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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Maria V Fernández, Monika I Hamann
A key factor in the colonization probabilities of parasites is the host's characteristic habitat. Considering that rice fields are simple habitats compared with natural wetlands, we comparatively analyzed the composition of the cercariae communities in Biomphalaria snails in an agricultural and a nonagricultural habitat of Corrientes Province, Argentina. We collected 2998 Biomphalaria snails from November 2011 to May 2012: B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, B. peregrina, and B. orbignyi in the nonagricultural habitat and B...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Argiñe Cerezo, Oscar Quesada-Canales, Eva Sierra, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Antonio Fernández, Jamie Henningson, Manuel Arbelo
We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of fungal hyphate infection in a juvenile female Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis found dead off Arguineguin, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). On necropsy examination, the animal had a large cranial intrathoracic mass and multiple variably-sized nodules throughout the larynx and trachea that obliterated the lumen. Microscopically, the masses were composed of abundant pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous fungal hyphae...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Heidi Wyrosdick, Alycia Chapman, Antonio A Mignucci-Giannoni, Carla I Rivera-Pérez, Robert K Bonde
The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is divided into 2 subspecies: the Antillean (T. m. manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. This study reports sample prevalence of manatee parasites from populations of these 2 subspecies in different geographical locations. Although necropsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for parasite infections, the need for antemortem diagnostic techniques is important. Fecal samples collected during necropsies of Antillean manatees (n = 3) in Puerto Rico and Florida manatees (n = 10) in Crystal River, Florida, as well as from live-captured Florida manatees (n = 11) were evaluated using centrifugal flotation with sucrose and ethyl acetate sedimentation to compare parasites from each of the populations...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Vladimir A Krapivin, Sergey V Bagrov, Marina A Varfolomeeva
In the White Sea, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis occupies a wide range of biotopes and is associated with numerous symbiotic organisms. At some sites, mussel cover spreads continuously from the intertidal to the subtidal zone. We checked whether the patterns of infection by different associated organisms differed among the upper subtidal, zero-depth and lower intertidal zones at 3 sites in the Kandalaksha Gulf and the Onega Bay of the White Sea. Organisms belonging to 13 taxa were found in mantle cavities and tissues of blue mussels...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Lidiya P Dubytska, Ronald L Thune
EseN is a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector that is encoded on the Edwardsiella ictaluri chromosome and is homologous to a family of T3SS effector proteins with phosphothreonine lyase (PTL) activity, including OspF from Shigella and SpvC from Salmonella. A yeast-2-hybrid system was used to identify the major vault protein (MVP) as a specific host-cell binding partner for EseN, and the proximity ligation assay (PLA) confirmed the interaction. Similar to other pathogens, E. ictaluri invasion activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) early in the infection, which are subsequently inactivated by EseN...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Adrian Lopez-Porras, Juan A Morales, Gilbert Alvarado, Samantha A Koda, Alvin Camus, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Thomas B Waltzek, Esteban Soto
Mariculture of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus in Central America has increased over the last few decades and it is now a highly valued food fish. High feed costs and infectious diseases are significant impediments to the expansion of mariculture. Members of the genus Megalocytivirus (MCV), subfamily Alphairidovirinae, within the family Iridoviridae, are emerging pathogens that negatively impact Asian mariculture. A significant mortality event in Florida pompano fingerlings cultured in Central America occurred in October 2014...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
L R Iwanowicz, D D Iwanowicz, C R Adams, T D Lewis, T M Brandt, L R Sanders, R S Cornman
The fountain darter Etheostoma fonticola (FOD) is a federally endangered fish listed under the US Endangered Species Act. Here, we identified and characterized a novel aquareovirus isolated from wild fountain darters inhabiting the San Marcos River. This virus was propagated in Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE)-214, rainbow trout gonad-2 and fathead minnow cells at 15°C. The epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line was refractory at all temperatures evaluated. High throughput sequencing technologies facilitated the complete genome sequencing of this virus utilizing ribosomal RNA-depleted RNA extracted from infected CHSE-214 cells...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Sarah J Sapsford, Ross A Alford, Lin Schwarzkopf
Identifying the factors that affect pathogen prevalence is critical to understanding the effects of wildlife diseases. We aimed to examine drivers of seasonal changes in the prevalence of infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in tadpoles. Because tadpoles may be important reservoirs for this disease, examining them will aid in understanding how chytridiomycosis affects entire amphibian populations. We hypothesized that temperature is a strong driver of prevalence of Bd in tadpoles, and the accumulation of infection as tadpoles become larger and older also drives prevalence in this system...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Caroline V Palmer, Andrew H Baird
Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are chronic diseases that adversely affect organism health and fitness. We investigated immunity and fecundity within and among GA-affected and visually healthy control colonies of the reef-building coral Acropora hyacinthus. Compared to controls, GAs had higher activity of the key immunity enzyme phenoloxidase (PO), suggesting a localised immune response within the GA. Both GAs and healthy tissue of GA-affected colonies had significantly greater total potential PO (tpPO)-PO activity inclusive of the activated latent PO, prophenoloxidase-than control colonies...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
E Lewisch, T Frank, H Soliman, O Schachner, A Friedl, M El-Matbouli
To date, sleeping disease (SD) caused by salmonid alphavirus 2 (SAV 2) has been reported in freshwater rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. This study describes for the first time the occurrence of SD in farm-reared Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus and the occurrence of SAV in Austria. Clinical symptoms were indicative of the disease, and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, infectivity in first passages of CHSE-214 cells and PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of the amplified SAV-nonstructural protein-3 (nsP3) fragment revealed the affiliation to the SAV 2 genotype...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Stacey M Trevathan-Tackett, Sarah Treby, Frank H Gleason, Peter I Macreadie, Stella Loke
