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Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Stylianos Kouvaros, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
Hippocampus is importantly involved in dopamine-dependent behaviors and dopamine is a significant modulator of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Moreover, the dopaminergic innervation appears to be disproportionally segregated along the hippocampal longitudinal (dorsoventral) axis with unknown consequences for synaptic plasticity. In this study we examined the actions of endogenously released dopamine and the effects of exogenous D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonists on theta-burst stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory synaptic potential (fEPSP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in slices from dorsal (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH)...
March 14, 2018: Synapse
Inki Lee, Jin Su Kim, Joon Yeun Park, Byung Hyun Byun, Su Yeon Park, Joon Ho Choi, Hansol Moon, Jung Young Kim, Kyo Chul Lee, Dae Yoon Chi, Kyeong Min Kim, Ilhan Lim, Joo Hyun Kang, Soon Hyuk Ahn, Byung Il Kim, Jeong Ho Ha, Sang Moo Lim
123 I-FP-CIT and18 F-FP-CIT are radiotracers which are widely used to diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD). However, to our knowledge, no studies to date have made head-to-head comparisons between123 I-FP-CIT and18 F-FP-CIT. Therefore, in this study,123 I-FP-CIT SPECT/CT was compared with18 F-FP-CIT PET/CT in the same cohort of subjects. Patients with PD and essential tremor (ET) underwent123 I-FP-CIT SPECT/CT and18 F-FP-CIT PET/CT. Visual and semi-quantitative analyses were conducted. The specific binding ratio (SBR) and putamen to caudate ratio (PCR) were compared between subjects who underwent123 I-FP-CIT SPECT/CT and18 F-FP-CIT PET/CT...
February 27, 2018: Synapse
John Hamilton, Matthew Marion, Antonio Figueiredo, Brendan H Clavin, Dale Deutsch, Martin Kaczocha, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Panayotis K Thanos
Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has previously been shown to have an important role on the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Recently, fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) have been proposed as intracellular transporters of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) as well as other bioactive lipids to their catabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The role of these transporters in modulating the brains reward system has yet to be investigated...
February 19, 2018: Synapse
Juan David Olivares Hernández, Fabio García-García, Israel Camacho-Abrego, Gonzalo Flores, Enrique Juárez-Aguilar
A growing body of evidence suggests that growth hormone (GH) affects synaptic plasticity at both the molecular and electrophysiological levels. However, unclear is whether plasticity that is stimulated by GH is associated with changes in neuron structure. The present study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of GH on the morphology of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and layer III of the prefrontal cortex. Male Wistar rats received daily ICV injections of GH (120 ng) for 7 days, and they were euthanized 21 days later...
February 5, 2018: Synapse
A Avendaño-Estrada, M A Ávila-Rodríguez
INTRODUCTION: Dopaminergic PET imaging is a useful tool to assess the dopaminergic integrity and to follow-up longitudinal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of different reference tissue-based methods to determine the non-displaceable binding potential (BPND ) as a quantitative measure of 11 C-DTBZ binding to the VMAT2 in rat striatum using cerebellum as reference region. METHODS: Eight healthy Wistar rats underwent two microPET scans at the age of 12 (test) and 20 weeks (retest)...
January 30, 2018: Synapse
Mikhail Y Lipin, Jozsef Vigh
Inhibition mediated by horizontal and amacrine cells in the outer and inner retina, respectively, are fundamental components of visual processing. Here, our purpose was to determine how these different inhibitory processes affect glutamate release from ON bipolar cells when the retina is stimulated with full-field light of various intensities. Light-evoked membrane potential changes (ΔVm ) were recorded directly from axon terminals of intact bipolar cells receiving mixed rod and cone inputs (Mbs) in slices of dark-adapted goldfish retina...
January 23, 2018: Synapse
Adeline Orts-Del'Immagine, Jason R Pugh
Parallel fiber synapses in the cerebellum express a wide range of presynaptic receptors. However, presynaptic receptor expression at individual parallel fiber synapses is quite heterogeneous, suggesting physiological mechanisms regulate presynaptic receptor expression. We investigated changes in presynaptic GABAB receptors at parallel fiber-stellate cell synapses in acute cerebellar slices from juvenile mice. GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition of EPSCs is remarkably diverse at these synapses, with transmitter release at some synapses inhibited by more than 50% and little or no inhibition at others...
