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Mycotoxin Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905064/a-mini-survey-of-moulds-and-mycotoxins-in-locally-grown-and-imported-wheat-grains-in-nigeria
#1
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
November 30, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888487/mycotoxins-as-human-carcinogens-the-iarc-monographs-classification
#2
Vladimir Ostry, Frantisek Malir, Jakub Toman, Yann Grosse
Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies...
November 25, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866369/fate-of-deoxynivalenol-and-deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside-during-cereal-based-thermal-food-processing-a-review-study
#3
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Kamil Kuča, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Blanka Klímová, Benedikt Cramer
Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most commonly occurring trichothecene in nature, may affect animal and human health through causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastrointestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) as a major plant metabolite of the mycotoxin is another "emerging" food safety issue in recent years. Humans may experience potential health risks by consuming DON-contaminated food products. Thus, it is crucial for human and animal health to study also the degradation of DON and DON-3G during thermal food processing...
November 20, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830510/haematological-clinical-chemical-and-immunological-consequences-of-feeding-fusarium-toxin-contaminated-diets-to-early-lactating-dairy-cows
#4
Sven Dänicke, Janine Winkler, Ulrich Meyer, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten
Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance at the onset of lactation which results in an enhanced vulnerability for infectious diseases. Any dietary imbalances, including Fusarium toxin contamination, might therefore exacerbate this situation. The aim of the present investigations was to study the effects of increasing dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on clinical-chemical, haematological and immunological traits up to week 14 of lactation. For this purpose, ten cows each were assigned to a control group (CON; 0...
November 9, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830509/evidence-of-ochratoxin-a-conjugates-in-urine-samples-from-infants-and-adults
#5
K Muñoz, B Cramer, J Dopstadt, H-U Humpf, G H Degen
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and carcinogenic properties, is an important contaminant of food and feed. Analysis of OTA in human biological fluids (blood, urine, or breast milk) has documented frequent exposure to this mycotoxin, yet at quite variable levels in different population groups across the world. Urine is the preferred matrix in biomonitoring since sample collection is non-invasive and better accepted by study participants. As only a small fraction of the ingested OTA is excreted in urine, determination of urinary OTA requires sensitive analytical techniques, and phase-II-metabolites should be also considered as biomarkers of exposure...
November 9, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817100/occurrence-and-fumonisin-b2-producing-potential-of-aspergillus-section-nigri-in-brazil-nuts
#6
Larissa S Ferranti, Benedito Correa, Maria Helena P Fungaro, Beatriz T Iamanaka, Fernanda P Massi, Christopher B W Phippen, Jens C Frisvad, Marta H Taniwaki
Bertholletia excelsa is the tree that produces Brazil nuts which have vast economic importance in the Amazon region and as an export commodity. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nut samples at different stages of its production chain and to verify the toxigenic potential for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production of these isolates along with the presence of this mycotoxin in Brazil nut samples. The fungal infection ranged from 0 to 80% at the different stages of the harvest and processing chain and the water activity of the nuts from 0...
November 5, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817099/deoxynivalenol-and-its-metabolite-deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-multi-parameter-analysis-for-the-evaluation-of-cytotoxicity-and-cellular-effects
#7
Alexandra Springler, Sabine Hessenberger, Nicole Reisinger, Corinna Kern, Veronika Nagl, Gerd Schatzmayr, Elisabeth Mayer
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminates agricultural commodities worldwide, posing health threats to humans and animals. Associated with DON are derivatives, such as deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), produced by enzymatic transformation of certain intestinal bacteria, which are naturally occurring or applied as feed additives. Using differentiated porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), we provide the first multi-parameter comparative cytotoxicity analysis of DON and DOM-1, based on the parallel evaluation of lysosomal activity, total protein content, membrane integrity, mitochondrial metabolism and ATP synthesis...
