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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Kimberly J Cook, Jamie Voyles, Heather V Kenny, Karen L Pope, Jonah Piovia-Scott
The ability to isolate and purify pathogens is important for the study of infectious disease. A protocol for isolating Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a lethal pathogen of amphibians, has been available for over a decade, but the method relies on sacrificing infected animals. We validated a non-lethal protocol for Bd isolation that uses biopsy punches from toe webbing to collect skin samples from live amphibians in remote field locations. We successfully isolated Bd from the Cascades frog Rana cascadae and found a positive association between Bd infection and probability of Bd growth in culture...
July 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jeff A Cowley, Min Rao, Greg J Coman
Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) can cause mass mortalities in western blue shrimp Penaeus stylirostris, runt deformity syndrome in Pacific white shrimp P. vannamei and scalloped abdominal shell deformities in black tiger shrimp P. monodon. In P. monodon, however, PCR-based diagnosis of IHHNV can be complicated by the presence of a chromosome-integrated, non-replicating endogenous viral element (EVE). To facilitate high-throughput screening of P. monodon for IHHNV infection and/or EVE sequences, here we report real-time PCR tests designed to specifically detect IHHNV Lineage I, II and III but not EVE Type A sequences and vice versa...
July 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Emily M Flowers, Andrew F Johnson, Robert Aguilar, Eric J Schott
Understanding the ecology of diseases is important to understanding variability in abundance, and therefore management, of marine animals exploited commercially. The blue crab Callinectes sapidus fills a crucial benthic-pelagic niche in Atlantic estuarine ecosystems and supports large commercial fisheries in both North and South America. In the USA, pre-molt blue crabs are typically held in short-term shedding (ecdysis) facilities to produce soft-shell crabs of increased value. However, mortality rates in these facilities are high and commonly associated with the pathogenic C...
July 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Roberto Daniel Garcia, Fabián Gastón Jara, Mónica Mirta Steciow, Mariana Reissig
Copepods are hosts to various oomycete parasite species, but the effects of pathogens on copepod populations have rarely been studied. This study aimed to characterize oomycete infection in the freshwater copepod Parabroteas sarsi in a temporary pond in Patagonia (Argentina). A complete hydroperiod was monitored, evaluating environmental variables as influencing factors in the oomycete infections. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of infected copepods to consumption by predators...
July 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Lincoln Lima Corrêa, Elen Monique Oliveira Sousa, Lenise Vargas Flores Silva, Edson Aparecido Adriano, Marcos Sidney Oliveira, Marcos Tavares-Dias
The present study describes, for the first time, histopathological alterations in the gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum caused by infestation of Probopyrus bithynis (Isopoda: Bopyridae). In every case (100%), the infestation by P. bithynis was by a single pair of parasites (male and female) and occurred in the right or left side of the branchial chamber; the gill structures were visibly compressed due to the presence of parasites. The gills of M. amazonicum parasitized by P. bithynis exhibited a chronic inflammatory response, with the presence of edema, greater quantities of hemocytes, necrosis, epithelial cell hyperplasia, rupture of the pillar cells at the ends of the gill lamellae, desquamation of the cuticle, lamellar fusion and rupture of the lamellar epithelium...
July 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
S A Soto-Rodriguez, R Lozano-Olvera, M T Garcia-Gasca, S M Abad-Rosales, B Gomez-Gil, J Ayala-Arellano
Aeromonas dhakensis (Ad) CAIM 1873 growth was evaluated at different conditions and antibiotic susceptibility. Mortality and histopathological damages in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus, and virulence factors caused by Ad bacterial cells and extracellular products (ECPs) were evaluated, and the whole genome was obtained. Ad grew between 0.0 and 5.5% NaCl at a pH of between 4 and 10 and from 4 to 37°C. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration was found for enrofloxacin (<5 µg ml-1), and bacteria were resistant to erythromycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin...