January 23, 2018: Synapse
Mohammadmehdi Hadipour, Gholamreza Kaka, Farideh Bahrami, Gholam Hossein Meftahi, Gila Pirzad Jahromi, Alireza Mohammadi, Hedayat Sahraei
Extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and deposition is the main factor, which causes synaptic loss and eventually cells death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory loss and long-term potentiation (LTP) dysfunction in the hippocampus are involved in the AD. The involvement of crocin, as the main and active constituent of saffron extract in learning and memory processes, has been proposed. Here we investigated the probable therapeutic effect of crocin on memory, LTP and neuronal apoptosis using in vivo Aβ models of the AD...
January 22, 2018: Synapse
Jessica Virgili, Meryem Lebbadi, Cyntia Tremblay, Isabelle St-Amour, Caroline Pierrisnard, Audrey Faucher-Genest, Vincent Emond, Carl Julien, Frédéric Calon
No model fully recapitulates the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) expresses Aβ plaques and tau-laden neurofibrillary tangles, as well as synaptic and behavioral deficits, it does not display frank neuronal loss. Since old age is the most important risk factor in AD, senescence-related interactions might be lacking to truly establish an AD-like environment. To investigate this hypothesis, we bred the 3xTg-AD mouse with the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), a model of accelerated aging...
January 17, 2018: Synapse
Adriana B Silva, Dolores A Bravo-Duran, Jose R Eguibar, Carmen Cortes
Myelin mutant taiep rats show a progressive demyelination in the central nervous system due to an abnormal accumulation of microtubules in the cytoplasm and the processes on their oligodendrocytes. Demyelination is associated with electrophysiological alterations and the mutant had a progressive astrocytosis. The illness is associated with change in cytokine levels and in the expression of different nitric oxide synthase and concomitantly lipoperoxidation in several areas of the brain. However, until now there has been no detailed anatomical analysis of neurons in this mutant...
January 11, 2018: Synapse
Brett T Himmler, Richelle Mychasiuk, Ayuno Nakahashi, Stephanie M Himmler, Sergio M Pellis, Bryan Kolb
Juvenile social interactions have been shown to influence the dendritic complexity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In particular, social play induces pruning of the cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas interacting with multiple partners, whether those interactions involve play or not, increases the complexity of cells in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies suggest that these changes differ in their stability during adulthood. In the present study, rats were reared in groups of either four (quads) or two (pairs) and the brains of the rats from each rearing condition were then harvested at 60 days (i...
April 2018: Synapse
W Gordon Frankle, Brigitte Robertson, Gary Maier, Jennifer Paris, Deanna Asmonga, Maureen May, Michael L Himes, N Scott Mason, Chester A Mathis, Rajesh Narendran
SEP-227162 [R(-)-O-desmethylvenlafaxine] is an enantiomer of the venlafaxine metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV, Pristiq™, Wyeth). This study compared the serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy achieved by SEP-227162 and ODV, at daily doses of 25, 50, 100, and 150 mg using [11 C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET). Sixteen healthy male subjects participated in one of four dose groups (N = 4 per group) during which they were administered two doses of the study drug (SEP-227162 or ODV). For each study drug, total daily doses of 25, 50, 100, and150 mg were studied...
March 2018: Synapse
Bryan Kolb, Yilin Li, Terry Robinson, Linda A Parker
Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
March 2018: Synapse
Francesca Zanderigo, Yeona Kang, Dileep Kumar, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, P David Mozley, Paresh J Kothari, Bin He, David Schlyer, Stanley I Rapoport, Maria A Oquendo, Shankar Vallabhajosula, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Arachidonic acid (AA) is involved in signal transduction, neuroinflammation, and production of eicosanoid metabolites. The AA brain incorporation coefficient (K*) is quantifiable in vivo using [11 C]AA positron emission tomography, although repeatability remains undetermined. We evaluated K* estimates obtained with population-based metabolite correction (PBMC) and image-derived input function (IDIF) in comparison to arterial blood-based estimates, and compared repeatability. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent a [11 C]AA scan; five repeated the scan 6 weeks later, simulating a pre- and post-treatment study design...
