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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000606/development-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-vaccines-for-tilapia
#1
REVIEW
Guangjin Liu, Jielian Zhu, Kangming Chen, Tingting Gao, Huochun Yao, Yongjie Liu, Wei Zhang, Chengping Lu
Vaccination is a widely accepted and effective method to prevent most pathogenic diseases in aquaculture. Various species of tilapia, especially Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, are farmed worldwide because of their high consumer demand. Recently, the tilapia-breeding industry has been hampered by outbreaks of Streptococcus agalactiae infection, which cause high mortality and huge economic losses. Many researchers have attempted to develop effective S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia. This review provides a summary of the different kinds of S...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000605/possible-links-between-white-plague-like-disease-scleractinian-corals-and-a-cryptochirid-gall-crab
#2
Zoe A Pratte, Laurie L Richardson
White plague (WP) is a highly destructive coral disease that rapidly kills susceptible coral species by mass tissue lysis. The pathogen and underlying causes of this disease are not known. In this laboratory-based study, we examined a small coral-associated gall crab from the family Cryptochiridae in terms of a possible association with WP-like lesions. A series of experiments was conducted after observations that 2 scleractinian coral species, Diploria labyrinthiformis and Pseudodiploria strigosa, developed signs of WP-like disease within a laboratory holding aquarium and that small gall crabs were physically present in the center of each lesion...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000604/parasites-pathological-conditions-and-resistance-to-marteilia-cochillia-in-lagoon-cockle-cerastoderma-glaucum-from-galicia-nw-spain
#3
María J Carballal, David Iglesias, Susana Darriba, Asunción Cao, J Carlos Mariño, Andrea Ramilo, Edgar No, Antonio Villalba
A histopathological survey revealed parasites and pathological conditions affecting lagoon cockles Cerastoderma glaucum along the Galician coast; serious pathological threats were not detected because the potentially pathogenic conditions (infections with a Marteilia-like parasite and bucephalid sporocysts, disseminated neoplasia and a condition involving large foci of heavy haemocytic reaction) were rare, while more prevalent parasites had negligible or limited pathogeny. Considering that C. edule and C. glaucum are sympatric in some Galician rias, it is remarkable that C...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000603/development-of-quantitative-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-the-trematode-parasite-proctoeces-maculatus-in-the-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis
#4
Kelly N Markowitz, Jason D Williams, Maureen K Krause
The digenean trematode Proctoeces maculatus is an important parasite of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. The parasite reduces mussel quality and yield, negatively impacting mussel aquaculture efforts. Typically, the trematode is detected by visual observation. To provide a better diagnostic tool able to detect this parasite at any life stage and at low intensities, we designed a species-specific molecular assay to detect P. maculatus in M. edulis tissue. Primers targeting the 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from P...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000602/detection-of-infectious-spleen-and-kidney-necrosis-virus-isknv-and-turbot-reddish-body-iridovirus-trbiv-from-archival-ornamental-fish-samples
#5
J Go, T B Waltzek, K Subramaniam, S C Yun, J M Groff, I G Anderson, R Chong, I Shirley, J C L Schuh, J H Handlinger, A Tweedie, R J Whittington
Although infections caused by megalocytiviruses have been reported from a wide range of finfish species for several decades, molecular characterisation of the viruses involved has been undertaken only on more recent cases. Sequence analysis of the major capsid protein and adenosine triphosphatase genes is reported here from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material from 2 archival ornamental fish cases from 1986 and 1988 in conjunction with data for a range of genes from fresh frozen tissues from 5 cases obtained from 1991 through to 2010...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000601/isolation-of-tasmanian-rickettsia-like-organism-rlo-from-farmed-salmonids-identification-of-multiple-serotypes-and-confirmation-of-pathogenicity
#6
R N Morrison, N D Young, G Knowles, M C Cornish, J Carson
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. farmed in south-east Tasmania, Australia, are susceptible to infection by the Tasmanian Rickettsia-like organism (TRLO), a Gram-negative bacterium. Here, we report the first isolation of TRLO from south-east Tasmania in pure culture and show that the bacterium is culturable on both specialised enriched agar and in cell culture using the CHSE-214 cell line. In vitro cultured TRLO was used to reproducibly elicit disease in Atlantic salmon parr held in fresh water. In inoculated fish, TRLO was observed intracytoplasmically in peripheral blood leucocytes, suggesting that these cells are responsible for haematogenous dispersal of the bacterium within the host...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901507/disseminated-toxoplasmosis-toxoplasma-gondii-in-a-wild-florida-manatee-trichechus-manatus-latirostris-and-seroprevalence-in-two-wild-populations
#7
Lauren N Smith, Thomas B Waltzek, David S Rotstein, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Michael T Walsh, James F X Wellehan, Rick Gerhold, Alycia E Chapman, Martine de Wit
