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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Lauren N Smith, Thomas B Waltzek, David S Rotstein, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Michael T Walsh, James F X Wellehan, Rick Gerhold, Alycia E Chapman, Martine de Wit
Marine mammals are important indicators for ecosystem health and serve as sentinel species for infectious agents including zoonoses. Histological examination of tissues from a stranded Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris revealed protozoal cysts in the cerebrum and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites in the liver and caudal mesenteric lymph node. Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region of formalin-fixed tissues...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
F Quaglio, V Zappulli, L Poppi, P Capovilla, F Capparucci, F Marino
A pharyngeal tumor was found in a wild European bullhead. The tumor mass appeared underneath the operculum and was bilobed. The major neoplastic component showed diffuse epithelial squamous differentiation. Crossmonn's trichrome allowed identification of connective tissues whereas no neoplastic cells were stained. Periodic acid-Schiff was negative within the mass, and Giemsa did not show any further diagnostic significance. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse positive cytoplasmic staining of the neoplastic population with an anti-human pancytokeratin antibody...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Zhen Tao, Lu Liu, Xiangrui Chen, Suming Zhou, Guoliang Wang
In the winter of 2015, a skin ulcer disease outbreak occurred in a pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis population cultured on a land-based fish farm in China. Affected cuttlefish (about 60% of the population) were characterized as having developed ulcers on the dorsal skin, fin fringe, or distal mantle tip. Masses of a ciliated protozoan were isolated from skin ulcers. The ciliate was identified as Miamiensis avidus based on the morphological features of living and protargol-impregnated specimens. This identification was also supported by high sequence similarity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (100%) and another ribosomal DNA region (including the 2 internal transcribed spacers and the 5...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
María Soledad Morales-Covarrubias, Noemí García-Aguilar, María Del Bolan-Mejía, Ana Carmela Puello-Cruz
In shrimp aquaculture, reduction in the use of synthetic antibiotics is a priority due to the high incidence of resistant bacteria (Vibrio) in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. An increasing number of studies show bactericidal activity of natural treatments in aquaculture. The effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica) and oregano (Lippia berlandieri) aqueous extracts and colloidal silver against V. parahaemolyticus were evaluated in low salinity shrimp culture. Results show that aqueous extracts of oregano and neem each present a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Rudolfo Bueno, Matthew Perrott, Magda Dunowska, Cara Brosnahan, Colin Johnston
In a previous longitudinal study conducted during a mortality investigation associated with ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) microvariant in New Zealand Pacific oysters in 2010-2011, temporality of OsHV-1 nucleic acid detection by real-time PCR assay and onset of Pacific oyster mortality was observed. The present study further elucidated the role of OsHV-1 using an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay on sections of Pacific oysters collected from the same longitudinal study. Hybridization of the labelled probe with the target region of the OsHV-1 genome in infected cells was detected colorimetrically using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT)...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hyun-Sil Kang, Hyun-Sung Yang, Kimberly S Reece, Hyun-Ki Hong, Kyung-Il Park, Kwang-Sik Choi
The recent discovery of Perkinsus honshuensis, a new Perkinsus species infecting Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum (Sowerby, 1852), in Japan, suggested that, based on proximity, P. honshuensis could also be in Korean waters, where to date, P. olseni was believed to be the only Perkinsus species present. Perkinsus sp. infections consistently occurred among Ruditapes variegatus clams on a pebble beach on Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea. The typical 'signet ring' morphology of the parasite was observed in the connective tissue of the digestive gland, and infection intensity was comparatively low (3...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Ewelina Rubin, Glenn T Werneburg, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, David G Thanassi, Bassem Allam
