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Mycotoxin Research

Ronak Patel, Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Nadezhda German, Abraham Jacob Al-Ahmad
Cerebral fungal infections represent an important public health concern, where a key element of pathophysiology is the ability of the fungi to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Yet the mechanism used by micro-organisms to cross such a barrier and invade the brain parenchyma remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of gliotoxin (GTX), a mycotoxin secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus, on the BBB using brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
July 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Genevieve S Bondy, Laurie Coady, Nikia Ross, Don Caldwell, Anne Marie Gannon, Keri Kwong, Stephen Hayward, David E Lefebvre, Virginia Liston, Jayadev Raju, Peter Pantazopoulos, Ivan Curran
The presence of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal grains is due to the growth of toxigenic Penicillium mold on stored crops. Human exposure to OTA is higher in infants, toddlers, and children than in adolescents and adults, based on exposure assessments of ng OTA consumed/kg body weight/day. Ochratoxin A is nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, but its effects on juveniles exposed during the reproduction and development period have not been studied. To address this, Fischer rats were exposed to 0, 0...
July 4, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
The stability of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 , deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone during processing of Nigerian traditional spices (dawadawa, okpehe, and ogiri) and beer (burukutu) using artificially contaminated raw materials was investigated. Results revealed the reduction of these toxins in all the final products. Boiling played a significant role (p < 0.05) in Fusarium mycotoxin reduction in the traditional spices. The highest percentage reduction of deoxynivalenol (76%) and zearalenone (74%) was observed during okpehe processing (boiled for 12 h)...
May 3, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Jakub Toman, Vladimir Ostry, Yann Grosse, Tomas Roubal, Frantisek Malir
The aim of this study was to conduct a survey assessing (a) the ochratoxin A (OTA) content in different samples of Astragalus propinquus root (AR), one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, and (b) the rate of OTA transfer to AR decoctions that are traditionally used to reduce general weakness and increase overall vitality. A validated method of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was used to determine OTA concentrations in AR samples and AR decoctions...
April 25, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Vladimir Popović, Nicholas Fairbanks, Jacob Pierscianowski, Michael Biancaniello, Ting Zhou, Tatiana Koutchma
Fungal disease of grain crops is a concern for the agricultural industry, resulting in economic losses. Aside from severe yield losses, mycotoxigenic fungi such as Penicillium and Fusarium can produce harmful mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and ochratoxin A (OTA). This proof-of-concept study explored the feasibility and effects of ultraviolet (UV) C light at 253.7 nm to reduce fungal and mycotoxin loads on model surfaces as well as on maize and wheat kernels using benchtop 2D and 3D illumination strategies...
April 24, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Anitha Seetha, Emmanuel S Monyo, Takuji W Tsusaka, Harry W Msere, Frank Madinda, Tiyamika Chilunjika, Ethel Sichone, Dickson Mbughi, Benson Chilima, Limbikani Matumba
Aflatoxin-lysine (AFB1 -lys) adduct levels in blood samples collected from 230 individuals living in three districts of Malawi (Kasungu, Mchinji, and Nkhotakota) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) levels in groundnut and maize samples collected from their respective homesteads were determined using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) methods. AFB1 -lys adducts were detected in 67% of blood samples, with a mean concentration of 20.5 ± 23.4 pg/mg of albumin. AFB1 was detected in 91% of groundnut samples and in 70% of maize samples, with mean AFB1 levels of 52...
April 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Sui Sheng T Hua, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Bertram G Lee, Delilah F Wood
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Fungal isolates were collected from a California orchard and a few were initially identified to be A...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Dominik Bergmann, Florian Hübner, Birgit Wibbeling, Constantin Daniliuc, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
The analysis of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin citrinin in food, feed, and physiological samples is still challenging. Nowadays, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the method of choice for achieving low limits of detection. But matrix effects can present impairments for this method. Stable isotope dilution analysis can prevent some of these problems. Therefore, a stable isotopically labeled standard of citrinin for use in stable isotope dilution analysis was synthesized on large scale. The improved diastereoselective total synthetic strategy offered the possibility to introduce three 13 C-labels in two steps by ortho-toluate anion chemistry...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Sven Dänicke, Janine Winkler, Ulrich Meyer, Susanne Kersten, Kerstin Wernike, Martin Beer, Jana Frahm
The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of feedstuffs and is supposed to interfere with immune responses. As the relevance for growing bulls is less clear than for other livestock, the trial was designed according to the dose-response principal with a control group fed a diet with background contamination (CON, 0.36 mg DON per kilogram dry matter [DM]) and three groups with increasing concentrations of DON (mg/kg DM); FUS I, 3.01; FUS II, 5.66; FUS III, 8.31. Half of each treatment group was vaccinated against BVDV at days 1 and 21 of the 70 days lasting experiment...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Manfred Sager, Annegret Lucke, Khaled Ghareeb, Manoochehr Allymehr, Qendrim Zebeli, Josef Böhm
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a well-known contaminant of feed, can have negative effects on gut permeability and function in poultry, which then could affect major and trace element content of the broilers' breast and thigh muscles, and ultimately reduce meat quality. To study this hypothesis, DON-contaminated diet was fed to broiler chicks. Two groups of birds were housed in metabolic cages with free access to water and feed, with or without DON (10 mg/kg). After 5 weeks, birds were dissected and samples of the breast and thigh muscles, feed and droppings were analysed for five macro (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) and ten micro elements (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) methods...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
C Merla, G Andreoli, C Garino, N Vicari, G Tosi, M L Guglielminetti, A Moretti, A Biancardi, M Arlorio, M Fabbi
