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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322212/severe-mutilation-of-a-critically-endangered-taiwanese-humpback-dolphin-sousa-chinensis-taiwanensis-by-fishing-gear
#1
John Y Wang, Claryana Araújo-Wang
Direct observations of the causes of injuries to cetaceans are rare events. For very small and declining populations, such events may be even less likely to be observed because of the few individuals that remain. A long-term monitoring program using photographic identification of individuals resulted in the documentation of an individual Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis that survived a harmful interaction with fishing gear. An adult female that was accompanied by a young calf sustained massive damage to several tissue types on her dorsal surface...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322211/prey-species-of-franciscana-pontoporia-blainvillei-as-paratenic-hosts-of-helminths
#2
Tony Silveira, Mariana H Remião, Ricardo B Robaldo, Kaio Freitas, Ana Luísa S Valente
The distribution of franciscana Pontoporia blainvillei Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1884, is restricted to the estuarine and coastal waters of the southwestern Atlantic. The diet of this dolphin is composed of fishes, squids, and shrimps, many of which harbor helminths that may infect franciscana. Larval forms of the trematode Synthesium pontoporiae and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma turbinella have been recorded in franciscana; however, they have not yet been identified in any of the prey species of this cetacean. We evaluated 3 components of the diet of franciscana as possible transmission sources of parasitiasis...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322210/mycolactone-producing-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-in-captive-hong-kong-warty-newts-and-pathological-evidence-of-impaired-host-immune-function
#3
Wen-Ta Li, Hui-Wen Chang, Victor Fei Pang, Fun-In Wang, Chen-Hsuan Liu, Ting-Yu Chen, Jun-Cheng Guo, Takayuki Wada, Chian-Ren Jeng
A mass mortality event of captive Hong Kong warty newts Paramesotriton hongkongensis with non-granulomatous necrotic lesions occurred in Taipei Zoo, Taiwan, in 2014. Clinically, the sick newts were lethargic and often covered with water mold Saprolegnia sp. on the skin of the body trunk or extremities. Predominant pathological findings were multifocal non-granulomatous necrotic lesions in the liver, spleen, and kidneys and severe skin infection with Saprolegnia sp., with deep invasion and involvement of underlying muscles...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322209/complex-interactive-effects-of-water-mold-herbicide-and-the-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-on-pacific-treefrog-hyliola-regilla-hosts
#4
John M Romansic, James E Johnson, R Steven Wagner, Rebecca H Hill, Christopher A Gaulke, Vance T Vredenburg, Andrew R Blaustein
Infectious diseases pose a serious threat to global biodiversity. However, their ecological impacts are not independent of environmental conditions. For example, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has contributed to population declines and extinctions in many amphibian species, interacts with several environmental factors to influence its hosts, but potential interactions with other pathogens and environmental contaminants are understudied. We examined the combined effects of Bd, a water mold (Achlya sp...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322208/prevalence-and-pathogen-load-estimates-for-the-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-are-impacted-by-its-dna-copy-number-variation
#5
Eria A Rebollar, Douglas C Woodhams, Brandon LaBumbard, Jos Kielgast, Reid N Harris
The ribosomal gene complex is a multi-copy region that is widely used for phylogenetic analyses of organisms from all 3 domains of life. In fungi, the copy number of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) is used to detect abundance of pathogens causing diseases such as chytridiomycosis in amphibians and white nose syndrome in bats. Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), and is responsible for declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322207/first-report-of-rahnella-aquatilis-infection-in-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-in-china
#6
Ai-Jun Lü, Rui-Xia Wang, Xiu-Cai Hu, Jing-Feng Sun, Li Li, Chao Pei, Chao Zhang, Guo-Xing Nie
Rahnella aquatilis infection is rare in aquaculture. Here, a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from diseased crucian carp Carassius auratus in Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. The isolate was tentatively named strain KCL-5, and subsequently identified as R. aquatilis by biochemical properties and molecular techniques. The results showed that the isolate KCL-5 was most closely related to the type strain ATCC33071 (= DSM4594) of R. aquatilis, which shared 99.67, 96.26 and 99.58% nucleotide sequence identities for 16S rDNA, gyrB and toxin yhaV genes, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322206/comparative-study-of-proliferative-kidney-disease-in-grayling-thymallus-thymallus-and-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-fario-an-exposure-experiment
#7
Heike Schmidt-Posthaus, Albert Ros, Regula Hirschi, Ernst Schneider
Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations, with the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae as the causative agent. Species differences in parasite susceptibility and disease-induced mortality seem to exist. The aim of the present study was to compare incidence, pathology and mortality of PKD in grayling Thymallus thymallus and brown trout Salmo trutta under identical semi-natural conditions. Young-of-the-year grayling and brown trout, free of T...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322205/factors-influencing-the-long-term-dynamics-of-larval-sea-lice-density-at-east-and-west-coast-locations-in-scotland
