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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896839/dopamine-elevates-and-lowers-astroglial-ca-2-through-distinct-pathways-depending-on-local-synaptic-circuitry
#1
Alistair Jennings, Olga Tyurikova, Lucie Bard, Kaiyu Zheng, Alexey Semyanov, Christian Henneberger, Dmitri A Rusakov
Whilst astrocytes in culture invariably respond to dopamine with cytosolic Ca(2+) rises, the dopamine sensitivity of astroglia in situ and its physiological roles remain unknown. To minimize effects of experimental manipulations on astroglial physiology, here we monitored Ca(2+) in cells connected via gap junctions to astrocytes loaded whole-cell with cytosolic indicators in area CA1 of acute hippocampal slices. Aiming at high sensitivity of [Ca(2+) ] measurements, we also employed life-time imaging of the Ca(2+) indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1...
November 29, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888531/fate-of-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection-from-activation-to-senescence
#2
REVIEW
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
Microglia support productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disturbed microglial function could contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Better understanding of how HIV-1 infection and viral protein exposure modulate microglial function during the course of infection could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for both the eradication of HIV-1 reservoir and treatment of neurocognitive deficits. This review first describes microglial origins and function in the normal central nervous system (CNS), and the changes that occur during aging...
November 26, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878997/corneal-epithelial-cells-function-as-surrogate-schwann-cells-for-their-sensory-nerves
#3
REVIEW
Mary Ann Stepp, Gauri Tadvalkar, Raymond Hakh, Sonali Pal-Ghosh
The eye is innervated by neurons derived from both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS). While much is known about retinal neurobiology and phototransduction, less attention has been paid to the innervation of the eye by the PNS and the roles it plays in maintaining a functioning visual system. The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion contains somas of neurons that innervate the cornea. These nerves provide sensory functions for the cornea and are referred to as intraepithelial corneal nerves (ICNs) consisting of subbasal nerves and their associated intraepithelial nerve terminals...
November 23, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859594/glutamate-transporter-associated-anion-channels-adjust-intracellular-chloride-concentrations-during-glial-maturation
#4
Verena Untiet, Peter Kovermann, Niklas J Gerkau, Thomas Gensch, Christine R Rose, Christoph Fahlke
Astrocytic volume regulation and neurotransmitter uptake are critically dependent on the intracellular anion concentration, but little is known about the mechanisms controlling internal anion homeostasis in these cells. Here we used fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with the chloride-sensitive dye MQAE to measure intracellular chloride concentrations in murine Bergmann glial cells in acute cerebellar slices. We found Bergmann glial [Cl(-) ]int to be controlled by two opposing transport processes: chloride is actively accumulated by the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1, and chloride efflux through anion channels associated with excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) reduces [Cl(-) ]int to values that vary upon changes in expression levels or activity of these channels...
November 18, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859601/the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-dep-1-promotes-migration-and-phagocytic-activity-of-microglial-cells-in-part-through-negative-regulation-of-fyn-tyrosine-kinase
#5
Nadine Schneble, Julia Müller, Stefanie Kliche, Reinhard Bauer, Reinhard Wetzker, Frank-D Böhmer, Zhao-Qi Wang, Jörg P Müller
Microglia cells are brain macrophages whose proper functioning is essential for maintenance and repair processes of the central nervous system (CNS). Migration and phagocytosis are critical aspects of microglial activity. By using genetically modified cell lines and knockout mice we demonstrate here that the receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) DEP-1 (also known as PTPRJ or CD148) acts as a positive regulator of both processes in vitro and in vivo. Notably, reduced microglial migration was detectable in brains of Ptprj(-/-) mice using a wounding assay...
November 17, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862359/the-conversion-of-glutamate-by-glutamine-synthase-in-neocortical-astrocytes-from-juvenile-rat-is-important-to-limit-glutamate-spillover-and-peri-extrasynaptic-activation-of-nmda-receptors
#6
Yosra Trabelsi, Mohamed Amri, Hélène Becq, Florence Molinari, Laurent Aniksztejn
Glutamate transporters (EAATs) are important to maintain spatial and temporal specificity of synaptic transmission. Their efficiency to uptake and transport glutamate into the intracellular space depends on several parameters including the intracellular concentrations of Na(+) and glutamate, the elevations of which may slow down the cycling rate of EAATs. In astrocytes, glutamate is maintained at low concentration due to the presence of specific enzymes such as glutamine synthase (GS). GS inhibition results in cytosolic accumulation of glutamate suggesting that the conversion of glutamate by GS is important for EAATs operation...
