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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Matías J Merlo, Manuela Parietti, Jorge A Etchegoin
Penis anatomy is used to discriminate species of gastropods belonging to the family Cochliopidae; however, this characteristic may be affected by the presence of parasites. To evaluate the possible effect of parasites on penis length and number of papillae in Heleobia parchappii, 195 males were collected from the Nahuel Rucá Lagoon, Argentina. Male snails were only infected by trematode digeneans (total prevalence 45.13%). Three out of 9 species of digeneans registered showed prevalence values higher than 10%: Microphallus szidati, M...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
C M Meyburgh, R R Bragg, C E Boucher
Lactococcus garvieae is the causative agent of lactococcosis, a hyperacute, haemorrhagic septicaemia of fish. This bacterium is also considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen, as reports of human infection are increasing. Significant economic loss in aquaculture is suffered as a result of lactococcosis, as numerous freshwater and marine species of commercial interest are affected. Development of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae to several chemotherapeutic agents complicates and restricts treatment options...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Norman Wagner, Claus Neubeck, Daniela Guicking, Lennart Finke, Martin Wittich, Kurt Weising, Christian Geske, Michael Veith
The parasitic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause the lethal disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians and therefore may play a role in population declines. The yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata suffered strong declines throughout western and northwestern parts of its range and is therefore listed as highly endangered for Germany and the federal state of Hesse. Whether chytridiomycosis may play a role in the observed local declines of this strictly protected anuran species has never been tested...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jaime Penadés-Suay, Jesús Tomás, Manuel Merchán, Francisco Javier Aznar
Large oceanic sharks represent a suitable model to investigate the influence of a host's oceanic conditions on the structure of its helminth communities. In this study, we describe the intestinal helminth fauna, and investigate determinants of infracommunity structure, in 39 specimens of shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus collected in the NE Atlantic. Six cestode species were found in the spiral valve of makos: 3 are typical from lamnid sharks, namely, gravid specimens of Clistobothrium montaukensis, Gymnorhynchus isuri and Ceratobothrium xanthocephalum, and 3 are immature specimens of cestode species common to several elasmobranchs, namely, Dinobothrium septaria, Nybelinia lingualis, and Phyllobothrium cf...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Gabriela P Carril, Fernando A Gómez, Sergio H Marshall
The Piscirickettsia salmonis genome was screened to evaluate potential flagella-related open reading frames, as well as their genomic organization and eventual expression. A complete and organized set of flagellar genes was found for P. salmonis, although no structural flagellum has ever been reported for this bacterium. To gain further understanding, the hierarchical flagellar cascade described for Legionella pneumophila was used as a reference model for putative analysis in P. salmonis. Specifically, 5 of the most relevant genes from this cascade were chosen, including 3 regulatory genes (fleQ, triggers the cascade; fliA, regulates the σ28-coding gene; and rpoN, an RNA polymerase-dependent gene) and 2 terminal structural genes (flaA and flaB, flagellin and a flagellin-like protein, respectively)...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Pedro H O Viadanna, Tim Miller-Morgan, Trace Peterson, Keith Way, David M Stone, Gary D Marty, Fabiana Pilarski, Ronald P Hedrick, Thomas B Waltzek
Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV1) infects all scaled and color varieties of common carp Cyprinus carpio, including koi. While it is most often associated with unsightly growths known as 'carp pox,' the underlying lesion (epidermal hyperplasia) can arise from a variety of disease processes. CyHV1-induced epidermal hyperplasia may occur transiently in response to water temperature, and thus histopathology cannot be used in isolation to assess CyHV1 infection status. To address this problem, here we describe a PCR assay targeted to the putative thymidine kinase gene of CyHV1...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
María Caridad Montalvo Villalba, Danilo Cruz Martínez, Imran Ahmad, Licel A Rodriguez Lay, Marite Bello Corredor, Celia Guevara March, Liena Sánchez Martínez, Laima Sánchez Martínez-Campo, Shahid Jameel
