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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321916/the-fens-kavli-network-for-excellence-in-neuroscience-advancing-science-through-collaboration-and-advocacy
#1
EDITORIAL
Panayiota Poirazi, Benjamin Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316120/synergistic-effects-of-g-csf-and-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-on-nerve-regeneration-with-acellular-nerve-xenografts
#2
Hua Jia, Ying Wang, Tao Wang, Yi Dong, Wei-Li Li, Jun-Ping Li, Wen-Zhi Ma, Xiao-Jie Tong, Zhong-Yi He
Peripheral nerve defects result in severe denervation presenting sensory and motor functional incapacitation. Currently, a satisfactory therapeutic treatment promoting the repair of injured nerves is not available. As shown in our previous study, acellular nerve xenografts (ANX) implanted with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) replaced allografts and promoted nerve regeneration. Additionally, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proven to mobilize supplemental cells and enhance vascularization in the niche...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316115/gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-dysregulation-in-superior-frontal-cortex-of-subjects-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#3
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Paul D Thuras
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Evidence from gene association and postmortem studies has identified abnormalities of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system in both disorders. Abnormal GABAergic signaling and transmission could contribute to the symptomatology of these disorders, potentially through impaired gamma oscillations which normally occur during cognitive processing. In the current study, we examined the protein expression of 14 GABAA and two GABAB receptor subunits in the superior frontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316111/pattern-separation-in-the-hippocampus-through-the-eyes-of-computational-modeling
#4
REVIEW
Spyridon Chavlis, Panayiota Poirazi
Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modelling studies...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295625/oral-ambroxol-increases-brain-glucocerebrosidase-activity-in-a-nonhuman-primate
#5
Anna Migdalska-Richards, Wai Kin D Ko, Qin Li, Erwan Bezard, Anthony H V Schapira
Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA1) gene are related to both Parkinson disease (PD) and Gaucher disease (GD). In both cases, the condition is associated with deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GCase), the enzyme encoded by GBA1. Ambroxol is a small molecule chaperone that has been shown in mice to cross the blood-brain barrier, increase GCase activity and reduce alpha-synuclein protein levels. In this study, we analyze the effect of ambroxol treatment on GCase activity in healthy nonhuman primates. We show that daily administration of ambroxol results in increased brain GCase activity...
March 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256749/increased-postsynaptic-ca-2-reduces-mini-frequency-at-the-drosophila-larval-nmj
#6
Andrew S Powers, Jeffrey Grizzaffi, Gregory A Lnenicka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245518/altered-translational-repression-of-an-rna-binding-protein-elav-by-aoa2-causative-senataxin-mutation
#7
Saumitra Dey Choudhury, Ancy Vs, Zeeshan Mushtaq, Vimlesh Kumar
Mutations in Senataxin (SETX) gene causes two types of neurological disorders, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS4) and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2). Recent studies in cultured cells suggest that SETX plays a crucial role at the interface of transcription and the DNA damage response. Whether SETX can alter translational of specific RNA is not known. In this study, we report that expressing AOA2-causative truncated form of human SETX in Drosophila neurons alters the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses...
February 28, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245513/brain-translocator-protein-occupancy-by-ono-2952-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-1-pet-study-using-11-c-pbr28
#8
William G Frankle, Rajesh Narendran, Andrew T Wood, Fumitaka Suto, Michael L Himes, Michiyoshi Kobayashi, Tomoya Ohno, Akinori Yamauchi, Katsukuni Mitsui, Kevin Duffy, Bruce Mark
ONO-2952, a novel antagonist of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), binds with high affinity to TSPO in rat brain and human tumor cell line membrane preparations. This study used the TSPO-specific PET radioligand [(11) C]PBR28 to confirm binding of ONO-2952 to brain TSPO in human subjects, and evaluate brain TSPO occupancy and its relationship with ONO-2952 plasma concentration. Sixteen healthy subjects received a single oral dose of 200, 60, 20, or 6 mg ONO-2952 (n=4 per dose). Two PET scans with [(11) C]PBR28 were conducted ≤7 days apart: at baseline and 24 hours after ONO-2952 administration...
