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Mycotoxin Research

Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
The stability of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 , deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone during processing of Nigerian traditional spices (dawadawa, okpehe, and ogiri) and beer (burukutu) using artificially contaminated raw materials was investigated. Results revealed the reduction of these toxins in all the final products. Boiling played a significant role (p < 0.05) in Fusarium mycotoxin reduction in the traditional spices. The highest percentage reduction of deoxynivalenol (76%) and zearalenone (74%) was observed during okpehe processing (boiled for 12 h)...
May 3, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Jakub Toman, Vladimir Ostry, Yann Grosse, Tomas Roubal, Frantisek Malir
The aim of this study was to conduct a survey assessing (a) the ochratoxin A (OTA) content in different samples of Astragalus propinquus root (AR), one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, and (b) the rate of OTA transfer to AR decoctions that are traditionally used to reduce general weakness and increase overall vitality. A validated method of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was used to determine OTA concentrations in AR samples and AR decoctions...
April 25, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Vladimir Popović, Nicholas Fairbanks, Jacob Pierscianowski, Michael Biancaniello, Ting Zhou, Tatiana Koutchma
Fungal disease of grain crops is a concern for the agricultural industry, resulting in economic losses. Aside from severe yield losses, mycotoxigenic fungi such as Penicillium and Fusarium can produce harmful mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and ochratoxin A (OTA). This proof-of-concept study explored the feasibility and effects of ultraviolet (UV) C light at 253.7 nm to reduce fungal and mycotoxin loads on model surfaces as well as on maize and wheat kernels using benchtop 2D and 3D illumination strategies...
April 24, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Anitha Seetha, Emmanuel S Monyo, Takuji W Tsusaka, Harry W Msere, Frank Madinda, Tiyamika Chilunjika, Ethel Sichone, Dickson Mbughi, Benson Chilima, Limbikani Matumba
Aflatoxin-lysine (AFB1 -lys) adduct levels in blood samples collected from 230 individuals living in three districts of Malawi (Kasungu, Mchinji, and Nkhotakota) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) levels in groundnut and maize samples collected from their respective homesteads were determined using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) methods. AFB1 -lys adducts were detected in 67% of blood samples, with a mean concentration of 20.5 ± 23.4 pg/mg of albumin. AFB1 was detected in 91% of groundnut samples and in 70% of maize samples, with mean AFB1 levels of 52...
April 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Arieta Camaj, Karsten Meyer, Bajram Berisha, Tahir Arbneshi, Arben Haziri
During February and August 2016 (winter and summer season), 192 samples of raw bulk tank milk have been collected from small dairy farms in five different regions of Kosova (Prishtina, Prizren, Peja, Mitrovica, and Gjilan). These samples were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) contamination level by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The limit of quantification for AFM1 was 0.02 μg/L and recovery at 0...
April 18, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Sui Sheng T Hua, Jeffrey D Palumbo, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Teresa L O'Keeffe
Aflatoxin B1 is a potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen that poses a serious safety hazard to both humans and animals. Aspergillus flavus is the most common aflatoxin-producing species on corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts. Application of atoxigenic strains to compete against aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus has emerged as one of the most practical strategies for ameliorating aflatoxin contamination in food. Genes directly involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered on an 82-kb region of the genome. Three atoxigenic strains (CA12, M34, and AF123) were each paired with each of four aflatoxigenic strains (CA28, CA42, CA90, and M52), inoculated into soil and incubated at 28 °C for 2 weeks and 1 month...
March 26, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Annika Jagels, Yannick Hövelmann, Alexa Zielinski, Melanie Esselen, Jens Köhler, Florian Hübner, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
In the course of gaining new insights into the secondary metabolite profile of various Stachybotrys strains, in particular concerning triprenyl phenol-like compounds, so far, unknown metabolites with analogous structural features were discovered. Three novel meroterpenoids containing a chromene ring moiety, namely stachybotrychromenes A-C, were isolated from solid culture of the filamentous fungus Stachybotrys chartarum DSMZ 12880 (chemotype S). Their structures were elucidated by means of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, ESI-HRMS, and CD) as well as by comparison with spectroscopic data of structural analogues described in literature...
March 16, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Karim C Piacentini, L O Rocha, G D Savi, L Carnielli-Queiroz, F G Almeida, E Minella, B Corrêa
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop for food and represents one of the main ingredients in beer production. Considering the importance of barley and its derived products, the knowledge about the mycotoxin contamination in the barley production is essential in order to assess its safety. In this study, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in brewing barley were determined using a LC-MS/MS method. A survey was conducted in 2015 to estimate the mycotoxin levels in these products (n = 76) from four crop regions in Brazil...
March 9, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Henning Sören Schmidt, Mareike Schulz, Christine Focke, Stefanie Becker, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Plant-derived phase II metabolites of T-2 toxin (T2) and HT-2 toxin (HT2) were first described in 2011 and further characterized in the following years. Since then, some efforts have been made to understand their biosynthesis, occurrence, toxicity, toxicokinetics, and finally relevance for consumers. Thus, the probably most important question is whether and how these metabolites contribute to toxicity upon hydrolysis either during food processing or the gastrointestinal passage. To answer this question, firstly, knowledge on the correct stereochemistry of T2 and HT2 glucosides is important as this affects hydrolysis and chemical behavior...
