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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323756/juvenile-taiep-rats-have-shorter-dendritic-trees-in-the-dorsal-field-of-the-hippocampus-without-spatial-learning-disabilities
#1
Adriana B Silva, Dolores A Bravo-Duran, Jose R Eguibar, Carmen Cortes
Myelin mutant taiep rats show a progressive demyelination in the central nervous system due to an abnormal accumulation of microtubules in the cytoplasm and the processes on their oligodendrocytes. Demyelination is associated with electrophysiological alterations and the mutant had a progressive astrocytosis. The illness is associated with change in cytokine levels and in the expression of different nitric oxide synthase and concomitantly lipoperoxidation in several areas of the brain. However, until now there has been no detailed anatomical analysis of neurons in this mutant...
January 11, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265497/different-effects-of-chronic-thc-on-the-neuroadaptive-response-of-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-mediated-signalling-in-roman-high-and-roman-low-avoidance-rats
#2
Benjamin B Tournier, Andrea Dimiziani, Stergios Tsartsalis, Philippe Millet, Nathalie Ginovart
The Roman high (RHA)- and low (RLA)-avoidance rat sublines have been identified as an addiction-prone and addiction-resistant phenotype based on their high vs. low locomotor responsiveness to novelty and high vs. low ability to develop neurochemical and behavioural sensitization to psychostimulants, respectively. Most studies though have focused on psychostimulants and little is known about the neuroadaptive response of these two lines to cannabinoids. The current study investigated the effects of chronic exposure to Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3 R) availabilities and functional sensitivity in the mesostriatal system of RHA and RLA rats...
December 19, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232484/juvenile-social-experience-and-differential-age-related-changes-in-the-dendritic-morphologies-of-subareas-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats
#3
B T Himmler, R Mychasiuk, A Nakahashi, S M Himmler, S M Pellis, B Kolb
Juvenile social interactions have been shown to influence the dendritic complexity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, social play induces pruning of the cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas interacting with multiple partners, whether those interactions involve play or not, increases the complexity of cells in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies suggest that these changes differ in their stability during adulthood. In the present study, rats were reared in groups of either four (quads) or two (pairs) and the brains of the rats from each rearing condition were then harvested at 60 days (i...
December 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216407/an-open-label-positron-emission-tomography-pet-study-to-evaluate-serotonin-transporter-occupancy-following-escalating-dosing-regimens-of-r-o-desmethylvenlafaxine-and-racemic-o-desmethylvenlafaxine
#4
W Gordon Frankle, Brigitte Robertson, Gary Maier, Jennifer Paris, Deanna Asmonga, Maureen May, Michael L Himes, N Scott Mason, Chester A Mathis, Rajesh Narendran
INTRODUCTION: SEP-227162 [R(-)-O-desmethylvenlafaxine] is an enantiomer of the venlafaxine metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV, Pristiq™, Wyeth). This study compared the serotonin transporter occupancy achieved by SEP-227162 and ODV, at daily doses of 25mg, 50mg, 100mg and 150mg using [11 C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: Sixteen healthy male subjects participated in one of four dose groups (N = 4 per group) during which they were administered two doses of the study drug (SEP-227162 or ODV)...
December 7, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178372/thc-alters-alters-morphology-of-neurons-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-and-alters-the-ability-of-later-experience-to-promote-structural-plasticity
#5
Bryan Kolb, Yilin Li, Terry Robinson, Linda A Parker
Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 27, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144569/-11-c-arachidonic-acid-incorporation-measurement-in-human-brain-optimization-for-clinical-use
#6
Francesca Zanderigo, Yeona Kang, Dileep Kumar, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, P David Mozley, Paresh J Kothari, Bin He, David Schlyer, Stanley I Rapoport, Maria A Oquendo, Shankar Vallabhajosula, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Arachidonic acid (AA) is involved in signal transduction, neuroinflammation, and production of eicosanoid metabolites. The AA brain incorporation coefficient (K*) is quantifiable in vivo using [(11) C]AA positron emission tomography, although repeatability remains undetermined. We evaluated K* estimates obtained with population-based metabolite correction (PBMC) and image-derived input function (IDIF) in comparison to arterial blood-based estimates, and compared repeatability. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent a [(11) C]AA scan; five repeated the scan 6 weeks later, simulating a pre- and post-treatment study design...
November 16, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136290/the-role-of-ca-2-dependent-k-channels-at-the-rat-corticostriatal-synapses-revealed-by-paired-pulse-stimulation
#7
Angel A Robles G, Ana V Vega, Carolina Gonzalez-Sandoval, Jaime Barral
Potassium channels play an important role in modulating synaptic activity both at presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. We have shown before that presynaptically located KV and KIR channels modulate the strength of corticostriatal synapses in rat brain, but the role of other types of potassium channels at these synapses remains largely unknown. Here we show that calcium-dependent potassium channels BK-type but not SK-type channels are located presynaptically in corticostriatal synapses. We stimulated cortical neurons in rat brain slices and recorded postsynaptic excitatory potentials (EPSP) in medium spiny neurons (MSN) in dorsal neostriatum...
