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Clinical Neuropsychologist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806145/technology-yes-useable-not-so-fast
#1
Robert N Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774220/prospective-memory-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#2
Isabelle Rouleau, Emmanuelle Dagenais, Alexandra Tremblay, Mélanie Demers, Élaine Roger, Céline Jobin, Pierre Duquette
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system affecting information processing speed, episodic memory, attention, and executive functions. MS patients also often report prospective memory (PM) failures that directly impact their functional autonomy, including professional and social life. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the assessment and remediation of PM deficits in MS. METHOD: The literature pertaining to PM impairment in MS was carefully reviewed using PubMed, PsyINFO, and Google Scholar, as well as cross-references from the articles published on this topic...
August 4, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752793/a-tale-of-two-norms-the-impact-of-normative-sample-selection-criteria-on-standardized-scores-in-older-adults
#3
Phillip K Martin, Ryan W Schroeder, Lyle E Baade
OBJECTIVE: Normative sample composition can vary notably as a function of exclusionary criteria in older adult samples given that typical medical conditions of exclusion become more prevalent with age. Older adult norms may consist of typically aging or healthy aging individuals according to the stringency of the exclusion criteria, a difference illustrated when comparing two normative samples for the RBANS: the original standardization sample and the Oklahoma sample. METHODS: The current study examined the clinical impact of norm selection in older adults by analyzing impairment classification rates for 105 older adult behavioral health inpatients...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752789/discrepancy-analysis-and-australian-norms-for-the-trail-making-test
#4
Graeme Senior, Adina Piovesana, Patricia Beaumont
OBJECTIVE: Discrepancy analyses refer to comparison methods that evaluate the relationship or differences between two measures in the same individual. A common type of discrepancy analysis involves the comparison of two trials within a measure, such as, Trails A and B of the Trail Making Test (TMT). The TMT is well-suited to this role as the two measures are highly correlated, assess similar underlying constructs, and most importantly demonstrate differential vulnerability to the impact of pathology...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741419/measuring-and-diagnosing-unilateral-neglect-a-standardized-statistical-procedure
#5
Alessio Toraldo, Cristian Romaniello, Paolo Sommaruga
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral neglect is usually investigated by adminstering stimuli (targets) in different positions, with targets being responded to by the patient (Hit) or omitted. In spite of this homogeneity of data type, neglect indices and diagnostic criteria vary considerably, causing inconsistencies in both clinical and experimental settings. We aimed at deriving a standard analysis which would apply to all tasks sharing this data form. METHODS: A-priori theoretical reasoning demonstrated that the mean position of Hits in space (MPH) is an optimal index for correctly diagnosing and quantifying neglect...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726544/evaluating-wais-iv-structure-through-a-different-psychometric-lens-structural-causal-model-discovery-as-an-alternative-to-confirmatory-factor-analysis
#6
Marjolein J A M van Dijk, Tom Claassen, Christiany Suwartono, William M van der Veld, Paul T van der Heijden, Marc P H Hendriks
OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-NL) by applying an alternative analysis based on causal modeling in addition to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm learns underlying network structures directly from data and assesses more complex structures than is possible with factor analysis...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721748/influence-of-nationality-on-the-brief-international-cognitive-assessment-for-multiple-sclerosis-bicams
#7
A Smerbeck, Ralph H B Benedict, Arman Eshaghi, Sandra Vanotti, Carina Spedo, Jana Blahova Dusankova, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Vanessa D Marques, Dawn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: In answer to the call for improved accessibility of neuropsychological services to the international community, the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS; MS) was validated in multiple, non-English-speaking countries. It was created to monitor processing speed and learning in MS patients, including abbreviated versions of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd Edition, and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test, Revised...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679311/univariate-comparisons-given-aggregated-normative-data