July 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Brian C Peterson, E Peatman, D D Ourth, G C Waldbieser
We investigated the effects of a phytogenic feed additive on disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and regulation of 6 rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) genes. Juvenile catfish (n = 250, 13.4 ± 0.1 g) were allotted to the following treatments: control (floating diet) or EO (floating diet supplemented with essential oils; Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE). The fish were fed their respective diets for 6 wk. Following subjection to different feed treatments, all fish were exposed to pathogenic E...
July 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Emily E Karwacki, Matthew S Atkinson, Robert J Ossiboff, Anna E Savage
Amphibians are suffering from large-scale population declines worldwide, and infectious diseases are a central driving force. Most pathogen-mediated declines are attributed to 2 pathogens, the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and iridoviruses in the genus Ranavirus. However, another emerging pathogen within Perkinsea is associated with mass mortality events in anurans throughout the southeastern USA. Molecular resources for detecting amphibian Perkinsea have been limited to general protistan primers that amplify a range of organisms, not all of which are disease agents...
July 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hongyue Li, Xiang Zhang, Hao Long, Chaoqun Hu, Yongcan Zhou, Shifeng Wang, Shaowen Ke, Zhenyu Xie
Porites andrewsi white syndrome (PAWS), caused by Vibrio alginolyticus strains XSBZ03 and XSBZ14, poses a serious threat to corals in the South China Sea. To obtain a specific target against which to develop a rapid PCR detection method for the coral pathogenic strain XSBZ03, the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (IGS) region of 4 strains of V. alginolyticus, including the XSBZ03 and XSBZ14 strains, was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Six types of IGS were found: IGS0, IGSG, IGSIA, IGSAG, IGSGLV, and IGSGLAV...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jian-Pei Li, Yao-Wu Fu, Qi-Zhong Zhang, De-Hai Xu, Yan-Meng Liu, Sheng-Yu Zhou, De-Jie Lin
Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are 2 important ectoparasites of fish. Both parasites can induce an immune response in fish that leads to a decrease in parasitic infection intensity and the development of resistance against parasitic reinfection. The present study evaluated whether grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella that survived a D. ctenopharyngodonid infection could develop immunity against infection by D. ctenopharyngodonid and I. multifiliis. The results demonstrated that when grass carp were infected with D...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki, Heba M Abdel-Haleem, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Carlos Azevedo, Lamjed Mansour
This study describes infection of intestinal smooth muscle in fringelip mullets Crenimugil crenilabis with Kudoa crenimugilis n. sp. Of 30 individuals sampled from the Red Sea off Saudi Arabia, 6 (20%) were infected. Ovoid plasmodia (279-412 × 157-295 µm) in the smooth muscle of the intestine were packed with only mature myxospores with 4 valves. Specifically, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed quadrate myxospores with 4 equal, rounded, spore valves uniting at thin delicate suture lines. The mature myxospores were 8 (7-9) µm long, 5...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Mohamed Bessat, Amr Fadel
Amyloodinium ocellatum, the causative agent of amyloodiniosis (marine velvet, velvet disease), affects marine and brackish fish in various warm and temperate habitats. We recorded disease outbreaks with high morbidity and mortality rates in marine-cultured European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax fry at 2 locations in northwest Egypt. The sudden outbreak, high morbidity and mortality rates, and skin lesions with a velvety appearance in affected fish all indicated A. ocellatum infection. This was further confirmed by microscopic findings of the parasitic stage (trophonts) in skin and gill smears...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
S A Martinson, S J Greenwood, D Wadowska, K Martin
Microsporidial spores were identified in the musculature of a loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta found dead on the shore in New Brunswick, Canada. Gastroenteritis was diagnosed on gross postmortem examination, with no gross abnormalities detected in the skeletal muscle. Histologically, the microsporidial spores were associated with inflammation and muscular necrosis and measured 1.1-1.7 × 2.2-3.4 µm. Spores were typically identified within sporophorous vesicles and, less often, in sporophorocysts and were weakly Gram positive, had punctate PAS staining, and were occasionally strongly acid-fast...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Lilijana Bizjak-Mali, Polona Zalar, Martina Turk, Monika Novak Babicč, Rok Kostanjšek, Nina Gunde-Cimerman
