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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035691/smad-anchor-for-receptor-activation-contributes-to-seizures-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Weihua Yu, Yingshi Du, Yan Zou, Xuefeng Wang, Ulrich Stephani, Yang Lü
PURPOSE: Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is an important regulator of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling by recruiting Smad2/3 to TGF-β receptors. Although TGF-β signaling is critically involved in epileptogenesis, whether SARA activation is sufficient to facilitate TGF-β pathway to regulate epilepsy remains unknown. METHODS: The expression of SARA and downstream Phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) was examined in rats with pilocarpine induced epilepsy...
December 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002633/vta-da-neuron-excitatory-synapses-in-shank3-%C3%AE-ex-4-9-mouse-line
#2
Bariselli Sebastiano, Bellone Camilla
SHANK3 proteins belong to the Shank/ProSAP family, which contain five-conserved domains - the ankyrin (ANK) repeated, the Src homology 3 (SH3), the PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ), the proline-rich and the sterile alpha motif (SAM; Sheng and Kim, 2000). SHANK proteins are located at the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses and indirectly link the metabotropic (mGluRs) and the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluRs: AMPARs, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, and NMDARs, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) via different domains (Naisbitt et al...
December 21, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997737/distribution-of-type-i-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf1-receptors-on-gabaergic-neurons-within-the-basolateral-amygdala
#3
Katina C Calakos, Dakota Blackman, Alexandra M Schulz, Elizabeth P Bauer
The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a critical role in mediating anxiety-like responses to stressors, and dysfunction of the CRF system has been linked to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Extra-hypothalamic CRF can also modulate learning and memory formation, including amygdala-dependent learning. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) contains dense concentrations of CRF receptors, yet the distribution of these receptors on specific neuronal subtypes within the BLA has not been characterized...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997735/curcuma-treatment-prevents-cognitive-deficit-and-alteration-of-neuronal-morphology-in-the-limbic-system-of-aging-rats
#4
Blanca Vidal, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Dino Gnecco, Raúl G Enríquez, Benjamin Floran, Alfonso Díaz, Gonzalo Flores
Curcuma is a natural compound that has shown neuroprotective properties, and has been reported to prevent aging and improve memory. While the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are unclear, they may be related to increases in neural plasticity. Morphological changes have been reported in neuronal dendrites in the limbic system in animals and elderly humans with cognitive impairment. In this regard, there is a need to use alternative therapies that delay the onset of morphologies and behavioural characteristics of aging...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997730/inhibitors-of-oxidative-and-hydrolytic-endocannabinoid-degradation-do-not-enhance-depolarization-induced-suppression-of-excitation-on-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus-glycinergic-neurons
#5
João Zugaib, Ricardo M Leão
Neurons from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) present endocannabinoid (EC) dependent short-term synaptic plasticity in the form of depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE). Post-synaptic calcium influx promotes EC synthesis and depression of neurotransmission. ECs can be degraded by a hydrolytic and an oxidative pathway, the latter via the enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Hyperactivity in the DCN is related to the development of tinnitus which can be induced by high doses of salicylate, a COX-2 inhibitor...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902847/food-deprivation-facilitates-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-role-of-intra-accumbal-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-associating-reinstatement-of-morphine-cpp-with-stress
#6
Fatemeh Sadeghzadeh, Vahab Babapour, Abbas Haghparast
The high rate of relapse to drug use is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays the essential role in drug abuse and relapse; nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying stress and relapse. Accordingly, the effects of intra-accumbal administration of Sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on an ineffective morphine dose+food deprivation(FD)- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP). 104 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280g were bilaterally implanted by cannula into the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
November 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864853/pet-radiotracer-development-for-imaging-high-affinity-state-of-dopamine-d2-and-d3-receptors-binding-studies-of-fluorine-18-labeled-aminotetralins-in-rodents
#7
Jogeshwar Mukherjee, Divya Majji, Jasmeet Kaur, Cristian C Constantinescu, Tanjore K Narayanan, Bingzhi Shi, Mohamed T Nour, Min-Liang Pan
Imaging the high-affinity, functional state (HA) of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors has been pursued in PET imaging studies of various brain functions. We report further evaluation of (18) F-5-OH-FPPAT, and the newer (18) F-5-OH-FHXPAT and (18) F-7-OH-FHXPAT. Syntheses of (18) F-5-OH-FHXPAT and (18) F-7-OH-FHXPAT were improved by modifications of our previously reported procedures. Brain slices and brain homogenates from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used with the 3 radiotracers (74-111 kBq/cc). Competition with dopamine (1-100 nM) and Gpp(NH)p (10-50 µM) were carried out to demonstrate binding to dopamine D2 and D3 HA-states and binding kinetics of (18) F-5-OH-FPPAT measured...