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infects several animal species that act as zoonotic reservoirs for viral transmission. Solid and liquid residues from infected animals could lead to HEV contamination of food and surface waters. Evidence of human HEV infection through ingestion of seafood (shellfish, mussels) has been reported. Dolphins generally feed on fish and squid but are able to adapt to an environment and consume whatever prey is available. Clinical signs of infected dolphins include lethargy, inappetence, behavioral aberrations and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Zeli Shen, Francesca Batac, Anthony Mannion, Melissa A Miller, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Calvin Ho, Sean Manning, Bruce J Paster, James G Fox
A total of 31 sea otters Enhydra lutris nereis found dead or moribund (and then euthanized) were necropsied in California, USA. Stomach biopsies were collected and transected with equal portions frozen or placed in formalin and analyzed histologically and screened for Helicobacter spp. in gastric tissue. Helicobacter spp. were isolated from 9 sea otters (29%); 58% (18 of 31) animals were positive for helicobacter by PCR. The Helicobacter sp. was catalase- and oxidase-positive and urease-negative. By electron microscopy, the Helicobacter sp...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Olivia Evans, Ika Paul-Pont, Richard J Whittington
Ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariants (OsHV-1) present a serious threat to the Australian Crassostrea gigas industry. Of great concern is the propensity for mortality due to the virus recurring each season in farmed oysters. However, the source of the virus in recurrent outbreaks remains unclear. Reference strain ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 ref) and other related variants have been detected in several aquatic invertebrate species other than C. gigas in Europe, Asia and the USA. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence or absence of OsHV-1 in a range of opportunistically sampled aquatic invertebrate species inhabiting specific locations within the Georges River estuary in New South Wales, Australia...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Patricia A O'Leary, Oscar J Pung
The behavior of Microphallus turgidus cercariae was examined and compared to microhabitat selection of the second intermediate hosts of the parasite, Palaemonetes spp. grass shrimp. Cercariae were tested for photokinetic and geotactic responses, and a behavioral ethogram was established for cercariae in control and grass shrimp-conditioned brackish water. Photokinesis trials were performed using a half-covered Petri dish, and geotaxis trials used a graduated cylinder. Both photokinesis and geotaxis trials were performed in lighted and unlighted conditions...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
T P Floyd-Rump, L A Horstmann-Dehn, S Atkinson, C Skaugstad
Ichthyophonus is a protozoan parasite of Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In this study, we determined whether spawning Chinook salmon in the Yukon River drainage exhibited a measurable stress response (i.e. elevated plasma cortisol concentrations) and detectable changes in selected blood plasma chemistry parameters when infected with Ichthyophonus. The resulting alevin were also analyzed for any differences in blood plasma chemistry caused by parental infection with Ichthyophonus. In 2010, 2011, and 2012, spawning adult Chinook salmon were collected from the Salcha River, Alaska, USA, and the prevalence of Ichthyophonus in these fish was 7...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Amy Long, Jon Richard, Laura Hawley, Scott E LaPatra, Kyle A Garver
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) outbreaks have had a significant negative impact on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar production in British Columbia, Canada, since the first outbreak was reported in 1992. In 2005, the APEX-IHN® vaccine was approved for use in Canada for prevention of IHN. The vaccine was proven to be safe and efficacious prior to approval; however, it is unknown as to whether APEX-IHN®-vaccinated Atlantic salmon infected with IHNV can support replication and virus shedding in sufficient quantities to provide an infectious dose to a nearby susceptible host...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Pierre Charruau, Jonathan S Pérez-Flores, Didier Labarre
Paratrichosma spp. are capillarid worms that parasitize the abdominal skin of crocodiles. They are likely not a threat to crocodiles' health, but they affect the skins' commercial value. No successful treatment exists against this parasite, and present knowledge of its life cycle is limited. Herein we report new information on Paratrichosoma recurvum occurrence in wild American crocodiles Crocodylus acutus from Mexican Caribbean islands and its relation to environmental (water salinity, temperature, climatic events) and biological (body condition) factors...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Zhiqi Song, Ruichao Yue, Yanming Sun, Chunfa Liu, Sher Hayat Khan, Chaosi Li, Ying Zhao, Xiangmei Zhou, Lifeng Yang, Deming Zhao
