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Mycotoxin Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488100/mycotoxins-in-organic-and-conventional-cereals-and-cereal-products-grown-and-marketed-in-croatia
#1
Jelka Pleadin, Mladenka Malenica Staver, Ksenija Markov, Jadranka Frece, Manuela Zadravec, Vesna Jaki, Igor Krupić, Nada Vahčić
In this study, the levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM) in unprocessed cereals (n = 189) and cereal-based products (n = 61) were determined using validated ELISA methods. All samples originated from either conventional or organic production corresponded to the 2015 harvest in Croatia. Based on the mean mycotoxin concentrations, the risk for the consumer to exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these toxins by the consumption of both types of cereals and cereal-based products was assessed...
May 9, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474303/chronic-don-exposure-and-acute-lps-challenge-effects-on-porcine-liver-morphology-and-function
#2
Lydia Renner, Stefan Kahlert, Tanja Tesch, Erik Bannert, Jana Frahm, Anikó Barta-Böszörményi, Jeannette Kluess, Susanne Kersten, Peter Schönfeld, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter, Sven Dänicke
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of chronic deoxynivalenol (DON) exposition on the liver morphology and function in combination with pre- and post-hepatic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in young pigs fed for 4 weeks with a DON-contaminated diet (4.59 mg/kg feed). At the end of the experiment, LPS (7.5 μg/kg BW) was administered for 1 h pre-hepatically (Vena portae hepatis) or post-hepatically (Vena jugularis). Liver morphology was macroscopically checked and showed haemorrhage in all LPS groups, significantly higher relative liver weights, accompanied by marked oedema in the gallbladder wall...
May 4, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470577/plasma-kinetics-and-matrix-residues-of-deoxynivalenol-don-and-zearalenone-zen-are-altered-in-endotoxaemic-pigs-independent-of-lps-entry-site
#3
Erik Bannert, Tanja Tesch, Jeannette Kluess, Hana Valenta, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Stefan Kahlert, Lydia Renner, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter, Sven Dänicke
This study aimed to investigate a potential modulatory effect of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the kinetics of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) after pre- or post-hepatic LPS administration to unravel the putative role of the liver. Fifteen barrows were fed a diet containing mycotoxin-contaminated maize (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, 0.22 mg ZEN/kg feed) for 29 days and equipped with pre-hepatic catheters (portal vein, "po") and post-hepatic catheters (jugular vein, "ju"), facilitating simultaneous infusion of LPS ("LPS group", 7...
May 3, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455556/fusarium-diseases-of-maize-associated-with-mycotoxin-contamination-of-agricultural-products-intended-to-be-used-for-food-and-feed
#4
REVIEW
Elisabeth Oldenburg, Frank Höppner, Frank Ellner, Joachim Weinert
Infections of maize with phytopathogenic and toxinogenic Fusarium spp. may occur throughout the cultivation period. This can cause different types of diseases in vegetative and generative organs of the plant. Along with these infections, mycotoxins are often produced and accumulated in affected tissues, which could pose a significant risk on human and animal health when entering the food and feed chain. Most important fungal species infecting European maize belong to the Fusarium sections Discolour and Liseola, the first being more prevalent in cooler and humid climate regions than the second predominating in warmer and dryer areas...
April 28, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434149/solvent-dependent-transformation-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-soil
#5
James M Starr, Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
To date, all studies of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B2 (AFB2) and G2 (AFG2) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products...