November 19, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862283/footshock-induced-plasticity-of-gabab-signalling-in-the-lateral-habenula-requires-dopamine-and-glucocorticoid-receptors
#8
Salvatore Lecca, Massimo Trusel, Manuel Mameli
The activity of lateral habenula (LHb) represents a substrate for the encoding of negative-valenced events. The exposure to aversive stimuli in naïve mice is sufficient to trigger a reduction in GABAB -mediated signaling in the LHb. This is ultimately instrumental for the hyperactivity of LHb neurons and for the establishment of depressive-like phenotypes. However, the mechanisms responsible for the induction of this aversion-driven plasticity are missing. Using ex-vivo patch-clamp recordings in slices, here we show that exposing mice to a series of inescapable footshocks (FsE) rapidly reduces baclofen-mediated GABAB currents in the LHb...
November 10, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785835/a-dense-cluster-of-d1-cells-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#9
Sarah Petryszyn, Maria Gabriela Sánchez, Dave Gagnon, Jean-Martin Beaulieu, André Parent, Martin Parent
The striatum is known to be largely composed of intermingled medium-sized projection neurons expressing either the D1 or the D2 dopamine receptors. In the present study, we took advantage of the double BAC Drd1a-TdTomato/Drd2-GFP (D1 /D2 ) transgenic mice to reveal the presence of a peculiar cluster of densely-packed D1 + cells located in the shell compartment of the nucleus accumbens. This spherical cluster has a diameter of 110 µm and is exclusively composed by D1 + cells, which are all immunoreactive for the neuronal nuclear marker (NeuN)...
October 27, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862297/histochemical-localization-of-zinc-in-the-retina-cells-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-fed-different-presentations-of-zinc
#10
Pedro Luis Castro, David Dominguez, María José Caballero, Marisol Izquierdo
To describe the distribution of zinc in the retina of a representative marine fish species and to determine whether the intracellular deposition amount correlates with the presentation of the zinc included in the practical diets (organic, inorganic, encapsulated, fish meal, and Control diet), we examined the precise localization of endogenous zinc in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) retina by autometallography. As observed by light microscopy, reaction products were widely distributed throughout the retina, including the outer segments of photoreceptors, except in the nuclear layers...
February 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733018/effect-of-lamotrigine-on-epilepsy-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-neuronal-apoptosis-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-animal-model
#11
Bing Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang, Wei-Ping Wang, Rui-Fang Dong, Shuang Tian, Chao Zhang
PURPOSE: Lamotrigine (LTG) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that is widely used in clinic. However, the effect of LTG on cognition and neurodegeneration during epilepsy treatment remains controversial. In this study, we compared the cognitive effects of LTG and sodium valproate in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled animal model, and the dose dependency was tested for LTG. METHODS: PTZ-kindled animals were divided into the following treatment groups: control group, treated with 3...
February 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680688/probing-electrical-tuning-of-hair-cells-with-a-zap-current-method-in-the-intact-amphibian-papilla-of-bullfrogs
#12
Daniil Frolov, Geng-Lin Li
Most, if not all, modern vertebrate species have evolved exquisite inner ears to discriminate acoustic signals of different frequencies, through a process called frequency tuning. For non-mammalian species, at least part of frequency tuning has been attributed to intrinsic electrical properties of hair cells, i.e. electrical tuning. Since it was first discovered, the traditional method to assess electrical tuning has been to inject step current into hair cells and examine dampened membrane voltage oscillation...
February 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898905/resistance-to-ethanol-sensitization-is-associated-with-a-loss-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#13
F Coune, B Silvestre de Ferron, M C González-Marín, J Antol, M Naassila, O Pierrefiche
Behavioral sensitization to repeated ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces an increase in locomotor activity in mice. However, not all animals express such sensitization. Although the literature indicated that the hippocampus may play a role in EtOH sensitization, it is not known whether behavioral sensitization to EtOH is associated with preferential changes in bidirectional synaptic plasticity, i.e., LTP and LTD, two markers of learning capabilities that have also been shown to be involved in addictive behavior...
