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Bing Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang, Wei-Ping Wang, Rui-Fang Dong, Shuang Tian, Chao Zhang
PURPOSE: Lamotrigine (LTG) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that is widely used in clinic. However, the effect of LTG on cognition and neurodegeneration during epilepsy treatment remains controversial. In this study, we compared the cognitive effects of LTG and sodium valproate in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled animal model, and the dose dependency was tested for LTG. METHODS: PTZ-kindled animals were divided into the following treatment groups: control group, treated with 3...
October 12, 2016: Synapse
Marina G Wheeler, Erica Duncan, Michael Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Synapse
Daniil Frolov, Geng-Lin Li
Most, if not all, modern vertebrate species have evolved exquisite inner ears to discriminate acoustic signals of different frequencies, through a process called frequency tuning. For non-mammalian species, at least part of frequency tuning has been attributed to intrinsic electrical properties of hair cells, i.e. electrical tuning. Since it was first discovered, the traditional method to assess electrical tuning has been to inject step current into hair cells and examine dampened membrane voltage oscillation...
September 29, 2016: Synapse
Kristian Gaarn du Jardin, Heidi Kaastrup Müller, Connie Sanchez, Gregers Wegener, Betina Elfving
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with dysfunctional serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, and the genetic animal model of depression Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats display alterations in these systems relatively to their control strain Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). However, changes on transcript level related to serotonergic and glutamatergic signaling have only been sparsely studied in this model. The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine has fast-onset antidepressant properties, and recent data implicate serotonergic neurotransmission in ketamine's antidepressant-like activities in rodents...
September 2, 2016: Synapse
Peter Heil, Adam J Peterson
In vertebrates, all acoustic information transmitted from the inner ear to the central auditory system is relayed by primary auditory afferents (auditory-nerve fibers; ANFs). These neurons are also the most peripheral elements to use action potentials (spikes) to encode the acoustic information. Here, we review what is known about the spiking of ANFs during spontaneous activity, when spike timing might be regarded as largely random, and during stimulation by low-frequency sounds, when spikes are phase locked to the stimulus waveform, a phenomenon generally considered a hallmark of temporal precision and speed in the auditory system...
July 28, 2016: Synapse
Elaine Del-Bel, Mariza Bortolanza, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, Keila Bariotto, Rita Raisman-Vozari
Inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a new concept that has gained ground due to the potential of mitigating dopaminergic neuron death by decreasing inflammation. The solution to this question is likely to be complex. We propose here that the significance of inflammation in PD may go beyond the nigral cell death. The pathological process that underlies PD requires years to reach its full extent. A growing body of evidence has been accumulated on the presence of multiple inflammatory signs in the brain of PD patients even in very late stages of the disease...
December 2016: Synapse
Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Priscila Medeiros, Asmat Ullah Khan, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Generalised tonic and tonic-clonic seizures are followed by significant increase in nociceptive thresholds in both laboratory animals and humans. The endogenous opioid peptides play a role in antinociceptive signalling, and the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) is recruited to induce analgesia. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the role of µ1 -opioid receptors in the dorsomedial (dm) and ventrolateral (vl) columns of PAG in post-ictal antinociception. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 64 mg/kg), which is an ionotropic GABA-mediated Cl(-) influx antagonist, was intraperitoneally (IP) administered to induce tonic-clonic seizures in Wistar rats...
December 2016: Synapse
Rui Zhao, Jiaojiao Chen, Zhaoxiang Ren, Hui Shen, Xuechu Zhen
Nucleus accumbens receives glutamatergic projection from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dopaminergic input from the Ventral tegmental area (VTA). Recent studies have suggested a critical role for serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in cocaine-induced hyperactivity; however, the effect of GSK3β on the modulation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic afferents is unclear. In this study, we found that the GSK3 inhibitors, LiCl (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or SB216763 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), blocked the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in rats...
November 2016: Synapse
Ada X Yee, Lu Chen
Retinoic acid (RA), a developmental morphogen, has emerged in recent studies as a novel synaptic signaling molecule that acts in mature hippocampal neurons to modulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the context of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. However, it is unclear whether RA is capable of modulating neural circuits outside of the hippocampus, and if so, whether the mode of RA's action at synapses is similar to that within the hippocampal network. Here we explore for the first time RA's synaptic function outside the hippocampus and uncover a novel function of all-trans retinoic acid at inhibitory synapses...
November 2016: Synapse
Fernando Caravaggio, Lawrence S Kegeles, Alan A Wilson, Gary Remington, Carol Borlido, David C Mamo, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Endogenous dopamine (DA) levels at dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) have been quantified in the living human brain using the agonist radiotracer [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO. As an agonist radiotracer, [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO is more sensitive to endogenous DA levels than antagonist radiotracers. We sought to determine the proportion of the variance in baseline [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO binding to D2/3 Rs which can be accounted for by variation in endogenous DA levels. This was done by computing the Pearson's coefficient for the correlation between baseline binding potential (BPND ) and the change in BPND after acute DA depletion, using previously published data...