Marine heterotrophic protists of the Labyrinthulomycota are of interest for their biotechnological (e.g. thraustochytrid production of lipids) and ecological (e.g. wasting disease and rapid blight by pathogens of the genus Labyrinthula) applications; culture-based laboratory studies are a central technique of this research. However, maintaining such microorganism cultures can be labour- and cost-intensive, with a high risk of culture contamination and die-off over time. Deep-freeze storage, or cryopreservation, can be used to maintain culture back-ups, as well as to preserve the genetic and phenotypic properties of the microorganisms; however, this method has not been tested for the ubiquitous marine protists Labyrinthula spp...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
P D Dawkins, M E Eisenlord, R M Yoshioka, E Fiorenza, S Fruchter, F Giammona, M Winningham, C D Harvell
Eelgrass wasting disease, caused by the marine pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae, has the potential to devastate important eelgrass habitats worldwide. Although this host-pathogen interaction may increase under certain environmental conditions, little is known about how disease severity is impacted by multiple components of a changing environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of variation in 3 different L. zosterae isolates, pathogen dosage, temperature, and light on severity of infections. Severity of lesions on eelgrass varied among the 3 different isolates inoculated in laboratory trials...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
S Guillén-Hernández, C González-Salas, D Pech-Puch, H Villegas-Hernández
The red octopus Octopus maya Voss et Solís-Ramírez, 1966 is an endemic species and one of the most important fishery resources of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Due to its economic importance and the fact that in recent years interest in farming this species has increased, several initiatives have been implemented to study its biology and requirements for cultivation. Parasites represent an important component of the biology of the red octopus, as they can have an impact on both wild and cultivated populations...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Sergio Guillén-Hernández, Atzelby López-Struck, Carlos González-Salas, M Leopoldina Aguirre-Macedo
The red octopus Octopus maya Voss et Solís-Ramírez, 1966 is an endemic species found exclusively off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico; its fishery is one of the most important along the Atlantic coast of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. To date, the parasite fauna of Octopus spp. in southern Mexico remains unknown. In this study, we present the parasite fauna of O. maya from 8 localities along the Yucatán Peninsula. From August 2009 to June 2010, a total of 1202 specimens of O. maya were caught by artisanal fisheries and examined...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jessica C Watts, John M Carroll, Daphne M Munroe, Christopher M Finelli
The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica provides a number of ecosystem services and is an important commercial fishery species along the US East and Gulf Coasts. Oyster populations have declined dramatically due to overharvesting, habitat loss, and disease. As restoration efforts and aquaculture of oysters continue to increase throughout their range, it is important to consider the impacts of a number of potential oyster pests, including the boring sponge Cliona spp. and the pea crab Zaops (Pinnotheres) ostreum, on oyster populations...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Samantha A Koda, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Roy P Yanong, Salvatore Frasca, Joseph M Groff, Vsevolod L Popov, William A Fraser, Annie Yan, Shipra Mohan, Thomas B Waltzek
The genus Megalocytivirus is the most recently described member of the family Iridoviridae; as such, little is known about the genetic diversity of this genus of globally emerging viral fish pathogens. We sequenced the genomes of 2 megalocytiviruses (MCVs) isolated from epizootics involving South American cichlids (oscar Astronotus ocellatus and keyhole cichlid Cleithracara maronii) and three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus sourced through the ornamental fish trade during the early 1990s. Phylogenomic analyses revealed the South American cichlid iridovirus (SACIV) and three spot gourami iridovirus (TSGIV) possess 116 open reading frames each, and form a novel clade within the turbot reddish body iridovirus genotype (TRBIV Clade 2)...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Mario Guarracino, Lars Qviller, Atle Lillehaug
We evaluated the use of coordinated fallowing as a means to control salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestation in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. In discrete management zones, aquaculture operations such as stocking, fallowing, treatments and harvesting are synchronized at all sites in coordinated areas within the zones. The expected benefit of synchronized generations is to reduce the presence of salmon lice larvae after a period of fallowing, as well as to minimize external infestation pressure from surrounding aquaculture sites...
August 28, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
L H V Franklinos, J Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, H B Hydeskov, K P Hopkins, D J Everest, A A Cunningham, B Lawson
Infectious disease is a significant driver of global amphibian declines, yet despite this, relatively little is known about the range of pathogens that affect free-living amphibians. Recent detection of the tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), associated with skin disease in free-living common frogs Rana temporaria in Switzerland, helps to address this paucity in knowledge, but the geographic distribution and epidemiology of the pathogen remains unclear. Syndromic surveillance for ranid herpesvirus skin disease was undertaken throughout Great Britain (GB), January 2014 to December 2016...
August 14, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Horacio Lozano-Cobo, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez, Carmen Franco-Gordo, María Prado-Rosas, Viridiana Plascencia-Palomera, Israel Ambriz-Arreola
We investigated the seasonal and interannual changes in diversity, abundance, and prevalence of chaetognaths and their parasites collected monthly during 1996-1998 in the Mexican Central Pacific. We tested the hypothesis of a positive relationship between abundance and species richness of chaetognaths and their parasites, and investigated the influence of the 1997-1998 El Niño event on this host-parasite interaction. Of the 9 chaetognath species collected in the present study, only 7 were found to be parasitized...
August 14, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Akatsuki Nawata, Euichi Hirose, Shin-Ichi Kitamura
Azumiobodo hoyamushi, a kinetoplastid flagellate, is the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome, an infectious disease of the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. The flagellate is thought to invade the tunic matrix via a damaged area of the tunic on the siphon wall. We hypothesized that the flagellate locates the tunic entry site by a chemotactic response to soluble substances diffused from the host ascidians. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined whether the flagellate shows a chemotactic response to tissue extracts (tunic and other tissues) from the host ascidian H...
August 14, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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