April 22, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382601/pre-harvest-aflatoxins-and-aspergillus-flavus-contamination-in-variable-germplasms-of-red-chillies-from-kunri-pakistan
#6
Shaista Akhund, Abida Akram, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Farah Naz, Brian Gagosh Nayyar
Various cultivars of red chilli were collected from a small town named Kunri, located in the province Sindh, Pakistan. This town is a hub of red chilli production in Asia. A total of 69 samples belonging to 6 cultivars were obtained and analysed for the occurrence of aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus, to explore the potential of resistant and susceptible germplasm. Aflatoxins were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while A. flavus was isolated and identified using agar plate, blotter paper, deep freezing and dilution techniques...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378232/detection-of-cyclopiazonic-acid-cpa-in-maize-by-immunoassay
#7
C M Maragos, K K Sieve, J Bobell
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-CPA) is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that is commonly produced by certain species of the aspergilli, in particular Aspergillus flavus, which is more widely known for production of the aflatoxins. Despite the fact that α-CPA may co-occur with aflatoxins, immunoassay-based methods for monitoring for CPA have not been widely developed. We report the development and evaluation of several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for α-CPA. Two mAbs in particular were very sensitive, with IC50s of 1.1 and 1 ng/mL (clones 1418 and 1231, respectively)...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281009/verrucarin-a-and-roridin-e-produced-on-spinach-by-myrothecium-verrucaria-under-different-temperatures-and-co2-levels
#8
Ilenia Siciliano, Pietro Bosio, Giovanna Gilardi, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Angelo Garibaldi
The behavior of Myrothecium verrucaria, artificially inoculated on spinach, was studied under seven different temperature conditions (from 5 to 35 °C) and under eight different combinations of temperature and CO2 concentration (14-30 °C and 775-870 or 1550-1650 mg/m(3)). The isolate used for this study was growing well on spinach, and the mycotoxins verrucarin A and roridin E were produced under all tested temperature and CO2 conditions. The maximum levels of verrucarin A (18.59 ng/g) and roridin E (49...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265970/fusarium-verticillioides-and-fumonisin-contamination-in-bt-and-non-bt-maize-cultivated-in-brazil
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vinícius M Barroso, Liliana O Rocha, Tatiana A Reis, Gabriela M Reis, Aildson P Duarte, Marcos D Michelotto, Benedito Correa
Fusarium verticillioides is one of the main pathogens of maize, causing ear and stalk rots. This fungus is also able to produce high levels of fumonisins, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Previous studies have shown that maize hybrids genetically modified with the cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) presented lower incidence of F. verticillioides and fumonisin levels, presumably through the reduction of insects, which could act as vectors of fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of F...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247323/aflatoxins-discolouration-and-insect-damage-in-dried-cowpea-and-pigeon-pea-in-malawi-and-the-effectiveness-of-flotation-washing-operation-in-eliminating-the-aflatoxins
#10
Limbikani Matumba, Lazarus Singano, Lawrent Pungulani, Naomi Mvula, Annie Matumba, Charles Singano, Grey Matita
Aflatoxin contamination and biodeterioration were examined in 302 samples of dry cowpeas and pigeon peas that were randomly purchased from 9 districts of the Southern Region of Malawi during July and November 2015. Further, the impact of flotation/washing on aflatoxin levels on the pulses was elucidated. Aflatoxin analyses involved immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and HPLC quantification with fluorescence detection (FLD) while legume biodeterioration assessments were done by visual inspection. Aflatoxins were frequently detected in cowpea (24%, max...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124218/aflatoxin-b1-levels-in-groundnut-products-from-local-markets-in-zambia
#11
Samuel M C Njoroge, Limbikani Matumba, Kennedy Kanenga, Moses Siambi, Farid Waliyar, Joseph Maruwo, Norah Machinjiri, Emmanuel S Monyo
In Zambia, groundnut products (milled groundnut powder, groundnut kernels) are mostly sold in under-regulated markets. Coupled with the lack of quality enforcement in such markets, consumers may be at risk to aflatoxin exposure. However, the level of aflatoxin contamination in these products is not known. Compared to groundnut kernels, milled groundnut powder obscures visual indicators of aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts such as moldiness, discoloration, insect damage or kernel damage. A survey was therefore conducted from 2012 to 2014, to estimate and compare aflatoxin levels in these products (n = 202), purchased from markets in important groundnut growing districts and in urban areas...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083735/toxicological-effects-of-aflatoxin-b1-on-the-earthworm-eisenia-fetida-as-determined-in-a-contact-paper-test
#12
J Szabó-Fodor, I Bors, G Nagy, M Kovács
In this study, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826) was evaluated in contact paper test systems containing distilled water and ethanol or 20 to 400 μg/ml of AFB1 over 72 h of exposure. The results indicated that AFB1 could induce significant damage to earthworms (coiling, curling, excessive mucus secretion, clitellum swelling) at greater than 75 μg/ml. Moreover, AFB1 had harmful effects on E. fetida (degenerative changes such as bulging of the clitella regions) at levels higher than 150 μg/ml...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035652/determination-of-serum-aflatoxin-b1-lysine-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-an-aflatoxin-adsorbing-feed-additive-in-pigs-fed-an-aflatoxin-b1-contaminated-diet
#13
Mayra Carraro Di Gregorio, Alessandra Vincenzi Jager, Pollyana Cristina Maggio Castro Souto, Aline Alves Costa, George Edwin Rottinghaus, Danielle Passarelli, Fabio Enrique Lemos Budiño, Carlos Humberto Corassin, Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira
In this study, serum aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine was determined in order to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) in pigs fed AFB1. Twenty-four 49-day-old crossbred barrows were maintained in individual cages and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with six animals assigned to each of four dietary treatments for 21 days as follows: (A) basal diet (BD), (B) BD supplemented with 0.5 % HSCAS, (C) BD supplemented with 1...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032266/aflatoxin-m1-in-human-breast-milk-in-southeastern-turkey
#14
Serap Kılıç Altun, Semra Gürbüz, Emin Ayağ
This study was performed to determine aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in human breast milk samples collected in Şanlıurfa, located in Southeastern region of Turkey, and to investigate a possible correlation between AFM1 occurrence (frequency and levels) and sampling seasons. Human breast milk samples collected in December 2014 and in June 2015 from a total of 74 nursing women, both outpatient and inpatient volunteers in hospitals located in Şanlıurfa, Turkey, were analyzed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of AFM1...
