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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845643/optogenetic-astrocyte-activation-evokes-bold-fmri-response-with-oxygen-consumption-without-neuronal-activity-modulation
#1
Norio Takata, Yuki Sugiura, Keitaro Yoshida, Miwako Koizumi, Nishida Hiroshi, Kurara Honda, Ryutaro Yano, Yuji Komaki, Ko Matsui, Makoto Suematsu, Masaru Mimura, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F Tanaka
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has been used to infer sites of neuronal activation in the brain. A recent study demonstrated, however, unexpected BOLD signal generation without neuronal excitation, which led us to hypothesize the presence of another cellular source for BOLD signal generation. Collective assessment of optogenetic activation of astrocytes or neurons, fMRI in awake mice, electrophysiological measurements, and histochemical detection of neuronal activation, coherently suggested astrocytes as another cellular source...
May 30, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761559/conditional-depletion-of-gsk3b-protects-oligodendrocytes-from-apoptosis-and-lessens-demyelination-in-the-acute-cuprizone-model
#2
Bin Xing, Lauren E Brink, Kelly Maers, Mara L Sullivan, Richard J Bodnar, Donna B Stolz, Franca Cambi
Apoptosis is recognized as the main mechanism of oligodendrocyte loss in Multiple Sclerosis caused either by immune mediated injury (Barnett & Prineas, ) or a direct degenerative process (oligodendrogliapathy; Lucchinetti et al., ). Cuprizone induced demyelination is the result of non-immune mediated apoptosis of oligodendrocytes (OL) and represents a model of oligodendrogliapathy (Simmons, Pierson, Lee, & Goverman, ). Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) 3b has been shown to be pro-apoptotic for cells other than OL...
May 15, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733459/hiv-1-tat-regulation-of-dopamine-transmission-and-microglial-reactivity-is-brain-region-specific
#3
Douglas R Miller, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Leah Phan, Nesrin Sharif, Joyonna Gamble-George, Jay P McLaughlin, Wolfgang J Streit, Habibeh Khoshbouei
The transactivator of transcription protein, HIV-1 Tat, is linked to neuroAIDS, where degeneration of dopamine neurons occurs. Using a mouse model expressing GFAP-driven Tat protein under doxycycline (Dox) regulation, we investigated microglial-neuronal interactions in the rostral substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Immunohistochemistry for microglia and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed that the ratio of microglia to dopamine neurons is smaller in the SNc than in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and that this difference is maintained following 7-day Dox exposure in wild type animals...
May 7, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732611/jmy-regulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-modulation-of-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#4
Maria M Azevedo, Helena S Domingues, Fabrice P Cordelières, Paula Sampaio, Ana I Seixas, João B Relvas
During central nervous system development, oligodendrocytes form structurally and functionally distinct actin-rich protrusions that contact and wrap around axons to assemble myelin sheaths. Establishment of axonal contact is a limiting step in myelination that relies on the oligodendrocyte's ability to locally coordinate cytoskeletal rearrangements with myelin production, under the control of a transcriptional differentiation program. The molecules that provide fine-tuning of actin dynamics during oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment remain largely unidentified...
May 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732603/sox2-conditional-mutation-in-mouse-causes-ataxic-symptoms-cerebellar-vermis-hypoplasia-and-postnatal-defects-of-bergmann-glia
#5
Valentina Cerrato, Sara Mercurio, Ketty Leto, Elisa Fucà, Eriola Hoxha, Sara Bottes, Miriam Pagin, Marco Milanese, Chew-Yee Ngan, Giulia Concina, Sergio Ottolenghi, Chia-Lin Wei, Giambattista Bonanno, Giulio Pavesi, Filippo Tempia, Annalisa Buffo, Silvia K Nicolis
Sox2 is a transcription factor active in the nervous system, within different cell types, ranging from radial glia neural stem cells to a few specific types of differentiated glia and neurons. Mutations in the human SOX2 transcription factor gene cause various central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities, involving hippocampus and eye defects, as well as ataxia. Conditional Sox2 mutation in mouse, with different Cre transgenes, previously recapitulated different essential features of the disease, such as hippocampus and eye defects...
May 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726608/the-deletion-of-dicer-in-mature-myelinating-glial-cells-causes-progressive-axonal-degeneration-but-not-overt-demyelination-in-adult-mice
#6
Tao Li, Jingjing Wang, Hongkai Wang, Yujian Yang, Shouyu Wang, Nanxin Huang, Fei Wang, Xing Gao, Jianqin Niu, Zhifang Li, Feng Mei, Lan Xiao
Myelinating glial cells (MGCs), oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), generate myelin sheaths that insulate axons. After myelination is completed in adulthood, MGC functions independent from myelin are required to support axon survival, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Dicer is a key enzyme that is responsible for generating functional micro-RNAs (miRNAs). Despite the importance of Dicer in initiating myelination, the role of Dicer in mature MGCs is still unclear...