February 28, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233334/investigating-the-effects-of-norepinephrine-%C3%AE-1-receptor-blockade-on-dopamine-levels-a-pilot-pet-study-with-11-c-phno-in-controls
#9
Bernard Le Foll, Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Shawna Xiaoyun Lu, Shakira Mohammed, Esmaeil Mansouri, Dina Lagzdins, Shinichiro Nakajima, Alan A Wilson, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Patricia Di Ciano, Isabelle Boileau
Interest in a role for norepinephrine (NE) in substance use disorders has increased over recent years. In particular, its interaction with dopamine (DA) is of importance. In this study, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to explore the impact of prazosin (an alpha 1 NE antagonist) on DA levels. Healthy volunteers were administered prazosin for approximately 4 weeks at the daily dose of 15 mg to reach steady state. Participants were scanned with PET imaging and the [(11) C]-(+)-PHNO tracer at baseline (before prazosin), at steady state, and after a wash out period...
February 24, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196395/spread-of-tau-down-neural-circuits-precedes-synapse-and-neuronal-loss-in-the-rtgtauec-mouse-model-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Eleanor K Pickett, Christopher M Henstridge, Elizabeth Allison, Rose Pitstick, Amy Pooler, Susanne Wegmann, George Carlson, Bradley T Hyman, Tara L Spires-Jones
Synaptic dysfunction and loss is the strongest pathological correlate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with increasing evidence implicating neuropathological tau protein in this process. Despite the knowledge that tau spreads through defined synaptic circuits, it is currently unknown whether synapse loss occurs before the accumulation of tau or as a consequence. To address this, we have used array tomography to examine an rTgTauEC mouse model expressing a P301L human tau transgene and a transgene labelling cytoplasm red (tdTomato) and presynaptic terminals green (Synaptophysin-EGFP)...
February 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187508/the-role-of-adiponectin-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-synaptic-transmission-in-the-hippocampus
#11
Filippo Weisz, Sonia Piccinin, Dalila Mango, Richard Teke Ngomba, Nicola B Mercuri, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Robert Nisticò
In the last two decades adiponectin, member of the adipokines family, gained attention because of its unique antidiabetic effects. However, the presence in the brain of adiponectin receptors and adiponectin itself raised interest because of the possible association with neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed, clinical studies found altered concentration of adiponectin both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in seeveral pathologies including depression, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Moreover, recent preclinical studies also suggest its involvement in different physiological functions...
February 10, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165637/neuroprotective-effects-of-extracellular-dj-1-on-reperfusion-injury-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Jay Han, Beryl Luk, Frank J S Lee
Using an in vitro model of ischemic stroke we treated differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by a reperfusion period where normal growth conditions were restored. Cells undergoing OGD exhibited significant cell death as measure by propidium iodide staining. However, cells treated with exogenous extracellular DJ-1 during reperfusion exhibited significant rescue from OGD-induced cell death.
February 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164368/bdnf-induced-endocannabinoid-release-modulates-neocortical-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#13
Mason L Yeh, Rajamani Selvam, Eric S Levine
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) and neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are potent neuromodulators found throughout the mammalian neocortex. Both eCBs and BDNF play critical roles in many behavioral and neurophysiological processes and are targets for the development of novel therapeutics. The effects of eCBs and BDNF are primarily mediated by the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor and the trkB tyrosine kinase receptor, respectively. Our laboratory and others have previously established that BDNF potentiates excitatory transmission by enhancing presynaptic glutamate release and modulating NMDA receptors...