Fungi have a crucial role in the correct maturation of salami, but special attention should be addressed to the production of the nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). In a monitoring study conducted in Northern Italy, OTA was detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in 13 out 133 samples of traditional salami (9.8% of the total count). Mycological analysis of these samples yielded 247 fungal isolates which were identified to species level. The most frequent species were Penicillium nalgiovense, P...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Wolf Wippermann, Anne Heckmann, Kathrin Jäger, Sven Dänicke, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
In order to evaluate the influence of deoxynivalenol (DON) on histomorphological and immunohistochemical parameters in the development of porcine fetuses, five pregnant sows were fed a control diet (0.15 mg DON/kg diet) and seven sows a contaminated diet (4.42 mg DON/kg diet) between days 35 and 70 of gestation. On day 70, fetuses were delivered by caesarean section and sows and fetuses were euthanized. Tissue samples of three fetuses from each sow were collected, fixed in formalin, and processed routinely for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
C J Botha, M Truter, M Sulyok
Aspergillus clavatus poisoning is a neuromycotoxicosis of ruminants that occurs sporadically across the world after ingestion of infected feedstuffs. Although various toxic metabolites are synthesized by the fungus, it is not clear which specific or group of mycotoxins induces the syndrome. A. clavatus isolates were deposited in the culture collection of the Biosystematics Division, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council during incidences of livestock poisoning (1988-2016). Six isolates were still viable and these plus three other South African isolates that were also previously deposited in the collection were positively identified as A...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Susana Viegas, Bernd Osteresch, Ana Almeida, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Carla Viegas
The waste management occupational environment is recognized by the simultaneous presence of several substances and biologic agents. Therefore, workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 in one Portuguese waste sorting plant was already reported. However, besides this mycotoxin, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could be expected. A study was developed to analyze if exposure to other mycotoxins besides aflatoxin B1 was occurring in the workers from the waste sorting plant previously assessed and to discuss how these findings need to be considered in the risk assessment process...
May 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Arieta Camaj, Karsten Meyer, Bajram Berisha, Tahir Arbneshi, Arben Haziri
During February and August 2016 (winter and summer season), 192 samples of raw bulk tank milk have been collected from small dairy farms in five different regions of Kosova (Prishtina, Prizren, Peja, Mitrovica, and Gjilan). These samples were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) contamination level by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The limit of quantification for AFM1 was 0.02 μg/L and recovery at 0...
April 18, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Sui Sheng T Hua, Jeffrey D Palumbo, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Teresa L O'Keeffe
Aflatoxin B1 is a potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen that poses a serious safety hazard to both humans and animals. Aspergillus flavus is the most common aflatoxin-producing species on corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts. Application of atoxigenic strains to compete against aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus has emerged as one of the most practical strategies for ameliorating aflatoxin contamination in food. Genes directly involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered on an 82-kb region of the genome. Three atoxigenic strains (CA12, M34, and AF123) were each paired with each of four aflatoxigenic strains (CA28, CA42, CA90, and M52), inoculated into soil and incubated at 28 °C for 2 weeks and 1 month...
March 26, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Annika Jagels, Yannick Hövelmann, Alexa Zielinski, Melanie Esselen, Jens Köhler, Florian Hübner, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
In the course of gaining new insights into the secondary metabolite profile of various Stachybotrys strains, in particular concerning triprenyl phenol-like compounds, so far, unknown metabolites with analogous structural features were discovered. Three novel meroterpenoids containing a chromene ring moiety, namely stachybotrychromenes A-C, were isolated from solid culture of the filamentous fungus Stachybotrys chartarum DSMZ 12880 (chemotype S). Their structures were elucidated by means of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, ESI-HRMS, and CD) as well as by comparison with spectroscopic data of structural analogues described in literature...
March 16, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Karim C Piacentini, L O Rocha, G D Savi, L Carnielli-Queiroz, F G Almeida, E Minella, B Corrêa
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop for food and represents one of the main ingredients in beer production. Considering the importance of barley and its derived products, the knowledge about the mycotoxin contamination in the barley production is essential in order to assess its safety. In this study, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in brewing barley were determined using a LC-MS/MS method. A survey was conducted in 2015 to estimate the mycotoxin levels in these products (n = 76) from four crop regions in Brazil...
March 9, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Henning Sören Schmidt, Mareike Schulz, Christine Focke, Stefanie Becker, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Plant-derived phase II metabolites of T-2 toxin (T2) and HT-2 toxin (HT2) were first described in 2011 and further characterized in the following years. Since then, some efforts have been made to understand their biosynthesis, occurrence, toxicity, toxicokinetics, and finally relevance for consumers. Thus, the probably most important question is whether and how these metabolites contribute to toxicity upon hydrolysis either during food processing or the gastrointestinal passage. To answer this question, firstly, knowledge on the correct stereochemistry of T2 and HT2 glucosides is important as this affects hydrolysis and chemical behavior...
March 6, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Eric T Johnson, Robert H Proctor, Christopher A Dunlap, Mark Busman
The fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a maize pathogen that can produce fumonisin mycotoxins in ears under certain environmental conditions. Because fumonisins pose health risks to humans and livestock, control strategies with minimal risk to the environment are needed to reduce fumonisin contamination. Host-induced gene silencing is a promising technique in which double-stranded RNA expressed in the plant host is absorbed by an invading fungus and down-regulates genes critical for pathogenicity or mycotoxin production in the fungus...
March 2018: Mycotoxin Research
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