#8
Anna J Harte, Alan S Bowman, Nabeil K G Salama, Campbell C Pert
Sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) are marine copepods that parasitize finfish, and in cases of high infestation can result in severe epithelial damage and mortality. In Scotland, 2 species of sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, pose a significant economic burden to the marine Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry and potentially impact wild salmonids. The purpose of this study was to determine how the density of pelagic sea lice is affected by external variables, in order to improve our understanding of sea lice dynamics...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262637/assessment-of-disease-lesion-removal-as-a-method-to-control-chronic-montipora-white-syndrome
#9
Silvia Beurmann, Christina M Runyon, Patrick Videau, Sean M Callahan, Greta S Aeby
Coral colonies in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i (USA), are afflicted with the tissue loss disease chronic Montipora white syndrome (cMWS). Here we show that removal of chronic disease lesions is a potential method to slow the progression of cMWS in M. capitata. Over the 24 wk observation period, treatment colonies lost almost half the amount of tissue that was lost by control colonies. The percentage of tissue loss at each sampling interval (mean ± SEM; treatment: 1.17 ± 0.47%, control: 2.25 ± 0.63%) and the rate of tissue loss per day (treatment: 0...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262636/effects-of-corticosterone-on-infection-and-disease-in-salamanders-exposed-to-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#10
Chris W Fonner, Shreya A Patel, Shelby M Boord, Matthew D Venesky, Sarah K Woodley
Although it is well established that glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) alter immune function and disease resistance in humans and laboratory animal models, fewer studies have linked elevated GCs to altered immune function and disease resistance in wild animals. The chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infects amphibians and can cause the disease chytridiomycosis, which is responsible for worldwide amphibian declines. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to environmental stressors reduces host resistance to Bd by suppressing host immunity via stress-induced release of GCs such as corticosterone (CORT)...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262635/anisakis-nematoda-ascaridoidea-from-indonesia
#11
H W Palm, S Theisen, I M Damriyasa, E S Kusmintarsih, I B M Oka, E A Setyowati, N A Suratma, S Wibowo, S Kleinertz
Despite Indonesia's high marine biodiversity, there is a lack of information regarding fish parasites in Indonesian waters. During a sampling of 136 teleost species from Indonesian waters, 22 of them were infected with larvae of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845, a genus with zoonotic potential. We genetically identified 118 worms, provide a revision of all available sequences of the ITS-1-5.8S-ITS-2 marker from Indonesian Anisakis in GenBank (n = 125), and establish 16 new host records. So far, 53 Indonesian teleosts harbour Anisakis spp...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262634/francisella-noatunensis-ssp-noatunensis-iglc-deletion-mutant-protects-adult-zebrafish-challenged-with-acute-mortality-dose-of-wild-type-strain
#12
Elisabeth O Lampe, Julia I Tandberg, Anne-Lise Rishovd, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
The intracellular fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis remains an unsolved problem for aquaculture worldwide and an efficient vaccine is needed. In Francisella sp., IglC is an important virulence factor necessary for intracellular growth and escape from phagolysosomes. Deletion of the intracellular growth locus C (iglC) in Francisella sp. causes attenuation, but vaccine potential has only been attributed to ΔiglC from Francisella noatunensis ssp. orientalis, a warm-water fish pathogen. A ΔiglC mutant was constructed in the cold-water fish pathogen F...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262633/diagnostic-validation-of-three-test-methods-for-detection-of-cyprinid-herpesvirus-3-cyhv-3
#13
Sharon C Clouthier, Carol McClure, Tamara Schroeder, Megan Desai, Laura Hawley, Sunita Khatkar, Melissa Lindsay, Geoff Lowe, Jon Richard, Eric D Anderson
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease in koi and common carp. The disease is notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Three tests-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), conventional PCR (cPCR) and virus isolation by cell culture (VI)-were validated to assess their fitness as diagnostic tools for detection of CyHV-3. Test performance metrics of diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp). Repeatability and reproducibility were measured to assess diagnostic precision...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262632/pufferfish-mortality-associated-with-novel-polar-marine-toxins-in-hawaii
#14
Thierry M Work, Peter D R Moeller, Kevin R Beauchesne, Julie Dagenais, Renee Breeden, Robert Rameyer, William J Walsh, Melanie Abecassis, Donald R Kobayashi, Carla Conway, James Winton