November 2016: Synapse
Giulia Treccani, Kristian Gaarn du Jardin, Gregers Wegener, Heidi Kaastrup Müller
Glutamatergic abnormalities have recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, and the ionotropic glutamate receptors in particular have been suggested as possible underlying molecular determinants. The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats constitute a validated model of depression with dysfunctional regulation of glutamate transmission relatively to their control strain Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). To gain insight into how signaling through glutamate receptors may be altered in the FSL rats, we investigated the expression and phosphorylation of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in an enriched postsynaptic fraction of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
November 2016: Synapse
Jenna Bilodeau, Marek Schwendt
Persistent cocaine-induced neuroadaptations within the cortico-striatal circuitry might be related to elevated risk of relapse observed in human addicts even after months or years of drug-free abstinence. Identification of these neuroadaptations may lead development of novel, neurobiologically-based treatments of relapse. In the current study, 12 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered cocaine (or received yoked-saline) for two weeks followed by three weeks of home-cage abstinence. At this point, we analyzed expression of proteins involved in regulation of Gαi- and Gαq-protein signaling in the dorsal striatum (dSTR)...
October 2016: Synapse
Sarah A Eisenstein, Ryan Bogdan, Latisha Love-Gregory, Nadia S Corral-Frías, Jonathan M Koller, Kevin J Black, Stephen M Moerlein, Joel S Perlmutter, Deanna M Barch, Tamara Hershey
In humans, the A1 (T) allele of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor/ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2/ANKK1) TaqIA (rs1800497) single nucleotide polymorphism has been associated with reduced striatal DA D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability. However, radioligands used to estimate D2/D3R are displaceable by endogenous DA and are nonselective for D2R, leaving the relationship between TaqIA genotype and D2R specific binding uncertain. Using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, (N-[(11) C]methyl)benperidol ([(11) C]NMB), which is highly selective for D2R over D3R and is not displaceable by endogenous DA, the current study examined whether DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA genotype predicts D2R specific binding in two independent samples...
October 2016: Synapse
Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Nima Naderi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Nasrin Mehranfard, Fereshteh Motamedi
Entorhinal-hippocampal network is one of the earliest circuits which is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are numerous data providing the evidence of synaptic deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) of AD animal model. However, there is little known about how entorhinal cortex (EC) amyloidophaty affects each excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in the early stage of AD. On the other hand, it is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis has a critical role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on excitatory or inhibitory post synaptic currents (EPSC and IPSC, respectively) in the DG granule cells and then the possible neuroprotective action of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were examined...
October 2016: Synapse
Steven G Grinnell, Michael Ansonoff, Gina F Marrone, Zhigang Lu, Ankita Narayan, Jin Xu, Grace Rossi, Susruta Majumdar, Ying-Xian Pan, Daniel L Bassoni, John Pintar, Gavril W Pasternak
Buprenorphine has long been classified as a mu analgesic, although its high affinity for other opioid receptor classes and the orphanin FQ/nociceptin ORL1 receptor may contribute to its other actions. The current studies confirmed a mu mechanism for buprenorphine analgesia, implicating several subsets of mu receptor splice variants. Buprenorphine analgesia depended on the expression of both exon 1-associated traditional full length 7 transmembrane (7TM) and exon 11-associated truncated 6 transmembrane (6TM) MOR-1 variants...
October 2016: Synapse
Carlos Solis-Gaspar, Ruben A Vazquez-Roque, Ma De Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Gonzalo Flores
The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat has been used as an animal model of vascular dementia (VD). Our previous report showed that, SH rats exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 dorsal hippocampus and layers 3 and 5 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. In addition, we showed that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces the dendritic atrophy in aged animal models. This study aimed to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations, in old female SH rats...
September 2016: Synapse
Susanne Nikolaus, Markus Beu, Maria Angelica De Souza Silva, Joseph P Huston, Hubertus Hautzel, Christina Antke, Hans-Wilhelm Müller
The reuptake and release of dopamine (DA) can be estimated using in vivo imaging methods by assessing the competition between endogenous DA and an administered exogenous DA transporter (DAT) and D2 receptor (D2 R) radioligand, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative roles of DA release vs DA reuptake in the rat striatum with small animal SPECT in relation to l-DOPA-induced behaviors. DAT and D2 R binding, together with behavioral measures, were obtained in 99 rats in response to treatment with either 5 or 10 mg/kg l-DOPA or vehicle...
September 2016: Synapse
Masoud Haghani, Somaye Keshavarz, Maryam Nazari, Ali Rafati
OBJECTIVE: The subthreshold brain-damaging stimulus may protect the brain from subsequent ischemia; this phenomenon has been named "ischemic tolerance" (IT). We focused on the synaptic properties of the neurons after mild and severe ischemia to determine the association between IT and synaptic efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Adult male rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including control, sham, permanent ischemia (pI/R), and mild ischemia (mI/R)...
September 2016: Synapse
Carly M Drzewiecki, Jari Willing, Janice M Juraska
Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined...
September 2016: Synapse
Ang Doma Sherpa, Fanrong Xiao, Neethu Joseph, Chiye Aoki, Sabina Hrabetova
Brain extracellular space (ECS) is an interconnected channel that allows diffusion-mediated transport of signaling molecules, metabolites, and drugs. We tested the hypothesis that β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation impacts extracellular diffusion-mediated transport of molecules through alterations in the morphology of astrocytes. Two structural parameters of ECS-volume fraction and tortuosity-govern extracellular diffusion. Volume fraction (α) is the volume of ECS relative to the total tissue volume...
August 2016: Synapse
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