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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196395/spread-of-tau-down-neural-circuits-precedes-synapse-and-neuronal-loss-in-the-rtgtauec-mouse-model-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Eleanor K Pickett, Christopher M Henstridge, Elizabeth Allison, Rose Pitstick, Amy Pooler, Susanne Wegmann, George Carlson, Bradley T Hyman, Tara L Spires-Jones
Synaptic dysfunction and loss is the strongest pathological correlate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with increasing evidence implicating neuropathological tau protein in this process. Despite the knowledge that tau spreads through defined synaptic circuits, it is currently unknown whether synapse loss occurs before the accumulation of tau or as a consequence. To address this, we have used array tomography to examine an rTgTauEC mouse model expressing a P301L human tau transgene and a transgene labelling cytoplasm red (tdTomato) and presynaptic terminals green (Synaptophysin-EGFP)...
February 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187508/the-role-of-adiponectin-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-synaptic-transmission-in-the-hippocampus
#2
Filippo Weisz, Sonia Piccinin, Dalila Mango, Richard Teke Ngomba, Nicola B Mercuri, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Robert Nisticò
In the last two decades adiponectin, member of the adipokines family, gained attention because of its unique antidiabetic effects. However, the presence in the brain of adiponectin receptors and adiponectin itself raised interest because of the possible association with neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed, clinical studies found altered concentration of adiponectin both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in seeveral pathologies including depression, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Moreover, recent preclinical studies also suggest its involvement in different physiological functions...
February 10, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165637/neuroprotective-effects-of-extracellular-dj-1-on-reperfusion-injury-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#3
Jay Han, Beryl Luk, Frank J S Lee
Using an in vitro model of ischemic stroke we treated differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by a reperfusion period where normal growth conditions were restored. Cells undergoing OGD exhibited significant cell death as measure by propidium iodide staining. However, cells treated with exogenous extracellular DJ-1 during reperfusion exhibited significant rescue from OGD-induced cell death.
February 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164368/bdnf-induced-endocannabinoid-release-modulates-neocortical-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#4
Mason L Yeh, Rajamani Selvam, Eric S Levine
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) and neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are potent neuromodulators found throughout the mammalian neocortex. Both eCBs and BDNF play critical roles in many behavioral and neurophysiological processes and are targets for the development of novel therapeutics. The effects of eCBs and BDNF are primarily mediated by the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor and the trkB tyrosine kinase receptor, respectively. Our laboratory and others have previously established that BDNF potentiates excitatory transmission by enhancing presynaptic glutamate release and modulating NMDA receptors...
February 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118493/anticonvulsant-effect-of-sodium-cyclamate-and-propylparaben-on-ptz-induced-seizures-in-zebrafish
#5
Antonella Pisera-Fuster, Sofía Otero, Alan Talevi, Luis Bruno-Blanch, Ramón Bernabeu
Screening for novel anticonvulsant drugs requires appropriate animal seizure models. Zebrafish provide small, accessible and cost-efficient preclinical models applicable to high-throughput small molecule screening. Based in previous results in rodents, we have here examined the effects of artificial sweetener sodium cyclamate and antimicrobial agent sodium propylparaben on a model of PTZ-induced seizures in zebrafish. Sodium cyclamate reduced the bursts of hyperactivity, the spasms, increased the latency to spasms and the latency to seizure, while propylparaben increased the latency to spasms...
January 24, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105729/whole-genome-grey-and-white-matter-dna-methylation-profiles-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Jose Vicente Sanchez-Mut, Holger Heyn, Enrique Vidal, Raúl Delgado-Morales, Sebastian Moran, Sergi Sayols, Juan Sandoval, Isidre Ferrer, Manel Esteller, Johannes Gräff
The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105686/visual-tactile-processing-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-emerges-before-cross-modal-experience
#7
Malte Bieler, Kay Sieben, Sandra Schildt, Brigitte Röder, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
The presumptive unisensory neocortical areas process multisensory information by oscillatory entrainment of neuronal networks via direct cortico-cortical projections. While neonatal unimodal experience has been identified as necessary for setting up the neuronal networks of multisensory processing, it is still unclear whether early cross-modal experience equally controls the ontogeny of multisensory processing. Here, we assess the development of visual-somatosensory interactions and their anatomical substrate by performing extracellular recordings of network activity in primary sensory cortices in vivo and assessing the cortico-cortical connectivity in pigmented rats...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002633/vta-da-neuron-excitatory-synapses-in-shank3-%C3%AE-ex-4-9-mouse-line
#8
Bariselli Sebastiano, Bellone Camilla
SHANK3 proteins belong to the Shank/ProSAP family, which contain five-conserved domains - the ankyrin (ANK) repeated, the Src homology 3 (SH3), the PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ), the proline-rich and the sterile alpha motif (SAM; Sheng and Kim, 2000). SHANK proteins are located at the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses and indirectly link the metabotropic (mGluRs) and the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluRs: AMPARs, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, and NMDARs, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) via different domains (Naisbitt et al...