#8
Jacqueline N Zadelaar, Joost A Agelink van Rentergem, Hilde M Huizenga
OBJECTIVE: Normative comparison is a method to compare an individual to a norm group. It is commonly used in neuropsychological assessment to determine if a patient's cognitive capacities deviate from those of a healthy population. Neuropsychological assessment often involves multiple testing, which might increase the familywise error rate (FWER). Recently, several correction methods have been proposed to reduce the FWER. However these methods require that multivariate normative data are available, which is often not the case...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679302/an-evidence-based-approach-to-the-creation-of-normative-data-base-rates-of-impaired-scores-within-a-brief-neuropsychological-battery-argue-for-age-corrections-but-against-corrections-for-medical-conditions
#9
Megan E O'Connell, Holly Tuokko, Stacey Voll, Martine Simard, Lauren E Griffith, Vanessa Taler, Christina Wolfson, Susan Kirkland, Parminder Raina
OBJECTIVE: We detail a new approach to the creation of normative data for neuropsychological tests. The traditional approach to normative data creation is to make demographic adjustments based on observations of correlations between single neuropsychological tests and selected demographic variables. We argue, however, that this does not describe the implications for clinical practice, such as increased likelihood of misclassification of cognitive impairment, nor does it elucidate the impact on decision-making with a neuropsychological battery...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675974/toward-generally-accepted-forensic-assessment-practices-among-clinical-neuropsychologists-a-survey-of-professional-practice-and-common-test-use
#10
Casey LaDuke, William Barr, Donald L Brodale, Laura A Rabin
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated professional practice and common test use among clinical neuropsychologists engaging in forensic assessment. METHOD:  Doctorate-level psychologists active in the practice of neuropsychology and on the INS and NAN membership listings (n = 502) were surveyed about their demographics, professional practice, and common test use. Participants who reported engaging in forensic practice (n = 255) were further surveyed about their forensic practice...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669246/calculating-theoretical-base-rates-of-score-differences
#11
Tianshu Pan, Jianjun Zhu, Troy Courville
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we developed new methods to calculate theoretical base rates of score differences when more than two test scores are involved in score comparisons. The study compares the results of theoretical and observed base rates, and then explores whether these methods can be used in practice. METHODS: We proposed the formulas and the Monte Carlo methods calculating theoretical base rates of score differences between a single test score and a mean of several test scores by overall sample and subsamples...
July 3, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656801/the-vulnerability-of-self-reported-disability-measures-to-malingering-a-simulated-adhd-study
#12
Andrew M Bryant, Esther Lee, Ashley Howell, Brittni Morgan, Carolyn M Cook, Kruti Patel, Andrew Menatti, Rebekah Clark, Melissa T Buelow, Julie A Suhr
OBJECTIVE: Making diagnostic and accommodation decisions for potential Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults is difficult, as the assessor often relies more on self-reported symptoms and functional disability than in childhood evaluations. Malingering of ADHD occurs frequently in the educational setting and for a variety of reasons, including the potential benefits of access to stimulant medications and academic accommodations. METHOD: The present study utilized a simulation design to examine the potential for malingering of self-reported functional disability on the World Health Organization Disability Schedule 2...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649901/psychometric-properties-of-the-nepsy-ii-affect-recognition-subtest-in-a-preschool-sample-a-rasch-modeling-approach
#13
Shih-Ying Yao, Rebecca Bull, Kiat Hui Khng, Anisa Rahim
OBJECTIVE: Understanding a child's ability to decode emotion expressions is important to allow early interventions for potential difficulties in social and emotional functioning. This study applied the Rasch model to investigate the psychometric properties of the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest, a U.S. normed measure for 3-16 year olds which assesses the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion. METHOD: Data were collected from 1222 children attending preschools in Singapore...