May 4, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726599/the-roles-of-extracellular-vesicle-micrornas-in-the-central-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Stephanie N Blandford, Dylan A Galloway, Craig S Moore
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, highly conserved non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate protein expression and most biological processes. Mature miRNAs are recruited to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and target mRNAs via complementary base-pairing, thus resulting in translational inhibition and/or transcript degradation. Here, we present evidence implicating miRNAs within extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, as mediators of central nervous system (CNS) development, homeostasis, and injury...
May 4, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722913/the-tsc1-mtor-plk-axis-regulates-the-homeostatic-switch-from-schwann-cell-proliferation-to-myelination-in-a-stage-specific-manner
#8
Minqing Jiang, Rohit Rao, Jincheng Wang, Jiajia Wang, Lingli Xu, Lai Man Wu, Jonah R Chan, Huimin Wang, Q Richard Lu
Proper peripheral myelination depends upon the balance between Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation programs. The serine/threonine kinase mTOR integrates various environmental cues to serve as a central regulator of cell growth, metabolism, and function. We report here that tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1), a negative regulator of mTOR activity, establishes a stage-dependent program for Schwann cell lineage progression and myelination by controlling cell proliferation and myelin homeostasis. Tsc1 ablation in Schwann cell progenitors in mice resulted in activation of mTOR signaling, and caused over-proliferation of Schwann cells and blocked their differentiation, leading to hypomyelination...
May 3, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722912/region-specific-deletions-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt1-differentially-affect-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#9
Zhuoyang Zhao, Yuichi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter and plays an important role in neuropathic pain, which is frequently caused by nerve damage. According to recent studies, nerve injury induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in the spinal cord and several supraspinal regions, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Among glutamate signaling components, accumulating evidence suggests that the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 plays a critical role in neuropathic pain. Indeed, GLT1 expression is reduced in the spinal cord but increased in the PAG after nerve injury, suggesting that the role of GLT1 in neuropathic pain may vary according to the brain region...
May 3, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704264/nf-y-dependent-regulation-of-glutamate-receptor-4-expression-and-cell-survival-in-cells-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage
#10
Ghazala Begum, Masahiro Otsu, Usman Ahmed, Zubair Ahmed, Adam Stevens, Daniel Fulton
Glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4) is highly expressed by neural cells sensitive to excitotoxicity, and is the predominant subunit expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) during a key period of vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore, transcriptional networks downstream of excitotoxic GluA4 activation represent a promising area for therapeutic intervention. In this work, we identify the CCAAT binding transcription factor NF-Yb as a novel transcriptional regulator of Gria4 (GluA4 gene), and a controller of excitotoxic death in the oligodendroglial lineage...
April 27, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693305/genetic-deletion-of-xct-attenuates-peripheral-and-central-inflammation-and-mitigates-lps-induced-sickness-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#11
Giulia Albertini, Lauren Deneyer, Sigrid Ottestad-Hansen, Yun Zhou, Gamze Ates, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Eduard Bentea, Hideyo Sato, Dimitri De Bundel, Niels C Danbolt, Ann Massie, Ilse Smolders
The communication between the immune and central nervous system (CNS) is affected in many neurological disorders. Peripheral injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are widely used to study this communication: an LPS challenge leads to a biphasic syndrome that starts with acute sickness and is followed by persistent brain inflammation and chronic behavioral alterations such as depressive-like symptoms. In vitro, the response to LPS treatment has been shown to involve enhanced expression of system xc-...
April 25, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693281/recombinant-interleukin-4-alleviates-mechanical-allodynia-via-injury-induced-interleukin-4-receptor-alpha-in-spinal-microglia-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#12
Hiroai Okutani, Hiroki Yamanaka, Kimiko Kobayashi, Masamichi Okubo, Koichi Noguchi
Glial cells play important roles in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. In particular, activated microglia in the spinal cord facilitate the hyper-excitability of dorsal horn neurons after peripheral nerve injury via pro-inflammatory molecules. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-4 (IL-4), in neuropathic pain. We did not detect the expression of IL-4 mRNA in the rat dorsal root ganglion or spinal cord; however, peripheral nerve injury induced the expression of IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) alpha mRNA in the spinal cord...