February 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105729/whole-genome-grey-and-white-matter-dna-methylation-profiles-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Jose Vicente Sanchez-Mut, Holger Heyn, Enrique Vidal, Raúl Delgado-Morales, Sebastian Moran, Sergi Sayols, Juan Sandoval, Isidre Ferrer, Manel Esteller, Johannes Gräff
The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105686/visual-tactile-processing-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-emerges-before-cross-modal-experience
#15
Malte Bieler, Kay Sieben, Sandra Schildt, Brigitte Röder, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
The presumptive unisensory neocortical areas process multisensory information by oscillatory entrainment of neuronal networks via direct cortico-cortical projections. While neonatal unimodal experience has been identified as necessary for setting up the neuronal networks of multisensory processing, it is still unclear whether early cross-modal experience equally controls the ontogeny of multisensory processing. Here, we assess the development of visual-somatosensory interactions and their anatomical substrate by performing extracellular recordings of network activity in primary sensory cortices in vivo and assessing the cortico-cortical connectivity in pigmented rats...
January 20, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118493/anticonvulsant-effect-of-sodium-cyclamate-and-propylparaben-on-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures-in-zebrafish
#16
Antonella Pisera-Fuster, Sofía Otero, Alan Talevi, Luis Bruno-Blanch, Ramón Bernabeu
Screening for novel anticonvulsant drugs requires appropriate animal seizure models. Zebrafish provide small, accessible, and cost-efficient preclinical models applicable to high-throughput small molecule screening. Based on previous results in rodents, we have here examined the effects of artificial sweetener sodium cyclamate and antimicrobial agent sodium propylparaben on a model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in zebrafish. Sodium cyclamate reduced the bursts of hyperactivity, the spasms, increased the latency to spasms, and the latency to seizure, while propylparaben increased the latency to spasms...
April 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997737/distribution-of-type-i-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf1-receptors-on-gabaergic-neurons-within-the-basolateral-amygdala
#17
Katina C Calakos, Dakota Blackman, Alexandra M Schulz, Elizabeth P Bauer
The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a critical role in mediating anxiety-like responses to stressors, and dysfunction of the CRF system has been linked to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Extra-hypothalamic CRF can also modulate learning and memory formation, including amygdala-dependent learning. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) contains dense concentrations of CRF receptors, yet the distribution of these receptors on specific neuronal subtypes within the BLA has not been characterized...
April 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997730/inhibitors-of-oxidative-and-hydrolytic-endocannabinoid-degradation-do-not-enhance-depolarization-induced-suppression-of-excitation-on-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus-glycinergic-neurons
#18
João Zugaib, Ricardo M Leão
Neurons from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) present endocannabinoid (EC) dependent short-term synaptic plasticity in the form of depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE). Postsynaptic calcium influx promotes EC synthesis and depression of neurotransmission. ECs can be degraded by a hydrolytic and an oxidative pathway, the latter via the enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Hyperactivity in the DCN is related to the development of tinnitus, which can be induced by high doses of salicylate, a COX-2 inhibitor...
April 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902847/food-deprivation-facilitates-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-role-of-intra-accumbal-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-associating-reinstatement-of-morphine-cpp-with-stress
#19
Fatemeh Sadeghzadeh, Vahab Babapour, Abbas Haghparast
The high rate of relapse to drug use is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays the essential role in drug abuse and relapse; nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying stress and relapse. Accordingly, the effects of intra-accumbal administration of Sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on an ineffective morphine dose + food deprivation(FD)- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP). About 104 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280 g were bilaterally implanted by cannula into the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
April 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035691/smad-anchor-for-receptor-activation-contributes-to-seizures-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Weihua Yu, Yingshi Du, Yan Zou, Xuefeng Wang, Ulrich Stephani, Yang Lü
PURPOSE: Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is an important regulator of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling by recruiting Smad2/3 to TGF-β receptors. Although TGF-β signaling is critically involved in epileptogenesis, whether SARA activation is sufficient to facilitate TGF-β pathway to regulate epilepsy remains unknown. METHODS: The expression of SARA and downstream Phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) was examined in rats with pilocarpine induced epilepsy...
March 2017: Synapse
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