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Mycotoxin Research

Ilenia Siciliano, Pietro Bosio, Giovanna Gilardi, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Angelo Garibaldi
The behavior of Myrothecium verrucaria, artificially inoculated on spinach, was studied under seven different temperature conditions (from 5 to 35 °C) and under eight different combinations of temperature and CO2 concentration (14-30 °C and 775-870 or 1550-1650 mg/m(3)). The isolate used for this study was growing well on spinach, and the mycotoxins verrucarin A and roridin E were produced under all tested temperature and CO2 conditions. The maximum levels of verrucarin A (18.59 ng/g) and roridin E (49...
March 9, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Vinícius M Barroso, Liliana O Rocha, Tatiana A Reis, Gabriela M Reis, Aildson P Duarte, Marcos D Michelotto, Benedito Correa
Fusarium verticillioides is one of the main pathogens of maize, causing ear and stalk rots. This fungus is also able to produce high levels of fumonisins, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Previous studies have shown that maize hybrids genetically modified with the cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) presented lower incidence of F. verticillioides and fumonisin levels, presumably through the reduction of insects, which could act as vectors of fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of F...
March 6, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Limbikani Matumba, Lazarus Singano, Lawrent Pungulani, Naomi Mvula, Annie Matumba, Charles Singano, Grey Matita
Aflatoxin contamination and biodeterioration were examined in 302 samples of dry cowpeas and pigeon peas that were randomly purchased from 9 districts of the Southern Region of Malawi during July and November 2015. Further, the impact of flotation/washing on aflatoxin levels on the pulses was elucidated. Aflatoxin analyses involved immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and HPLC quantification with fluorescence detection (FLD) while legume biodeterioration assessments were done by visual inspection. Aflatoxins were frequently detected in cowpea (24%, max...
February 28, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Samuel M C Njoroge, Limbikani Matumba, Kennedy Kanenga, Moses Siambi, Farid Waliyar, Joseph Maruwo, Norah Machinjiri, Emmanuel S Monyo
In Zambia, groundnut products (milled groundnut powder, groundnut kernels) are mostly sold in under-regulated markets. Coupled with the lack of quality enforcement in such markets, consumers may be at risk to aflatoxin exposure. However, the level of aflatoxin contamination in these products is not known. Compared to groundnut kernels, milled groundnut powder obscures visual indicators of aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts such as moldiness, discoloration, insect damage or kernel damage. A survey was therefore conducted from 2012 to 2014, to estimate and compare aflatoxin levels in these products (n = 202), purchased from markets in important groundnut growing districts and in urban areas...
January 26, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
J Szabó-Fodor, I Bors, G Nagy, M Kovács
In this study, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826) was evaluated in contact paper test systems containing distilled water and ethanol or 20 to 400 μg/ml of AFB1 over 72 h of exposure. The results indicated that AFB1 could induce significant damage to earthworms (coiling, curling, excessive mucus secretion, clitellum swelling) at greater than 75 μg/ml. Moreover, AFB1 had harmful effects on E. fetida (degenerative changes such as bulging of the clitella regions) at levels higher than 150 μg/ml...
January 12, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Mayra Carraro Di Gregorio, Alessandra Vincenzi Jager, Pollyana Cristina Maggio Castro Souto, Aline Alves Costa, George Edwin Rottinghaus, Danielle Passarelli, Fabio Enrique Lemos Budiño, Carlos Humberto Corassin, Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira
In this study, serum aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine was determined in order to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) in pigs fed AFB1. Twenty-four 49-day-old crossbred barrows were maintained in individual cages and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with six animals assigned to each of four dietary treatments for 21 days as follows: (A) basal diet (BD), (B) BD supplemented with 0.5 % HSCAS, (C) BD supplemented with 1...
December 29, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Serap Kılıç Altun, Semra Gürbüz, Emin Ayağ
This study was performed to determine aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in human breast milk samples collected in Şanlıurfa, located in Southeastern region of Turkey, and to investigate a possible correlation between AFM1 occurrence (frequency and levels) and sampling seasons. Human breast milk samples collected in December 2014 and in June 2015 from a total of 74 nursing women, both outpatient and inpatient volunteers in hospitals located in Şanlıurfa, Turkey, were analyzed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of AFM1...
December 28, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Sven Dänicke, Janine Winkler, Ulrich Meyer, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten
Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance at the onset of lactation which results in an enhanced vulnerability for infectious diseases. Any dietary imbalances, including Fusarium toxin contamination, might therefore exacerbate this situation. The aim of the present investigations was to study the effects of increasing dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on clinical-chemical, haematological and immunological traits up to week 14 of lactation. For this purpose, ten cows each were assigned to a control group (CON; 0...
February 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Alexandra Springler, Sabine Hessenberger, Nicole Reisinger, Corinna Kern, Veronika Nagl, Gerd Schatzmayr, Elisabeth Mayer
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminates agricultural commodities worldwide, posing health threats to humans and animals. Associated with DON are derivatives, such as deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), produced by enzymatic transformation of certain intestinal bacteria, which are naturally occurring or applied as feed additives. Using differentiated porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), we provide the first multi-parameter comparative cytotoxicity analysis of DON and DOM-1, based on the parallel evaluation of lysosomal activity, total protein content, membrane integrity, mitochondrial metabolism and ATP synthesis...
