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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Colleen Kamoroff, Caren S Goldberg
Amphibian chytridiomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is an emerging infectious disease that has been associated with mass mortality and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. Environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques have been used to detect the presence of Bd in the environment, but not to detect Bd prior to an amphibian die-off. We collected eDNA using filtered water samples from 13 lakes across Sequoia Kings Canyon National Park. Seven of those sites had populations of mountain yellow-legged frogs, an amphibian highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis, and 3 of those populations experienced a Bd related die-off 1 mo post-eDNA sampling...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Raphaela Stimmelmayr, David Rotstein, Mauricio Seguel, Nicole Gottdenker
We describe a case series of benign hepatic fatty tumors in 10 subsistence-harvested bowhead whales. Microscopic features included lipomatous and myelolipomatous masses. Extensive atrophy and/or destruction of hepatic parenchyma was not observed. No other significant disease was present except in an animal with unrelated chronic pleuritis. Based on our longitudinal case series (1980-2016) which identified 1-2 hepatic lipomas and myelolipomas in landed whales annually at Barrow, Alaska (USA), since 2012, hepatic lipomas and myelolipomas are occasionally seen in hunter-harvested bowhead whales...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Heidi M Wyrosdick, Richard Gerhold, Chunlei Su, Antonio A Mignucci-Giannoni, Robert K Bonde, Alycia Chapman, Carla I Rivera-Pérez, Jessica Martinez, Debra L Miller
Toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. Given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in Puerto Rico and determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. Sera or plasma from Antillean (n = 5) and Florida (n = 351) manatees were tested for T...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Maria Morell, Kristina Lehnert, Lonneke L IJsseldijk, Stephen A Raverty, Peter Wohlsein, Andrea Gröne, Michel André, Ursula Siebert, Robert E Shadwick
Peribullar sinuses of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena are parasitized with high prevalence by the nematode Stenurus minor. The effect of S. minor on the hearing ability of this species is still undetermined. Here, we review the occurrence of S. minor in the inner ear of harbour porpoises recovered from strandings in the North and Baltic Seas. In particular, we present the results from ears collected in German and Danish waters from 2002 to 2016 and from Dutch waters from 2010 to 2016. While the prevalence of S...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Mariëlle T I Ten Doeschate, Lonneke L IJsseldijk, Sjoukje Hiemstra, Els A de Jong, Arjen Strijkstra, Andrea Gröne, Lineke Begeman
Harbour porpoises are often found to be infected by endoparasites in several organs including the lungs and stomach as well as the heart, liver and ears. Nevertheless there is still little knowledge about the impact, ecology, transmission, and virulence of these parasitic infections. Here, we profile the presence of parasites in 4 frequently infected organs (lungs, stomach, liver and ears) in relation to biological parameters of harbour porpoises stranded along the Dutch coastline between December 2008 and December 2013...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Ahmed K Elfadl, Seoung-Woo Lee, Ji-Hyung Kim, Kyung-Lee Lee, H M Arif Ullah, Myung-Jin Chung, Soong-Gu Ghim, Eun-Joo Lee, Yong Deuk Kim, Sung-Min Kim, Sul-Gi Jeon, Jong-Hyub Lim, Hye Joo Choi, Jin-Kyu Park, Kyu Shik Jeong
A 5 yr old, 184 kg, and 262 cm total length female bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus was found dead in a display after bloody discharge from the blowhole was observed 3 h prior to death. Pathological examination revealed fibrinous bronchopneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis (sequestra) and numerous Gram-negative bacilli within alveoli and in blood vessels of the lungs and liver and between muscle fibers. The cause of death was attributed to septicemia. Often, cases of fibrinous bronchopneumonia are characterized by bacteremia in the latter stages of infection, resulting in the death of the animal...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Isaure de Buron, Kristina M Hill-Spanik, Leeann Haselden, Stephen D Atkinson, Sascha L Hallett, Stephen A Arnott
