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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432779/nmdar-independent-hippocampal-long-term-depression-impairment-after-status-epilepticus-in-a-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Andrey D Ivanov, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy is usually associated with cognitive decline and memory deficits. Despite numerous existing studies on various animal models, the mechanisms of these deficits remain largely unclear. A specific form of long-term synaptic efficacy changes - long-term depression (LTD) - is thought to play an important role in memory formation and learning. However, extremely little is known about the possible alteration of LTD induction and dynamics after a status epilepticus (SE). In the present work we investigated the acute and delayed effects of lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE on NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent hippocampal LTD in vitro...
April 22, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420041/-18-f-nifene-test-retest-reproducibility-in-first-in-human-imaging-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#2
Patrick J Lao, Tobey J Betthauser, Dana L Tudorascu, Todd E Barnhart, Ansel T Hillmer, Charles K Stone, Jogeshwar Mukherjee, Bradley T Christian
The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of [(18) F]nifene, a novel α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) radiotracer, for in vivo brain imaging in a first-in-human study. METHODS: Eight healthy subjects (4M,4F;21-69,44±21yrs) underwent a [(18) F]nifene PET scan (200±3.7MBq), and seven underwent a second scan within 58±31days. Regional estimates of DVR were measured using the multilinear reference tissue model (MRTM2) with the corpus callosum as reference region...
April 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420033/the-current-clinical-knowledge-on-the-treatment-of-gambling-disorder-a-summary
#3
REVIEW
Karel Hloch, Přemysl Mladěnka, Martin Doseděl, Walter Adriani, Francesca Zoratto
Gambling disorder (GD) is a topical problem in developed countries and may be present in 1-3% of the general population. The pathophysiology of this disorder is largely unknown but it shares similarities to other behavioral addictions. Multiple neurotransmitter systems, including dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic, and opioidergic, have been implicated in GD. Based on available articles, only the opioid antagonist naltrexone has been documented to demonstrate clinical efficacy in multiple studies including double-blind studies...
April 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407365/role-of-allopregnanolone-biosynthesis-in-acute-stress-induced-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#4
Kazumi Yoshizawa, Ayano Okumura, Kozue Nakashima, Tomoyo Sato, Tatsuya Higashi
The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3α, 5α-tetra-hydroprogesterone: ALLO) elicits anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and hypnotic anesthetic effects in vivo similar to those induced by other positive allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor. Endogenous ALLO has been shown to be rapidly elevated in the brain by acute stress paradigms, such as immobilization, in animal models. The present study was designed to ascertain the role of neurosteroid biosynthesis in the anxiety-like behavior induced by immobilization stress...
April 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407359/u18666a-an-activator-of-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-srebp-pathway-modulates-presynaptic-dopaminergic-phenotype-of-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#5
Mathieu Schmitt, Benjamin Dehay, Erwan Bezard, F Javier Garcia-Ladona
The therapeutic use of statins has been associated to a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and may hold neuroprotective potential by counteracting the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Transcriptional activation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) is one of the major downstream signalling pathways triggered by the cholesterol-lowering effect of statins. In a previous study in neuroblastoma cells, we have shown that statins consistently induce the up-regulation of presynaptic dopaminergic proteins as well as changes of their function and these effects were accompanied by downstream activation of SREBP...
April 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407307/adenosine-a1-receptors-measured-with-11-c-mpdx-pet-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Masahiro Mishina, Kenji Ishii, Yuichi Kimura, Masahiko Suzuki, Shin Kitamura, Kenji Ishibashi, Muneyuki Sakata, Keiichi Oda, Shiro Kobayashi, Kazumi Kimura, Kiichi Ishiwata
Adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) interact negatively with dopamine D1 receptors (D1 Rs) in neurons of the basal ganglia's direct pathway, while adenosine A2A receptors (A2A Rs) negatively interact with dopamine D2 receptors (D2 Rs) in indirect-pathway neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebral density of A1 Rs in Parkinson's disease (PD) in its early stages, using PET scans with the radioligand 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-(11) C-methyl-3-propylxanthine ((11) C-MPDX). We studied 10 drug-naïve patients with early PD...