March 6, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Sui Sheng T Hua, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Bertram G Lee, Delilah F Wood
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Fungal isolates were collected from a California orchard and a few were initially identified to be A...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Dominik Bergmann, Florian Hübner, Birgit Wibbeling, Constantin Daniliuc, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
The analysis of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin citrinin in food, feed, and physiological samples is still challenging. Nowadays, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the method of choice for achieving low limits of detection. But matrix effects can present impairments for this method. Stable isotope dilution analysis can prevent some of these problems. Therefore, a stable isotopically labeled standard of citrinin for use in stable isotope dilution analysis was synthesized on large scale. The improved diastereoselective total synthetic strategy offered the possibility to introduce three 13 C-labels in two steps by ortho-toluate anion chemistry...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Sven Dänicke, Janine Winkler, Ulrich Meyer, Susanne Kersten, Kerstin Wernike, Martin Beer, Jana Frahm
The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of feedstuffs and is supposed to interfere with immune responses. As the relevance for growing bulls is less clear than for other livestock, the trial was designed according to the dose-response principal with a control group fed a diet with background contamination (CON, 0.36 mg DON per kilogram dry matter [DM]) and three groups with increasing concentrations of DON (mg/kg DM); FUS I, 3.01; FUS II, 5.66; FUS III, 8.31. Half of each treatment group was vaccinated against BVDV at days 1 and 21 of the 70 days lasting experiment...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Manfred Sager, Annegret Lucke, Khaled Ghareeb, Manoochehr Allymehr, Qendrim Zebeli, Josef Böhm
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a well-known contaminant of feed, can have negative effects on gut permeability and function in poultry, which then could affect major and trace element content of the broilers' breast and thigh muscles, and ultimately reduce meat quality. To study this hypothesis, DON-contaminated diet was fed to broiler chicks. Two groups of birds were housed in metabolic cages with free access to water and feed, with or without DON (10 mg/kg). After 5 weeks, birds were dissected and samples of the breast and thigh muscles, feed and droppings were analysed for five macro (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) and ten micro elements (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) methods...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Eric T Johnson, Robert H Proctor, Christopher A Dunlap, Mark Busman
The fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a maize pathogen that can produce fumonisin mycotoxins in ears under certain environmental conditions. Because fumonisins pose health risks to humans and livestock, control strategies with minimal risk to the environment are needed to reduce fumonisin contamination. Host-induced gene silencing is a promising technique in which double-stranded RNA expressed in the plant host is absorbed by an invading fungus and down-regulates genes critical for pathogenicity or mycotoxin production in the fungus...
March 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Célia S M Laranjeiro, Liliana João Gatões da Silva, André M P T Pereira, Angelina Pena, Celeste M Lino
This study provides the first environmental risk assessment (ERA) for zearalenone (ZEN), the only known mycoestrogen, based on a broad-scale investigation on its occurrence in rivers and creeks from Portugal. Water sample filtration and immunoaffinity columns (IAC) clean-up followed by liquid chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS n ) provided an analytical method with good analytical performance. ZEN levels were determined for seven Portuguese rivers and one creek, during two different seasons, in a total of 38 samples collected upstream wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)...
March 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Tara A Okuma, Thu P Huynh, Rosalee S Hellberg
The objective of this study was to perform a market survey on dry pet foods using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect total aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), and deoxynivalenol (DON). Pet food products (n = 58) marketed for dogs, cats, birds, and rabbits were tested in duplicate with ELISA, and results above the limit of quantitation were confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). OTA was detected in one product (rabbit food) and AFs were detected in two products (one dog treat and one bird treat)...
March 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa, Amador Alvarez, Noemi Herrero, Beatriz R Vazquez-de-Aldana
Fumonisins were first discovered in Fusarium verticillioides, a fungus associated to disease and asymptomatic infections in maize. Afterwards, other fungal taxa have been found to produce fumonisins. The entomopathogenic ascomycete Tolypocladium cylindrosporum has been isolated from soil and also as an endophyte from leaves of grasses. The objectives of this work were to determine the in vitro production of fumonisin B (FB) mycotoxins and the immunosuppressive compound cyclosporine A (CyA) in several strains of T...
March 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Nurshad Ali, Khaled Hossain, Gisela H Degen
Citrinin (CIT) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins which can co-occur in food commodities, resulting in internal exposure. Studies in many countries reported on the presence of OTA in human blood; however, such biomonitoring data for CIT is still scarce. This study was conducted to characterize both CIT and OTA biomarker levels in plasma of volunteers since food analysis data are insufficient to assess human exposure in Bangladesh. In total 104 blood samples were collected from university students in 2013 (sampling 1: n = 64, midsummer) and 2014 (sampling 2: n = 40, end winter) for analysis of CIT and OTA and their metabolites HO-CIT and OTα by LC-MS/MS and HPLC-FD techniques, respectively...
March 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Liang Ma, Chris M Maragos, Yuhao Zhang
The major aim of this study was to examine the binding of zearalenone (ZEN) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) by measuring the quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein under aqueous conditions. The results suggest that ZEN has a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static mechanism. The hydrophobicity of the microenvironment around the tyrosine (Tyr) residues in BSA was increased in the presence of ZEN. The quenching constants, ratio of protein with ZEN, and thermodynamic parameters were determined...
March 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Masayo Nomura, Koji Aoyama, Takayuki Ishibashi
Sterigmatocystin (STC) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) were analyzed in 246 corn samples, 126 soybean meal samples, and 861 formula feed samples from the Japanese market between April 2010 and March 2015. The detection rate, the highest concentration, and the mean concentration of STC were respectively 14%, 6.4 μg/kg, and 1.2 μg/kg for corn; 14%, 1.1 μg/kg, and 0.63 μg/kg for soybean meal; and 43%, 9.1 μg/kg, and 0.97 μg/kg for formula feed. The detection rate, the highest concentration, and the mean concentration of AFB1 were respectively 46%, 24 μg/kg, and 3...
March 2018: Mycotoxin Research
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