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Mycotoxin Research

Zelma Faisal, Virág Vörös, Beáta Lemli, Diána Derdák, Sándor Kunsági-Máté, Mónika Bálint, Csaba Hetényi, Rita Csepregi, Tamás Kőszegi, Dominik Bergmann, Franziska Sueck, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Florian Hübner, Miklós Poór
Citrinin (CIT) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by Penicillium, Monascus, and Aspergillus species. CIT appears as a contaminant in cereals, cereal-based products, fruits, nuts, and spices. During the biotransformation of CIT, its major urinary metabolite dihydrocitrinone (DHC) is formed. Albumin interacts with several compounds (including mycotoxins) affecting their tissue distribution and elimination. CIT-albumin interaction is known; however, the complex formation of DHC with albumin has not been reported previously...
November 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Anna Barbasz, Elżbieta Rudolphi-Skórska, Maria Filek, Anna Janeczko
The progressive contamination of food products by mycotoxins such as zearalenone (ZEN) has prompted the search for specific substances that can act as protectors against an accumulation of these toxins. This paper discusses the effect of selenium ions and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) as non-organic and organic compounds that preserve human lymphoblastic cells U-937 under ZEN stressogenic conditions. Based on measurements of cell viability and a DAPI test, concentrations of ZEN at 30 μmol/l, Se at 2.5 μmol/l and EBR at 0...
November 8, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Thilona Arumugam, Yashodani Pillay, Terisha Ghazi, Savania Nagiah, Naeem Sheik Abdul, Anil A Chuturgoon
Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), a causative agent for animal-related mycotoxicoses, has been implicated in human and animal cancer. FB1 induces oxidative stress but the related survival responses are not well established. Central to this response is the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The effects of FB1 on Nrf2-related survival responses in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were investigated. HepG2 cells were treated with 200 μmol/l FB1 (IC50 -24 h). Cellular redox status was assessed via the quantification of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH)...
November 8, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Madeleine Gross, Christian Puck Ploetz, Christoph Gottschalk
The applicability of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) to analyse these toxins in donkey milk (Equus asinus) was studied. For AFM1 and OTA analysis, milk could be analysed by EIA without sample pretreatment. For ZEN, heat treatment at 78 °C for 30 min prior EIA analysis was required to avoid false positives. To include detection of phase II metabolites of ZEN, samples were additionally treated with glucuronidase/sulfatase for this EIA. Detection limits were 5 ng/kg (AFM1 ), 9 ng/kg (OTA) and 600 ng/kg (ZEN)...
October 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Donna M Morrison, David R Ledoux, Lambert F B Chester, Coretta A N Samuels
A survey was conducted on Guyana's main staple foods, rice, cassava meal and cassava bread to determine the presence and concentration of aflatoxins (AFs) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection for concurrence. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungus Aspergillus and can be a health risk to humans and animals. Results were compared with European Union Commission (EUC) maximum levels of total aflatoxins of 10 μg/kg...
October 11, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Nicolás Benito, Cecilia Soledad Carranza, Carina Elizabeth Magnoli, Carla Lorena Barberis
Atrazine is one of the most frequently used herbicides in Argentina for controlling broadleaf weeds and annual grasses. Currently, there is limited information on the impact of triazine herbicides on mycotoxin production and growth parameters of toxigenic fungi in maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on the lag phase prior to growth, the growth rate, and on production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains, on maize meal extract agar (MMEA) under different water activities (aW ) and temperatures...
September 25, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Larissa T Franco, Tânia Petta, George E Rottinghaus, Keliani Bordin, Gilmar A Gomes, Carlos A F Oliveira
A limited survey was conducted to assess the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 ; fumonisins (FB) B1 and B2 ; ochratoxin A (OTA); zearalenone (ZEN); and deoxynivalenol (DON) in maize food (N = 26) and animal feed (N = 45) collected from 21 small-scale farms from the states of São Paulo (SP) and Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Samples evaluated were maize meal and maize flour for human consumption available in the farm households, and maize-based feed intended for broiler chicks, laying hens, and dairy cows...
