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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425429/evidence-of-horizontal-transmission-of-the-cancer-associated-steamer-retrotransposon-among-ecological-cohort-bivalve-species
#1
Ashley N Paynter, Michael J Metzger, Jocelyn A Sessa, Mark E Siddall
Bivalve specimens from legacy frozen tissue collections, and others freshly obtained, were surveyed for the presence of the Steamer long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon associated with disseminated hemic neoplasia of the soft-shelled clam Mya areneria. Of 22 species investigated using primers for the pol region, only Atlantic M. arenaria, Atlantic and North Sea razor clams Ensis directus, and Baltic clams Macoma balthica from the North Sea were found to possess copies of Steamer in their genomes. Notably, close relatives like Mya truncata and Siliqua patula did not exhibit evidence of Steamer...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425428/innate-immune-response-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus-mannose-binding-lectin-to-channel-catfish-virus-ccv
#2
Donald D Ourth, Emily Marecaux, Deepthi Raghu, Brian C Peterson
The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in pond aquaculture in the southeastern USA. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an innate immune protein, could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to CCV. Cell cultures of CCV were grown in channel catfish ovary cells (CCOC). A dot-immunoblot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done to determine the binding ability of 5 mo old channel catfish serum MBL (26.2 µg ml-1) to CCOC infected with CCV...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425427/tetracapsuloides-bryosalmonae-abundance-in-river-water
#3
Inês Fontes, Hanna Hartikainen, Jason W Holland, Chris J Secombes, Beth Okamura
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan parasite of freshwater bryozoans and salmonids, causing proliferative kidney disease in the latter. To date, detection of the parasite has required collection of hosts and subsequent molecular or histological examination. The release of infectious spores from both hosts offers an opportunity to detect the parasite in water samples. We developed a novel SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for T. bryosalmonae in water samples which provides an estimation of bryozoan malacospore numbers and tested the assay in 3 rivers in southern England (UK) over a period of 5 wk...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425426/production-of-red-tilapia-oreochromis-spp-in-floating-cages-in-the-mekong-delta-vietnam-mortality-and-health-management
#4
Annette S Boerlage, Tu Thanh Dung, Tran Thi Hoa, Jeffrey Davidson, Henrik Stryhn, K Larry Hammell
The Mekong Delta in Vietnam is one of the most productive aquaculture regions in the world, in which the red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) industry is a small-scale industry that mainly supplies local markets in the delta region. Little is known about the frequency of mortality events and health management in this sector. We describe red tilapia floating cage production systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, for the purposes of quantifying mortality and associated production factors, and describing practices that may influence pathogen introduction and spread to and from farms...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425425/skeletal-anomalies-in-reared-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-juveniles-a-radiographic-approach
#5
A M de Azevedo, A P Losada, A Barreiro, J D Barreiro, I Ferreiro, A Riaza, S Vázquez, M I Quiroga
Reared Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup show a high incidence of vertebral anomalies; however, little is known about its skeletal anomaly profile in the later farming phases. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description and quantification of the most common skeletal anomalies in reared Senegalese sole in the juvenile stage by means of computed radiography. A total of 374 Senegalese sole were classified according to the external morphology of the fish as normal or altered and then radiographed in latero-lateral and in dorso-ventral projections...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425424/spatial-distribution-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-south-american-caecilians
#6
Carolina Lambertini, C Guilherme Becker, Cecilia Bardier, Domingos da Silva Leite, Luís Felipe Toledo
The amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is linked to population declines in anurans and salamanders globally. To date, however, few studies have attempted to screen Bd in live caecilians; Bd-positive caecilians have only been reported in Africa and French Guiana. Here, we performed a retrospective survey of museum preserved specimens to (1) describe spatial patterns of Bd infection in Gymnophiona across South America and (2) test whether areas of low climatic suitability for Bd in anurans predict Bd spatial epidemiology in caecilians...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425423/pathology-and-molecular-analysis-of-hapalotrema-mistroides-digenea-spirorchiidae-infecting-a-mediterranean-loggerhead-turtle-caretta-caretta
#7
M Santoro, F Di Nocera, D Iaccarino, S P Lawton, A Cerrone, B Degli Uberti, M D'Amore, A Affuso, S Hochscheid, F Maffucci, G Galiero