February 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Madeleine Gross, Stefan Asam, Michael Rychlik
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid (TeA) was evaluated by comparative analysis of naturally contaminated sorghum grains and sorghum-based infant food, using a stable isotope dilution LC-MS assay (SIDA; limit of detection (LOD) 1.0 μg/kg) as the reference method. LODs of the ELISA were 30 μg/kg in sorghum grains and 220 μg/kg in sorghum-based infant cereals. With SIDA, 100% of the samples (n = 28) had been positive for TeA in a concentration range of 6-584 μg/kg (mean 113 μg/kg)...
December 12, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
November 30, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Vladimir Ostry, Frantisek Malir, Jakub Toman, Yann Grosse
Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies...
November 25, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Qinghua Wu, Kamil Kuča, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Blanka Klímová, Benedikt Cramer
Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most commonly occurring trichothecene in nature, may affect animal and human health through causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastrointestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) as a major plant metabolite of the mycotoxin is another "emerging" food safety issue in recent years. Humans may experience potential health risks by consuming DON-contaminated food products. Thus, it is crucial for human and animal health to study also the degradation of DON and DON-3G during thermal food processing...
November 20, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
K Muñoz, B Cramer, J Dopstadt, H-U Humpf, G H Degen
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic properties, is an important contaminant of food and feed. Analysis of OTA in human biological fluids (blood, urine, or breast milk) has documented frequent exposure to this mycotoxin, yet at quite variable levels in different population groups across the world. Urine is the preferred matrix in biomonitoring since sample collection is non-invasive and better accepted by study participants. As only a small fraction of the ingested OTA is excreted in urine, determination of urinary OTA requires sensitive analytical techniques, and phase-II-metabolites should be also considered as biomarkers of exposure...
November 9, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Larissa S Ferranti, Benedito Correa, Maria Helena P Fungaro, Beatriz T Iamanaka, Fernanda P Massi, Christopher B W Phippen, Jens C Frisvad, Marta H Taniwaki
Bertholletia excelsa is the tree that produces Brazil nuts which have vast economic importance in the Amazon region and as an export commodity. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nut samples at different stages of its production chain and to verify the toxigenic potential for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production of these isolates along with the presence of this mycotoxin in Brazil nut samples. The fungal infection ranged from 0 to 80% at the different stages of the harvest and processing chain and the water activity of the nuts from 0...
November 5, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
E K Tangni, P Debongnie, B Huybrechts, F Van Hove, A Callebaut
The interest in LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin methods unveiled an urgent need for multi-mycotoxin reference material. A multi-fusariotoxin, including deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZEN); T-2 toxin (T-2); HT-2 toxin (HT-2); enniatin A, A1, B, and B1 (ENNs); and beauvericin (BEA), contaminated wheat flour was obtained by inoculation Fusarium spp. strains. The candidate material has successfully passed the homogeneity test and submitted to an international interlaboratory study achieved by 19 laboratories from 11 countries using their routine analytical method...
November 4, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
V Vita, M T Clausi, C Franchino, R De Pace
During a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014, n = 919 samples of feed and raw materials were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination using accredited ELISA screening methods. Only 0.76 % of these samples were non-compliant with maximum levels set by the European Union Regulation 32/2002. Non-compliant samples were mainly from the province of Bari (n = 3 samples, mean AFB1 value 7.03 μg/kg), although the highest AFB1 levels were found in two samples from the provinces of Foggia and Brindisi, at 32.6 ± 3...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Sara Armorini, Alberto Altafini, Anna Zaghini, Paola Roncada
In the present study, 58 samples of milk were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The samples were purchased during the period April-May 2013 in a random manner from local stores (supermarkets, small retail shops, small groceries, and specialized suppliers) located in the surrounding of Bologna (Italy). The commercial samples of milk were either organic (n = 22) or conventional (n = 36); fresh milk samples and UHT milk samples, whole milk samples, and partially skim milk samples were present in both the two considered categories...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Petr Karlovsky, Michele Suman, Franz Berthiller, Johan De Meester, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Irène Perrin, Isabelle P Oswald, Gerrit Speijers, Alessandro Chiodini, Tobias Recker, Pierre Dussort
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
J Díaz-Gómez, S Marín, C Nogareda, V Sanchis, A J Ramos
Novel strategies that address vitamin A deficiency have been developed, such as high-carotenoid maize, a biofortified transgenic maize line rich in carotenoids generated by genetic transformation. The South African white maize inbred (M37W), which is devoid of carotenoids, was engineered to accumulate high levels of β-carotene (provitamin A), lutein, and zeaxanthin. Maize seeds contaminated with fumonisins and other mycotoxins pose a serious threat to both humans and livestock. During three consecutive harvests, the fungal incidence and the fumonisin and aflatoxin content of maize seeds grown in an experimental field in Catalonia (Northeastern Spain) were evaluated...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
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