September 21, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Gaetano Cammilleri, Stefania Graci, Rosaria Collura, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella, Andrea Macaluso, Vita Giaccone, Giuseppe Giangrosso, Antonello Cicero, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Andrea Pulvirenti, Nicola Cicero, Vincenzo Ferrantelli
Samples (n = 485) of raw (n = 394) or heat-treated (n = 91) milk of three different species (cow, n = 170; sheep, n = 133; donkey, n = 84), collected 2013-2016 in Western Sicily (Southern Italy), were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive ELISA results were further analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Both methods had a detection limit for AFM1 in milk of 7 ng kg-1 . ELISA yielded 12.9 and 5% positives in cows and sheep milk, respectively, all samples of donkey milk were negative...
September 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Nicole Lorenz, Sven Dänicke, Lutz Edler, Christoph Gottschalk, Eva Lassek, Doris Marko, Michael Rychlik, Angela Mally
A comprehensive definition introducing the term "modified mycotoxins" to encompass all possible forms in which mycotoxins and their modifications can occur was recently proposed and has rapidly gained wide acceptance within the scientific community. It is becoming increasingly evident that exposure to such modified mycotoxins due to their presence in food and feed has the potential to pose a substantial additional risk to human and animal health. Zearalenone (ZEN) is a well-characterized Fusarium toxin...
September 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Claude Schummer, Loïc Brune, Gilbert Moris
Ergot alkaloids are toxins produced by some species of fungi in the genus Claviceps, that may infect rye and triticale and, in a minor degree, other types of cereals. In this study, a new UHPLC-FLD method for the quantification of the six major ergot alkaloids as well as their corresponding epimers was developed. The sample preparation was done by a solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and clean-up via freeze-out. The method was fully validated and then applied to 39 samples (wheat, rye, triticale, and barley) harvested in Luxembourg in 2016...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Alma Rosa Solano-Báez, Juan Manuel Cuca-García, Adriana Delgado-Alvarado, Daniel Panaccione, Carlos De León-García de Alba, Santos Gerardo Leyva-Mir, Jesús Ricardo Sánchez-Pale, Javier Hernández-Morales
The Ascomycete fungus Claviceps gigantea infects maize kernels and synthetizes several alkaloids, mostly dihydrolysergamides. There is limited information on the damage these toxins cause in mammals, despite reports from infested areas with 90% presence of the fungus sclerotia. With this background, it was decided to determine the biological activity of chemical compounds present in sclerotia of C. gigantea in rabbits 38 days after weaning. Sclerotia of C. gigantea were collected in fields with high incidence of the disease, ground and analysed for nutrients...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Johanna Frida Lindahl, I N Kagera, D Grace
Milk is an important source of energy and nutrients, especially for children, and in Kenya, milk consumption is higher than other countries in the region. One major concern with milk is the risks of chemical contaminants, and reports of high levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) in milk in Kenya has been causing public health concerns. This study collected marketed milk products every month during 1 year, just as a consumer would purchase them from retailers and traders in a low-income area, and a major supermarket in a middle/high-income area...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Zelma Faisal, Beáta Lemli, Dénes Szerencsés, Sándor Kunsági-Máté, Mónika Bálint, Csaba Hetényi, Mónika Kuzma, Mátyás Mayer, Miklós Poór
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. ZEN mainly appears in cereals and related foodstuffs, causing reproductive disorders in animals, due to its xenoestrogenic effects. The main reduced metabolites of ZEN are α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL). Similarly to ZEN, ZELs can also activate estrogen receptors; moreover, α-ZEL is the most potent endocrine disruptor among these three compounds. Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein in the circulation; it affects the tissue distribution and elimination of several drugs and xenobiotics...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Genevieve S Bondy, Laurie Coady, Nikia Ross, Don Caldwell, Anne Marie Gannon, Keri Kwong, Stephen Hayward, David E Lefebvre, Virginia Liston, Jayadev Raju, Peter Pantazopoulos, Ivan Curran
The presence of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal grains is due to the growth of toxigenic Penicillium mold on stored crops. Human exposure to OTA is higher in infants, toddlers, and children than in adolescents and adults, based on exposure assessments of ng OTA consumed/kg body weight/day. Ochratoxin A is nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, but its effects on juveniles exposed during the reproduction and development period have not been studied. To address this, Fischer rats were exposed to 0, 0...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
The stability of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 , deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone during processing of Nigerian traditional spices (dawadawa, okpehe, and ogiri) and beer (burukutu) using artificially contaminated raw materials was investigated. Results revealed the reduction of these toxins in all the final products. Boiling played a significant role (p < 0.05) in Fusarium mycotoxin reduction in the traditional spices. The highest percentage reduction of deoxynivalenol (76%) and zearalenone (74%) was observed during okpehe processing (boiled for 12 h)...