November 5, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815916/towards-the-development-of-innovative-multi-mycotoxin-reference-materials-as-promising-metrological-tool-for-emerging-and-regulated-mycotoxin-analyses
#8
E K Tangni, P Debongnie, B Huybrechts, F Van Hove, A Callebaut
The interest in LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin methods unveiled an urgent need for multi-mycotoxin reference material. A multi-fusariotoxin, including deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZEN); T-2 toxin (T-2); HT-2 toxin (HT-2); enniatin A, A1, B, and B1 (ENNs); and beauvericin (BEA), contaminated wheat flour was obtained by inoculation Fusarium spp. strains. The candidate material has successfully passed the homogeneity test and submitted to an international interlaboratory study achieved by 19 laboratories from 11 countries using their routine analytical method...
November 4, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637586/aflatoxin-b1-contamination-in-feed-from-puglia-and-basilicata-regions-italy-5%C3%A2-years-monitoring-data
#9
V Vita, M T Clausi, C Franchino, R De Pace
During a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014, n = 919 samples of feed and raw materials were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination using accredited ELISA screening methods. Only 0.76 % of these samples were non-compliant with maximum levels set by the European Union Regulation 32/2002. Non-compliant samples were mainly from the province of Bari (n = 3 samples, mean AFB1 value 7.03 μg/kg), although the highest AFB1 levels were found in two samples from the provinces of Foggia and Brindisi, at 32.6 ± 3...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632224/occurrence-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-conventional-and-organic-milk-offered-for-sale-in-italy
#10
Sara Armorini, Alberto Altafini, Anna Zaghini, Paola Roncada
In the present study, 58 samples of milk were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The samples were purchased during the period April-May 2013 in a random manner from local stores (supermarkets, small retail shops, small groceries, and specialized suppliers) located in the surrounding of Bologna (Italy). The commercial samples of milk were either organic (n = 22) or conventional (n = 36); fresh milk samples and UHT milk samples, whole milk samples, and partially skim milk samples were present in both the two considered categories...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554261/impact-of-food-processing-and-detoxification-treatments-on-mycotoxin-contamination
#11
Petr Karlovsky, Michele Suman, Franz Berthiller, Johan De Meester, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Irène Perrin, Isabelle P Oswald, Gerrit Speijers, Alessandro Chiodini, Tobias Recker, Pierre Dussort
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522218/the-effect-of-enhanced-carotenoid-content-of-transgenic-maize-grain-on-fungal-colonization-and-mycotoxin-content
#12
J Díaz-Gómez, S Marín, C Nogareda, V Sanchis, A J Ramos
Novel strategies that address vitamin A deficiency have been developed, such as high-carotenoid maize, a biofortified transgenic maize line rich in carotenoids generated by genetic transformation. The South African white maize inbred (M37W), which is devoid of carotenoids, was engineered to accumulate high levels of β-carotene (provitamin A), lutein, and zeaxanthin. Maize seeds contaminated with fumonisins and other mycotoxins pose a serious threat to both humans and livestock. During three consecutive harvests, the fungal incidence and the fumonisin and aflatoxin content of maize seeds grown in an experimental field in Catalonia (Northeastern Spain) were evaluated...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495979/contamination-with-ergot-bodies-claviceps-purpurea-sensu-lato-of-two-horse-pastures-in-northern-germany
#13
S Aboling, A M Drotleff, M G Cappai, J Kamphues
Because the occurrence of Claviceps in European pastures may have been overlooked to cause serious health problem for grazing animals, we documented the degree of Claviceps contamination in two horse pastures and estimated whether the horses could have ingested a critical quantity of alkaloids. We counted the Claviceps sclerotia and determined alkaloid levels using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Depending on the location, the number of sclerotia varied from 0.09 to 0.19 per square meter (central area) and from 0...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364334/comparison-of-the-amount-of-bioaccessible-fumonisin-b1-and-b2-in-maize-and-rice-inoculated-with-fusarium-verticillioides-mrc-826-and-determined-by-in-vitro-digestion-preliminary-results
#14
J Szabó-Fodor, I Bors, A Szabó, M Kovács
In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255919/effects-of-deoxynivalenol-don-zearalenone-zen-and-related-metabolites-on-equine-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmc-in-vitro-and-background-occurrence-of-these-toxins-in-horses