May 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957687/evaluation-of-an-enzyme-immunoassay-for-the-detection-of-the-mycotoxin-tenuazonic-acid-in-sorghum-grains-and-sorghum-based-infant-food
#15
Madeleine Gross, Stefan Asam, Michael Rychlik
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid (TeA) was evaluated by comparative analysis of naturally contaminated sorghum grains and sorghum-based infant food, using a stable isotope dilution LC-MS assay (SIDA; limit of detection (LOD) 1.0 μg/kg) as the reference method. LODs of the ELISA were 30 μg/kg in sorghum grains and 220 μg/kg in sorghum-based infant cereals. With SIDA, 100% of the samples (n = 28) had been positive for TeA in a concentration range of 6-584 μg/kg (mean 113 μg/kg)...
February 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905064/a-mini-survey-of-moulds-and-mycotoxins-in-locally-grown-and-imported-wheat-grains-in-nigeria
#16
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
February 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888487/mycotoxins-as-human-carcinogens-the-iarc-monographs-classification
#17
Vladimir Ostry, Frantisek Malir, Jakub Toman, Yann Grosse
Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies...
February 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866369/fate-of-deoxynivalenol-and-deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside-during-cereal-based-thermal-food-processing-a-review-study
#18
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Kamil Kuča, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Blanka Klímová, Benedikt Cramer
Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most commonly occurring trichothecene in nature, may affect animal and human health through causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastrointestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) as a major plant metabolite of the mycotoxin is another "emerging" food safety issue in recent years. Humans may experience potential health risks by consuming DON-contaminated food products. Thus, it is crucial for human and animal health to study also the degradation of DON and DON-3G during thermal food processing...
February 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830510/haematological-clinical-chemical-and-immunological-consequences-of-feeding-fusarium-toxin-contaminated-diets-to-early-lactating-dairy-cows
#19
Sven Dänicke, Janine Winkler, Ulrich Meyer, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten
Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance at the onset of lactation which results in an enhanced vulnerability for infectious diseases. Any dietary imbalances, including Fusarium toxin contamination, might therefore exacerbate this situation. The aim of the present investigations was to study the effects of increasing dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on clinical-chemical, haematological and immunological traits up to week 14 of lactation. For this purpose, ten cows each were assigned to a control group (CON; 0...
February 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830509/evidence-of-ochratoxin-a-conjugates-in-urine-samples-from-infants-and-adults
#20
K Muñoz, B Cramer, J Dopstadt, H-U Humpf, G H Degen
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic properties, is an important contaminant of food and feed. Analysis of OTA in human biological fluids (blood, urine, or breast milk) has documented frequent exposure to this mycotoxin, yet at quite variable levels in different population groups across the world. Urine is the preferred matrix in biomonitoring since sample collection is non-invasive and better accepted by study participants. As only a small fraction of the ingested OTA is excreted in urine, determination of urinary OTA requires sensitive analytical techniques, and phase-II-metabolites should be also considered as biomarkers of exposure...
February 2017: Mycotoxin Research
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