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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Eva Turicchia, Marco Abbiati, Michael Sweet, Massimo Ponti
Mediterranean gorgonian forests are species-rich habitats, and like many other marine habitats they are threatened by anthropogenic disturbances and mass mortality events. These mortality events have often been linked to anomalies in the temperature profiles of the Mediterranean region. On 5 September 2017, colonies of the gorgonians Eunicella singularis and Eunicella cavolini exhibited rapid tissue loss, down to a depth of 30 m along the steep cliffs of Montecristo Island, Tuscan Archipelago National Park, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Andrés Fernández-Loras, Bárbara Martín-Beyer, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch
The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is a major driver pushing many amphibian species to the brink of extinction. Substantial efforts to develop effective protocols that use antifungal drugs have had notable success. Here, we used the antifungal agents itraconazole and thiophanate-methyl, singly and in combination, in an attempt to treat common midwife toad Alytes obstetricans larvae naturally infected with the globalized hypervirulent lineage of B...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
N Buján, Alicia E Toranzo, B Magariños
Edwardsiella piscicida, a Gram-negative, facultative aerobic pathogen belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the etiological agent of edwardsiellosis in fish and a significant problem in global aquaculture. E. piscicida has been reported from a broad geographical range and has been isolated from more than 20 fish host species to date, but this is likely to be an underestimation, because misidentification of E. piscicida as other species within the genus remains to be resolved. Common clinical signs associated with edwardsiellosis include, but are not limited to, exophthalmia, haemorrhages of the skin and in several internal organs, mild to moderate dermal ulcerations, abdominal distension, discoloration in the fish surface, and erratic swimming...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Luis Fernando Aranguren, Arun K Dhar
Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a bacterial disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium classified as Hepatobacter penaei. H. penaei affects cultured penaeid shrimp in several countries from the western hemisphere, including the USA, and most Central and South American countries that farm shrimp. The current PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays based on the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene developed at the University of Arizona Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory (UAZ-APL) are the only techniques recommended in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) manual for H...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Sophia Egloff, Constanze Pietsch
Ethoxyquin (EQ) is an antioxidant that has, to date, been commonly used in feed production. Reports on the detrimental effects of this substance on vertebrates are growing, but effects in aquatic systems have rarely been described. Therefore, the present study was conducted using serial concentrations of EQ ranging from 0.03 to 16.5 mg l-1 to determine effects on 3 types of aquatic organisms. In zebrafish, 5 mg l-1 EQ caused mortality (25%) and a further 62.5% of the embryos showed yolk sac edema as well as deformed bodies or missing eyes...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Fernando Gómez, Rebecca J Gast
The morphology and molecular phylogeny of the parasitic dinoflagellates Ichthyodinium chabelardi and Amyloodinium ocellatum was investigated off Brazil (South Atlantic Ocean). This is the first record of Ichthyodinium and the first molecular data of both parasites from the southern hemisphere. I. chabelardi infected the yolk of eggs of wild populations of Argentine anchovy Engraulis anchoita (Engraulidae) and Brazilian sardinella Sardinella brasiliensis (Clupeidae) in different seasons. The small subunit (SSU) rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequences were identical and confirmed Ichthyodinium as a host generalist...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Samantha L Rumschlag, Michelle D Boone
The result of pathogen exposures may depend upon trade-offs in energetic demands for immune responses against host growth and survival. Environmental conditions may influence these trade-offs by affecting host size, or trade-offs may change across seasons, altering impacts of pathogens. We exposed northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens tadpoles to different larval environments (low leaf litter, high density of conspecifics, atrazine, caged fish, or controls) that influenced size at metamorphosis. Subsequently, we exposed metamorphs to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen, just after metamorphosis and/or prior to overwintering 12 wk later...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Thaís Carneiro S Rodrigues, Josué Díaz-Delgado, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Júlia da Luz Carvalho, Miriam Marmontel
The Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis and tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis are classified as Data Deficient species. Despite very limited knowledge on health and disease aspects of these species, the main threats to their conservation include incidental mortality in fishing gear, population fragmentation, habitat loss and environmental pollution. It is also suggested that underlying diseases may contribute to their mortality rates. Herein, we retrospectively describe gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in free-ranging I...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Carmen Gilardoni, Gisele Di Giorgio, Cristián Ituarte, Florencia Cremonte
This study documents the lesions caused by 9 digenean larvae parasitizing 6 marine gastropod species from Patagonia, Argentina. Most digeneans produce a lesion where the parthenitae replace the gonadal tissues and also occupy part of the digestive gland. Three atypical lesions and tropism were observed in (1) Trophon geversianus (Muricidae) infected by Renicolidae gen. et sp. 1, where the sporocysts occur inside the gonad acini which retain their general structure due to the persistence of the acinus wall, (2) Nacella magellanica (Nacellidae) infected by Renicolidae gen...
September 27, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
M Constenla, F Padrós, A Villanueva-González, R Del Pozo, O Palenzuela
Systemic amoebiasis of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis is caused by Endolimax piscium Constenla, Padrós & Palenzuela, 2014 a cryptic parasitic member of the Archamoebae whose epidemiology is yet unknown. To test whether the parasite can be transmitted horizontally, an experimental trial by cohabitation between non-infected and infected fish was designed. Transmission of the parasite from naturally infected to healthy fish was confirmed in the experiment, with the water as the most likely route of infection...
September 27, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
B E Bookelaar, A J O'Reilly, S A Lynch, S C Culloty
Ostreid herpesvirus-1 microVar (OsHV-1 µVar) has been responsible for significant mortalities globally in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. While the impact of this virus on the Pacific oyster has been significant, this pathogen may have wider ecosystem consequences. It has not been definitively determined how the virus is sustaining itself in the marine environment and whether other species are susceptible. The shore crab Carcinus maenas is a mobile predator and scavenger of C. gigas, commonly found at Pacific oyster culture sites...
