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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Pierre Charruau, Jonathan Pérez-Flores, J Rogelio Cedeño-Vázquez, David Gonzalez-Solis, Giovany A González-Desales, Octavio Monroy-Vilchis, Marco A Desales-Lara
Ticks are common ectoparasites of amphibians and reptiles but very few reports of such parasites on crocodylians exist worldwide. Herein, we report the first detailed observations of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 on the 3 crocodylian species present in Mexico, with the first report of tick parasitism on Crocodylus acutus and the second on Caiman crocodilus chiapasius. This is also the first report of A. dissimile in the state of Quintana Roo. Proportions of infested individuals found in this study ranged from 0...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
E Lewisch, S Menanteau-Ledouble, A Tichy, M El-Matbouli
Francisellosis, an emerging disease in many fish species, can cause high mortality in affected populations. Here we investigated the susceptibility of common carp Cyprinus carpio and sunfish Lepomis gibbosus to Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno), and possible transmission of the bacteria between the 2 fish species. In a challenge experiment, 3 groups of each species were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with 3 different doses of an Fno strain no. 9449 of the Norwegian Veterinary Institute, recovered from naturally infected ornamental Malawi cichlids...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Kathrine R Bakkemo, Helene Mikkelsen, Audny Johansen, Børre Robertsen, Marit Seppola
Systemic infection caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis remains a disease threat to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. Future prophylactics could benefit from better knowledge on how the bacterium invades, survives and establishes infection in its host cells. Here, facilitated by the use of a gentamicin protection assay, this was studied in primary monocyte/macrophage cultures and an epithelial-like cell line derived from Atlantic cod larvae (ACL cells). The results showed that F...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Michal Ucko, Angelo Colorni, Lidiya Dubytska, Ronald L Thune
An Edwardsiella sp. was isolated from the kidney of diseased groupers (Epinephelus aeneus and E. marginatus) cultured in Eilat (Israel, Red Sea). Affected fish presented a severe suppurative nephritis with large abscesses occasionally spreading into the surrounding musculature. Biochemical profiles and phenotypic comparisons failed to provide a clear identification to the species level, and genetic analysis of the 16S subunit failed to discriminate between Edwardsiella piscicida, E. tarda and E. ictaluri. Analysis of the gyrB gene, however, placed the grouper isolates into the E...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
P M Hine, St J Wakefield, G Mackereth, R Morrison
The morphogenesis of large icosahedral viruses associated with lymphocystis-like lesions in the skin of parore Girella tricuspidata is described. The electron-lucent perinuclear viromatrix comprised putative DNA with open capsids at the periphery, very large arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), much of it with a reticulated appearance (rsER) or occurring as rows of vesicles. Lysosomes, degenerating mitochondria and virions in various stages of assembly, and paracrystalline arrays were also present...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Sónia Rocha, Luís Filipe Rangel, Ricardo Castro, Ricardo Severino, Carlos Azevedo, Maria João Santos, Graça Casal
The myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa diplodae Lubat et al. 1989 sensu Sitjà-Bobadilla & Álvarez-Pellitero, 1993, originally described from the annular seabream Diplodus annularis in the Adriatic Sea, has subsequently been reported from several other sparid hosts, and also a moronid fish, the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax from the Mediterranean Sea. Here, molecular identity and additional morphological data are given for this parasite infecting the gall bladder of D. labrax in a southern Portuguese fish farm...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Cecilia Guerra, Ezequiel Aráoz
Agricultural landscapes support large amphibian populations because they provide habitat for many species, although agriculture affects amphibians through various mechanisms. Pollution with agrochemicals is the major threat to amphibian populations after habitat loss, as chemicals alter the ecophysiology of amphibians, putting their health and survival at risk. We aimed to assess the effect of different environments, sites, width of forest buffers and sampling years on the health of amphibians, which was estimated through the prevalence of malformations and body condition...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
James T Julian, Victoria A Gould, Gavin W Glenney, Robert P Brooks
Few studies have documented seasonal variation of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection rates in larval amphibians. We identified 4 natural populations of northern green frogs Lithobates clamitans melanota in Pennsylvania (USA) that contained Bd-infected tadpoles during post-wintering collections in May and June, after hibernating tadpoles had overwintered in wetlands. However, we failed to detect infected tadpoles at those wetlands when pre-wintering collections were made in late July through early September...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Michelle M Barbieri, Lizabeth Kashinsky, David S Rotstein, Kathleen M Colegrove, Katherine H Haman, Spencer L Magargal, Amy R Sweeny, Angela C Kaufman, Michael E Grigg, Charles L Littnan
Protozoal infections have been widely documented in marine mammals and may cause morbidity and mortality at levels that result in population level effects. The presence and potential impact on the recovery of endangered Hawaiian monk seals Neomonachus schauinslandi by protozoal pathogens was first identified in the carcass of a stranded adult male with disseminated toxoplasmosis and a captive monk seal with hepatitis. We report 7 additional cases and 2 suspect cases of protozoal-related mortality in Hawaiian monk seals between 2001 and 2015, including the first record of vertical transmission in this species...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Afreen Hussain, Kalyan De, Liju Thomas, Rahul Nagesh, Sambhaji Mote, Baban Ingole
Skeletal tissue growth anomalies (STAs) of corals are capable of causing considerable degradation of reef health. This study is the first report of growth anomalies in Turbinaria corals and the first descriptive study of Indian corals. T. mesenterina colonies at 2 sites were affected by small, round to irregularly shaped growth anomalies. Prevalence of STAs was observed to be higher in T. mesenterina colonies with larger diameters. Prevalence of STAs on T. mesenterina was 71% at Site 1 and 40% at Site 2. Affected colonies were seen to be undergoing tissue damage and infiltration by filamentous algae...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Wi-Sik Kim, Kyoung-Hui Kong, Jong-Oh Kim, Myung-Joo Oh