Turtle blood flukes belonging to the family Spirorchiidae (Digenea) represent a major threat for sea turtle health and are considered the most important parasitic cause of turtle stranding and mortality worldwide. Despite the large diversity of spirorchiid species found globally, there are only 2 records for free-ranging Mediterranean sea turtles that date back to the late 1800s involving just Hapalotrema mistroides Monticelli, 1896. This study describes the first fatal confirmed case of spirorchiidiasis in a free-ranging Mediterranean loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus) and, owing to the complexities of taxonomic identification of these parasites, provides the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of H...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425422/mass-mortality-of-eastern-box-turtles-with-upper-respiratory-disease-following-atypical-cold-weather
#8
Mickey Agha, Steven J Price, A Justin Nowakowski, Ben Augustine, Brian D Todd
Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357988/isolation-of-lacinutrix-venerupis-strains-associated-with-disease-outbreaks-in-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-and-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#9
Jose R López, Rafael Alcantara, Laura Lorenzo, J I Navas
Four Gram-negative bacterial isolates were recovered from 2 disease outbreaks that occurred in 2013 affecting European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax fry and sea bream Sparus aurata adults. Main symptoms were erratic swimming, eroded fins and, in the sea bream outbreak, haemorrhages on the body surface; bacteria were always recovered from internal organs, almost in pure culture. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as Lacinutrix venerupis, a bacterium not previously reported as a fish pathogen...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357987/health-status-of-corals-surrounding-kish-island-persian-gulf
#10
Mahsa Alidoost Salimi, Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Seyyed Mohammad Fatemi, Greta S Aeby
Corals in the Persian Gulf exist in a harsh environment with extreme temperature and salinity fluctuations. Understanding the health of these hardy corals may prove useful for predicting the survival of other marine organisms facing the impacts of global climate change. In this study, the health state of corals was surveyed along belt transects at 4 sites on the east side of Kish Island, Iran. Corals had a patchy distribution, low colony densities and species diversity, and were dominated by Acropora, Porites, and Dipsastrea...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357986/seasonal-variation-in-chaetognath-and-parasite-species-assemblages-along-the-northeastern-coast-of-the-yucatan-peninsula
#11
Horacio Lozano-Cobo, María Del Carmen Gómez Del Prado-Rosas, Laura Sánchez-Velasco, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez
Chaetognaths are abundant carnivores with broad distributions that are intermediate hosts of trophically transmitted parasites. Monthly variations in chaetognath and parasite species distributions, abundance, prevalence, and intensity related to seasonal environmental changes were recorded in 2004 and 2005 in Laguna Nichupté, a coral reef, and the adjoining continental shelf of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Of 12 chaetognath species plus Sagitta spp., only 5 (Ferosagitta hispida, Flaccisagitta enflata, Sagitta spp...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357985/fine-scale-transition-to-lower-bacterial-diversity-and-altered-community-composition-precedes-shell-disease-in-laboratory-reared-juvenile-american-lobster
#12
Sarah G Feinman, Andrea Unzueta Martínez, Jennifer L Bowen, Michael F Tlusty
The American lobster Homarus americanus supports a valuable commercial fishery in the Northeastern USA and Maritime Canada; however, stocks in the southern portion of the lobster's range have shown declines, in part due to the emergence of shell disease. Epizootic shell disease is a bacterially induced cuticular erosion that renders even mildly affected lobsters unmarketable because of their appearance, and in more severe cases can cause mortality. Despite the importance of this disease, the associated bacterial communities have not yet been fully characterized...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357984/development-of-a-multiplex-pcr-method-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-four-myxosporeans-infecting-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio
#13
Dan Li, Yanhua Zhai, Zemao Gu, Yang Liu
Gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), a commercially important freshwater-cultured fish in China, is threatened by myxosporeans, particularly Thelohanellus wuhanensis, Myxobolus honghuensis, M. wulii and M. turpisrotundus. Here, we developed a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of these 4 myxosporeans. The specific primers for each species were designed based on the 28S rDNA gene of T. wuhanensis, the ITS-5.8S rDNA of M. honghuensis and M. wulii, and the 18S rDNA gene of M. turpisrotundus...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357983/experimental-challenges-with-renibacterium-salmoninarum-in-arctic-charr-salvelinus-alpinus
#14
S Gudmundsdóttir, Á Kristmundsson, Í Ö Árnason
Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus L. is an important species in Icelandic aquaculture and the most common wild salmonid in Iceland. A study on the course of infection with the bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum was conducted using 3 different challenge methods in brackish and fresh water. Bacterial isolation, ELISA and PCR tests were used for detection of the bacterium in multiple organ samples. In an experiment, run for 34 wk in brackish water, infection was established by intraperitoneal injection with 5 × 106 colony forming units (CFU) fish-1...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357982/co-infection-of-acipenserid-herpesvirus-2-acihv-2-and-streptococcus-iniae-in-cultured-white-sturgeon-acipenser-transmontanus
