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Lorena I Aranda, Linda A Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard
Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens...
2015: Immunohematology
Ashwini Bennett, Ray K Boyapati, Frank S Hong
Anti-Di(a) can mediate hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, but it is unclear if it can cause hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs). To date, there has only been one report of a possible immediate HTR attributed to anti-Di(a). Our case report details an immediate HTR due to anti-Di(a) in a patient with pre-existing liver failure. This reaction triggered multi-organ failure, and the patient subsequently died. This case also highlights the importance of considering HTRs even when routine antibody screening has been unremarkable, particularly when electronic crossmatch is used, because of the potential for an alloantibody against a low-prevalence antigen...
2015: Immunohematology
Philip Berardi, Emma Bessette, Michiko Ng, Nancy Angus, Debra Lane, Lise Gariepy, Katerina Pavenski, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Jacqueline Cote, Mindy Goldman
Correct donor D typing is critical to prevent recipient alloimmunization. No method can detect all variants, and the immunogenicity of many variants is unknown. Routine ABO and D serologic typings are performed in our laboratory by automated microplate testing. Until 2011, routine confirmation of D- status of first-time donors was performed by the manual tube indirect antiglobulin test (IAT); this was replaced by automated solid-phase testing including weak D testing by IAT. Selected donors are investigated by other methods...
2015: Immunohematology
John C Lavelle, Michelle L Grant, Julie K Karp
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a rare complication of transfusion, for which the true incidence remains obscure, since there are a number of factors that may lead to misdiagnosis. Despite this, it continues to be the leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality. Here we present a historical case of TRALI in an elderly female who received group AB plasma and discuss how current mitigation strategies would likely have prevented its occurrence. It is important to remember that both immune and non-immune factors play a role in TRALI pathogenesis, and although current preventative strategies may decrease TRALI's incidence, they likely will not eliminate it...
2015: Immunohematology
Christy W Hall
Reticulocytes can be separated from more mature red blood cells based on differences in density. A method for obtaining autologous reticulocytes in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) whole blood samples containing both autologous and transfused cells uses a microhematocrit centrifuge. The less dense reticulocytes harvested from the top 5 mm of microhematocrit tubes can be used to determine the patient's phenotype or assess whether a transfusion reaction is taking place. This method can be performed using equipment, reagents, and supplies readily available in most laboratories...
2015: Immunohematology
Christof Weinstock, Markus Anliker, Inge von Zabern
The blood group system number 35 is based on CD59, a 20-kDa membrane glycoprotein present on a large number of different cells, including erythrocytes. The major function of CD59 is to protect cells from complement attack. CD59 binds to complement components CS and C9 and prevents the polymerization of C9, which is required for the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Other functions of CD59 in cellular immunity are less well defined. CD59 is inserted into the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor...
2015: Immunohematology
Sheetal Malhotra, Gian Sagar, Hari Krishan Dhawqan, Ratti Ram Sharma, Neelam Marwaha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Immunohematology
Adrian Schreiber, Alexandra Jannerjahn, Ralph Kettritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Immunohematology
Riina Jernman, Vedran Stefanovic, Anu Korhonen, Katri Haimila, Inna Sareneva, Kati Sulin, Malla Kuosmanen, Susanna Sainio
Anti-G is commonly present with anti-D and/or anti-C and can confuse serological investigations. in general, anti-G is not considered a likely cause of severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), but it is important to differentiate it from anti-D in women who should be administered anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis. We report one woman with three pregnancies severely affected by anti-C+G requiring intrauterine treatment and a review of the literature. In our case, the identification of the correct antibody was delayed because the differentiation of anti-C+G and anti-D+C was not considered important during pregnancy since the father was D-...
2015: Immunohematology
Shaina McCaskill, Scott Wise, Sheila Tinsley
A 62-year-old Filipino man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia was admitted to the emergency department at Hospital A with recurrent fevers, weakness, and jaundice. The patient was evaluated and eventually discharged with a diagnosis of possible drug-induced hepatitis. One month later, the patient was admitted to Hospital B for recurrent fevers and weakness. The patient's hemoglobin was 3.8 g/dL. Six units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) were ordered for transfusion...
2015: Immunohematology
Ashish Jain, Vijay Kumawat, Neelam Marwaha
A blood requisition for double-volume exchange transfusion was received for a 2-day-old male child born to a 29-year-old multiparous female (P2002) referred to our institute having neonatal jaundice with encephalopathy; no maternal sample was received. the neonatal blood sample was typed as group A, D-, and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was strongly positive (4+) using the gel method. Mono-specific DAT showed the presence of IgG antibodies on neonatal red blood cells (RBCs). Acid elution and gentle heat elution (at 56°C) confirmed the presence of anti-D on neonatal RBCs...