April 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321916/the-fens-kavli-network-for-excellence-in-neuroscience-advancing-science-through-collaboration-and-advocacy
#7
EDITORIAL
Panayiota Poirazi, Benjamin Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316120/synergistic-effects-of-g-csf-and-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-on-nerve-regeneration-with-acellular-nerve-xenografts
#8
Hua Jia, Ying Wang, Tao Wang, Yi Dong, Wei-Li Li, Jun-Ping Li, Wen-Zhi Ma, Xiao-Jie Tong, Zhong-Yi He
Peripheral nerve defects result in severe denervation presenting sensory and motor functional incapacitation. Currently, a satisfactory therapeutic treatment promoting the repair of injured nerves is not available. As shown in our previous study, acellular nerve xenografts (ANX) implanted with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) replaced allografts and promoted nerve regeneration. Additionally, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proven to mobilize supplemental cells and enhance vascularization in the niche...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316115/gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-dysregulation-in-superior-frontal-cortex-of-subjects-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#9
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Paul D Thuras
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Evidence from gene association and postmortem studies has identified abnormalities of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system in both disorders. Abnormal GABAergic signaling and transmission could contribute to the symptomatology of these disorders, potentially through impaired gamma oscillations which normally occur during cognitive processing. In the current study, we examined the protein expression of 14 GABAA and two GABAB receptor subunits in the superior frontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316111/pattern-separation-in-the-hippocampus-through-the-eyes-of-computational-modeling
#10
REVIEW
Spyridon Chavlis, Panayiota Poirazi
Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus (DG) in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modeling studies...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295625/oral-ambroxol-increases-brain-glucocerebrosidase-activity-in-a-nonhuman-primate
#11
Anna Migdalska-Richards, Wai Kin D Ko, Qin Li, Erwan Bezard, Anthony H V Schapira
Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA1) gene are related to both Parkinson disease (PD) and Gaucher disease (GD). In both cases, the condition is associated with deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GCase), the enzyme encoded by GBA1. Ambroxol is a small molecule chaperone that has been shown in mice to cross the blood-brain barrier, increase GCase activity and reduce alpha-synuclein protein levels. In this study, we analyze the effect of ambroxol treatment on GCase activity in healthy nonhuman primates. We show that daily administration of ambroxol results in increased brain GCase activity...
March 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256749/increased-postsynaptic-ca-2-reduces-mini-frequency-at-the-drosophila-larval-nmj
#12
Andrew S Powers, Jeffrey Grizzaffi, Gregory A Lnenicka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245518/altered-translational-repression-of-an-rna-binding-protein-elav-by-aoa2-causative-senataxin-mutation
#13
Saumitra Dey Choudhury, Ancy Vs, Zeeshan Mushtaq, Vimlesh Kumar
Mutations in Senataxin (SETX) gene causes two types of neurological disorders, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS4) and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2). Recent studies in cultured cells suggest that SETX plays a crucial role at the interface of transcription and the DNA damage response. Whether SETX can alter translational of specific RNA is not known. In this study, we report that expressing AOA2-causative truncated form of human SETX in Drosophila neurons alters the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses...
February 28, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245513/brain-translocator-protein-occupancy-by-ono-2952-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-1-pet-study-using-11-c-pbr28
#14
William G Frankle, Rajesh Narendran, Andrew T Wood, Fumitaka Suto, Michael L Himes, Michiyoshi Kobayashi, Tomoya Ohno, Akinori Yamauchi, Katsukuni Mitsui, Kevin Duffy, Bruce Mark
ONO-2952, a novel antagonist of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), binds with high affinity to TSPO in rat brain and human tumor cell line membrane preparations. This study used the TSPO-specific PET radioligand [(11) C]PBR28 to confirm binding of ONO-2952 to brain TSPO in human subjects, and evaluate brain TSPO occupancy and its relationship with ONO-2952 plasma concentration. Sixteen healthy subjects received a single oral dose of 200, 60, 20, or 6 mg ONO-2952 (n=4 per dose). Two PET scans with [(11) C]PBR28 were conducted ≤7 days apart: at baseline and 24 hours after ONO-2952 administration...
