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Mycotoxin Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313173/dietary-deoxynivalenol-does-not-affect-mineral-element-accumulation-in-breast-and-thigh-muscles-of-broiler-chicken
#1
Manfred Sager, Annegret Lucke, Khaled Ghareeb, Manoochehr Allymehr, Qendrim Zebeli, Josef Böhm
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a well-known contaminant of feed, can have negative effects on gut permeability and function in poultry, which then could affect major and trace element content of the broilers' breast and thigh muscles, and ultimately reduce meat quality. To study this hypothesis, DON-contaminated diet was fed to broiler chicks. Two groups of birds were housed in metabolic cages with free access to water and feed, with or without DON (10 mg/kg). After 5 weeks, birds were dissected and samples of the breast and thigh muscles, feed and droppings were analysed for five macro (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) and ten micro elements (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) methods...
January 8, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299825/monitoring-of-ochratoxin-a-and-ochratoxin-producing-fungi-in-traditional-salami-manufactured-in-northern-italy
#2
C Merla, G Andreoli, C Garino, N Vicari, G Tosi, M L Guglielminetti, A Moretti, A Biancardi, M Arlorio, M Fabbi
Fungi have a crucial role in the correct maturation of salami, but special attention should be addressed to the production of the nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). In a monitoring study conducted in Northern Italy, OTA was detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in 13 out 133 samples of traditional salami (9.8% of the total count). Mycological analysis of these samples yielded 247 fungal isolates which were identified to species level. The most frequent species were Penicillium nalgiovense, P...
January 3, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288371/exposure-of-pregnant-sows-to-deoxynivalenol-during-35-70%C3%A2-days-of-gestation-does-not-affect-pathomorphological-and-immunohistochemical-properties-of-fetal-organs
#3
Wolf Wippermann, Anne Heckmann, Kathrin Jäger, Sven Dänicke, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
In order to evaluate the influence of deoxynivalenol (DON) on histomorphological and immunohistochemical parameters in the development of porcine fetuses, five pregnant sows were fed a control diet (0.15 mg DON/kg diet) and seven sows a contaminated diet (4.42 mg DON/kg diet) between days 35 and 70 of gestation. On day 70, fetuses were delivered by caesarean section and sows and fetuses were euthanized. Tissue samples of three fetuses from each sow were collected, fixed in formalin, and processed routinely for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry...
December 29, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236246/multimycotoxin-analysis-of-south-african-aspergillus-clavatus-isolates
#4
C J Botha, M Truter, M Sulyok
Aspergillus clavatus poisoning is a neuromycotoxicosis of ruminants that occurs sporadically across the world after ingestion of infected feedstuffs. Although various toxic metabolites are synthesized by the fungus, it is not clear which specific or group of mycotoxins induces the syndrome. A. clavatus isolates were deposited in the culture collection of the Biosystematics Division, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council during incidences of livestock poisoning (1988-2016). Six isolates were still viable and these plus three other South African isolates that were also previously deposited in the collection were positively identified as A...
December 13, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185179/enniatin-b-and-ochratoxin-a-in-the-blood-serum-of-workers-from-the-waste-management-setting
#5
Susana Viegas, Bernd Osteresch, Ana Almeida, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Carla Viegas
The waste management occupational environment is recognized by the simultaneous presence of several substances and biologic agents. Therefore, workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 in one Portuguese waste sorting plant was already reported. However, besides this mycotoxin, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could be expected. A study was developed to analyze if exposure to other mycotoxins besides aflatoxin B1 was occurring in the workers from the waste sorting plant previously assessed and to discuss how these findings need to be considered in the risk assessment process...
November 29, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164518/reducing-production-of-fumonisin-mycotoxins-in-fusarium-verticillioides-by-rna-interference
#6
Eric T Johnson, Robert H Proctor, Christopher A Dunlap, Mark Busman
The fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a maize pathogen that can produce fumonisin mycotoxins in ears under certain environmental conditions. Because fumonisins pose health risks to humans and livestock, control strategies with minimal risk to the environment are needed to reduce fumonisin contamination. Host-induced gene silencing is a promising technique in which double-stranded RNA expressed in the plant host is absorbed by an invading fungus and down-regulates genes critical for pathogenicity or mycotoxin production in the fungus...
November 22, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164517/the-mycoestrogen-zearalenone-in-portuguese-flowing-waters-and-its-potential-environmental-impact
#7
Célia S M Laranjeiro, Liliana João Gatões da Silva, André M P T Pereira, Angelina Pena, Celeste M Lino
This study provides the first environmental risk assessment (ERA) for zearalenone (ZEN), the only known mycoestrogen, based on a broad-scale investigation on its occurrence in rivers and creeks from Portugal. Water sample filtration and immunoaffinity columns (IAC) clean-up followed by liquid chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS (n) ) provided an analytical method with good analytical performance. ZEN levels were determined for seven Portuguese rivers and one creek, during two different seasons, in a total of 38 samples collected upstream wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)...