Kudoa inornata is a myxosporean parasite that develops in the somatic muscle of spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, an economically and ecologically important fish in estuaries and harbors in southeastern North America. In South Carolina (SC), USA, over 90% of wild adult spotted seatrout are infected. To inform potential mitigation strategies, we conducted 3 experiments using naïve sentinel seatrout and infectious stages of K. inornata naturally present in raw water from Charleston Harbor, SC, to determine (1) if K...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Laurent Bigarré, Georges Plassiart, Claire de Boisséson, Laurane Pallandre, Françoise Pozet, Yannick Ledoré, Pascal Fontaine, François Lieffrig
In 2016, a total of 5 massive mortality episodes each affecting hundreds of thousands of pike-perch Sander lucioperca larvae occurred at 2 sites in 2 Western European countries. For each episode, perhabdoviruses related to the perch rhabdovirus (PRV) were detected in samples, using either PCR or cell culture combined with PCR. The sequences of the glycoprotein (g), phosphoprotein (p) and nucleoprotein (n) genes of these samples demonstrated that 2 different genotypes were present at 1 site, each associated with 1 of the 3 episodes...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Takafumi Ito, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) Genotype IVb has been isolated from amphipods belonging to the genus Diporeia, but it has yet to be established whether crustacean zooplankton act as vectors of this virus for fish species. Therefore, we evaluated the viability of infectious VHSV in the water flea Moina macrocopa. VHSV was re-isolated from replicate groups of M. macrocopa that had been immersed with 108.0, 107.0, and 105.0 TCID50 ml-1 of VHSV (DK-3592B, Genotype Ia). Furthermore, 40 M. macrocopa that had been immersed with 108...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Nguyen Thao Suong, Stephen Webb, Jonathan Banks, Kevin C Wakeman, Henry Lane, Andrew Jeffs, Cara Brosnahan, Brian Jones, Andrew Fidler
Apicomplexa is a large phylum of parasitic protists renowned for significant negative health impacts on humans and livestock worldwide. Despite the prevalence and negative impacts of apicomplexans across many animal groups, relatively little attention has been given to apicomplexan parasites of invertebrates, especially marine invertebrates. Previous work has reported an apicomplexan parasite 'X' (APX), a parasite that has been histologically and ultrastructurally identified from the commercially important flat oyster Ostrea chilensis in New Zealand...
December 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Maurício L Martins, Marcos Tavares-Dias, Andrew J Janik, Michael L Kent, Gabriela T Jerônimo
This study evaluated the hematological profile and condition factor (Kn) of tui chub Siphateles bicolor and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and their associations with larvae of Contracaecum sp. infection of the heart. A total of 30 tui chub and 17 fathead minnow were collected from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA, measured, and weighed and blood was drawn for hematological analysis. Nematode larvae parasitized tui chub with a prevalence of 50% and mean intensity of 1.40, while 11.8% of fathead minnow were parasitized at a mean intensity of 1...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Derek K P Chan, Henry C L Tsui, Brian C W Kot
Databases are systematic tools to archive and manage information related to marine mammal stranding and mortality events. Stranding response networks, governmental authorities and non-governmental organizations have established regional or national stranding networks and have developed unique standard stranding response and necropsy protocols to document and track stranded marine mammal demographics, signalment and health data. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe and review the current status of marine mammal stranding and mortality databases worldwide, including the year established, types of database and their goals; and (2) summarize the geographic range included in the database, the number of cases recorded, accessibility, filter and display methods...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Kwang Il Kim, Young Chul Kim, Woo Ju Kwon, Hyun Do Jeong
When viral diseases occur in aquaculture farms, the virus released into the seawater from infected animals can re-infect other susceptible species or accumulate in filter-feeding organisms. We conducted a viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) survivability analysis of blue mussel Mytilus edulis digestive enzymes, viral depuration, and infectivity tests via in vitro and in vivo inoculation to evaluate the infectious state. VHSV particles were not completely digested within 24 h in vitro and were maintained for 7 d in the mussel digestive gland...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hua Zha, Gillian Lewis, Andrea Alfaro, Shuqi Wang, Yimin Dong, Roffi Grandiosa, Andrew Jeffs