December 21, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997737/distribution-of-type-i-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf1-receptors-on-gabaergic-neurons-within-the-basolateral-amygdala
#9
Katina C Calakos, Dakota Blackman, Alexandra M Schulz, Elizabeth P Bauer
The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a critical role in mediating anxiety-like responses to stressors, and dysfunction of the CRF system has been linked to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Extra-hypothalamic CRF can also modulate learning and memory formation, including amygdala-dependent learning. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) contains dense concentrations of CRF receptors, yet the distribution of these receptors on specific neuronal subtypes within the BLA has not been characterized...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997730/inhibitors-of-oxidative-and-hydrolytic-endocannabinoid-degradation-do-not-enhance-depolarization-induced-suppression-of-excitation-on-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus-glycinergic-neurons
#10
João Zugaib, Ricardo M Leão
Neurons from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) present endocannabinoid (EC) dependent short-term synaptic plasticity in the form of depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE). Post-synaptic calcium influx promotes EC synthesis and depression of neurotransmission. ECs can be degraded by a hydrolytic and an oxidative pathway, the latter via the enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Hyperactivity in the DCN is related to the development of tinnitus which can be induced by high doses of salicylate, a COX-2 inhibitor...
December 20, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902847/food-deprivation-facilitates-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-role-of-intra-accumbal-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-associating-reinstatement-of-morphine-cpp-with-stress
#11
Fatemeh Sadeghzadeh, Vahab Babapour, Abbas Haghparast
The high rate of relapse to drug use is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays the essential role in drug abuse and relapse; nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying stress and relapse. Accordingly, the effects of intra-accumbal administration of Sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on an ineffective morphine dose+food deprivation(FD)- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP). 104 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280g were bilaterally implanted by cannula into the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
November 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035691/smad-anchor-for-receptor-activation-contributes-to-seizures-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Weihua Yu, Yingshi Du, Yan Zou, Xuefeng Wang, Ulrich Stephani, Yang Lü
PURPOSE: Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is an important regulator of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling by recruiting Smad2/3 to TGF-β receptors. Although TGF-β signaling is critically involved in epileptogenesis, whether SARA activation is sufficient to facilitate TGF-β pathway to regulate epilepsy remains unknown. METHODS: The expression of SARA and downstream Phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) was examined in rats with pilocarpine induced epilepsy...
March 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997735/curcuma-treatment-prevents-cognitive-deficit-and-alteration-of-neuronal-morphology-in-the-limbic-system-of-aging-rats
#13
Blanca Vidal, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Dino Gnecco, Raúl G Enríquez, Benjamin Floran, Alfonso Díaz, Gonzalo Flores
Curcuma is a natural compound that has shown neuroprotective properties, and has been reported to prevent aging and improve memory. While the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are unclear, they may be related to increases in neural plasticity. Morphological changes have been reported in neuronal dendrites in the limbic system in animals and elderly humans with cognitive impairment. In this regard, there is a need to use alternative therapies that delay the onset of morphologies and behavioral characteristics of aging...