A captive 8 yr old male bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus succumbed to septicemia with multisystemic inflammation including suppurative enteritis, encephalitis, and pneumonia with chronic pancreatitis. A pure culture of beta-hemolytic, catalase- and oxidase-negative, Gram-positive cocci was isolated from the hilar lymph nodes and pancreas. The isolate was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Streptococcus iniae. Histological examination of the digestive system revealed a mixed infection of both bacteria and fungus...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
E Carolina Ziehl-Quirós, María C García-Aguilar, Eric Mellink
The relatively small population size and restricted distribution of the Guadalupe fur seal Arctocephalus townsendi could make it highly vulnerable to infectious diseases. We performed a colony-level assessment in this species of the prevalence and presence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp., pathogenic bacteria that have been reported in several pinniped species worldwide. Forty-six serum samples were collected in 2014 from pups at Isla Guadalupe, the only place where the species effectively reproduces. Samples were tested for Brucella using 3 consecutive serological tests, and for Leptospira using the microscopic agglutination test...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Heather Fenton, Pierre-Yves Daoust, María J Forzán, Raphaël V Vanderstichel, John K B Ford, Lisa Spaven, Stéphane Lair, Stephen Raverty
There is increasing public interest in the overall health of the marine environment. Harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena have a coastal distribution, and stranded animals function as sentinels for population and ecosystem health. The goal of this retrospective study was to join datasets from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific coasts of Canada to investigate causes of morbidity and mortality in this species. A total of 241 necropsy records were reviewed including 147 (61%) from the Pacific region and 94 (39%) from the Atlantic region from 1988 to 2011...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Guangjin Liu, Jielian Zhu, Kangming Chen, Tingting Gao, Huochun Yao, Yongjie Liu, Wei Zhang, Chengping Lu
Vaccination is a widely accepted and effective method to prevent most pathogenic diseases in aquaculture. Various species of tilapia, especially Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, are farmed worldwide because of their high consumer demand. Recently, the tilapia-breeding industry has been hampered by outbreaks of Streptococcus agalactiae infection, which cause high mortality and huge economic losses. Many researchers have attempted to develop effective S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia. This review provides a summary of the different kinds of S...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Zoe A Pratte, Laurie L Richardson
White plague (WP) is a highly destructive coral disease that rapidly kills susceptible coral species by mass tissue lysis. The pathogen and underlying causes of this disease are not known. In this laboratory-based study, we examined a small coral-associated gall crab from the family Cryptochiridae in terms of a possible association with WP-like lesions. A series of experiments was conducted after observations that 2 scleractinian coral species, Diploria labyrinthiformis and Pseudodiploria strigosa, developed signs of WP-like disease within a laboratory holding aquarium and that small gall crabs were physically present in the center of each lesion...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
María J Carballal, David Iglesias, Susana Darriba, Asunción Cao, J Carlos Mariño, Andrea Ramilo, Edgar No, Antonio Villalba
A histopathological survey revealed parasites and pathological conditions affecting lagoon cockles Cerastoderma glaucum along the Galician coast; serious pathological threats were not detected because the potentially pathogenic conditions (infections with a Marteilia-like parasite and bucephalid sporocysts, disseminated neoplasia and a condition involving large foci of heavy haemocytic reaction) were rare, while more prevalent parasites had negligible or limited pathogeny. Considering that C. edule and C. glaucum are sympatric in some Galician rias, it is remarkable that C...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Kelly N Markowitz, Jason D Williams, Maureen K Krause
The digenean trematode Proctoeces maculatus is an important parasite of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. The parasite reduces mussel quality and yield, negatively impacting mussel aquaculture efforts. Typically, the trematode is detected by visual observation. To provide a better diagnostic tool able to detect this parasite at any life stage and at low intensities, we designed a species-specific molecular assay to detect P. maculatus in M. edulis tissue. Primers targeting the 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from P...
December 21, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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