#15
Esteban Soto, Christine Richey, Brittany Stevens, Susan Yun, Kirsten Kenelty, Stephen Reichley, Matt Griffin, Tomofumi Kurobe, Al Camus
A mortality event in cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson, 1836) sub-adults was investigated. After transfer between farms, high mortality was observed in fish, associated with back arching, abnormal swimming, and ulcerative skin lesions. Necropsy of moribund individuals revealed hemorrhagic ascites and petechial hemorrhages in the coelomic peritoneum and serosa of internal organs. Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) was isolated from external tissue samples, then identified and genotyped by sequencing of the terminase and polymerase genes...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357981/surveillance-for-nervous-necrosis-virus-specific-antibodies-in-barramundi-lates-calcarifer-in-australian-hatcheries
#16
Diana Jaramillo, Paul Hick, Kitman Dyrting, Ian Anderson, Richard J Whittington
We conducted single point-in-time and repeated cross-sectional studies of the prevalence of antibodies against nervous necrosis virus (NNV) in populations of adult barramundi Lates calcarifer in Australia. Serum samples collected between 2002 and 2012 were analyzed with indirect ELISA (n = 468). Most of the samples were sourced from broodstock with unknown exposure history, and these were compared with reference populations with confirmed history of exposure to NNV. Non-lethally collected gonad fluid samples from economically valuable barramundi broodstock (n = 164) were tested for the presence of NNV using RT-quantitative PCR at the time of blood sampling to compare infectivity with serostatus, but no virus was detected...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322212/severe-mutilation-of-a-critically-endangered-taiwanese-humpback-dolphin-sousa-chinensis-taiwanensis-by-fishing-gear
#17
John Y Wang, Claryana Araújo-Wang
Direct observations of the causes of injuries to cetaceans are rare events. For very small and declining populations, such events may be even less likely to be observed because of the few individuals that remain. A long-term monitoring program using photographic identification of individuals resulted in the documentation of an individual Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis that survived a harmful interaction with fishing gear. An adult female that was accompanied by a young calf sustained massive damage to several tissue types on her dorsal surface...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322211/prey-species-of-franciscana-pontoporia-blainvillei-as-paratenic-hosts-of-helminths
#18
Tony Silveira, Mariana H Remião, Ricardo B Robaldo, Kaio Freitas, Ana Luísa S Valente
The distribution of franciscana Pontoporia blainvillei Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1884, is restricted to the estuarine and coastal waters of the southwestern Atlantic. The diet of this dolphin is composed of fishes, squids, and shrimps, many of which harbor helminths that may infect franciscana. Larval forms of the trematode Synthesium pontoporiae and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma turbinella have been recorded in franciscana; however, they have not yet been identified in any of the prey species of this cetacean. We evaluated 3 components of the diet of franciscana as possible transmission sources of parasitiasis...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322210/mycolactone-producing-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-in-captive-hong-kong-warty-newts-and-pathological-evidence-of-impaired-host-immune-function
#19
Wen-Ta Li, Hui-Wen Chang, Victor Fei Pang, Fun-In Wang, Chen-Hsuan Liu, Ting-Yu Chen, Jun-Cheng Guo, Takayuki Wada, Chian-Ren Jeng
A mass mortality event of captive Hong Kong warty newts Paramesotriton hongkongensis with non-granulomatous necrotic lesions occurred in Taipei Zoo, Taiwan, in 2014. Clinically, the sick newts were lethargic and often covered with water mold Saprolegnia sp. on the skin of the body trunk or extremities. Predominant pathological findings were multifocal non-granulomatous necrotic lesions in the liver, spleen, and kidneys and severe skin infection with Saprolegnia sp., with deep invasion and involvement of underlying muscles...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322209/complex-interactive-effects-of-water-mold-herbicide-and-the-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-on-pacific-treefrog-hyliola-regilla-hosts
#20
John M Romansic, James E Johnson, R Steven Wagner, Rebecca H Hill, Christopher A Gaulke, Vance T Vredenburg, Andrew R Blaustein
Infectious diseases pose a serious threat to global biodiversity. However, their ecological impacts are not independent of environmental conditions. For example, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has contributed to population declines and extinctions in many amphibian species, interacts with several environmental factors to influence its hosts, but potential interactions with other pathogens and environmental contaminants are understudied. We examined the combined effects of Bd, a water mold (Achlya sp...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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