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Mycotoxin Research

Larissa T Franco, Tânia Petta, George E Rottinghaus, Keliani Bordin, Gilmar A Gomes, Carlos A F Oliveira
A limited survey was conducted to assess the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 ; fumonisins (FB) B1 and B2 ; ochratoxin A (OTA); zearalenone (ZEN); and deoxynivalenol (DON) in maize food (N = 26) and animal feed (N = 45) collected from 21 small-scale farms from the states of São Paulo (SP) and Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. Samples evaluated were maize meal and maize flour for human consumption available in the farm households, and maize-based feed intended for broiler chicks, laying hens, and dairy cows...
September 21, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Gaetano Cammilleri, Stefania Graci, Rosaria Collura, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Antonio Vella, Andrea Macaluso, Vita Giaccone, Giuseppe Giangrosso, Antonello Cicero, Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico, Andrea Pulvirenti, Nicola Cicero, Vincenzo Ferrantelli
Samples (n = 485) of raw (n = 394) or heat-treated (n = 91) milk of three different species (cow, n = 170; sheep, n = 133; donkey, n = 84), collected 2013-2016 in Western Sicily (Southern Italy), were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive ELISA results were further analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Both methods had a detection limit for AFM1 in milk of 7 ng kg-1 . ELISA yielded 12.9 and 5% positives in cows and sheep milk, respectively, all samples of donkey milk were negative...
September 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Nicole Lorenz, Sven Dänicke, Lutz Edler, Christoph Gottschalk, Eva Lassek, Doris Marko, Michael Rychlik, Angela Mally
A comprehensive definition introducing the term "modified mycotoxins" to encompass all possible forms in which mycotoxins and their modifications can occur was recently proposed and has rapidly gained wide acceptance within the scientific community. It is becoming increasingly evident that exposure to such modified mycotoxins due to their presence in food and feed has the potential to pose a substantial additional risk to human and animal health. Zearalenone (ZEN) is a well-characterized Fusarium toxin...
September 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
L Panasiuk, P Jedziniak, K Pietruszka, M Piatkowska, L Bocian
In this study, 120 silage samples collected in 2015 from farms in Poland were analysed by a multimycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The study included toxins which are regulated within the European Union (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2/HT-2 toxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) and non-regulated mycotoxins (enniatins, beauvericin, 8-ketotrichothecenes, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone derivatives). All silage samples were positive for at least one mycotoxin, and 61% of samples contained five or more mycotoxins simultaneously...
August 22, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Claude Schummer, Loïc Brune, Gilbert Moris
Ergot alkaloids are toxins produced by some species of fungi in the genus Claviceps, that may infect rye and triticale and, in a minor degree, other types of cereals. In this study, a new UHPLC-FLD method for the quantification of the six major ergot alkaloids as well as their corresponding epimers was developed. The sample preparation was done by a solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and clean-up via freeze-out. The method was fully validated and then applied to 39 samples (wheat, rye, triticale, and barley) harvested in Luxembourg in 2016...
August 16, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Alma Rosa Solano-Báez, Juan Manuel Cuca-García, Adriana Delgado-Alvarado, Daniel Panaccione, Carlos De León-García de Alba, Santos Gerardo Leyva-Mir, Jesús Ricardo Sánchez-Pale, Javier Hernández-Morales
The Ascomycete fungus Claviceps gigantea infects maize kernels and synthetizes several alkaloids, mostly dihydrolysergamides. There is limited information on the damage these toxins cause in mammals, despite reports from infested areas with 90% presence of the fungus sclerotia. With this background, it was decided to determine the biological activity of chemical compounds present in sclerotia of C. gigantea in rabbits 38 days after weaning. Sclerotia of C. gigantea were collected in fields with high incidence of the disease, ground and analysed for nutrients...