November 21, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147915/use-of-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-to-screen-for-aflatoxins-ochratoxin-a-and-deoxynivalenol-in-dry-pet-foods
#8
Tara A Okuma, Thu P Huynh, Rosalee S Hellberg
The objective of this study was to perform a market survey on dry pet foods using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect total aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), and deoxynivalenol (DON). Pet food products (n = 58) marketed for dogs, cats, birds, and rabbits were tested in duplicate with ELISA, and results above the limit of quantitation were confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). OTA was detected in one product (rabbit food) and AFs were detected in two products (one dog treat and one bird treat)...
November 16, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143925/production-of-fumonisins-by-endophytic-strains-of-tolypocladium-cylindrosporum-and-its-relation-to-fungal-virus-infection
#9
Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa, Amador Alvarez, Noemi Herrero, Beatriz R Vazquez-de-Aldana
Fumonisins were first discovered in Fusarium verticillioides, a fungus associated to disease and asymptomatic infections in maize. Afterwards, other fungal taxa have been found to produce fumonisins. The entomopathogenic ascomycete Tolypocladium cylindrosporum has been isolated from soil and also as an endophyte from leaves of grasses. The objectives of this work were to determine the in vitro production of fumonisin B (FB) mycotoxins and the immunosuppressive compound cyclosporine A (CyA) in several strains of T...
November 16, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143924/blood-plasma-biomarkers-of-citrinin-and-ochratoxin-a-exposure-in-young-adults-in-bangladesh
#10
Nurshad Ali, Khaled Hossain, Gisela H Degen
Citrinin (CIT) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins which can co-occur in food commodities, resulting in internal exposure. Studies in many countries reported on the presence of OTA in human blood; however, such biomonitoring data for CIT is still scarce. This study was conducted to characterize both CIT and OTA biomarker levels in plasma of volunteers since food analysis data are insufficient to assess human exposure in Bangladesh. In total 104 blood samples were collected from university students in 2013 (sampling 1: n = 64, midsummer) and 2014 (sampling 2: n = 40, end winter) for analysis of CIT and OTA and their metabolites HO-CIT and OTα by LC-MS/MS and HPLC-FD techniques, respectively...
November 16, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130148/interaction-of-zearalenone-with-bovine-serum-albumin-as-determined-by-fluorescence-quenching
#11
Liang Ma, Chris M Maragos, Yuhao Zhang
The major aim of this study was to examine the binding of zearalenone (ZEN) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) by measuring the quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein under aqueous conditions. The results suggest that ZEN has a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static mechanism. The hydrophobicity of the microenvironment around the tyrosine (Tyr) residues in BSA was increased in the presence of ZEN. The quenching constants, ratio of protein with ZEN, and thermodynamic parameters were determined...
November 13, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844113/effect-of-uv-irradiation-on-aflatoxin-reduction-a-cytotoxicity-evaluation-study-using-human-hepatoma-cell-line
#12
Ankit Patras, Sharath Julakanti, Sudheer Yannam, Rishipal R Bansode, Mallory Burns, Matthew J Vergne
In this proof-of-concept study, the efficacy of a medium-pressure UV (MPUV) lamp source to reduce the concentrations of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and aflatoxin G1 (AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1) in pure water is investigated. Irradiation experiments were conducted using a collimated beam system operating between 200 to 360 nm. The optical absorbance of the solution and the irradiance of the lamp are considered in calculating the average fluence rate. Based on these factors, the UV dose was quantified as a product of average fluence rate and treatment time...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791630/survey-of-moniliformin-in-wheat-and-corn-based-products-using-a-straightforward-analytical-method
#13
Marta Herrera, Ruud van Dam, Martien Spanjer, Joyce de Stoppelaar, Hans Mol, Monique de Nijs, Patricia López
A straightforward analytical method was developed and validated to determine the mycotoxin moniliformin in cereal-based foods. Moniliformin is extracted with water and quantified with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and its presence confirmed with liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was validated for flour, bread, pasta and maize samples in terms of linearity, matrix effect, recovery, repeatability and limit of quantification. Quantification was conducted by matrix-matched calibration...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785910/occurrence-of-aflatoxins-and-its-management-in-diverse-cropping-systems-of-central-tanzania
#14
Anitha Seetha, Wills Munthali, Harry W Msere, Elirehema Swai, Yasinta Muzanila, Ethel Sichone, Takuji W Tsusaka, Abhishek Rathore, Patrick Okori
The staple crops, maize, sorghum, bambara nut, groundnut, and sunflower common in semi-arid agro-pastoral farming systems of central Tanzania are prone to aflatoxin contamination. Consumption of such crop produce, contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), affects growth and health. In this paper, aflatoxin contamination in freshly harvested and stored crop produce from central Tanzania was examined, including the efficacy of aflatoxin mitigation technologies on grain/kernal quality. A total of 312 farmers were recruited, trained on aflatoxin mitigation technologies, and allowed to deploy the technologies for 2 years...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755328/alternaria-toxins-in-south-african-sunflower-seeds-cooperative-study