Proteus anguinus is a neotenic cave amphibian endemic to the Dinaric Karst and represents a symbol of Slovenian natural heritage. It is classified as 'Vulnerable' by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and is one of the EU priority species in need of strict protection. Due to inaccessibility of its natural underground habitat, scientific studies have been primarily conducted on Proteus in captivity where amphibians may be particularly susceptible to opportunistic microbial infections. In this case report, we present the results of an analysis of an individual that had been kept in captivity for 6 yr and then developed clinical symptoms, including ulcers, suggesting opportunistic microbial infection...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Isaac Standish, Eric Leis, Noel Schmitz, Jeena Credico, Sara Erickson, Jennifer Bailey, Jacob Kerby, Kenneth Phillips, Teresa Lewis
Amphibian populations worldwide are facing numerous threats, including the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. In the past 2 decades, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a parasitic fungus, and a group of viruses comprising the genus Ranavirus have become widespread and resulted in mass mortality events and extirpations worldwide. In 2013, another novel fungus, B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), was attributed to dramatic declines in populations of fire salamander Salamandra salamandra in the Netherlands...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Natalia Fraija-Fernández, Ana Hernández-Hortelano, Ana E Ahuir-Baraja, Juan Antonio Raga, Francisco Javier Aznar
Pennella balaenoptera is a mesoparasitic copepod that has been reported in at least 17 cetacean species. Subtle morphological differences in the first antennae of adult females have been used to discriminate this species from P. filosa, a species infecting fishes. Other morphological traits are unreliable because of their high plasticity, and no molecular data are available to confirm the taxonomic status of P. balaenoptera as an independent species. We found no consistent morphological differences of the first antennae between P...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Paul Y de la Bastide, Cayla Naumann, William E Hintz
Among the Saprolegnia species found in aquaculture facilities, S. parasitica is recognized as the primary fish pathogen and remains an ongoing concern in fish health management. Until recently, these pathogens were kept in check by use of malachite green; due to its toxicity, this chemical has now been banned from use in many countries. It is difficult to predict and control S. parasitica outbreaks in freshwater systems and there is a need to understand the population genetic structure of this pathogen. Genetic characterization of this species in aquaculture systems would provide information to track introductions and determine possible sources of inoculum...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
A Özer, S Okkay, C T Gürkanlı, Y Çiftçi, V Yurakhno
Members of the genus Kudoa are typically histozoic and only a few are coelozoic parasites, mainly in marine fishes. In the present study, 2 novel Kudoa species were recovered and described as Kudoa niluferi sp. nov. in the musculature of Neogobius melanostomus and Kudoa anatolica sp. nov. in the musculature, urinary bladder and kidney of Atherina hepsetus collected from the coast of Sinop on the Black Sea. Means ± SD (ranges) of mature spores of K. niluferi sp. nov. were 5.9 ± 0.1 (5.7-6.1) µm in length, 9...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Vanessa C Lowe, Paul K Hershberger, Carolyn S Friedman
Parasites of the genus Ichthyophonus infect many fish species and have a non-uniform distribution within host tissues. Due in part to this uneven distribution, the comparative sensitivity and accuracy of using molecular-based detection methods versus culture to estimate parasite prevalence is under debate. We evaluated the analytical and diagnostic performance of an existing qPCR assay in comparison to the 'gold standard' culture method using Pacific herring Clupea pallasii with known exposure history. We determined that the assay is suitable for use in this host, and diagnostic specificity was consistently high (>98%) in both heart and liver tissues...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Xiaoqian Tang, Yinghui Qin, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Hirame novirhabdovirus (HIRRV) causes severe disease in fish cultures, resulting in great economic loss in Asia and Europe. In this study, the matrix protein (M) of HIRRV was recombinantly expressed as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using hybridoma cell fusion technology, and 3 MAbs were produced and characterized by indirect ELISA, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Western blotting and mass spectrometric analysis showed that the MAbs could specifically react with the nature M protein of HIRRV...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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