November 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105121/evaluation-of-18-f-flubatine-specific-binding-implications-for-reference-region-approaches
#8
Shivani Bhatt, Ansel T Hillmer, Nabeel Nabulsi, David Matuskey, Keunpoong Lim, Shu-Fei Lin, Irina Esterlis, Richard E Carson, Yiyun Huang, Kelly P Cosgrove
We aimed to characterize changes in binding of (-)-[(18) F]Flubatine to α4 β2 *-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4 β2 *-nAChRs) during a tobacco cigarette smoking challenge. Displacement of (-)-[(18) F]Flubatine throughout the brain was quantified as change in (-)-[(18) F]Flubatine distribution volume (VT ), with particular emphasis on regions with low VT . Three tobacco smokers were imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) during a 210-min bolus-plus-constant infusion of (-)-[(18) F]Flubatine...
November 3, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873252/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor-acetazolamide-shifts-synaptic-vesicle-recycling-to-a-fast-mode-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#9
Nicolas Ivan Bertone, Ayelén Ivana Groisman, Graciela Lujan Mazzone, Raquel Cano, Lucia Tabares, Osvaldo Daniel Uchitel
Acetazolamide (AZ), a molecule frequently used to treat different neurological syndromes, is an inhibitor of the carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that regulates pH inside and outside cells. We combined fluorescent FM styryl dyes and electrophysiological techniques at ex vivo levator auris longus neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) from mice to investigate the modulation of synaptic transmission and vesicle recycling by AZ. Transmitter release was minimally affected by AZ, as evidenced by evoked and spontaneous end-plate potential measurements...
December 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686793/learning-and-memory-effects-of-neonatal-methamphetamine-exposure-in-rats-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-age-at-assessment
#10
Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
In utero methamphetamine (MA) exposure leads to a range of adverse effects, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments in exposed children. In the current experiment, preweaning Sprague-Dawley rats-as a model of third trimester human exposure-were administered the spin trapping agent, N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN), daily prior to MA. Rats were given 0 (SAL) or 40 mg/kg PBN prior to each MA dose (10 mg/kg, 4× per day) from postnatal day (P) 6-15...
November 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960527/diffusion-entropy-a-potential-neuroimaging-biomarker-of-bipolar-disorder-in-the-temporal-pole
#11
Karl Spuhler, Elizabeth Bartlett, Jie Ding, Christine DeLorenzo, Ramin Parsey, Chuan Huang
Despite much research, bipolar depression remains poorly understood, with no clinically useful biomarkers for its diagnosis. The paralimbic system has become a target for biomarker research, with paralimbic structural connectivity commonly reported to distinguish bipolar patients from controls in tractography-based diffusion MRI studies, despite inconsistent findings in voxel-based studies. The purpose of this analysis was to validate existing findings with traditional diffusion MRI metrics and investigate the utility of a novel diffusion MRI metric, entropy of diffusion, in the search for bipolar depression biomarkers...
September 28, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960461/proteomic-identification-of-synaptic-caspase-substrates
#12
Ken G Victor, Daniel S Heffron, Jennifer D Sokolowski, Usnish Majumder, Andrea Leblanc, James W Mandell
The dismantling and elimination of excess neurons and their connections (pruning) is essential for brain development and may be aberrantly reactivated in some neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence implicates caspase-mediated apoptotic and non-apoptotic cascades in the dysfunction and death of neurons in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson, and Huntington's diseases. It is the cleaved caspase substrates that are the effectors of synapse elimination. However, their identities, specific cleavage sites, and functional consequences of cleavage are largely unknown...
September 27, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941296/ghrelin-receptor-antagonism-of-hyperlocomotion-in-cocaine-sensitized-mice-requires-%C3%AE-arrestin-2
#13
Krisztian Toth, Lauren M Slosky, Thomas F Pack, Nikhil M Urs, Peter Boone, Lan Mao, Dennis Abraham, Marc G Caron, Lawrence S Barak
The "brain-gut" peptide ghrelin, which mediates food-seeking behaviors, is recognized as a very strong endogenous modulator of dopamine (DA) signaling. Ghrelin binds the G protein-coupled receptor GHSR1a, and administration of ghrelin increases the rewarding properties of psychostimulants while ghrelin receptor antagonists decrease them. In addition, the GHSR1a signals through βarrestin-2 to regulate actin/stress fiber rearrangement, suggesting βarrestin-2 participation in the regulation of actin-mediated synaptic plasticity for addictive substances like cocaine...