2015: Immunohematology
Matthew S Karafin, Gregory A Denomme, Michael Schanen, Jerome L Gottschall
Clinical evidence of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia is present in 1 percent to 10 percent of patients whose direct antiglobulin test (DAT) is negative. The clinical underpinnings associated with DAT-negative immune hemolysis are poorly understood, and the current study aimed to further define the clinical characteristics associated with this form of anemia. A 19-question survey, requesting clinical information about each patient, was retrospectively mailed to all referring labs that had sent patient samples for an enhanced DAT evaluation from January 2011 through June 2013...
2015: Immunohematology
Patricia A Arndt, Trina Horn, Jessica A Keller, Suzanne M Heri, Margaret A Keller
Duffy antigens are important in immunohematology. the reference allele for the Duffy gene (FY) is FY*02, which encodes Fy(b). An A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at coding nucleotide (c.) 125 in exon 2 defines the FY*01 allele, which encodes the antithetical Fy(a). A C>T SNP at c.265 in the FY*02 allele is associated with weakening of Fy(b) expression on red blood cells (R BCs) (called Fy(x)). until recently, this latter change had not been described on a FY*01 background allele. Phenotype-matched units were desired for a multi-transfused Vietnamese fetus with α-thalassemia...
2015: Immunohematology
M A Keller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Immunohematology
Cinzia Paccapelo, Francesca Truglio, Maria Antonietta Villa, Nicoletta Revelli, Maurizio Marconi
Classic methods to determine human red blood cell (RBC) antigens are based on serologic testing. Thanks to increased knowledge of the molecular basis associated with many blood group antigens, it is currently possible to predict their presence or absence on the red cell membrane. Several molecular techniques have been developed to detect the most important allelic variations attributable to single nucleotide polymorphisms. The human erythrocyte antigen (HEA) BeadChip™ system manufactured by BioArray Solutions (Immucor, Warren, NJ) is one of the commercial DNA array platforms currently available to predict HEAs by DNA analysis...
2015: Immunohematology
Rhiannon S McBean, Catherine A Hyland, Robert L Flower
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), is a sensitive analytical method capable of resolving DNA fragments varying in mass by a single nucleotide. MALDI-TOF MS is applicable to blood group genotyping, as the majority of blood group antigens are encoded by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Blood group genotyping by MALDI-TOF MS can be performed using a panel (Hemo ID Blood Group Genotyping Panel, Agena Bioscience Inc., San Diego, CA) that is a set of genotyping assays that predict the phenotype for 101 antigens from 16 blood group systems...
2015: Immunohematology
Gregory A Denomme, Flavia R M Latini, Michael J Schanen
Blood centers are in the unique position to evaluate large numbers of blood donations for antigen-negative blood types. The limitations with the use of hemagglutination, however, can be circumvented with red cell genotyping. The reagents used for genotyping are synthesized and can be designed for any of the known blood group antigen single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with blood group antigen expression. There is interest in the application of mass-scale red cell genotyping of blood donors to find rare phenotypes and rare combinations of antigens...
2015: Immunohematology
Mindy Goldman, Núria Núria, Lilian M Castilho
Automated testing platforms facilitate the introduction of red cell genotyping of patients and blood donors. Fluidic microarray systems, such as Luminex XMAP (Austin, TX), are used in many clinical applications, including HLA and HPA typing. The Progenika ID CORE XT (Progenika Biopharma-Grifols, Bizkaia, Spain) uses this platform to analyze 29 polymorphisms determining 37 antigens in 10 blood group systems. Once DNA has been extracted, processing time is approximately 4 hours. The system is highly automated and includes integrated analysis software that produces a file and a report with genotype and predicted phenotype results...
2015: Immunohematology
Barbera Veldhuisen, C E van der Schoot, Masja de Haas
The blood group multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a comprehensive assay, developed for genotyping the majority of clinically relevant blood group antigens in both patients and donors. The MLPA is an easy method to apply and only requires a thermal cycler and capillary electrophoresis equipment. Because the molecular basis of blood group antigens can be a single nucleotide polymorphism, an insertion/deletion polymorphism, or genetic recombination, a single assay such as the MLPA to facilitate these different types of genetic variation is a prerequisite in blood group typing...
2015: Immunohematology
F R M Latini, Lilian M Castilho
The use of SNaPshot (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) for predicting blood group antigens has emerged as an alternative to hemagglutination testing and also to the current low- and highthroughput blood group genotyping methods. Several groups have developed multiplex-polymerase chain reaction SNaPshot assays to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in blood group genes with the purpose of identifying clinically relevant antigens and rare alleles. The selection of SNPs is based on the population or laboratory reality and the purpose of the genatyping...
2015: Immunohematology
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