November 2018: Mycotoxin Research
L Panasiuk, P Jedziniak, K Pietruszka, M Piatkowska, L Bocian
In this study, 120 silage samples collected in 2015 from farms in Poland were analysed by a multimycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The study included toxins which are regulated within the European Union (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2/HT-2 toxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) and non-regulated mycotoxins (enniatins, beauvericin, 8-ketotrichothecenes, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone derivatives). All silage samples were positive for at least one mycotoxin, and 61% of samples contained five or more mycotoxins simultaneously...
August 22, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Dawit Gizachew, Yung-Chen Hsu, Barbara Szonyi, Wei-Tsyi Evert Ting
Aspergillus fresenii and Aspergillus sulphureus produce ochratoxin A (OTA), which is a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, with nephrotoxic effects and potential carcinogenic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature (20, 30, and 37 °C), water activity (0.82, 0.86, 0.90, 0.94, and 0.98 aw ), incubation period (5, 10, 15, and 30 days) on fungal growth, and OTA production by A. fresenii and A. sulphureus on Nyjer oil seeds. There was no fungal growth at 0...
August 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
C J Botha, C M Visagie, M Sulyok
A tremorgenic syndrome occurs in dogs following ingestion of moldy walnuts, and Penicillium crustosum has been implicated as the offending fungus. This is the first report of suspected moldy walnut toxicosis in man. An adult male ingested approximately eight fungal-infected walnut kernels and after 12 h experienced tremors, generalized pain, incoordination, confusion, anxiety, and diaphoresis. Following symptomatic and supportive treatment at a local hospital, the man made an uneventful recovery. A batch of walnuts (approximately 20) was submitted for mycological culturing and identification as well as for mycotoxin analysis...
August 7, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Jakub Toman, Vladimir Ostry, Yann Grosse, Tomas Roubal, Frantisek Malir
The aim of this study was to conduct a survey assessing (a) the ochratoxin A (OTA) content in different samples of Astragalus propinquus root (AR), one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, and (b) the rate of OTA transfer to AR decoctions that are traditionally used to reduce general weakness and increase overall vitality. A validated method of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was used to determine OTA concentrations in AR samples and AR decoctions...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Vladimir Popović, Nicholas Fairbanks, Jacob Pierscianowski, Michael Biancaniello, Ting Zhou, Tatiana Koutchma
Fungal disease of grain crops is a concern for the agricultural industry, resulting in economic losses. Aside from severe yield losses, mycotoxigenic fungi such as Penicillium and Fusarium can produce harmful mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and ochratoxin A (OTA). This proof-of-concept study explored the feasibility and effects of ultraviolet (UV) C light at 253.7 nm to reduce fungal and mycotoxin loads on model surfaces as well as on maize and wheat kernels using benchtop 2D and 3D illumination strategies...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
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