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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Jo Cable
Millions of fish are transported between countries annually for the aquarium trade, yet no quantitative study has examined how disease frequency differs among species and stakeholders. Here we visually inspected freshwater fish species in 12 specialised and non-specialised aquarium retailers in Spain for the presence of diseased fish in 2015 and in 2016. This information was complemented with disease records from 3 internet fora (>100000 users) and pathogen identification at a retailer. Overall, 22 fish species out of the 312 recorded were reported diseased, with species of Poeciliidae accounting for most records...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Alejandro M Labella, Rocío Leiva-Rebollo, Alí Alejo, Dolores Castro, Juan J Borrego
Lymphocystis disease, caused by the iridovirus lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), is characterized by the appearance of tumour-like lesions on the skin of affected animals associated with several environmental factors and/or with stress due to the intensive culture conditions of fish farms. In a previous study, the genomes of a new LCDV species, LCDV-Sa, were detected, together with 2 previously unknown viruses, Sparus aurata papillomavirus 1 (SaPV1) and Sparus aurata polyomavirus 1 (SaPyV1). Gilthead seabream from 17 fish farms in Spain, Italy and Turkey were sampled between 2009 and 2015 to investigate the role of the newly described SaPV1 and SaPyV1 viruses in lymphocystis disease development...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Leszek Rolbiecki, Joanna N Izdebska, Iwona Pawliczka
On 28 August 2015, a dead fin whale Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758) was collected from the waters of the Gulf of Gdan΄%%KERN_ERR%%sk (Baltic Sea). The individual was a male in a poor nutritional condition with an empty stomach. Over 34000 Ogmogaster antarcticus flukes were found in the colon and rectum. This is the first observation of O. antarcticus in the Baltic Sea.
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
R Salighehzadeh, H Sharifiyazdi, M Akhlaghi, M Khalafian, A Gholamhosseini, S Soltanian
Co-infections occur when a host is infected by 2 or more different pathogen types, either by secondary or simultaneous infections, and are very frequent in nature. In this study, 10 narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus with signs of disease were collected from Haft Baram Lake (Fars province, southern Iran). Samples of fluid from inside the intact abscess and melanized lesions in the cuticle were cultured aseptically onto brain heart infusion agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar for bacterial and fungal agents, respectively...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Lucilla Giulietti, Simonetta Mattiucci, Michela Paoletti, Didrik H Grevskott, Miguel Bao, Paolo Cipriani, Arne Levsen
Myxozoans of the genus Kudoa (Myxosporea, Multivalvulida) infect marine and estuarine fish species worldwide. Some Kudoa species are of concern to the seafood industry since they may generate macroscopic cysts in the fish host's musculature, or cause post mortem myoliquefaction, commonly known as 'soft flesh'. One of the economically most important species is K. thyrsites, a myoliquefactive myxosporean parasite that occurs in many wild and cultured marine fish species worldwide. Here we identified a K. thyrsites isolate as the causative agent of myoliquefaction in silver scabbardfish Lepidopus caudatus from the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea)...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Allen M Foley, Brian A Stacy, Paul Schueller, Leanne J Flewelling, Barbara Schroeder, Karrie Minch, Deborah A Fauquier, Jerris J Foote, Charles A Manire, Karen E Atwood, April A Granholm, Jan H Landsberg
Data on Karenia brevis red tides (≥105 cells l-1) and on dead or debilitated (i.e. stranded) Kemp's ridleys Lepidochelys kempii, loggerheads Caretta caretta, green turtles Chelonia mydas, hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata, and leatherbacks Dermochelys coriacea documented in Florida during 1986-2013 were evaluated to assess red tides as a sea turtle mortality factor. Unusually large numbers of stranded sea turtles were found coincident with red tides primarily along Florida's Gulf coast but also along a portion of Florida's Atlantic coast...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Rocío Y Mejía-Radillo, Alan A Zavala-Norzagaray, J Alicia Chávez-Medina, A Alonso Aguirre, César M Escobedo-Bonilla
The presence of fibropapilloma and its associated chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) was assessed in 82 wild sea turtles. Olive ridley turtles Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 58) were caught in the pelagic Area of Marine Influence (AMI) (off the coast of Guasave, Sinaloa), and black turtles Chelonia mydas agassizii (n = 24) were captured in the Navachiste Lagoon System. The apparent physical condition was evaluated as 'good' or 'poor' by physical examination. The population structure and general health status was determined by condition index, hematocrit and total plasma protein...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Molly Martony, Jorge A Hernandez, Martine de Wit, Judy St Leger, Claire Erlacher-Reid, Jacob Vandenberg, Nicole I Stacy
Cold-stress syndrome (CSS) is a leading natural cause of mortality in free-ranging Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris, but comprehensive investigations into blood analyte derangements and prognostic indicators in CSS are lacking. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare admission blood analyte data of manatees pre and post rehabilitation for CSS to identify clinicopathological derangements, (2) identify blood analyte prognostic indicators for survival, and (3) correlate post-mortem anatomic pathological changes with clinicopathological findings to improve the understanding of CS pathophysiology...