April 25, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683222/ascl1-regulates-proliferation-of-ng2-glia-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-spinal-cord
#13
Demetra P Kelenis, Emma Hart, Morgan Edwards-Fligner, Jane E Johnson, Tou Yia Vue
NG2-glia are highly proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). During development, NG2-glia predominantly differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) to myelinate axon fibers, but they can also remain as OPCs persisting into the mature CNS. Interestingly, NG2-glia in the gray matter (GM) are intrinsically different from those in the white matter (WM) in terms of proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, and electrophysiological properties...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683209/inhibition-of-astroglial-connexin43-hemichannels-with-tat-gap19-exerts-anticonvulsant-effects-in-rodents
#14
Laura Walrave, Anouk Pierre, Giulia Albertini, Najat Aourz, Dimitri De Bundel, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Mathieu Vinken, Christian Giaume, Luc Leybaert, Ilse Smolders
Accumulating evidence shows a key function for astrocytic connexin43 (Cx43) signaling in epilepsy. However, the lack of experimental distinction between Cx43 gap junction channels (GJCs) and hemichannels (HCs) has impeded the identification of the exact contribution of either channel configurations to epilepsy. We therefore investigated whether TAT-Gap19, a Cx mimetic peptide that inhibits Cx43 HCs but not the corresponding Cx43 GJCs, influences experimentally induced seizures in rodents. Dye uptake experiments in acute hippocampal slices of mice demonstrated that astroglial Cx43 HCs open in response to the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine and this was inhibited by TAT-Gap19...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683207/the-wmn1-enhancer-region-in-intron-1-is-required-for-expression-of-human-plp1
#15
Hamdan Hamdan, Pankaj Patyal, Neriman T Kockara, Patricia A Wight
The myelin proteolipid protein gene (PLP1) encodes the most abundant protein present in myelin from the central nervous system (CNS). Its expression must be tightly controlled as evidenced by mutations that alter PLP1 dosage; both overexpression (elevated PLP1 copy number) and lack thereof (PLP1 deletion) result in X-linked genetic disorders in man. However, not much is known about the mechanisms that govern expression of the human gene. To address this, transgenic mice were generated which utilize human PLP1 (hPLP1) sequences (proximal 6...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520852/satellite-glial-cells-represent-a-population-of-developmentally-arrested-schwann-cells
#16
Dale George, Paige Ahrens, Stephen Lambert
Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are glial cells in the peripheral nervous system that form sheaths around the neuronal cell body. This unique arrangement of SGCs allows it to exert a highly regulated control over the neuronal microenvironment. Not much is known about the origin of SGCs. In this study, we examine the development of SGCs. We show that rat SGCs develop postnatally and these cells express a number of markers associated with Schwann cell precursors, in particular cadherin-19 (CDH19) even in adult DRGs...
July 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520845/draper-mediated-jnk-signaling-is-required-for-glial-phagocytosis-of-apoptotic-neurons-during-drosophila-metamorphosis
#17
Reut Hilu-Dadia, Ketty Hakim-Mishnaevski, Flonia Levy-Adam, Estee Kurant
Development of the central nervous system involves elimination of superfluous neurons through apoptosis and subsequent phagocytosis. In Drosophila, this occurs mainly during three developmental stages: embryogenesis, metamorphosis and emerging adult. Two transmembrane glial phagocytic receptors, SIMU (homolog of the mammalian Stabilin-2) and Draper (homolog of the mammalian MEGF10 and Jedi), mediate glial phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons during embryogenesis. However, less is known about the removal of apoptotic neurons during later stages of development...
July 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508439/dopamine-d1-receptor-mediated-upregulation-of-bk-ca-currents-modifies-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-gliosis-in-a-rat-chronic-ocular-hypertension-model
#18
Hang-Jing Wu, Xue-Yan Li, Wen-Jing Qian, Qian Li, Shu-Yue Wang, Min Ji, Yuan-Yuan Ma, Feng Gao, Xing-Huai Sun, Xin Wang, Yanying Miao, Xiong-Li Yang, Zhongfeng Wang
Müller cell gliosis is a common response in many retinal pathological conditions. We previously demonstrated that downregulation of Kir channels contributes to Müller cell gliosis in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model. Here, the possible involvement of outward K+ currents in Müller cell gliosis was investigated. Outward K+ current densities in Müller cells isolated from COH rats, as compared with those in normal rats, showed a significant increase, which was mainly contributed by large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (BKCa ) channels...
July 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493017/plaque-dependent-morphological-and-electrophysiological-heterogeneity-of-microglia-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#19
Monika Plescher, Gerald Seifert, Jan Niklas Hansen, Peter Bedner, Christian Steinhäuser, Annett Halle
Microglia, the central nervous system resident innate immune cells, cluster around Aβ plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The activation phenotype of these plaque-associated microglial cells, and their differences to microglia distant to Aβ plaques, are incompletely understood. We used novel three-dimensional cell analysis software to comprehensively analyze the morphological properties of microglia in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD in spatial relation to Aβ plaques. We found strong morphological changes exclusively in plaque-associated microglia, whereas plaque-distant microglia showed only minor changes...
July 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493012/aging-associated-changes-in-hippocampal-glycogen-metabolism-in-mice-evidence-for-and-against-astrocyte-to-neuron-lactate-shuttle
#20
Dominika Drulis-Fajdasz, Agnieszka Gizak, Tomasz Wójtowicz, Jacek R Wiśniewski, Dariusz Rakus
Lactate derived from astrocytic glycogen has been shown to support memory formation in hippocampi of young animals, inhibiting it in old animals. Here we show, using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, immunofluorescence, and qPCR that aging is associated with an increase of glycogen metabolism enzymes concentration and shift in their localization from astrocytes to neurons. These changes are accompanied with reorganization of hippocampal energy metabolism which is manifested by elevated capacity of aging neurons to oxidize glucose in glycolysis and mitochondria, and decreased ability for fatty acids utilization...
July 2018: Glia
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