August 16, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Johanna Frida Lindahl, I N Kagera, D Grace
Milk is an important source of energy and nutrients, especially for children, and in Kenya, milk consumption is higher than other countries in the region. One major concern with milk is the risks of chemical contaminants, and reports of high levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) in milk in Kenya has been causing public health concerns. This study collected marketed milk products every month during 1 year, just as a consumer would purchase them from retailers and traders in a low-income area, and a major supermarket in a middle/high-income area...
August 14, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Dawit Gizachew, Yung-Chen Hsu, Barbara Szonyi, Wei-Tsyi Evert Ting
Aspergillus fresenii and Aspergillus sulphureus produce ochratoxin A (OTA), which is a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, with nephrotoxic effects and potential carcinogenic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature (20, 30, and 37 °C), water activity (0.82, 0.86, 0.90, 0.94, and 0.98 aw ), incubation period (5, 10, 15, and 30 days) on fungal growth, and OTA production by A. fresenii and A. sulphureus on Nyjer oil seeds. There was no fungal growth at 0...
August 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
C J Botha, C M Visagie, M Sulyok
A tremorgenic syndrome occurs in dogs following ingestion of moldy walnuts, and Penicillium crustosum has been implicated as the offending fungus. This is the first report of suspected moldy walnut toxicosis in man. An adult male ingested approximately eight fungal-infected walnut kernels and after 12 h experienced tremors, generalized pain, incoordination, confusion, anxiety, and diaphoresis. Following symptomatic and supportive treatment at a local hospital, the man made an uneventful recovery. A batch of walnuts (approximately 20) was submitted for mycological culturing and identification as well as for mycotoxin analysis...
August 7, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Zelma Faisal, Beáta Lemli, Dénes Szerencsés, Sándor Kunsági-Máté, Mónika Bálint, Csaba Hetényi, Mónika Kuzma, Mátyás Mayer, Miklós Poór
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. ZEN mainly appears in cereals and related foodstuffs, causing reproductive disorders in animals, due to its xenoestrogenic effects. The main reduced metabolites of ZEN are α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL). Similarly to ZEN, ZELs can also activate estrogen receptors; moreover, α-ZEL is the most potent endocrine disruptor among these three compounds. Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein in the circulation; it affects the tissue distribution and elimination of several drugs and xenobiotics...
July 16, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Ronak Patel, Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Nadezhda German, Abraham Jacob Al-Ahmad
Cerebral fungal infections represent an important public health concern, where a key element of pathophysiology is the ability of the fungi to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Yet the mechanism used by micro-organisms to cross such a barrier and invade the brain parenchyma remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of gliotoxin (GTX), a mycotoxin secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus, on the BBB using brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
July 13, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Genevieve S Bondy, Laurie Coady, Nikia Ross, Don Caldwell, Anne Marie Gannon, Keri Kwong, Stephen Hayward, David E Lefebvre, Virginia Liston, Jayadev Raju, Peter Pantazopoulos, Ivan Curran
The presence of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal grains is due to the growth of toxigenic Penicillium mold on stored crops. Human exposure to OTA is higher in infants, toddlers, and children than in adolescents and adults, based on exposure assessments of ng OTA consumed/kg body weight/day. Ochratoxin A is nephrotoxic and teratogenic in animals, but its effects on juveniles exposed during the reproduction and development period have not been studied. To address this, Fischer rats were exposed to 0, 0...