March 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864853/pet-radiotracer-development-for-imaging-high-affinity-state-of-dopamine-d2-and-d3-receptors-binding-studies-of-fluorine-18-labeled-aminotetralins-in-rodents
#14
Jogeshwar Mukherjee, Divya Majji, Jasmeet Kaur, Cristian C Constantinescu, Tanjore K Narayanan, Bingzhi Shi, Mohamed T Nour, Min-Liang Pan
Imaging the high-affinity, functional state (HA) of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors has been pursued in PET imaging studies of various brain functions. We report further evaluation of (18) F-5-OH-FPPAT, and the newer (18) F-5-OH-FHXPAT and (18) F-7-OH-FHXPAT. Syntheses of (18) F-5-OH-FHXPAT and (18) F-7-OH-FHXPAT were improved by modifications of our previously reported procedures. Brain slices and brain homogenates from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used with the 3 radiotracers (74-111 kBq/cc). Competition with dopamine (1-100 nM) and Gpp(NH)p (10-50 µM) were carried out to demonstrate binding to dopamine D2 and D3 HA-states and binding kinetics of (18) F-5-OH-FPPAT measured...
March 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862297/histochemical-localization-of-zinc-in-the-retina-cells-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-fed-different-presentations-of-zinc
#15
Pedro Luis Castro, David Dominguez, María José Caballero, Marisol Izquierdo
To describe the distribution of zinc in the retina of a representative marine fish species and to determine whether the intracellular deposition amount correlates with the presentation of the zinc included in the practical diets (organic, inorganic, encapsulated, fish meal, and Control diet), we examined the precise localization of endogenous zinc in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) retina by autometallography. As observed by light microscopy, reaction products were widely distributed throughout the retina, including the outer segments of photoreceptors, except in the nuclear layers...
February 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733018/effect-of-lamotrigine-on-epilepsy-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-neuronal-apoptosis-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-animal-model
#16
Bing Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang, Wei-Ping Wang, Rui-Fang Dong, Shuang Tian, Chao Zhang
PURPOSE: Lamotrigine (LTG) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that is widely used in clinic. However, the effect of LTG on cognition and neurodegeneration during epilepsy treatment remains controversial. In this study, we compared the cognitive effects of LTG and sodium valproate in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled animal model, and the dose dependency was tested for LTG. METHODS: PTZ-kindled animals were divided into the following treatment groups: control group, treated with 3...
February 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680688/probing-electrical-tuning-of-hair-cells-with-a-zap-current-method-in-the-intact-amphibian-papilla-of-bullfrogs
#17
Daniil Frolov, Geng-Lin Li
Most, if not all, modern vertebrate species have evolved exquisite inner ears to discriminate acoustic signals of different frequencies, through a process called frequency tuning. For non-mammalian species, at least part of frequency tuning has been attributed to intrinsic electrical properties of hair cells, i.e. electrical tuning. Since it was first discovered, the traditional method to assess electrical tuning has been to inject step current into hair cells and examine dampened membrane voltage oscillation...
February 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898905/resistance-to-ethanol-sensitization-is-associated-with-a-loss-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#18
F Coune, B Silvestre de Ferron, M C González-Marín, J Antol, M Naassila, O Pierrefiche
Behavioral sensitization to repeated ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces an increase in locomotor activity in mice. However, not all animals express such sensitization. Although the literature indicated that the hippocampus may play a role in EtOH sensitization, it is not known whether behavioral sensitization to EtOH is associated with preferential changes in bidirectional synaptic plasticity, i.e., LTP and LTD, two markers of learning capabilities that have also been shown to be involved in addictive behavior...
February 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696533/low-startle-magnitude-may-be-a-behavioral-marker-of-vulnerability-to-cocaine-addiction
#19
Marina G Wheeler, Erica Duncan, Michael Davis
Cocaine addicted men have low startle magnitude persisting during prolonged abstinence. Low startle rats show greater cocaine self-administration than high startle rats. Low startle may be a marker of a vulnerability to heightened cocaine-related behaviors in rats and similarly may be a marker of vulnerability to cocaine addiction in humans.
January 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618286/l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-are-neuroinflammation-and-astrocytes-key-elements
#20
Elaine Del-Bel, Mariza Bortolanza, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, Keila Bariotto, Rita Raisman-Vozari
Inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a new concept that has gained ground due to the potential of mitigating dopaminergic neuron death by decreasing inflammation. The solution to this question is likely to be complex. We propose here that the significance of inflammation in PD may go beyond the nigral cell death. The pathological process that underlies PD requires years to reach its full extent. A growing body of evidence has been accumulated on the presence of multiple inflammatory signs in the brain of PD patients even in very late stages of the disease...
December 2016: Synapse
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