September 23, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921679/maternal-immune-activation-leads-to-increased-nnos-immunoreactivity-in-the-brain-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#14
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key arginine metabolising enzyme in the brain, and nNOS-derived nitric oxide plays an important role in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. Nitric oxide and its related molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and human genetic studies have identified schizophrenia risk genes encoding nNOS. The present study systematically investigated how maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid affected nNOS-immunoreactivity in the brain of the resulting male and female offspring at the age of postnatal day (PND) 2...
September 16, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902436/neuroprotective-effect-of-amantadine-on-corticosterone-induced-abnormal-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-of-ca3-ca1-pathway-in-rat-s-hippocampal-slices
#15
Xi Xiao, Hui Zhang, Hui Wang, Qun Li, Tao Zhang
Depression is a psychiatric disorder and chronic stress, leading to altered glucocorticoid secretion patterns, is one of the factors that induce depression. Our previous study showed that amantadine significantly attenuated the impairments of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function a rat model of CUS. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to examine the protection effect of amantadine on the hippocampus CA3-CA1 pathway...
September 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857293/sr-2-has-low-efficiency-in-regulating-spontaneous-release-at-the-calyx-of-held-synapses
#16
Shuli Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Xiaohui Wang, Xuefeng Shen, Jianyuan Sun, Xintian Hu, Peihua Chen
It has been known that Ca(2+) plays an essential role in mediating different modes of neurotransmitter release via different sensing mechanisms. Synaptotagmin 1, 2, and 9 were found to act as the Ca(2+) sensors for synchronous release and synaptotagmin 7 and Doc-2 were proposed as the Ca(2+) sensors for asynchronous release. Comparatively, the Ca(2+) sensor for spontaneous release remains a mystery. At the Calyx of Held synapse, the Ca(2+) sensor for spontaneous release was found not identical to the sensor for synchronous release, synaptotagmin 2...
August 31, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432779/nmdar-independent-hippocampal-long-term-depression-impairment-after-status-epilepticus-in-a-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Andrey D Ivanov, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy is usually associated with cognitive decline and memory deficits. Despite numerous existing studies on various animal models, the mechanisms of these deficits remain largely unclear. A specific form of long-term synaptic efficacy changes-long-term depression (LTD)-is thought to play an important role in memory formation and learning. However, extremely little is known about the possible alteration of LTD induction and dynamics after a status epilepticus (SE). In this work, we investigated the acute and delayed effects of lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE on NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent hippocampal LTD in vitro...
August 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420041/-18-f-nifene-test-retest-reproducibility-in-first-in-human-imaging-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#18
Patrick J Lao, Tobey J Betthauser, Dana L Tudorascu, Todd E Barnhart, Ansel T Hillmer, Charles K Stone, Jogeshwar Mukherjee, Bradley T Christian
The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of [(18) F]nifene, a novel α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) radiotracer, for in vivo brain imaging in a first-in-human study. METHODS: Eight healthy subjects (4 M,4 F;21-69,44 ± 21 yrs) underwent a [(18) F]nifene positron emission tomography scan (200 ± 3.7 MBq), and seven underwent a second scan within 58 ± 31 days. Regional estimates of DVR were measured using the multilinear reference tissue model (MRTM2) with the corpus callosum as reference region...
August 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420033/the-current-clinical-knowledge-on-the-treatment-of-gambling-disorder-a-summary
#19
REVIEW
Karel Hloch, Přemysl Mladěnka, Martin Doseděl, Walter Adriani, Francesca Zoratto
Gambling disorder (GD) is a topical problem in developed countries and may be present in 1-3% of the general population. The pathophysiology of this disorder is largely unknown but it shares similarities to other behavioral addictions. Multiple neurotransmitter systems, including dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic, and opioidergic, have been implicated in GD. Based on available articles, only the opioid antagonist naltrexone has been documented to demonstrate clinical efficacy in multiple studies including double-blind studies...
August 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407365/role-of-allopregnanolone-biosynthesis-in-acute-stress-induced-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#20
Kazumi Yoshizawa, Ayano Okumura, Kozue Nakashima, Tomoyo Sato, Tatsuya Higashi
The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3α, 5α-tetra-hydroprogesterone: ALLO) elicits anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and hypnotic anesthetic effects in vivo similar to those induced by other positive allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor. Endogenous ALLO has been shown to be rapidly elevated in the brain by acute stress paradigms, such as immobilization, in animal models. The present study was designed to ascertain the role of neurosteroid biosynthesis in the anxiety-like behavior induced by immobilization stress...
August 2017: Synapse
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