July 4, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Jakub Toman, Vladimir Ostry, Yann Grosse, Tomas Roubal, Frantisek Malir
The aim of this study was to conduct a survey assessing (a) the ochratoxin A (OTA) content in different samples of Astragalus propinquus root (AR), one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, and (b) the rate of OTA transfer to AR decoctions that are traditionally used to reduce general weakness and increase overall vitality. A validated method of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was used to determine OTA concentrations in AR samples and AR decoctions...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Vladimir Popović, Nicholas Fairbanks, Jacob Pierscianowski, Michael Biancaniello, Ting Zhou, Tatiana Koutchma
Fungal disease of grain crops is a concern for the agricultural industry, resulting in economic losses. Aside from severe yield losses, mycotoxigenic fungi such as Penicillium and Fusarium can produce harmful mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and ochratoxin A (OTA). This proof-of-concept study explored the feasibility and effects of ultraviolet (UV) C light at 253.7 nm to reduce fungal and mycotoxin loads on model surfaces as well as on maize and wheat kernels using benchtop 2D and 3D illumination strategies...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Anitha Seetha, Emmanuel S Monyo, Takuji W Tsusaka, Harry W Msere, Frank Madinda, Tiyamika Chilunjika, Ethel Sichone, Dickson Mbughi, Benson Chilima, Limbikani Matumba
Aflatoxin-lysine (AFB1 -lys) adduct levels in blood samples collected from 230 individuals living in three districts of Malawi (Kasungu, Mchinji, and Nkhotakota) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) levels in groundnut and maize samples collected from their respective homesteads were determined using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) methods. AFB1 -lys adducts were detected in 67% of blood samples, with a mean concentration of 20.5 ± 23.4 pg/mg of albumin. AFB1 was detected in 91% of groundnut samples and in 70% of maize samples, with mean AFB1 levels of 52...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Arieta Camaj, Karsten Meyer, Bajram Berisha, Tahir Arbneshi, Arben Haziri
During February and August 2016 (winter and summer season), 192 samples of raw bulk tank milk have been collected from small dairy farms in five different regions of Kosova (Prishtina, Prizren, Peja, Mitrovica, and Gjilan). These samples were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) contamination level by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The limit of quantification for AFM1 was 0.02 μg/L and recovery at 0...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Sui Sheng T Hua, Jeffrey D Palumbo, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Teresa L O'Keeffe
Aflatoxin B1 is a potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen that poses a serious safety hazard to both humans and animals. Aspergillus flavus is the most common aflatoxin-producing species on corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts. Application of atoxigenic strains to compete against aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus has emerged as one of the most practical strategies for ameliorating aflatoxin contamination in food. Genes directly involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered on an 82-kb region of the genome. Three atoxigenic strains (CA12, M34, and AF123) were each paired with each of four aflatoxigenic strains (CA28, CA42, CA90, and M52), inoculated into soil and incubated at 28 °C for 2 weeks and 1 month...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Annika Jagels, Yannick Hövelmann, Alexa Zielinski, Melanie Esselen, Jens Köhler, Florian Hübner, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
In the course of gaining new insights into the secondary metabolite profile of various Stachybotrys strains, in particular concerning triprenyl phenol-like compounds, so far, unknown metabolites with analogous structural features were discovered. Three novel meroterpenoids containing a chromene ring moiety, namely stachybotrychromenes A-C, were isolated from solid culture of the filamentous fungus Stachybotrys chartarum DSMZ 12880 (chemotype S). Their structures were elucidated by means of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, ESI-HRMS, and CD) as well as by comparison with spectroscopic data of structural analogues described in literature...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Karim C Piacentini, L O Rocha, G D Savi, L Carnielli-Queiroz, F G Almeida, E Minella, B Corrêa
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop for food and represents one of the main ingredients in beer production. Considering the importance of barley and its derived products, the knowledge about the mycotoxin contamination in the barley production is essential in order to assess its safety. In this study, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in brewing barley were determined using a LC-MS/MS method. A survey was conducted in 2015 to estimate the mycotoxin levels in these products (n = 76) from four crop regions in Brazil...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Henning Sören Schmidt, Mareike Schulz, Christine Focke, Stefanie Becker, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Plant-derived phase II metabolites of T-2 toxin (T2) and HT-2 toxin (HT2) were first described in 2011 and further characterized in the following years. Since then, some efforts have been made to understand their biosynthesis, occurrence, toxicity, toxicokinetics, and finally relevance for consumers. Thus, the probably most important question is whether and how these metabolites contribute to toxicity upon hydrolysis either during food processing or the gastrointestinal passage. To answer this question, firstly, knowledge on the correct stereochemistry of T2 and HT2 glucosides is important as this affects hydrolysis and chemical behavior...
August 2018: Mycotoxin Research
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