Marine mammals are important indicators for ecosystem health and serve as sentinel species for infectious agents including zoonoses. Histological examination of tissues from a stranded Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris revealed protozoal cysts in the cerebrum and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites in the liver and caudal mesenteric lymph node. Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region of formalin-fixed tissues...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901506/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-wild-european-bullhead-cottus-gobio
#8
F Quaglio, V Zappulli, L Poppi, P Capovilla, F Capparucci, F Marino
A pharyngeal tumor was found in a wild European bullhead. The tumor mass appeared underneath the operculum and was bilobed. The major neoplastic component showed diffuse epithelial squamous differentiation. Crossmonn's trichrome allowed identification of connective tissues whereas no neoplastic cells were stained. Periodic acid-Schiff was negative within the mass, and Giemsa did not show any further diagnostic significance. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse positive cytoplasmic staining of the neoplastic population with an anti-human pancytokeratin antibody...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901505/first-isolation-of-miamiensis-avidus-ciliophora-scuticociliatida-associated-with-skin-ulcers-from-reared-pharaoh-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis
#9
Zhen Tao, Lu Liu, Xiangrui Chen, Suming Zhou, Guoliang Wang
In the winter of 2015, a skin ulcer disease outbreak occurred in a pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis population cultured on a land-based fish farm in China. Affected cuttlefish (about 60% of the population) were characterized as having developed ulcers on the dorsal skin, fin fringe, or distal mantle tip. Masses of a ciliated protozoan were isolated from skin ulcers. The ciliate was identified as Miamiensis avidus based on the morphological features of living and protargol-impregnated specimens. This identification was also supported by high sequence similarity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (100%) and another ribosomal DNA region (including the 2 internal transcribed spacers and the 5...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901504/evaluation-of-medicinal-plants-and-colloidal-silver-efficiency-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-cultured-at-low-salinity
#10
María Soledad Morales-Covarrubias, Noemí García-Aguilar, María Del Bolan-Mejía, Ana Carmela Puello-Cruz
In shrimp aquaculture, reduction in the use of synthetic antibiotics is a priority due to the high incidence of resistant bacteria (Vibrio) in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. An increasing number of studies show bactericidal activity of natural treatments in aquaculture. The effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica) and oregano (Lippia berlandieri) aqueous extracts and colloidal silver against V. parahaemolyticus were evaluated in low salinity shrimp culture. Results show that aqueous extracts of oregano and neem each present a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901503/in-situ-hybridization-and-histopathological-observations-during-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-associated-mortalities-in-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas
#11
Rudolfo Bueno, Matthew Perrott, Magda Dunowska, Cara Brosnahan, Colin Johnston
In a previous longitudinal study conducted during a mortality investigation associated with ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) microvariant in New Zealand Pacific oysters in 2010-2011, temporality of OsHV-1 nucleic acid detection by real-time PCR assay and onset of Pacific oyster mortality was observed. The present study further elucidated the role of OsHV-1 using an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay on sections of Pacific oysters collected from the same longitudinal study. Hybridization of the labelled probe with the target region of the OsHV-1 genome in infected cells was detected colorimetrically using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT)...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901502/first-report-of-perkinsus-honshuensis-in-the-variegated-carpet-shell-clam-ruditapes-variegatus-in-korea
#12
Hyun-Sil Kang, Hyun-Sung Yang, Kimberly S Reece, Hyun-Ki Hong, Kyung-Il Park, Kwang-Sik Choi
The recent discovery of Perkinsus honshuensis, a new Perkinsus species infecting Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum (Sowerby, 1852), in Japan, suggested that, based on proximity, P. honshuensis could also be in Korean waters, where to date, P. olseni was believed to be the only Perkinsus species present. Perkinsus sp. infections consistently occurred among Ruditapes variegatus clams on a pebble beach on Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea. The typical 'signet ring' morphology of the parasite was observed in the connective tissue of the digestive gland, and infection intensity was comparatively low (3...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901501/identification-and-characterization-of-peptidases-secreted-by-quahog-parasite-unknown-qpx-the-protistan-parasite-of-hard-clams
#13
Ewelina Rubin, Glenn T Werneburg, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, David G Thanassi, Bassem Allam
Quahog parasite unknown (QPX) is a protistan parasite capable of causing deadly infections in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, one of the most valuable shellfish species in the USA. QPX is an extracellular parasite found mostly in the connective tissue of clam mantle and, in more severe cases of infection, other clam organs. Histopathologic examinations revealed that QPX cells within clam tissues are typically surrounded by hollow areas that have been hypothesized to be, at least in part, a result of extracellular digestion of clam proteins by the parasite...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901500/spatial-variation-in-the-parasitic-isopod-load-of-the-japanese-halfbeak-in-western-japan
#14
R Kawanishi, A Sogabe, R Nishimoto, H Hata