February 2018: Synapse
Ken G Victor, Daniel S Heffron, Jennifer D Sokolowski, Usnish Majumder, Andrea Leblanc, James W Mandell
The dismantling and elimination of excess neurons and their connections (pruning) is essential for brain development and may be aberrantly reactivated in some neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence implicates caspase-mediated apoptotic and nonapoptotic cascades in the dysfunction and death of neurons in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson, and Huntington's diseases. It is the cleaved caspase substrates that are the effectors of synapse elimination. However, their identities, specific cleavage sites, and functional consequences of cleavage are largely unknown...
January 2018: Synapse
Krisztian Toth, Lauren M Slosky, Thomas F Pack, Nikhil M Urs, Peter Boone, Lan Mao, Dennis Abraham, Marc G Caron, Lawrence S Barak
The "brain-gut" peptide ghrelin, which mediates food-seeking behaviors, is recognized as a very strong endogenous modulator of dopamine (DA) signaling. Ghrelin binds the G protein-coupled receptor GHSR1a, and administration of ghrelin increases the rewarding properties of psychostimulants while ghrelin receptor antagonists decrease them. In addition, the GHSR1a signals through βarrestin-2 to regulate actin/stress fiber rearrangement, suggesting βarrestin-2 participation in the regulation of actin-mediated synaptic plasticity for addictive substances like cocaine...
January 2018: Synapse
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key arginine metabolising enzyme in the brain, and nNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. NO and its related molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and human genetic studies have identified schizophrenia risk genes encoding nNOS. This study systematically investigated how maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid affected nNOS-immunoreactivity in the brain of the resulting male and female offspring at the age of postnatal day (PND) 2...
January 2018: Synapse
Benjamin B Tournier, Andrea Dimiziani, Stergios Tsartsalis, Philippe Millet, Nathalie Ginovart
The Roman high (RHA)- and low (RLA)-avoidance rat sublines have been identified as an addiction-prone and addiction-resistant phenotype based on their high vs. low locomotor responsiveness to novelty and high vs. low ability to develop neurochemical and behavioural sensitization to psychostimulants, respectively. Most studies though have focused on psychostimulants and little is known about the neuroadaptive response of these two lines to cannabinoids. The current study investigated the effects of chronic exposure to Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3 R) availabilities and functional sensitivity in the mesostriatal system of RHA and RLA rats...
December 19, 2017: Synapse
Nicolas Ivan Bertone, Ayelén Ivana Groisman, Graciela Lujan Mazzone, Raquel Cano, Lucia Tabares, Osvaldo Daniel Uchitel
Acetazolamide (AZ), a molecule frequently used to treat different neurological syndromes, is an inhibitor of the carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that regulates pH inside and outside cells. We combined fluorescent FM styryl dyes and electrophysiological techniques at ex vivo levator auris longus neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) from mice to investigate the modulation of synaptic transmission and vesicle recycling by AZ. Transmitter release was minimally affected by AZ, as evidenced by evoked and spontaneous end-plate potential measurements...
December 2017: Synapse
Angel A Robles G, Ana V Vega, Carolina Gonzalez-Sandoval, Jaime Barral
Potassium channels play an important role in modulating synaptic activity both at presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. We have shown before that presynaptically located KV and KIR channels modulate the strength of corticostriatal synapses in rat brain, but the role of other types of potassium channels at these synapses remains largely unknown. Here we show that calcium-dependent potassium channels BK-type but not SK-type channels are located presynaptically in corticostriatal synapses. We stimulated cortical neurons in rat brain slices and recorded postsynaptic excitatory potentials (EPSP) in medium spiny neurons (MSN) in dorsal neostriatum...
November 14, 2017: Synapse
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