January 10, 2019: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Antonino Pace, Leonardo Meomartino, Andrea Affuso, Giuseppina Mennonna, Sandra Hochscheid, Ludovico Dipineto
Bacterial bone infections have been occasionally reported in wild sea turtles. This study reports on a sub-adult Caretta caretta affected by Aeromonas hydrophila osteomyelitis, with extensive involvement of cranial and caudal flippers. The turtle was severely debilitated, had limited flipper mobility and showed signs of pain in reaction to manipulation. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed multiple lytic bone lesions. Since an infectious polyostotic osteomyelitis was suspected, the turtle was subjected to echo-assisted fine needle aspiration to characterize the etiology of the disease...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Yasunari Kiryu, Jan H Landsberg, Micah D Bakenhaster, Amanda J Tyler-Jedlund, Patrick W Wilson
Redfin needlefish Strongylura notata from Florida coastal waters were observed with unusual neoplastic lesions. Affected specimens were collected from 1 Atlantic estuary (Indian River Lagoon, prevalence = 0.32%, n = 5314) and 2 Gulf of Mexico estuaries (Tampa Bay, prevalence = 0.02%, n = 10762; Charlotte Harbor, prevalence = 0.02%, n = 5112) during routine fisheries-independent monitoring surveys conducted from 1999-2009. Grossly, each lesion manifested as a large (18-30 mm × 20-50 mm), raised (approximately 10 mm), white, creamy, or pinkish nodule on the flank, dorsal trunk, base of the pectoral fin, or head...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hoang A Hoang, Mai H Yen, Vo T Ngoan, Le P Nga, Dang T H Oanh
Striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmed in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, represents an important contribution to Vietnamese aquaculture exports. However, these fish are affected by frequent disease outbreaks across the entire region. One of the most common infections involves white spots in the internal organs, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. In this study, a virulent phage specific to E. ictaluri, designated MK7, was isolated from striped catfish kidney and liver samples and characterized...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Michael W Hyatt, Thomas B Waltzek, Elizabeth A Kieran, Salvatore Frasca, Jan Lovy
Enteromyxum leei is an enteric myxozoan parasite of fish. This myxozoan has low host specificity and is the causative agent of myxozoan emaciation disease, known for heavy mortalities and significant financial losses within Mediterranean, Red Sea, and Asian aquaculture industries. The disease has rarely been documented within public aquaria and, to our knowledge, has never been confirmed within the USA. This case report describes an outbreak of E. leei in a population of mixed-species east African/Indo-Pacific marine fish undergoing quarantine at a public aquarium within the USA...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Joseph R Mihaljevic, Jason T Hoverman, Pieter T J Johnson
Multiple pathogens commonly co-occur in animal populations, yet few studies demonstrate how co-exposure of individual hosts scales up to affect transmission. Although viruses in the genus Ranavirus are globally widespread, and multiple virus species or strains likely co-occur in nature, no studies have examined how co-exposure affects infection dynamics in larval amphibians. We exposed individual northern red-legged frog Rana aurora larvae to 2 species of ranavirus, namely Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), frog virus 3 (FV3), or an FV3-like strain isolated from a frog-culturing facility in Georgia, USA (RCV-Z2)...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Z G Liu, A F Zheng, M M Chen, Y X Lian, X K Zhang, S Z Zhang, D Yu, J K Li
Diseases caused by Aeromonas veronii in freshwater fish have been widely reported, but other species such as aquatic mammals have probably been overlooked. Here, we identified one isolate of A. veronii from a Yangtze finless porpoise Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis exhibiting disease and mortality, and subsequently confirmed its virulence in artificial infection of BALB/c mice. The bacterial isolate was identified as A. veronii based on physiological, biochemical, and phenotypic features, and homology of the 16S rRNA, cpn60, rpoB, dnaJ and gyrB genes...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Angélica M Sánchez-Sarmiento, Vitor L Carvalho, Ana C O Meirelles, Waleska Gravena, Juliana Marigo, Carlos Sacristán, Samira Costa-Silva, Katia R Groch, Nairléia Dos Silva, José Soares Ferreira Neto, José L Catão-Dias