June 26, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632025/use-of-latent-class-analysis-to-define-groups-based-on-validity-cognition-and-emotional-functioning
#14
Ruth T Morin, Bradley N Axelrod
OBJECTIVE: Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify a heterogeneous sample of neuropsychology data. In particular, we used measures of performance validity, symptom validity, cognition, and emotional functioning to assess and describe latent groups of functioning in these areas. METHOD: A data-set of 680 neuropsychological evaluation protocols was analyzed using a LCA. Data were collected from evaluations performed for clinical purposes at an urban medical center...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632024/performance-validity-testing-in-a-clinical-sample-of-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#15
Katherine E Dorociak, Evan T Schulze, Lauren E Piper, Robert E Molokie, Julie K Janecek
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychologists utilize performance validity tests (PVTs) as objective means for drawing inferences about performance validity. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a well-validated, stand-alone PVT and the Reliable Digit Span (RDS) and Reliable Digit Span-Revised (RDS-R) from the Digit Span subtest of the WAIS-IV are commonly employed, embedded PVTs. While research has demonstrated the utility of these PVTs with various clinical samples, no research has investigated their use in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), a condition associated with multiple neurological, physical, and psychiatric symptoms...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617092/determination-of-the-smoking-gun-of-intent-significance-testing-of-forced-choice-results-in-social-security-claimants
#16
Laurence M Binder, Michael D Chafetz
OBJECTIVE: Significantly below-chance findings on forced choice tests have been described as revealing "the smoking gun of intent" that proved malingering. The issues of probability levels, one-tailed vs. two-tailed tests, and the combining of PVT scores on significantly below-chance findings were addressed in a previous study, with a recommendation of a probability level of .20 to test the significance of below-chance results. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of below-chance findings in a Social Security Disability claimant sample using the previous recommendations...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617067/parametric-model-measurement-reframing-traditional-measurement-ideas-in-neuropsychological-practice-and-research
#17
Gregory G Brown, Michael L Thomas, Virginie Patt
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychology is an applied measurement field with its psychometric work primarily built upon classical test theory (CTT). We describe a series of psychometric models to supplement the use of CTT in neuropsychological research and test development. METHOD: We introduce increasingly complex psychometric models as measurement algebras, which include model parameters that represent abilities and item properties. Within this framework of parametric model measurement (PMM), neuropsychological assessment involves the estimation of model parameters with ability parameter values assuming the role of test 'scores'...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598726/outer-and-inner-tolerance-limits-their-usefulness-for-the-construction-of-norms-and-the-standardization-of-neuropsychological-tests
#18
Erminio Capitani, Marcella Laiacona
OBJECTIVES: After adjustment of scores for demographic variables, especially when test scales have an upper limit that causes a ceiling effect, the original score variability is deeply altered and the scale properties degenerate. We present a method for fixing normality thresholds on scores previously adjusted for demographic variables that overcomes these problems. METHODS: We suggest to fix norms using non-parametric tolerance limits. These limits, valid even for asymmetrical distributions and adjusted scores, can also be used as a basis for a non-parametric standardization of adjusted scores...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593818/sensitivity-and-specificity-should-never-be-interpreted-in-isolation-without-consideration-of-other-clinical-utility-metrics
#19
Rael T Lange, Sara M Lippa
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the risks and pitfalls of interpreting sensitivity and specificity in isolation when evaluating the clinical utility of a new test/measure to predict a target behavior, disease, or condition. METHOD: This paper (a) provides a primer for a set of metrics that can be used to appropriately examine the clinical utility of a test/measure (i.e. test operating characteristics - TOC), and (b) provides a discussion regarding various interpretative considerations when using TOCs that supports the tenet of this paper...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590154/practice-parameters-facilitating-adoption-of-advanced-technologies-for-enhancing-neuropsychological-assessment-paradigms
#20
Thomas D Parsons, Timothy McMahan, Robert Kane
OBJECTIVE: Clinical neuropsychologists have long underutilized computer technologies for neuropsychological assessment. Given the rapid advances in technology (e.g. virtual reality; tablets; iPhones) and the increased accessibility in the past decade, there is an on-going need to identify optimal specifications for advanced technologies while minimizing potential sources of error. Herein, we discuss concerns raised by a joint American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology/National Academy of Neuropsychology position paper...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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