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Glia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456012/neuregulin-1-positively-modulates-glial-response-and-improves-neurological-recovery-following-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Arsalan Alizadeh, Scott M Dyck, Hardeep Kataria, Ghazaleh M Shahriary, Dung H Nguyen, Kallivalappil T Santhosh, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in glial activation and neuroinflammation, which play pivotal roles in the secondary injury mechanisms with both pro- and antiregeneration effects. Presently, little is known about the endogenous molecular mechanisms that regulate glial functions in the injured spinal cord. We previously reported that the expression of neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) is acutely and chronically declined following traumatic SCI. Here, we investigated the potential ramifications of Nrg-1 dysregulation on glial and immune cell reactivity following SCI...
April 29, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456003/sodium-dependent-vitamin-c-transporter-2-deficiency-impairs-myelination-and-remyelination-after-injury-roles-of-collagen-and-demethylation
#2
Dominik Röhr, Hartmut Halfter, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Young, Burkhard Gess
Peripheral nerve myelination involves rapid production of tightly bound lipid layers requiring cholesterol biosynthesis and myelin protein expression, but also a collagen-containing extracellular matrix providing mechanical stability. In previous studies, we showed a function of ascorbic acid in peripheral nerve myelination and extracellular matrix formation in adult mice. Here, we sought the mechanism of action of ascorbic acid in peripheral nerve myelination using different paradigms of myelination in vivo and in vitro...
April 29, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417486/age-specific-function-of-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrin-in-microglial-migration-during-early-colonization-of-the-developing-mouse-cortex
#3
Sophie Marie-Thérèse Smolders, Nina Swinnen, Sofie Kessels, Kaline Arnauts, Silke Smolders, Barbara Le Bras, Jean-Michel Rigo, Pascal Legendre, Bert Brône
Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, take part in brain development and homeostasis. They derive from primitive myeloid progenitors that originate in the yolk sac and colonize the brain mainly through intensive migration. During development, microglial migration speed declines which suggests that their interaction with the microenvironment changes. However, the matrix-cell interactions allowing dispersion within the parenchyma are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to better characterize the migration behavior and to assess the role of matrix-integrin interactions during microglial migration in the embryonic brain ex vivo...
April 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398652/brucella-abortus-activated-microglia-induce-neuronal-death-through-primary-phagocytosis
#4
Ana M Rodríguez, M Victoria Delpino, M Cruz Miraglia, Miriam M Costa Franco, Paula Barrionuevo, Vida A Dennis, Sergio C Oliveira, Guillermo H Giambartolomei
Inflammation has long been implicated as a contributor to pathogenesis in neurobrucellosis. Many of the associated neurocognitive symptoms of neurobrucellosis may be the result of neuronal dysfunction resulting from the inflammatory response induced by Brucella abortus infection in the central nervous system. In this manuscript, we describe an immune mechanism for inflammatory activation of microglia that leads to neuronal death upon B. abortus infection. B. abortus was unable to infect or harm primary cultures of mouse neurons...
April 11, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375547/demyelination-induced-by-oxidative-stress-is-regulated-by-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptors
#5
Sinead A O'Sullivan, Maria Velasco-Estevez, Kumlesh K Dev
Oxidative stress is a pathological condition defined as an imbalance between production and removal of reactive oxygen species. This process causes structural cell damage, disrupts DNA repair and induces mitochondrial dysfunction. Many in vitro studies have used direct bolus application of H2 O2 to investigate the role of oxidative stress in cell culture. In this study, using mouse organotypic cerebellar slice cultures, the effects of H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress on myelination state were examined, using bolus concentrations of H2 O2 (0...
April 4, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370559/transcription-factor-sox10-regulates-oligodendroglial-sox9-levels-via-micrornas
#6
Simone Reiprich, Martina Cantone, Matthias Weider, Tina Baroti, Jan Wittstatt, Christian Schmitt, Melanie Küspert, Julio Vera, Michael Wegner
During development of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system the two closely related transcription factors Sox9 and Sox10 play essential roles that are partly shared and partly unique. Whereas Sox9 primarily functions during oligodendroglial specification, Sox10 is uniquely required to induce terminal differentiation and myelination. During this process, Sox10 protein levels rise substantially. As this coincides with a reciprocal decrease in Sox9, we postulated that Sox10 influences Sox9 amounts in differentiating oligodendrocytes...
April 3, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370426/intramembranous-processing-by-%C3%AE-secretase-regulates-reverse-signaling-of-ephrin-b2-in-migration-of-microglia
#7
Nadja Kemmerling, Patrick Wunderlich, Sandra Theil, Bettina Linnartz-Gerlach, Nils Hersch, Bernd Hoffmann, Michael T Heneka, Bart de Strooper, Harald Neumann, Jochen Walter
The Eph-ephrin system plays pivotal roles in cell adhesion and migration. The receptor-like functions of the ephrin ligands allow the regulation of intracellular processes via reverse signaling. γ-Secretase mediated processing of ephrin-B has previously been linked to activation of Src, a kinase crucial for focal adhesion and podosome phosphorylation. Here, we analyzed the role of γ-secretase in the stimulation of reverse ephrin-B2 signaling in the migration of mouse embryonic stem cell derived microglia...