September 27, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Riccardo Caprioli, Agata Mrugała, Marco Di Domenico, Valentina Curini, Carla Giansante, Cesare Cammà, Adam Petrusek
The oomycete Aphanomyces astaci is the causative agent of crayfish plague in native European freshwater crayfish. Molecular analyses showed that several distinct genotype groups of this pathogen, apparently associated with different original host taxa, are present in Europe. Tracking their distribution may contribute to understanding the introduction pathways of A. astaci. We used microsatellite markers to genotype the pathogen strains involved in 7 mass mortalities of the endangered indigenous crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes that occurred between 2009 and 2016 in the Abruzzi and Molise regions, central Italy...
September 27, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Sang Phil Shin, Chang Nam Jin, Han Chang Sohn, Jehee Lee
Parvicapsula curvatura n. sp. (Myxozoa; Bivalvulida) was found in the urinary bladder of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus cultured in a fish farm on Jeju Island, ROK. When laterally viewed, the parasite has asymmetrical curved spores that measure 9.6-11.6 µm in length. Furthermore, it has 2 subspherical polar capsules at the apex. Based on the phenotypical traits, it is most similar to P. limandae but differs in the shape of polar capsule, locality, and host specificity (family level). BLAST analysis indicated that P...
September 27, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jennifer C Olori, Rachel Netzband, Nathan McKean, Jason Lowery, Kirsten Parsons, Sofia T Windstam
Chytridiomycosis and ranavirosis are 2 emerging infectious diseases that have caused significant global amphibian decline. Although both have received much scrutiny, little is known about interactions between the 2 causative agents Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv) at the individual host and population levels. We present the first longitudinal assessment of Bd, Rv, and co-infections of a temperate amphibian assemblage in North America. From 2012 to 2016, we assessed the temporal oscillations of Bd, Rv and co-infection dynamics in a sample of 729 animals representing 13 species...
September 27, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Carlos Sacristán, Fernando Esperón, Juliana Marigo, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Rafael Ramos de Carvalho, Kátia Regina Groch, Pedro Volkmer de Castilho, Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento, Samira Costa-Silva, Eduardo Ferreira-Machado, Omar Antonio Gonzales-Viera, Fábio G Daura-Jorge, Elitieri B Santos-Neto, José Lailson-Brito, Alexandre de Freitas Azevedo, Paulo C Simões-Lopes, Carlos G Neves, José Luiz Catão-Dias
The poxviruses identified in cetaceans are associated with characteristic tattoo or ring skin lesions. However, little is known regarding the prevalence and progression of these lesions and the molecular characterization of cetacean poxviruses in the Southern Hemisphere. This manuscript describes the progression of poxvirus-like skin lesions in 5 free-ranging Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis. Additionally, 151 skin samples from 113 free-ranging cetaceans from Brazil, including 4 animals with tattoo skin lesions, were selected for poxvirus testing...
September 27, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Asma Iqbal, Lena Measures, Stéphane Lair, Brent Dixon
The St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) beluga Delphinapterus leucas in Quebec, Canada, is endangered due to intensive hunting in the 19th and 20th centuries and subsequent anthropogenic contamination and human activities in the region. Infectious disease is a primary cause of death in this population. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is reported in numerous marine mammal species, including beluga. In the present study, 55 tissue samples (heart and brain) collected from 34 stranded SLE beluga were analysed by PCR followed by DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) to determine the PCR prevalence and genotypes of T...
September 27, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Maria V Fernández, Monika I Hamann
A key factor in the colonization probabilities of parasites is the host's characteristic habitat. Considering that rice fields are simple habitats compared with natural wetlands, we comparatively analyzed the composition of the cercariae communities in Biomphalaria snails in an agricultural and a nonagricultural habitat of Corrientes Province, Argentina. We collected 2998 Biomphalaria snails from November 2011 to May 2012: B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, B. peregrina, and B. orbignyi in the nonagricultural habitat and B...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Argiñe Cerezo, Oscar Quesada-Canales, Eva Sierra, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Antonio Fernández, Jamie Henningson, Manuel Arbelo
We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of fungal hyphate infection in a juvenile female Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis found dead off Arguineguin, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). On necropsy examination, the animal had a large cranial intrathoracic mass and multiple variably-sized nodules throughout the larynx and trachea that obliterated the lumen. Microscopically, the masses were composed of abundant pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous fungal hyphae...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Heidi Wyrosdick, Alycia Chapman, Antonio A Mignucci-Giannoni, Carla I Rivera-Pérez, Robert K Bonde
The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is divided into 2 subspecies: the Antillean (T. m. manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. This study reports sample prevalence of manatee parasites from populations of these 2 subspecies in different geographical locations. Although necropsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for parasite infections, the need for antemortem diagnostic techniques is important. Fecal samples collected during necropsies of Antillean manatees (n = 3) in Puerto Rico and Florida manatees (n = 10) in Crystal River, Florida, as well as from live-captured Florida manatees (n = 11) were evaluated using centrifugal flotation with sucrose and ethyl acetate sedimentation to compare parasites from each of the populations...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Vladimir A Krapivin, Sergey V Bagrov, Marina A Varfolomeeva
In the White Sea, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis occupies a wide range of biotopes and is associated with numerous symbiotic organisms. At some sites, mussel cover spreads continuously from the intertidal to the subtidal zone. We checked whether the patterns of infection by different associated organisms differed among the upper subtidal, zero-depth and lower intertidal zones at 3 sites in the Kandalaksha Gulf and the Onega Bay of the White Sea. Organisms belonging to 13 taxa were found in mantle cavities and tissues of blue mussels...
September 10, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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