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Mycotoxin Research

V Vita, M T Clausi, C Franchino, R De Pace
During a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014, n = 919 samples of feed and raw materials were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination using accredited ELISA screening methods. Only 0.76 % of these samples were non-compliant with maximum levels set by the European Union Regulation 32/2002. Non-compliant samples were mainly from the province of Bari (n = 3 samples, mean AFB1 value 7.03 μg/kg), although the highest AFB1 levels were found in two samples from the provinces of Foggia and Brindisi, at 32.6 ± 3...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Sara Armorini, Alberto Altafini, Anna Zaghini, Paola Roncada
In the present study, 58 samples of milk were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The samples were purchased during the period April-May 2013 in a random manner from local stores (supermarkets, small retail shops, small groceries, and specialized suppliers) located in the surrounding of Bologna (Italy). The commercial samples of milk were either organic (n = 22) or conventional (n = 36); fresh milk samples and UHT milk samples, whole milk samples, and partially skim milk samples were present in both the two considered categories...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Petr Karlovsky, Michele Suman, Franz Berthiller, Johan De Meester, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Irène Perrin, Isabelle P Oswald, Gerrit Speijers, Alessandro Chiodini, Tobias Recker, Pierre Dussort
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
J Díaz-Gómez, S Marín, C Nogareda, V Sanchis, A J Ramos
Novel strategies that address vitamin A deficiency have been developed, such as high-carotenoid maize, a biofortified transgenic maize line rich in carotenoids generated by genetic transformation. The South African white maize inbred (M37W), which is devoid of carotenoids, was engineered to accumulate high levels of β-carotene (provitamin A), lutein, and zeaxanthin. Maize seeds contaminated with fumonisins and other mycotoxins pose a serious threat to both humans and livestock. During three consecutive harvests, the fungal incidence and the fumonisin and aflatoxin content of maize seeds grown in an experimental field in Catalonia (Northeastern Spain) were evaluated...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
S Aboling, A M Drotleff, M G Cappai, J Kamphues
Because the occurrence of Claviceps in European pastures may have been overlooked to cause serious health problem for grazing animals, we documented the degree of Claviceps contamination in two horse pastures and estimated whether the horses could have ingested a critical quantity of alkaloids. We counted the Claviceps sclerotia and determined alkaloid levels using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Depending on the location, the number of sclerotia varied from 0.09 to 0.19 per square meter (central area) and from 0...
November 2016: Mycotoxin Research
J Szabó-Fodor, I Bors, A Szabó, M Kovács
In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Barbara Schumann, Janine Winkler, Nicola Mickenautsch, Tobias Warnken, Sven Dänicke
Both deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and their metabolites are known to modulate immune cells in various species whereby viability and proliferation are influenced. Such effects were rarely examined in horses. Therefore, one aim of the present study was to titrate the inhibitory concentrations of DON, 3-acetyl-DON (3AcDON), de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1), ZEN, and α- and β-zearalenol (ZEL) at which viability and proliferation of equine PBMC were reduced by 50 % (IC50) and 10 % (IC10) in vitro. For evaluation of practical relevance of the in vitro findings, a further aim was to screen horses for the background occurrence of DON, ZEN, and their metabolites in systemic circulation and to relate toxin residues both to the inhibitory toxin concentrations and to hematological and clinical-chemical characteristics...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, M Manirujjaman, Gisela H Degen
Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) are both nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, and the occurrence of these mycotoxins in food may cause adverse health effects in humans. Data on the combined exposure to these food contaminants are still scarce, especially in pregnancy. Therefore, a biomonitoring study was conducted to determine the presence of urinary biomarkers of exposure to OTA and CIT in pregnant women in Bangladesh. In total, 54 spot urine samples were collected from residents of a rural and a suburban area of the Savar region in Dhaka district for analysis of OTA and CIT urinary biomarkers by previously validated HPLC-FD and LC-MS/MS methods...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Janine Winkler, Jens Gödde, Ulrich Meyer, Jana Frahm, Heiner Westendarp, Sven Dänicke
The present feeding study was carried out to examine the effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated diets on performance and slaughtering characteristics and on the transfer of the Fusarium toxins zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and their metabolites into physiological matrices. A total of 61 bulls (483 ± 46 kg) were fed with graded proportions of Fusarium toxin-contaminated feed over a period of 10 weeks. The total mixed rations (TMR) consisted of 47 % grass silage, 20 % press pulp silage, and 33 % concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Jelka Pleadin, Nina Kudumija, Dragan Kovačević, Giampiero Scortichini, Salvatore Milone, Ivana Kmetič
The aim of this study was to compare ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in pig tissues and biological fluids after animal exposure to contaminated diet (250 μg OTA/kg of feed) during 4 weeks of fattening. OTA concentrations were quantified using a validated immunoassay method (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The highest mean OTA concentration in pig tissues was determined in kidneys of exposed animals (13.87 ± 1.41 μg/kg), followed by lungs (10.47 ± 1...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Pierre Manda, Ketty Michele Adanou, Dembelé Ardjouma, Aholia Jean Baptiste Adepo, Djédjé Sébastien Dano
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Jesús A Pérez-Acosta, Armando Burgos-Hernandez, Carlos A Velázquez-Contreras, Enrique Márquez-Ríos, Wilfrido Torres-Arreola, Aldo A Arvizu-Flores, J Marina Ezquerra-Brauer
This study aimed to establish the combined effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on wild Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with that of farmed shrimp. AP activity in hepatopancreas extract was confirmed by several specific inhibitor assays. AP activity of wild shrimp was higher than that of farmed shrimp (p < 0.05). However, AP activity from both wild and farmed shrimp was inhibited when incubated with AFB1 and FB1. The greatest inhibition occurred when AP was incubated with a mixture of AFB1 and FB1...