April 3, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370368/suppression-of-snare-dependent-exocytosis-in-retinal-glial-cells-and-its-effect-on-ischemia-induced-neurodegeneration
#8
Lysann Wagner, Thomas Pannicke, Vanessa Rupprecht, Ina Frommherz, Cornelia Volz, Peter Illes, Johannes Hirrlinger, Herbert Jägle, Veronica Egger, Philip G Haydon, Frank W Pfrieger, Antje Grosche
Nervous tissue is characterized by a tight structural association between glial cells and neurons. It is well known that glial cells support neuronal functions, but their role under pathologic conditions is less well understood. Here, we addressed this question in vivo using an experimental model of retinal ischemia and transgenic mice for glia-specific inhibition of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-dependent exocytosis. Transgene expression reduced glutamate, but not ATP release from single Müller cells, impaired glial volume regulation under normal conditions and reduced neuronal dysfunction and death in the inner retina during the early stages of ischemia...
April 3, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317235/astrocyte-specific-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-transfer-in-aging-female-rats-improves-stroke-outcomes
#9
Andre K Okoreeh, Shameena Bake, Farida Sohrabji
Middle aged female rats sustain larger stroke infarction and disability than younger female rats. This older group also shows age-related reduction of insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 in serum and in astrocytes, a cell type necessary for poststroke recovery. To determine the impact of astrocytic IGF-1 for ischemic stroke, these studies tested the hypothesis that gene transfer of IGF-1 to astrocytes will improve stroke outcomes in middle aged female rats. Middle aged (10-12 month old), acyclic female rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) packaged with the coding sequence of the human (h)IGF-1 gene downstream of an astrocyte-specific promoter glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (AAV5-GFP-hIGF-1) into the striatum and cortex...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317216/human-and-mouse-cortical-astrocytes-differ-in-aquaporin-4-polarization-toward-microvessels
#10
Vigdis Andersen Eidsvaag, Rune Enger, Hans-Arne Hansson, Per Kristian Eide, Erlend A Nagelhus
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the predominant water channel in the brain, is expressed in astrocytes and ependymal cells. In rodents AQP4 is highly polarized to perivascular astrocytic endfeet and loss of AQP4 polarization is associated with disease. The present study was undertaken to compare the expression pattern of AQP4 in human and mouse cortical astrocytes. Cortical tissue specimens were sampled from 11 individuals undergoing neurosurgery wherein brain tissue was removed as part of the procedure, and compared with cortical tissue from 5 adult wild-type mice processed similarly...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317185/an-astroglial-basis-of-major-depressive-disorder-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Wei Jie, Ji-Hong Liu, Jian-Ming Yang, Tian-Ming Gao
Depression is a chronic, recurring, and serious mood disorder that afflicts up to 20% of the global population. The monoamine hypothesis has dominated our understanding of the pharmacotherapy of depression for more than half a century; however, our understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of major depression has lagged far behind. Astrocytes are the most abundant and versatile cells in the brain, participating in most, if not all, of brain functions as both a passive housekeeper and an active player...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317180/anti-acsa-2-defines-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-for-prospective-isolation-of-living-neonatal-and-adult-astrocytes
#12
Christina G Kantzer, Camille Boutin, Ina D Herzig, Carolina Wittwer, Sandy Reiß, Marie Catherine Tiveron, Jan Drewes, Thomas D Rockel, Stefanie Ohlig, Jovica Ninkovic, Harold Cremer, Sandra Pennartz, Melanie Jungblut, Andreas Bosio
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type of the central nervous system and cover a broad range of functionalities. We report here the generation of a novel monoclonal antibody, anti-astrocyte cell surface antigen-2 (Anti-ACSA-2). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry revealed that Anti-ACSA-2 reacted specifically with a not yet identified glycosylated surface molecule of murine astrocytes at all developmental stages. It did not show any labeling of non-astroglial cells such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, NG2(+) cells, microglia, endothelial cells, leukocytes, or erythrocytes...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300348/sphingosine-1-phosphate-induces-ca-2-signaling-and-cxcl1-release-via-trpc6-channel-in-astrocytes
#13
Hisashi Shirakawa, Rumi Katsumoto, Shota Iida, Takahito Miyake, Takuya Higuchi, Takuya Nagashima, Kazuki Nagayasu, Takayuki Nakagawa, Shuji Kaneko
A biologically active lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is highly abundant in blood, and plays an important role in regulating the growth, survival, and migration of many cells. Binding of the endogenous ligand S1P results in activation of various signaling pathways via G protein-coupled receptors, some of which generates Ca(2+) mobilization. In astrocytes, S1P is reported to evoke Ca(2+) signaling, proliferation, and migration; however, the precise mechanisms underlying such responses in astrocytes remain to be elucidated...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300326/hur-promotes-the-molecular-signature-and-phenotype-of-activated-microglia-implications-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Prachi Matsye, Lei Zheng, Ying Si, Soojin Kim, Wenyi Luo, David K Crossman, Preston E Bratcher, Peter H King
In neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), chronic activation of microglia contributes to disease progression. Activated microglia produce cytokines, chemokines, and other factors that normally serve to clear infection or damaged tissue either directly or through the recruitment of other immune cells. The molecular program driving this phenotype is classically linked to the transcription factor NF-κB and characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300322/astroglia-as-a-cellular-target-for-neuroprotection-and-treatment-of-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Beihui Liu, Anja G Teschemacher, Sergey Kasparov
Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They cooperate with neurons at several levels, including ion and water homeostasis, chemical signal transmission, blood flow regulation, immune and oxidative stress defense, supply of metabolites and neurogenesis. Astroglia is also important for viability and maturation of stem-cell derived neurons. Neurons critically depend on intrinsic protective and supportive properties of astrocytes. Conversely, all forms of pathogenic stimuli which disturb astrocytic functions compromise neuronal functionality and viability...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295574/cd38-positively-regulates-postnatal-development-of-astrocytes-cell-autonomously-and-oligodendrocytes-non-cell-autonomously
#16
Tsuyoshi Hattori, Minoru Kaji, Hiroshi Ishii, Roboon Jureepon, Mika Takarada-Iemata, Hieu Minh Ta, Thuong Manh Le, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Yoshitake Shiraishi, Noriyuki Ozaki, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Okamoto, Shigeru Yokoyama, Haruhiro Higashida, Yasuko Kitao, Osamu Hori
Glial development is critical for the function of the central nervous system. CD38 is a multifunctional molecule with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity. While critical roles of CD38 in the adult brain such as oxytocin release and social behavior have been reported, those in the developing brain remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that deletion of Cd38 leads to impaired development of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in mice. CD38 is highly expressed in the developing brains between postnatal day 14 (P14) and day 28 (P28)...
March 13, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272791/snat3-mediated-glutamine-transport-in-perisynaptic-astrocytes-in-situ-is-regulated-by-intracellular-sodium
#17
Alison C Todd, Mari-Carmen Marx, Sarah R Hulme, Stefan Bröer, Brian Billups
The release of glutamine from astrocytes adjacent to synapses in the central nervous system is thought to play a vital role in the mechanism of glutamate recycling and is therefore important for maintaining excitatory neurotransmission. Here we investigate the nature of astrocytic membrane transport of glutamine in rat brainstem slices, using electrophysiological recording and fluorescent imaging of pHi and Nai+. Glutamine application to perisynaptic astrocytes induced a membrane current, caused by activation of system A (SA) family transporters...
March 8, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251686/e6020-a-synthetic-tlr4-agonist-accelerates-myelin-debris-clearance-schwann-cell-infiltration-and-remyelination-in-the-rat-spinal-cord
#18
Jamie S Church, Lindsay M Milich, Jessica K Lerch, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are present throughout the adult brain and spinal cord and can replace oligodendrocytes lost to injury, aging, or disease. Their differentiation, however, is inhibited by myelin debris, making clearance of this debris an important step for cellular repair following demyelination. In models of peripheral nerve injury, TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes macrophage phagocytosis of debris. Here we tested whether the novel synthetic TLR4 agonist E6020, a Lipid A mimetic, promotes myelin debris clearance and remyelination in spinal cord white matter following lysolecithin-induced demyelination...
March 2, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251676/the-balance-between-cathepsin-c-and-cystatin-f-controls-remyelination-in-the-brain-of-plp1-overexpressing-mouse-a-chronic-demyelinating-disease-model
#19
Takahiro Shimizu, Wilaiwan Wisessmith, Jiayi Li, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Banthit Chetsawang, Yoshinori Sahara, Koujiro Tohyama, Kenji F Tanaka, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), an imbalance between the demyelination and remyelination rates underlies the degenerative processes. Microglial activation is observed in demyelinating lesions; however, the molecular mechanism responsible for the homeostatic/environmental change remains elusive. We previously found that cystatin F (CysF), a cysteine protease inhibitor, is selectively expressed in microglia only in actively demyelinating/remyelinating lesions but ceases expression in chronic lesions, suggesting its role in remyelination...
March 2, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230289/mice-lacking-bcas1-a-novel-myelin-associated-protein-display-hypomyelination-schizophrenia-like-abnormal-behaviors-and-upregulation-of-inflammatory-genes-in-the-brain
#20
Tetsuya Ishimoto, Kensuke Ninomiya, Ran Inoue, Masato Koike, Yasuo Uchiyama, Hisashi Mori
The abnormal expression and function of myelin-related proteins contribute to nervous system dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the underlying mechanism of this remains unclear. We found here that breast carcinoma amplified sequence 1 (BCAS1), a basic protein abundant in the brain, was expressed specifically in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, and that its expression level was decreased by demyelination. This suggests that BCAS1 is a novel myelin-associated protein. BCAS1 knockout mice displayed schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities and a tendency toward reduced anxiety-like behaviors...
February 23, 2017: Glia
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