About 70% mortality occurred in cultured coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch at a marine farm in the South Sea of Korea in 2014. Diseased fish showed greyish or pale patches on the gills, with no internal signs of disease. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from diseased fish, but numerous amoebae were found on the gills. Histopathological examinations revealed extensive hyperplastic epithelium and lamellar fusion in the gills. Numerous amoebae were seen between gill filaments. The amoebae had a 630 bp partial 18S rRNA gene fragment specific to Neoparamoeba perurans...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Carla D Fiorito, Adriana Bentancor, Daniel Lombardo, Marcelo Bertellotti
Southern right whales Eubalaena australis from Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, show wounds produced by kelp gulls Larus dominicanus that feed on the whales' dorsal skin and blubber. During the 2013 whale season, several calves were reported showing kelp gull injuries with a swollen area surrounded by rhomboid-shaped raised edges. Samples from 9 calves were taken in order to establish the etiology of these rhomboid-shaped wounds; 2 calves (one living, one dead) showed gull-inflicted injuries with rhomboid-shaped edges...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Yuriy Kvach, Markéta Ondračková, Michal Janáč, Pavel Jurajda
In this study, we assessed the impact of sampling method on the results of fish ectoparasite studies. Common roach Rutilus rutilus were sampled from the same gravel pit in the River Dyje flood plain (Czech Republic) using 3 different sampling methods, i.e. electrofishing, beach seining and gill-netting, and were examined for ectoparasites. Not only did fish caught by electrofishing have more of the most abundant parasites (Trichodina spp., Gyrodactylus spp.) than those caught by beach seining or gill-netting, they also had relatively rich parasite infracommunities, resulting in a significantly different assemblage composition, presumably as parasites were lost through handling and 'manipulation' in the net...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
G Costa, E Melo-Moreira, M A Pinheiro de Carvalho
Monthly samples of smelt Osmerus eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758) were collected from July 1985 to May 1986, in the river Elbe (Germany), and examined for infections with microsporidians. Two microsporidians were found: Glugea hertwigi Weissenberg, 1911, infecting the digestive tract and Pleistophora ladogenis Voronin, 1978, infecting the skeletal musculature. G. hertwigi infection led to the formation of xenomas, whereas P. ladogensis was characterized by diffuse infections, with the production of macroscopic visible thread-like or oval-shaped infection foci...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
R Barry Nehring, George J Schisler, Luciano Chiaramonte, Annie Horton, Barbara Poole
In the 1990s, the Tubifex tubifex aquatic oligochaete species complex was parsed into 6 separate lineages differing in susceptibility to Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxozoan parasite that can cause whirling disease (WD). Lineage III T. tubifex oligochaetes are highly susceptible to M. cerebralis infection. Lineage I, IV, V and VI oligochaetes are highly resistant or refractory to infection and may function as biological filters by deactivating M. cerebralis myxospores. We designed a 2-phased laboratory experiment using triactinomyxon (TAM) production as the response variable to test that hypothesis...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Waleed F Khalil, Hazem M Shaheen, Rania H Abdou
Ceftiofur is a broad-spectrum third generation cephalosporin, which acts by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. It is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila and β-lactamase-producing strains, which are common pathogens in freshwater fish. Ceftiofur pharmacokinetics in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied following single intracardiac (i.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of ceftiofur sodium (NAXCEL®) in a dose of 5 mg ceftiofur kg-1 body weight...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Daniel G Hernandez, Maureen K Purcell, Carolyn S Friedman, Gael Kurath
This study examined the susceptibility of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to viral strains from the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) present in western North America. The goal of this investigation was to establish a baseline understanding of the susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to infection and mortality caused by exposure to commonly detected strains of L, U, and M IHNV. The L IHNV strain tested here was highly infectious and virulent in both Chinook salmon populations, following patterns previously reported for Chinook salmon...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Cara N Love, Megan E Winzeler, Rochelle Beasley, David E Scott, Schyler O Nunziata, Stacey L Lance
Amphibian diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviral disease caused by ranaviruses, are often linked to global amphibian population declines, yet the ecological dynamics of both pathogens are poorly understood. The goal of our study was to determine the baseline prevalence, pathogen loads, and co-infection rate of Bd and ranavirus across the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, a region with rich amphibian diversity and a history of amphibian-based research...
August 31, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Agnes Flamm, Marc Fabian, Martin Runge, Kerstin Böttcher, Grit Bräuer, Gert Füllner, Dieter Steinhagen
Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens...
August 9, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Franti Ek Moravec, Candice Jansen van Rensburg, Liesl L Van As
Third-stage larvae of the nematode genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 (Contracaecum sp.) were, for the first time, recorded from the abdominal cavity of the threatened endemic freshwater fish Sandelia capensis (Cuvier) in South Africa. The larval morphology indicated that they belong to a species of which the adults are parasitic in fish-eating birds. Although the nematode seems to be a common parasite of S. capensis in the locality under study (prevalence 23%), the low intensity of infection recorded (1 to 4) and the generally known low pathogenicity of Contracaecum larvae in fish indicate that this parasite probably does not represent a danger to the local population of this threatened fish species...
August 9, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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