August 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Bich Van Le Thanh, Michel Lemay, Alexandre Bastien, Jérôme Lapointe, Martin Lessard, Younès Chorfi, Frédéric Guay
Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments)...
May 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Katrin Bernhardt, Hana Valenta, Susanne Kersten, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Sven Dänicke
A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 triol, and T-2 tetraol in layer feed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the positive ionization mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS) is described. Two fast and easy clean-up methods-with BondElut Mycotoxin and MycoSep 227 columns, respectively-were tested. The separation of the toxins was conducted on a Pursuit XRs Ultra 2.8 HPLC column using 0.13 mM ammonium acetate as eluent A and methanol as eluent B...
May 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Hamidreza Mohammadi, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Zahra Aliabadi, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani
The frequency and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in pasteurized milk samples in Sari, located in Mazandaran province, Iran, were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Seventy-six samples of pasteurized milk from different retail stores were randomly collected over four seasons during the year 2015. AFM1 contamination was detected in all milk samples. The mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 was 65.8 ng/l, with a range of 11.7-106.6 ng/l. The highest AFM1 level was detected in milk samples collected during spring. Forty-six (60...
May 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Csilla Pelyhe, Benjámin Kövesi, Erika Zándoki, Balázs Kovács, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh
The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group...
May 2016: Mycotoxin Research
S Thanner, L Czeglédi, H E Schwartz-Zimmermann, F Berthiller, A Gutzwiller
Four diets contaminated with 1.1 to 5.0 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.4 to 2.4 mg/kg zearalenone (ZEA) were fed to four groups of six growing Large White pigs. Urine samples were collected after 3 to 4 days and again after 6 to 7 days on the diets. On each sampling day, half of the animals were sampled in the morning, after an 8-h fast, and the other half were sampled in the afternoon, after 7 h of ad libitum access to feed. The urinary concentrations of DON, DON-glucuronide, DON-3-sulphate, de-epoxy-DON, as well as of ZEA, ZEA-14-glucuronide, α-zearalenol and α-zearalenol-14-glucuronide, analysed using LC-MS/MS, were used to calculate urinary DON and ZEA equivalent concentrations (DONe and ZEAe)...
May 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Dionisio G Alvindia, Monica F de Guzman
In 2012 to 2014, Philippine green coffee beans from Coffea arabica in Benguet and Ifugao; Coffea canephora var. Robusta in Abra, Cavite, and Ifugao; and Coffea liberica and Coffea excelsea from Cavite were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The presence of fungal species was evaluated both before and after surface sterilization. There were remarkable ecological and varietal differences in the population of OTA-producing species from the five provinces...
May 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Fadeyemi Joseph Akinrinmade, Akinleye Stephen Akinrinde, Adetayo Amid
Aflatoxins are known to produce chronic carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects, as well as acute inflammatory effects, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. The potentials of the flavonoid-rich extract from Chromolena odorata (FCO) and melatonin (a standard anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and morphology of liver and small intestines were evaluated in this study. We utilized Wistar albino rats (200-230 g) randomly divided into five groups made up of group A, control rats; group B, rats given AFB1 (2...
May 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Sven Dänicke
Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins formed by Claviceps purpurea. Due to the large variation in EA content, the mass proportion of ergot (hardened sclerotia) in animal diets is not suited to establish safe levels of EA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of dietary EA on laying hens. Ergoty rye or ergot-free rye (control diet) was included in the diets either untreated or after hydrothermal treatment ("expansion"). The total EA levels in five different diets containing 0-3% of untreated or expanded rye were 0...
February 2016: Mycotoxin Research
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