Cymothoid isopods (family Cymothoidae) are commonly found parasitizing diverse fishes, including commercial species. However, the effects of these parasites on host body condition are still poorly known. Here we investigated the spatial variation of the effects of parasite infection on host body condition, using the parasitic load of the cymothoid Mothocya parvostis on the Japanese halfbeak Hyporhamphus sajori at 4 sampling sites in western Japan. M. parvostis prevalence at each site (41.6-74.4%) was higher than that known for other fish host-cymothoid systems (usually less than 30%)...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901499/genetic-characterization-of-esocid-herpesvirus-1-eshv1
#15
Jared T Freitas, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Karen L Kelley, Susan Marcquenski, Joseph Groff, Thomas B Waltzek
Blue spot disease, believed to be caused by esocid herpesvirus 1 (EsHV1), has been observed in wild northern pike Esox lucius in a number of cold-water locations, including the northern USA, Canada, and Ireland. In the spring of 2014, a northern pike was caught in Wisconsin displaying the characteristic bluish-white circular plaques on the dorsum and fins. Microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the proliferative cutaneous lesions revealed a focally extensive abundance of panepidermal, megalocytic keratinocytes with karyomegaly...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786163/evaluation-of-anti-erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-igg-response-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-to-a-commercial-pig-vaccine
#16
Hendrik H Nollens, Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Todd R Robeck, Todd L Schmitt, Stacy DiRocco, Tanja Opriessnig
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is the causative agent of erysipeloid in humans and of erysipelas in various animals, including bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus, in which an infection has the potential to cause peracute septicemia and death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using an off-label porcine (ER BAC PLUS®, Zoetis) E. rhusiopathiae bactrin in a bottlenose dolphin vaccination program by determining the anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibody levels in vaccinated dolphins over a 10 yr period...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786162/lesions-associated-with-drowning-in-bycaught-penguins
#17
Ralph Eric Vanstreels, Renata Hurtado, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Carolina Pacheco Bertozzi, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Fisheries bycatch, the incidental mortality that occurs as a result of entanglement in fishing gear, is an important conservation threat to penguins and other seabirds. Identification of entanglement and drowning in beach-cast carcasses of seabirds remains a challenge, as it is still unclear what lesions are to be expected in a bycaught seabird. We necropsied 2 Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus that were entangled and drowned in gillnets. Marked distension of the lungs with foamy red fluid and marked oedema of the dorsal visceral pleura were prominent lesions consistent with those described in cases of 'wet drowning' in humans...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786161/characterization-of-fibropapillomatosis-in-green-turtles-chelonia-mydas-cheloniidae-captured-in-a-foraging-area-in-southeastern-brazil
#18
Alícia Bertoloto Tagliolatto, Suzana Machado Guimarães, Gisele Lobo-Hajdu, Cassiano Monteiro-Neto
Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a multifactorial disease that affects all species of marine turtles, including green turtles Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758). It is characterised by the development of internal or external tumours that, depending on their locations and sizes, may intensely impact the health condition of sea turtles. The goal of this study was to characterise the disease in C. mydas found in a foraging area in southeastern Brazil, evaluate the prevalence in this region, and correlate presence and absence, size, body distribution, number of tumours, and disease severity with biometric variables of the captured green turtles...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786160/jumping-into-a-trap-high-prevalence-of-chytrid-fungus-in-the-preferred-microhabitats-of-a-bromeliad-specialist-frog
#19
Gustavo Ruano-Fajardo, Luís Felipe Toledo, Tamí Mott
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been identified as a major threat to several amphibian populations in tropical forests. Amphibians that inhabit the phytotelmata (water tanks) of bromeliads may be especially at risk of Bd infection since the humid, environmentally buffered microhabitat that they prefer might also be favorable for Bd persistence on the host. To test this hypothesis, we sampled adults and tadpoles of the bromeligenous anuran Phyllodytes edelmoi (endemic to the northern Brazilian Atlantic Forest) from the bromeliad Portea leptantha for Bd, using qPCR...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786159/unilateral-perivertebral-fibrosis-associated-with-lordosis-kyphosis-and-scoliosis-lks-in-farmed-chinook-salmon-in-new-zealand
#20
John S Munday, Matthew R Perrott, Jane E Symonds, Seumas P Walker, Bailey Lovett, Mark A Preece, Peter S Davie
Vertebral column lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis (LKS) can result in downgrading of farmed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in New Zealand. No cause of LKS has been identified. Radiography and histology were used to quantify LKS and perivertebral fibrosis in 27 fish with LKS visible at harvest and 30 visually normal fish from 3 New Zealand farms. Radiographic LKS was present in all 27 fish with LKS and in 18 of 30 fish without visible LKS. Quantification of the radiographic severity revealed significantly higher radiographic severity scores in fish with visible LKS (mean ± SD = 5...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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