Aquatic mammals can act as sentinels of emerging and resurging pathogens in the environment. Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. are 2 zoonotic pathogens relevant to aquatic mammals, and their detection can be used to assess pathogen exposure. In this study, serum from 84 individuals-63 cetaceans (families Iniidae, n = 37; Delphinidae, n = 22; and Kogiidae, n = 4) and 21 West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus-was tested by the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) for detecting Brucella spp...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Toshiki Kubomura, Hideyuki Yamashiro, James Davis Reimer
In the summer of 2016, extensive coral bleaching occurred on the coral reefs of Okinawa, Japan, which was often lethal in shallow waters. In November 2016, after the coral bleaching event, an anomalous black band disease (ABBD) was noticed during regular monitoring of the Pachyseris-dominated upper mesophotic Ryugu Reef in Okinawa. We subsequently conducted 10 × 1 m belt transects in deeper (30-35 m depth, n = 5) and shallower areas (27-29 m, n = 7) of the reef and obtained data on coral percentage coverage, Pachyseris percentage coverage, occurrence (numbers of lesions) of ABBD, and ABBD percentage coverage on Pachyseris...
November 20, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Michael Moore, Ann Pembroke, Eric Nestler, Maurice Hall, Lisa Lefkovitz, Mark Lambert, Kenneth Keay
Chemical carcinogen biomarkers can validate public investment in environmental remediation. A major factor driving the clean-up of Boston Harbor, MA, USA, induced by the federal Clean Water Act legislation of 1972, was the high prevalence of petroleum and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminant-associated liver neoplasia in winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus in the harbor in the 1980s. In the present study, we examined the spatial and temporal relationships between the suspended solids and contaminants in the municipal sewage discharge, and liver neoplasia and histopathology in flounder, from 1987 to 2017...
November 20, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Andrew O Rubio, Sarah J Kupferberg, Victor Vargas García, Alex Ttito, Alexander Shepack, Alessandro Catenazzi
Amphibian diversity has declined due to the infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Coexistence between amphibian hosts and this pathogen in some locations is attributed to the presence of the cutaneous bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum (Jliv). This microbe inhibits the growth of Bd on the host, reduces morbidity, and improves survival. Andean water frogs in the genus Telmatobius seem to be particularly vulnerable to the disease yet populations of T...
November 20, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Matheus V Bianchi, Luiza P Ehlers, Thainã P Vargas, Bruna C Lopes, Paula A Taunde, Bianca S de Cecco, Luan C Henker, Andréia Vielmo, Marina P Lorenzett, Camila I Riboldi, Cassiane E Lopes, Derek B de Amorim, Josué Diaz-Delgado, Gustavo G M Snel, Franciele M Siqueira, Luciana Sonne
Southern right whales Eubalaena australis (SRW) use the southern coast of Brazil as a wintering and calving ground. Other than anthropogenic threats, there is limited knowledge on health and disease aspects for this species. We report the gross and microscopic findings and microbiological identification of streptococcal septicemia in a SRW calf. Main gross findings included fibrinosuppurative omphalitis and urachocystitis, suppurative cystitis, valvular endocarditis and myocarditis, embolic pneumonia, suppurative myositis and osteoarthritis, and lymphadenomegaly...
November 20, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Zoe A Pratte, Laurie L Richardson
Coral bleaching and disease are 2 common occurrences that are contributing to global coral cover decline. Understanding the interactions between the coral animal and its microbial associates, and how they may change in the presence of stressors such as warming and acidification, is a crucial component to understanding both susceptibility and resistance to disease and bleaching. The coral Diploria labyrinthiformis has been shown to be more disease resistant than its relative Pseudodiploria strigosa, providing an ideal study system for disease resistance...
November 20, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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