Quahog parasite unknown (QPX) is a protistan parasite capable of causing deadly infections in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, one of the most valuable shellfish species in the USA. QPX is an extracellular parasite found mostly in the connective tissue of clam mantle and, in more severe cases of infection, other clam organs. Histopathologic examinations revealed that QPX cells within clam tissues are typically surrounded by hollow areas that have been hypothesized to be, at least in part, a result of extracellular digestion of clam proteins by the parasite...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
R Kawanishi, A Sogabe, R Nishimoto, H Hata
Cymothoid isopods (family Cymothoidae) are commonly found parasitizing diverse fishes, including commercial species. However, the effects of these parasites on host body condition are still poorly known. Here we investigated the spatial variation of the effects of parasite infection on host body condition, using the parasitic load of the cymothoid Mothocya parvostis on the Japanese halfbeak Hyporhamphus sajori at 4 sampling sites in western Japan. M. parvostis prevalence at each site (41.6-74.4%) was higher than that known for other fish host-cymothoid systems (usually less than 30%)...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jared T Freitas, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Karen L Kelley, Susan Marcquenski, Joseph Groff, Thomas B Waltzek
Blue spot disease, believed to be caused by esocid herpesvirus 1 (EsHV1), has been observed in wild northern pike Esox lucius in a number of cold-water locations, including the northern USA, Canada, and Ireland. In the spring of 2014, a northern pike was caught in Wisconsin displaying the characteristic bluish-white circular plaques on the dorsum and fins. Microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the proliferative cutaneous lesions revealed a focally extensive abundance of panepidermal, megalocytic keratinocytes with karyomegaly...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hendrik H Nollens, Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Todd R Robeck, Todd L Schmitt, Stacy DiRocco, Tanja Opriessnig
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is the causative agent of erysipeloid in humans and of erysipelas in various animals, including bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus, in which an infection has the potential to cause peracute septicemia and death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using an off-label porcine (ER BAC PLUS®, Zoetis) E. rhusiopathiae bactrin in a bottlenose dolphin vaccination program by determining the anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibody levels in vaccinated dolphins over a 10 yr period...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Ralph Eric Vanstreels, Renata Hurtado, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Carolina Pacheco Bertozzi, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Fisheries bycatch, the incidental mortality that occurs as a result of entanglement in fishing gear, is an important conservation threat to penguins and other seabirds. Identification of entanglement and drowning in beach-cast carcasses of seabirds remains a challenge, as it is still unclear what lesions are to be expected in a bycaught seabird. We necropsied 2 Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus that were entangled and drowned in gillnets. Marked distension of the lungs with foamy red fluid and marked oedema of the dorsal visceral pleura were prominent lesions consistent with those described in cases of 'wet drowning' in humans...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Alícia Bertoloto Tagliolatto, Suzana Machado Guimarães, Gisele Lobo-Hajdu, Cassiano Monteiro-Neto
Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a multifactorial disease that affects all species of marine turtles, including green turtles Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758). It is characterised by the development of internal or external tumours that, depending on their locations and sizes, may intensely impact the health condition of sea turtles. The goal of this study was to characterise the disease in C. mydas found in a foraging area in southeastern Brazil, evaluate the prevalence in this region, and correlate presence and absence, size, body distribution, number of tumours, and disease severity with biometric variables of the captured green turtles...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Gustavo Ruano-Fajardo, Luís Felipe Toledo, Tamí Mott
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been identified as a major threat to several amphibian populations in tropical forests. Amphibians that inhabit the phytotelmata (water tanks) of bromeliads may be especially at risk of Bd infection since the humid, environmentally buffered microhabitat that they prefer might also be favorable for Bd persistence on the host. To test this hypothesis, we sampled adults and tadpoles of the bromeligenous anuran Phyllodytes edelmoi (endemic to the northern Brazilian Atlantic Forest) from the bromeliad Portea leptantha for Bd, using qPCR...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
John S Munday, Matthew R Perrott, Jane E Symonds, Seumas P Walker, Bailey Lovett, Mark A Preece, Peter S Davie