November 12, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862351/p2y12-receptor-is-expressed-on-human-microglia-under-physiological-conditions-throughout-development-and-is-sensitive-to-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#7
Alexander Mildner, Hao Huang, Josefine Radke, Werner Stenzel, Josef Priller
Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which are essential for immune defence and critically contribute to neuronal functions during homeostasis. Until now, little is known about microglia biology in humans in part due to the lack of microglia-specific markers. We therefore investigated the expression of the purinergic receptor P2Y12 in human brain tissue. Compared to classical markers used to identify microglia such as Iba1, CD68 or MHCII, we found that P2Y12 is expressed on parenchymal microglia but is absent from perivascular or meningeal macrophages...
November 12, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807898/yap-functions-as-a-mechanotransducer-in-oligodendrocyte-morphogenesis-and-maturation
#8
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kenji F Tanaka, Manabu Abe, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that mechanical factors influence various cell properties. Mechanical stimuli can be transduced into intracellular biochemical signals through mechanosensors and intracellular mechanotransducers, such as YAP. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying mechanical regulation of OLs by YAP remain unknown. We found that OL morphology and interactions between OLs and neuronal axons were affected by knocking down YAP...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807896/transient-cnp-expression-by-early-progenitors-causes-cre-lox-based-reporter-lines-to-map-profoundly-different-fates
#9
Reshmi Tognatta, Wenjing Sun, Sandra Goebbels, Klaus-Armin Nave, Akiko Nishiyama, Susanne Schoch, Leda Dimou, Dirk Dietrich
NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796063/endogenous-gaba-controls-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cell-number-myelination-and-cns-internode-length
#10
Nicola B Hamilton, Laura E Clarke, I Lorena Arancibia-Carcamo, Eleni Kougioumtzidou, Moritz Matthey, Ragnhildur Káradóttir, Louise Whiteley, Linda H Bergersen, William D Richardson, David Attwell
Adjusting the thickness and internodal length of the myelin sheath is a mechanism for tuning the conduction velocity of axons to match computational needs. Interactions between oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and developing axons regulate the formation of myelin around axons. We now show, using organotypic cerebral cortex slices from mice expressing eGFP in Sox10-positive oligodendrocytes, that endogenously released GABA, acting on GABAA receptors, greatly reduces the number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells...
October 31, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785828/rapid-sodium-signaling-couples-glutamate-uptake-to-breakdown-of-atp-in-perivascular-astrocyte-endfeet
#11
Julia Langer, Niklas J Gerkau, Amin Derouiche, Christian Kleinhans, Behrouz Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Michaela Fredrich, Karl W Kafitz, Gerald Seifert, Christian Steinhäuser, Christine R Rose
Perivascular endfeet of astrocytes are highly polarized compartments that ensheath blood vessels and contribute to the blood-brain barrier. They experience calcium transients with neuronal activity, a phenomenon involved in neurovascular coupling. Endfeet also mediate the uptake of glucose from the blood, a process stimulated in active brain regions. Here, we demonstrate in mouse hippocampal tissue slices that endfeet undergo sodium signaling upon stimulation of glutamatergic synaptic activity. Glutamate-induced endfeet sodium transients were diminished by TFB-TBOA, suggesting that they were generated by sodium-dependent glutamate uptake...
October 27, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778404/progranulin-protects-against-exaggerated-axonal-injury-and-astrogliosis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Lutz Menzel, Lisa Kleber, Carina Friedrich, Regina Hummel, Larissa Dangel, Jennifer Winter, Katja Schmitz, Irmgard Tegeder, Michael K E Schäfer
In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) microglia/macrophages and astrocytes release inflammatory mediators with dual effects on secondary brain damage progression. The neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein progranulin (PGRN) attenuates neuronal damage and microglia/macrophage activation in brain injury but mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we studied histopathology, neurology and gene expression of inflammatory markers in PGRN-deficient mice (Grn(-/-) ) 24 h and 5 days after experimental TBI...
October 25, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778395/complement-c3-on-microglial-clusters-in-multiple-sclerosis-occur-in-chronic-but-not-acute-disease-implication-for-disease-pathogenesis
#13
Iliana Michailidou, Daphne M P Naessens, Simon Hametner, Willemijn Guldenaar, Evert-Jan Kooi, Jeroen J G Geurts, Frank Baas, Hans Lassmann, Valeria Ramaglia
Microglial clusters with C3d deposits are observed in the periplaque of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains and were proposed as early stage of lesion formation. As such they should appear in the brain of MS donors with acute disease but thus far this has not been shown. Using postmortem brain tissue from acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 15) MS cases we investigated whether C3d+ microglial clusters are part of an acute attack against myelinated axons, which could have implications for disease pathogenesis...