February 28, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233334/investigating-the-effects-of-norepinephrine-%C3%AE-1-receptor-blockade-on-dopamine-levels-a-pilot-pet-study-with-11-c-phno-in-controls
#15
Bernard Le Foll, Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Shawna Xiaoyun Lu, Shakira Mohammed, Esmaeil Mansouri, Dina Lagzdins, Shinichiro Nakajima, Alan A Wilson, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Patricia Di Ciano, Isabelle Boileau
Interest in a role for norepinephrine (NE) in substance use disorders has increased over recent years. In particular, its interaction with dopamine (DA) is of importance. In this study, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to explore the impact of prazosin (an alpha 1 NE antagonist) on DA levels. Healthy volunteers were administered prazosin for approximately 4 weeks at the daily dose of 15 mg to reach steady state. Participants were scanned with PET imaging and the [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO tracer at baseline (before prazosin), at steady state, and after a wash out period...
February 24, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196395/spread-of-tau-down-neural-circuits-precedes-synapse-and-neuronal-loss-in-the-rtgtauec-mouse-model-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Eleanor K Pickett, Christopher M Henstridge, Elizabeth Allison, Rose Pitstick, Amy Pooler, Susanne Wegmann, George Carlson, Bradley T Hyman, Tara L Spires-Jones
Synaptic dysfunction and loss is the strongest pathological correlate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with increasing evidence implicating neuropathological tau protein in this process. Despite the knowledge that tau spreads through defined synaptic circuits, it is currently unknown whether synapse loss occurs before the accumulation of tau or as a consequence. To address this, we have used array tomography to examine an rTgTauEC mouse model expressing a P301L human tau transgene and a transgene labeling cytoplasm red (tdTomato) and presynaptic terminals green (Synaptophysin-EGFP)...
February 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187508/the-role-of-adiponectin-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-synaptic-transmission-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Filippo Weisz, Sonia Piccinin, Dalila Mango, Richard Teke Ngomba, Nicola B Mercuri, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Robert Nisticò
In the last two decades adiponectin, member of the adipokines family, gained attention because of its unique antidiabetic effects. However, the presence in the brain of adiponectin receptors and adiponectin itself raised interest because of the possible association with neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed, clinical studies found altered concentration of adiponectin both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in several pathologies including depression, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Moreover, recent preclinical studies also suggest its involvement in different physiological functions...
February 10, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165637/neuroprotective-effects-of-extracellular-dj-1-on-reperfusion-injury-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#18
Jay Han, Beryl Luk, Frank J S Lee
Using an in vitro model of ischemic stroke we treated differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by a reperfusion period where normal growth conditions were restored. Cells undergoing OGD exhibited significant cell death as measure by propidium iodide staining. However, cells treated with exogenous extracellular DJ-1 during reperfusion exhibited significant rescue from OGD-induced cell death.
February 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164368/bdnf-induced-endocannabinoid-release-modulates-neocortical-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#19
Mason L Yeh, Rajamani Selvam, Eric S Levine
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) and neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are potent neuromodulators found throughout the mammalian neocortex. Both eCBs and BDNF play critical roles in many behavioral and neurophysiological processes and are targets for the development of novel therapeutics. The effects of eCBs and BDNF are primarily mediated by the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor and the trkB tyrosine kinase receptor, respectively. Our laboratory and others have previously established that BDNF potentiates excitatory transmission by enhancing presynaptic glutamate release and modulating NMDA receptors...
February 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118493/anticonvulsant-effect-of-sodium-cyclamate-and-propylparaben-on-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-in-zebrafish
#20
Antonella Pisera-Fuster, Sofía Otero, Alan Talevi, Luis Bruno-Blanch, Ramón Bernabeu
Screening for novel anticonvulsant drugs requires appropriate animal seizure models. Zebrafish provide small, accessible, and cost-efficient preclinical models applicable to high-throughput small molecule screening. Based on previous results in rodents, we have here examined the effects of artificial sweetener sodium cyclamate and antimicrobial agent sodium propylparaben on a model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in zebrafish. Sodium cyclamate reduced the bursts of hyperactivity, the spasms, increased the latency to spasms, and the latency to seizure, while propylparaben increased the latency to spasms...
April 2017: Synapse
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