#15
Sebastian Hickert, Lena Hermes, Lucas Maciel Mauriz Marques, Christine Focke, Benedikt Cramer, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Bradley Flett, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Sunflower seed samples (N = 80) from different sunflower cultivars originating from different localities in South Africa were analyzed for 15 toxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria by means of a simple one-step extraction dilute-and-shoot HPLC-MS/MS approach. References for valine-tenuazonic acid (Val-TeA), altenusin (ALTS), and altenuisol (ALTSOH) were isolated from fungal culture extracts and spectroscopically characterized. Additionally, valine-tenuazonic acid was tested regarding its cytotoxicity in comparison with tenuazonic acid (TeA) and showed less activity on HT-29 cells...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741250/effects-of-deoxynivalenol-don-and-its-microbial-biotransformation-product-deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-dom-1-on-a-trout-pig-mouse-and-human-cell-line
#16
Elisabeth Mayer, Barbara Novak, Alexandra Springler, Heidi E Schwartz-Zimmermann, Veronika Nagl, Nicole Reisinger, Sabine Hessenberger, Gerd Schatzmayr
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene produced by various Fusarium species, is one of the most prevalent food- and feed-associated mycotoxins. The effects of DON and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) were assessed in five different cell lines from different tissues and species starting from the first line of defense, the trout gill (RTgill-W1) and pig intestinal cells (IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2) over immune cells, as second line of defense (mouse macrophages RAW 264.7) to human liver cells (HepG2). Viability was assessed with a WST-1 assay, except for RTgill-W1, where a neutral red (NR) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was performed...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730564/a-new-approach-to-assess-occupational-exposure-to-airborne-fungal-contamination-and-mycotoxins-of-forklift-drivers-in-waste-sorting-facilities
#17
Carla Viegas, Tiago Faria, Ana Cebola de Oliveira, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Anita Quintal-Gomes, Magdalena Twarużek, Robert Kosicki, Ewelina Soszczyńska, Susana Viegas
The waste management industry is an important employer, and exposure of waste-handling workers to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. Besides fungal contamination, it is important to consider the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in this setting. Forklifts with closed cabinet and air conditioner are commonly used in waste industry to transport waste and other products within the facilities, possibly increasing the risk of exposure under certain conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal contamination and mycotoxin levels in filters from the air conditioning system of forklift cabinets, as an indicator to assess occupational exposure of the drivers working in a waste sorting facility...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687999/use-of-yeast-pichia-kudriavzevii-as-a-novel-feed-additive-to-ameliorate-the-effects-of-aflatoxin-b1-on-broiler-chicken-performance
#18
A P Magnoli, M C Rodriguez, M L González Pereyra, V L Poloni, M F Peralta, A J Nilson, R D Miazzo, G Bagnis, S M Chiacchiera, L R Cavaglieri
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii as a novel bioadsorbent for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The selection of this yeast was based on the AFB1 adsorption capacity previously demonstrated in vitro (Magnoli et al. 2016). One-day-old Cobb broilers (n = 160) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (T1: basal diet (B); T2: B + 0.1% yeast; T3: B + AFB1, 100 μg/kg; T4: B + 0.1% yeast + AFB1, 100 μg/kg). Performance parameters (average daily weight gain body, average daily consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight, and dead weight), biochemical parameters (albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin), liver pathological changes, and AFB1 residual levels in the liver and excreta were evaluated...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687998/effects-of-low-to-moderate-levels-of-deoxynivalenol-on-feed-and-water-intake-weight-gain-and-slaughtering-traits-of-broiler-chickens
#19
A Lucke, B Doupovec, P Paulsen, Q Zebeli, J Böhm
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of low to moderate oral exposure to the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON; derived from culture material) on performance, water intake, and carcass parameters of broilers during early and late developmental phases. A total of 160 Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four different feeding groups (n = 40/group) including 0 (control), 2.5, 5, and 10 mg DON/kg wheat-soybean meal-based feed. Three consecutive replicates of the experiment were performed...
November 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942532/sterigmatocystin-and-aflatoxin-b1-contamination-of-corn-soybean-meal-and-formula-feed-in-japan
#20
Masayo Nomura, Koji Aoyama, Takayuki Ishibashi
Sterigmatocystin (STC) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were analyzed in 246 corn samples, 126 soybean meal samples, and 861 formula feed samples from the Japanese market between April 2010 and March 2015. The detection rate, the highest concentration, and the mean concentration of STC were respectively 14%, 6.4 μg/kg, and 1.2 μg/kg for corn; 14%, 1.1 μg/kg, and 0.63 μg/kg for soybean meal; and 43%, 9.1 μg/kg, and 0.97 μg/kg for formula feed. The detection rate, the highest concentration, and the mean concentration of AFB1 were respectively 46%, 24 μg/kg, and 3...
September 23, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
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