Tail fan necrosis (TFN), a disorder commonly found in some populations of commercially fished and cultured lobsters, is thought to be initiated by injuries caused by handling and containment. The unsightly appearance of affected lobster tails significantly lowers their commercial value. Knowledge about TFN is limited. In this study we describe the morphological features of TFN and apply 6 common methods for evaluating the immune status of wild-caught Australasian red spiny lobsters Jasus edwardsii with and without TFN...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Rodman G Getchell, Emily R Cornwell, Steven Bogdanowicz, Jose Andrés, William N Batts, Gael Kurath, Rachel Breyta, Joanna G Choi, John M Farrell, Paul R Bowser
Four viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb isolates were sequenced, their genetic variation explored, and comparative virulence assayed with experimental infections of northern pike Esox lucius fry. In addition to the type strain MI03, the complete 11183 bp genome of the first round goby Neogobius melanostomus isolate from the St. Lawrence River, and the 2013 and 2014 isolates from gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum die-offs in Irondequoit Bay, Lake Ontario and Dunkirk Harbor, Lake Erie were all deep sequenced on an Illumina platform...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Hafizah Y Chenia, Anelet Jacobs
Antibacterial compounds and metals co-select for antimicrobial resistance when bacteria harbour resistance genes towards both types of compounds, facilitating the proliferation and evolution of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance. Antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance indices of 42 Gram-negative bacteria from a tilapia aquaculture system were determined to identify possible correlations between these phenotypes. Agar dilution assays were carried out to determine susceptibility to cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, chromate and zinc, while susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was investigated by disk diffusion assays...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Carlos F Ruiz, Jacob M Rash, Cova R Arias, Doug A Besler, Raphael Orélis-Ribeiro, Matthew R Womble, Jackson R Roberts, Micah B Warren, Candis L Ray, Stacey Lafrentz, Stephen A Bullard
We used microscopy and molecular biology to provide the first documentation of infections of Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), the etiological agent of whirling disease, in trout (Salmonidae) from North Carolina (USA) river basins. A total of 1085 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, 696 brown trout Salmo trutta, and 319 brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from 43 localities across 9 river basins were screened. Myxospores were observed microscopically in pepsin-trypsin digested heads of rainbow and brown trout from the Watauga River Basin...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
E Ariel, E Elliott, J I Meddings, J Miller, M B Santos, L Owens
Ranaviruses have been isolated from many ectothermic vertebrates, and serological surveys of both amphibians and reptiles have shown the presence of ranaviral antibodies in a proportion of these populations. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure serum antibodies against ranavirus in Australian reptiles. The ELISA was validated with serum from challenge trials with Bohle iridovirus (BIV) in 6 reptilian species. A preliminary sero-survey of northern Queensland riparian reptile fauna (saw-shelled turtles Myuchelys latisternum, Krefft's river turtles Emydura macquarii krefftii, freshwater crocodiles Crocodylus johnstoni, as well as the snakes Boiga irregularis, Dendrelaphis punctulatus, Tropidonophis mairii, Morelia spilota, Liasis childreni and L...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Wen-Ta Li, Chieh Lo, Chen-Yi Su, Hsuan Kuo, Susanne Je-Han Lin, Hui-Wei Chang, Victor Fei Pang, Chian-Ren Jeng
Scuticociliatosis, caused by ciliated protozoa in the subclass Scuticociliatia of the phylum Ciliophora, can cause fatal disease in teleost fish species. However, information on scuticociliatosis in elasmobranchs is still scarce. In this report, we describe a case of locally extensive meningoencephalitis caused by Miamiensis avidus (syn. Philasterides dicentrarchi) in a 2 yr old captive zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. Granulocytic meningoencephalitis was observed through histological assessment. Inflammation was confined to the ventral aspect of the brain with a large number of ciliated protozoa, transforming into non-suppurative meningitis in the lateral aspect, and gradually vanished in the dorsal aspect...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
K Way, O Haenen, D Stone, M Adamek, S M Bergmann, L Bigarré, N Diserens, M El-Matbouli, M C Gjessing, V Jung-Schroers, E Leguay, M Matras, N J Olesen, V Panzarin, V Piačková, A Toffan, N Vendramin, T Vesel, T Waltzek
Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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