October 25, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778377/dynamics-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-expression-in-different-cell-types-after-brain-injury
#14
Jenni Kyyriäinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is upregulated after brain injury and its depletion results in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We investigated the time-window and localization of PDGFRβ expression in mice with intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) and in rats with lateral fluid-percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tissue immunohistochemistry was evaluated at several time-points after SE and TBI. The distribution of PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double/triple-labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), NG2 cells, and endothelial cells (RECA-1)...
October 25, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767232/comparative-electrophysiology-of-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cells-a-survey-on-vertebrate-species
#15
Thomas Pannicke, T Ivo Chao, Miriam Reisenhofer, Mike Francke, Andreas Reichenbach
Müller cells are the dominant macroglial cells in the retina of all vertebrates. They fulfill a variety of functions important for retinal physiology, among them spatial buffering of K(+) ions and uptake of glutamate and other neurotransmitters. To this end, Müller cells express inwardly rectifying K(+) channels and electrogenic glutamate transporters. Moreover, a lot of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, aquaporin water channels, and electrogenic transporters are expressed in Müller cells, some of them in a species-specific manner...
October 21, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761954/novel-insights-into-role-of-mir-320a-vdac1-axis-in-astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-damage-in-neuroaids
#16
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759175/rabies-virus-mediated-oligodendrocyte-labeling-reveals-a-single-oligodendrocyte-myelinates-axons-from-distinct-brain-regions
#17
Yasuyuki Osanai, Takeshi Shimizu, Takuma Mori, Yumiko Yoshimura, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu, Yoshitaka Kimori, Shinsuke Koyama, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Oligodendrocytes myelinate neuronal axons during development and increase conduction velocity of neuronal impulses in the central nervous system. Neuronal axons extend from multiple brain regions and pass through the white matter; however, whether oligodendrocytes ensheath a particular set of axons or do so randomly within the mammalian brain remains unclear. We developed a novel method to visualize individual oligodendrocytes and axon derived from a particular brain region in mouse white matter using a combinational injection of attenuated rabies virus and adeno-associated virus...
October 19, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758000/cell-autonomous-and-noncell-autonomous-role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p50-in-astrocyte-mediated-fate-specification-of-adult-neural-progenitor-cells
#18
Suzana Cvijetic, Valeria Bortolotto, Marcello Manfredi, Elia Ranzato, Emilio Marengo, Rita Salem, Pier Luigi Canonico, Mariagrazia Grilli
In previous work, we demonstrated that NF-κB p50 acts as crucial regulator of adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells (ahNPC). Indeed, NF-κB p50 knockout (KO) mice are characterized by remarkably reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. As a follow up to that work, herein we show that when cultured in vitro, ahNPC from wild type (WT) and p50KO mice are not significantly different in their neurogenic potential. This observation prompted us to investigate cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous consequences of p50 absence on neuronal fate specification of ahNPC...
October 19, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757989/identification-of-a-conserved-and-acute-neurodegeneration-specific-microglial-transcriptome-in-the-zebrafish
#19
Nynke Oosterhof, Inge R Holtman, Laura E Kuil, Herma C van der Linde, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen, Tjakko J van Ham
Microglia are brain resident macrophages important for brain development, connectivity, homeostasis and disease. However, it is still largely unclear how microglia functions and their identity are regulated at the molecular level. Although recent transcriptomic studies have identified genes specifically expressed in microglia, the function of most of these genes in microglia is still unknown. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on microglia acutely isolated from healthy and neurodegenerative zebrafish brains...
October 19, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748972/astrocyte-mediated-infantile-onset-leukoencephalopathy-mouse-model
#20
Shouta Sugio, Koujiro Tohyama, Shinichiro Oku, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Takeshi Yoshimura, Keigo Hikishima, Ryutaro Yano, Takahiro Fukuda, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Masahiko Watanabe, Masaki Fukata, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kenji F Tanaka
Astrocytes have recently been shown to provide physiological support for various brain functions, although little is known about their involvement in white matter integrity. Several inherited infantile-onset leukoencephalopathies, such as Alexander disease and megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), implicate astrocytic involvement in the formation of white matter. Several mouse models of MLC had been generated by knocking out the Mlc1 gene; however, none of those models was reported to show myelin abnormalities prior to formation of the myelin sheath...
October 17, 2016: Glia
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