Fish die-offs are important signals in tropical marine ecosystems. In 2010, a mass mortality of pufferfish in Hawaii (USA) was dominated by Arothron hispidus showing aberrant neurological behaviors. Using pathology, toxinology, and field surveys, we implicated a series of novel, polar, marine toxins as a likely cause of this mass mortality. Our findings are striking in that (1) a marine toxin was associated with a kill of a fish species that is itself toxic; (2) we provide a plausible mechanism to explain clinical signs of affected fish; and (3) this epizootic likely depleted puffer populations...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177295/stunting-of-the-penis-in-heleobia-parchappii-mollusca-cochliopidae-and-its-relationship-with-parasitism
#15
Matías J Merlo, Manuela Parietti, Jorge A Etchegoin
Penis anatomy is used to discriminate species of gastropods belonging to the family Cochliopidae; however, this characteristic may be affected by the presence of parasites. To evaluate the possible effect of parasites on penis length and number of papillae in Heleobia parchappii, 195 males were collected from the Nahuel Rucá Lagoon, Argentina. Male snails were only infected by trematode digeneans (total prevalence 45.13%). Three out of 9 species of digeneans registered showed prevalence values higher than 10%: Microphallus szidati, M...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177294/lactococcus-garvieae-an-emerging-bacterial-pathogen-of-fish
#16
REVIEW
C M Meyburgh, R R Bragg, C E Boucher
Lactococcus garvieae is the causative agent of lactococcosis, a hyperacute, haemorrhagic septicaemia of fish. This bacterium is also considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen, as reports of human infection are increasing. Significant economic loss in aquaculture is suffered as a result of lactococcosis, as numerous freshwater and marine species of commercial interest are affected. Development of antibiotic resistance in L. garvieae to several chemotherapeutic agents complicates and restricts treatment options...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177293/no-evidence-for-effects-of-infection-with-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-on-populations-of-yellow-bellied-toads
#17
Norman Wagner, Claus Neubeck, Daniela Guicking, Lennart Finke, Martin Wittich, Kurt Weising, Christian Geske, Michael Veith
The parasitic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause the lethal disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians and therefore may play a role in population declines. The yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata suffered strong declines throughout western and northwestern parts of its range and is therefore listed as highly endangered for Germany and the federal state of Hesse. Whether chytridiomycosis may play a role in the observed local declines of this strictly protected anuran species has never been tested...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177292/intestinal-helminth-fauna-of-the-shortfin-mako-isurus-oxyrinchus-elasmobranchii-lamnidae-in-the-northeast-atlantic-ocean
#18
Jaime Penadés-Suay, Jesús Tomás, Manuel Merchán, Francisco Javier Aznar
Large oceanic sharks represent a suitable model to investigate the influence of a host's oceanic conditions on the structure of its helminth communities. In this study, we describe the intestinal helminth fauna, and investigate determinants of infracommunity structure, in 39 specimens of shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus collected in the NE Atlantic. Six cestode species were found in the spiral valve of makos: 3 are typical from lamnid sharks, namely, gravid specimens of Clistobothrium montaukensis, Gymnorhynchus isuri and Ceratobothrium xanthocephalum, and 3 are immature specimens of cestode species common to several elasmobranchs, namely, Dinobothrium septaria, Nybelinia lingualis, and Phyllobothrium cf...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177291/expression-of-flagellin-and-key-regulatory-flagellar-genes-in-the-non-motile-bacterium-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#19
Gabriela P Carril, Fernando A Gómez, Sergio H Marshall
The Piscirickettsia salmonis genome was screened to evaluate potential flagella-related open reading frames, as well as their genomic organization and eventual expression. A complete and organized set of flagellar genes was found for P. salmonis, although no structural flagellum has ever been reported for this bacterium. To gain further understanding, the hierarchical flagellar cascade described for Legionella pneumophila was used as a reference model for putative analysis in P. salmonis. Specifically, 5 of the most relevant genes from this cascade were chosen, including 3 regulatory genes (fleQ, triggers the cascade; fliA, regulates the σ28-coding gene; and rpoN, an RNA polymerase-dependent gene) and 2 terminal structural genes (flaA and flaB, flagellin and a flagellin-like protein, respectively)...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177290/development-of-a-pcr-assay-to-detect-cyprinid-herpesvirus-1-in-koi-and-common-carp
#20
Pedro H O Viadanna, Tim Miller-Morgan, Trace Peterson, Keith Way, David M Stone, Gary D Marty, Fabiana Pilarski, Ronald P Hedrick, Thomas B Waltzek
Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV1) infects all scaled and color varieties of common carp Cyprinus carpio, including koi. While it is most often associated with unsightly growths known as 'carp pox,' the underlying lesion (epidermal hyperplasia) can arise from a variety of disease processes. CyHV1-induced epidermal hyperplasia may occur transiently in response to water temperature, and thus histopathology cannot be used in isolation to assess CyHV1 infection status. To address this problem, here we describe a PCR assay targeted to the putative thymidine kinase gene of CyHV1...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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