February 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696533/low-startle-magnitude-may-be-a-behavioral-marker-of-vulnerability-to-cocaine-addiction
#14
Marina G Wheeler, Erica Duncan, Michael Davis
Cocaine addicted men have low startle magnitude persisting during prolonged abstinence. Low startle rats show greater cocaine self-administration than high startle rats. Low startle may be a marker of a vulnerability to heightened cocaine-related behaviors in rats and similarly may be a marker of vulnerability to cocaine addiction in humans.
January 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618286/l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-are-neuroinflammation-and-astrocytes-key-elements
#15
Elaine Del-Bel, Mariza Bortolanza, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, Keila Bariotto, Rita Raisman-Vozari
Inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a new concept that has gained ground due to the potential of mitigating dopaminergic neuron death by decreasing inflammation. The solution to this question is likely to be complex. We propose here that the significance of inflammation in PD may go beyond the nigral cell death. The pathological process that underlies PD requires years to reach its full extent. A growing body of evidence has been accumulated on the presence of multiple inflammatory signs in the brain of PD patients even in very late stages of the disease...
December 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503688/%C3%A2%C2%B51-opioid-receptors-in-the-dorsomedial-and-ventrolateral-columns-of-the-periaqueductal-grey-matter-are-critical-for-the-enhancement-of-post-ictal-antinociception
#16
Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Priscila Medeiros, Asmat Ullah Khan, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Generalised tonic and tonic-clonic seizures are followed by significant increase in nociceptive thresholds in both laboratory animals and humans. The endogenous opioid peptides play a role in antinociceptive signalling, and the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) is recruited to induce analgesia. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the role of µ1 -opioid receptors in the dorsomedial (dm) and ventrolateral (vl) columns of PAG in post-ictal antinociception. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 64 mg/kg), which is an ionotropic GABA-mediated Cl(-) influx antagonist, was intraperitoneally (IP) administered to induce tonic-clonic seizures in Wistar rats...
December 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377051/gsk-3%C3%AE-inhibitors-reverse-cocaine-induced-synaptic-transmission-dysfunction-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#17
Rui Zhao, Jiaojiao Chen, Zhaoxiang Ren, Hui Shen, Xuechu Zhen
Nucleus accumbens receives glutamatergic projection from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dopaminergic input from the Ventral tegmental area (VTA). Recent studies have suggested a critical role for serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in cocaine-induced hyperactivity; however, the effect of GSK3β on the modulation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic afferents is unclear. In this study, we found that the GSK3 inhibitors, LiCl (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or SB216763 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), blocked the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in rats...
November 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348405/differential-regulation-of-spontaneous-and-evoked-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-somatosensory-cortex-by-retinoic-acid
#18
Ada X Yee, Lu Chen
Retinoic acid (RA), a developmental morphogen, has emerged in recent studies as a novel synaptic signaling molecule that acts in mature hippocampal neurons to modulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the context of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. However, it is unclear whether RA is capable of modulating neural circuits outside of the hippocampus, and if so, whether the mode of RA's action at synapses is similar to that within the hippocampal network. Here we explore for the first time RA's synaptic function outside the hippocampus and uncover a novel function of all-trans retinoic acid at inhibitory synapses...
November 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341789/estimating-the-effect-of-endogenous-dopamine-on-baseline-11-c-phno-binding-in-the-human-brain
#19
Fernando Caravaggio, Lawrence S Kegeles, Alan A Wilson, Gary Remington, Carol Borlido, David C Mamo, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Endogenous dopamine (DA) levels at dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) have been quantified in the living human brain using the agonist radiotracer [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO. As an agonist radiotracer, [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO is more sensitive to endogenous DA levels than antagonist radiotracers. We sought to determine the proportion of the variance in baseline [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO binding to D2/3 Rs which can be accounted for by variation in endogenous DA levels. This was done by computing the Pearson's coefficient for the correlation between baseline binding potential (BPND ) and the change in BPND after acute DA depletion, using previously published data...
November 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262028/differential-expression-of-postsynaptic-nmda-and-ampa-receptor-subunits-in-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-the-flinders-sensitive-line-rat-model-of-depression
#20
Giulia Treccani, Kristian Gaarn du Jardin, Gregers Wegener, Heidi Kaastrup Müller
Glutamatergic abnormalities have recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, and the ionotropic glutamate receptors in particular have been suggested as possible underlying molecular determinants. The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats constitute a validated model of depression with dysfunctional regulation of glutamate transmission relatively to their control strain Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). To gain insight into how signaling through glutamate receptors may be altered in the FSL rats, we investigated the expression and phosphorylation of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in an enriched postsynaptic fraction of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
November 2016: Synapse
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