#15
Barbara Schumann, Janine Winkler, Nicola Mickenautsch, Tobias Warnken, Sven Dänicke
Both deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and their metabolites are known to modulate immune cells in various species whereby viability and proliferation are influenced. Such effects were rarely examined in horses. Therefore, one aim of the present study was to titrate the inhibitory concentrations of DON, 3-acetyl-DON (3AcDON), de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1), ZEN, and α- and β-zearalenol (ZEL) at which viability and proliferation of equine PBMC were reduced by 50 % (IC50) and 10 % (IC10) in vitro. For evaluation of practical relevance of the in vitro findings, a further aim was to screen horses for the background occurrence of DON, ZEN, and their metabolites in systemic circulation and to relate toxin residues both to the inhibitory toxin concentrations and to hematological and clinical-chemical characteristics...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185052/biomonitoring-of-concurrent-exposure-to-ochratoxin-a-and-citrinin-in-pregnant-women-in-bangladesh
#16
Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, M Manirujjaman, Gisela H Degen
Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) are both nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, and the occurrence of these mycotoxins in food may cause adverse health effects in humans. Data on the combined exposure to these food contaminants are still scarce, especially in pregnancy. Therefore, a biomonitoring study was conducted to determine the presence of urinary biomarkers of exposure to OTA and CIT in pregnant women in Bangladesh. In total, 54 spot urine samples were collected from residents of a rural and a suburban area of the Savar region in Dhaka district for analysis of OTA and CIT urinary biomarkers by previously validated HPLC-FD and LC-MS/MS methods...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083899/fusarium-toxin-contaminated-maize-in-diets-of-growing-bulls-effects-on-performance-slaughtering-characteristics-and-transfer-into-physiological-liquids
#17
Janine Winkler, Jens Gödde, Ulrich Meyer, Jana Frahm, Heiner Westendarp, Sven Dänicke
The present feeding study was carried out to examine the effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated diets on performance and slaughtering characteristics and on the transfer of the Fusarium toxins zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and their metabolites into physiological matrices. A total of 61 bulls (483 ± 46 kg) were fed with graded proportions of Fusarium toxin-contaminated feed over a period of 10 weeks. The total mixed rations (TMR) consisted of 47 % grass silage, 20 % press pulp silage, and 33 % concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056395/comparison-of-ochratoxin-a-levels-in-edible-pig-tissues-and-in-biological-fluids-after-exposure-to-a-contaminated-diet
#18
Jelka Pleadin, Nina Kudumija, Dragan Kovačević, Giampiero Scortichini, Salvatore Milone, Ivana Kmetič
The aim of this study was to compare ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in pig tissues and biological fluids after animal exposure to contaminated diet (250 μg OTA/kg of feed) during 4 weeks of fattening. OTA concentrations were quantified using a validated immunoassay method (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The highest mean OTA concentration in pig tissues was determined in kidneys of exposed animals (13.87 ± 1.41 μg/kg), followed by lungs (10.47 ± 1...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040819/occurrence-of-ochratoxin-a-in-spices-commercialized-in-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#19
Pierre Manda, Ketty Michele Adanou, Dembelé Ardjouma, Aholia Jean Baptiste Adepo, Djédjé Sébastien Dano
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040818/an-in-vitro-study-of-alkaline-phosphatase-sensitivity-to-mixture-of-aflatoxin-b1-and-fumonisin-b1-in-the-hepatopancreas-of-coastal-lagoon-wild-and-farmed-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#20
Jesús A Pérez-Acosta, Armando Burgos-Hernandez, Carlos A Velázquez-Contreras, Enrique Márquez-Ríos, Wilfrido Torres-Arreola, Aldo A Arvizu-Flores, J Marina Ezquerra-Brauer
This study aimed to establish the combined effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on wild Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with that of farmed shrimp. AP activity in hepatopancreas extract was confirmed by several specific inhibitor assays. AP activity of wild shrimp was higher than that of farmed shrimp (p < 0.05). However, AP activity from both wild and farmed shrimp was inhibited when incubated with AFB1 and FB1. The greatest inhibition occurred when AP was incubated with a mixture of AFB1 and FB1...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
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