Vertebral column lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis (LKS) can result in downgrading of farmed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in New Zealand. No cause of LKS has been identified. Radiography and histology were used to quantify LKS and perivertebral fibrosis in 27 fish with LKS visible at harvest and 30 visually normal fish from 3 New Zealand farms. Radiographic LKS was present in all 27 fish with LKS and in 18 of 30 fish without visible LKS. Quantification of the radiographic severity revealed significantly higher radiographic severity scores in fish with visible LKS (mean ± SD = 5...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
James M Forwood, Erin J Bubner, Matt Landos, Marty R Deveney, Trent D'Antignana
Praziquantel (PZQ) is registered for oral use against Benedenia seriolae infecting Seriola spp. in Japan, but its bitter taste causes poor palatability. Incorporating PZQ in a moist pellet may help mask the flavor to improve intake. Altering delivery, however, may influence efficacy. We assessed the minimum effective concentrations of PZQ in moist pellets delivered by intubation for the monogeneans Zeuxapta seriolae and B. seriolae infecting yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi in flow-through tanks. The optimised dose was then evaluated in a sea-cage of S...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Xiao-Bo Yu, Xiao-Hui Chen, Li-Peng Shan, Kai Hao, Gao-Xue Wang
Moroxydine hydrochloride (Mor) and ribavirin (Rib) have been reported to exhibit multi-antiviral activities against DNA and RNA viruses, but their antiviral activities and pharmacologies have seldom been studied in aquaculture. This paper has selected 3 aquatic viruses including a double-stranded RNA virus (grass carp reovirus, GCRV), a single-stranded RNA virus (spring viraemia of carp virus, SVCV) and a DNA virus (giant salamander iridovirus, GSIV) for antiviral testing. The results showed that Mor and Rib can effectively control the infection of GCRV and GSIV in respective host cells...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
M M Dennis, B K Diggles, R Faulder, L Olyott, S B Pyecroft, G E Gilbert, M Landos
The objective of this study was to assess the extent and describe the nature of a multi-species marine finfish and crustacean disease event that occurred in Gladstone Harbour, Australia, 2011-2012. Finfish were examined for this study in January to April 2012 from sites where diseased animals were previously observed by the public. Gross abnormalities, including excessive skin and gill mucus, erythema, heavy ecto-parasitism, cutaneous ulceration, corneal opacity, and exophthalmos, were higher (25.5%) in finfish from Gladstone Harbour (n = 435) than in those from an undeveloped reference site, 250 km to the north (5...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Pierre Charruau, Jonathan Pérez-Flores, J Rogelio Cedeño-Vázquez, David Gonzalez-Solis, Giovany A González-Desales, Octavio Monroy-Vilchis, Marco A Desales-Lara
Ticks are common ectoparasites of amphibians and reptiles but very few reports of such parasites on crocodylians exist worldwide. Herein, we report the first detailed observations of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 on the 3 crocodylian species present in Mexico, with the first report of tick parasitism on Crocodylus acutus and the second on Caiman crocodilus chiapasius. This is also the first report of A. dissimile in the state of Quintana Roo. Proportions of infested individuals found in this study ranged from 0...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
E Lewisch, S Menanteau-Ledouble, A Tichy, M El-Matbouli
Francisellosis, an emerging disease in many fish species, can cause high mortality in affected populations. Here we investigated the susceptibility of common carp Cyprinus carpio and sunfish Lepomis gibbosus to Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno), and possible transmission of the bacteria between the 2 fish species. In a challenge experiment, 3 groups of each species were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with 3 different doses of an Fno strain no. 9449 of the Norwegian Veterinary Institute, recovered from naturally infected ornamental Malawi cichlids...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Kathrine R Bakkemo, Helene Mikkelsen, Audny Johansen, Børre Robertsen, Marit Seppola
Systemic infection caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis remains a disease threat to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. Future prophylactics could benefit from better knowledge on how the bacterium invades, survives and establishes infection in its host cells. Here, facilitated by the use of a gentamicin protection assay, this was studied in primary monocyte/macrophage cultures and an epithelial-like cell line derived from Atlantic cod larvae (ACL cells). The results showed that F...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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