR) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was performed...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730564/a-new-approach-to-assess-occupational-exposure-to-airborne-fungal-contamination-and-mycotoxins-of-forklift-drivers-in-waste-sorting-facilities
#14
Carla Viegas, Tiago Faria, Ana Cebola de Oliveira, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Anita Quintal-Gomes, Magdalena Twarużek, Robert Kosicki, Ewelina Soszczyńska, Susana Viegas
The waste management industry is an important employer, and exposure of waste-handling workers to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. Besides fungal contamination, it is important to consider the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in this setting. Forklifts with closed cabinet and air conditioner are commonly used in waste industry to transport waste and other products within the facilities, possibly increasing the risk of exposure under certain conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal contamination and mycotoxin levels in filters from the air conditioning system of forklift cabinets, as an indicator to assess occupational exposure of the drivers working in a waste sorting facility...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687999/use-of-yeast-pichia-kudriavzevii-as-a-novel-feed-additive-to-ameliorate-the-effects-of-aflatoxin-b1-on-broiler-chicken-performance
#15
A P Magnoli, M C Rodriguez, M L González Pereyra, V L Poloni, M F Peralta, A J Nilson, R D Miazzo, G Bagnis, S M Chiacchiera, L R Cavaglieri
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii as a novel bioadsorbent for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The selection of this yeast was based on the AFB1 adsorption capacity previously demonstrated in vitro (Magnoli et al. 2016). One-day-old Cobb broilers (n = 160) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (T1: basal diet (B); T2: B + 0.1% yeast; T3: B + AFB1, 100 μg/kg; T4: B + 0.1% yeast + AFB1, 100 μg/kg). Performance parameters (average daily weight gain body, average daily consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight, and dead weight), biochemical parameters (albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin), liver pathological changes, and AFB1 residual levels in the liver and excreta were evaluated...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687998/effects-of-low-to-moderate-levels-of-deoxynivalenol-on-feed-and-water-intake-weight-gain-and-slaughtering-traits-of-broiler-chickens
#16
A Lucke, B Doupovec, P Paulsen, Q Zebeli, J Böhm
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of low to moderate oral exposure to the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON; derived from culture material) on performance, water intake, and carcass parameters of broilers during early and late developmental phases. A total of 160 Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four different feeding groups (n = 40/group) including 0 (control), 2.5, 5, and 10 mg DON/kg wheat-soybean meal-based feed. Three consecutive replicates of the experiment were performed...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612272/geographic-distribution-of-phylogenetic-species-of-the-fusarium-graminearum-species-complex-and-their-8-ketotrichothecene-chemotypes-on-wheat-spikes-in-iran
#17
Mostafa Abedi-Tizaki, Doustmorad Zafari
Isolates of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC, n = 446) were collected from wheat spikes from northern and western regions of Iran with a history of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurrences. The trichothecene mycotoxin genotypes/chemotypes, the associated phylogenetic species, and geographical distribution of these isolates were analyzed. Two phylogenetic species, Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum, were identified and were found to belong to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) groups V and I...
August 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597241/biocontrol-of-the-toxigenic-plant-pathogen-fusarium-culmorum-by-soil-fauna-in-an-agroecosystem
#18
Friederike Meyer-Wolfarth, Stefan Schrader, Elisabeth Oldenburg, Joachim Weinert, Joachim Brunotte
In 2011 and 2013, a field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field at Adenstedt (northern Germany) to investigate biocontrol and interaction effects of important members of the soil food web (Lumbricus terrestris, Annelida; Folsomia candida, Collembola and Aphelenchoides saprophilus, Nematoda) on the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum in wheat straw. Therefore, soil fauna was introduced in mesocosms in defined numbers and combinations and exposed to either Fusarium-infected or non-infected wheat straw...
August 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573418/rising-atmospheric-co2-concentration-may-imply-higher-risk-of-fusarium-mycotoxin-contamination-of-wheat-grains
#19
Szilvia Bencze, Katalin Puskás, Gyula Vida, Ildikó Karsai, Krisztina Balla, Judit Komáromi, Ottó Veisz
Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO2 (750 μmol mol(-1)) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO2 than at the ambient level...
August 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488100/mycotoxins-in-organic-and-conventional-cereals-and-cereal-products-grown-and-marketed-in-croatia
#20
Jelka Pleadin, Mladenka Malenica Staver, Ksenija Markov, Jadranka Frece, Manuela Zadravec, Vesna Jaki, Igor Krupić, Nada Vahčić
In this study, the levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM) in unprocessed cereals (n = 189) and cereal-based products (n = 61) were determined using validated ELISA methods. All samples originated from either conventional or organic production corresponded to the 2015 harvest in Croatia. Based on the mean mycotoxin concentrations, the risk for the consumer to exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these toxins by the consumption of both types of cereals and cereal-based products was assessed...
August 2017: Mycotoxin Research
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