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Journal of Contaminant Hydrology

Martin A Dangelmayr, Paul W Reimus, Raymond H Johnson, James T Clay, James J Stone
This research assesses the ability of a GC SCM to simulate uranium transport under variable geochemical conditions typically encountered at uranium in-situ recovery (ISR) sites. Sediment was taken from a monitoring well at the SRH site at depths 192 and 193 m below ground and characterized by XRD, XRF, TOC, and BET. Duplicate column studies on the different sediment depths, were flushed with synthesized restoration waters at two different alkalinities (160 mg/l CaCO3 and 360 mg/l CaCO3 ) to study the effect of alkalinity on uranium mobility...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Kenton Rod, Wooyong Um, Jaehun Chun, Ning Wu, Xialong Yin, Guohui Wang, Keith Neeves
A set of column experiments was conducted to investigate the chemical and physical heterogeneity effect on colloid facilitated transport under slow pore velocity conditions. Pore velocities were kept below 100 cm d-1 for all experiments. Glass beads were packed into columns establishing four different conditions: 1) homogeneous, 2) mixed physical heterogeneity, 3) sequentially layered physical heterogeneity, and 4) chemical heterogeneity. The homogeneous column was packed with glass beads (diameter 500-600 μm), and physical heterogeneities were created by sequential layering or mixing two sizes of glass bead (500-600 μm and 300-400 μm)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
M Golzar, M Azhdary Moghaddam, S F Saghravani, B Dahrazma
Iron oxide nanoparticles were stabilized using poly acrylic acid (PAA) to yield stabilized slurry of Iron oxide nanoparticles. A two-dimensional physical model filled by glass beads was used to study the fate and transport of the iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with PAA in porous media under saturated, steady-state flow conditions. Transport data for a nonreactive tracer, slurry of iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with PAA were collected under similar flow conditions. The results show that low concentration slurry of iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with PAA can be transported like a tracer without significant retardation...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Ean Warren, Barbara A Bekins
Biodegradation of contaminants can increase the temperature in the subsurface due to heat generated from exothermic reactions, making temperature observations a potentially low-cost approach for determining microbial activity. For this technique to gain more widespread acceptance, it is necessary to better understand all the factors affecting the measured temperatures. Biodegradation has been occurring at a crude oil-contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota for 39 years, creating a quasi-steady-state plume of contaminants and degradation products...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
M M Cremeans, J F Devlin, U S McKnight, P L Bjerg
The streambed point velocity probe (SBPVP) measures in situ groundwater velocities at the groundwater-surface water interface without reliance on hydraulic conductivity, porosity, or hydraulic gradient information. The tool operates on the basis of a mini-tracer test that occurs on the probe surface. The SBPVP was used in a meander of the Grindsted Å (stream), Denmark, to determine the distribution of flow through the streambed. These data were used to calculate the contaminant mass discharge of chlorinated ethenes into the stream...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
T Bahar, F Golfier, C Oltéan, E Lefevre, C Lorgeoux
Contamination of groundwater resources by an immiscible organic phase commonly called NAPL (Non Aqueous Phase Liquid) represents a major scientific challenge considering the residence time of such a pollutant. This contamination leads to the formation of NAPL blobs trapped in the soil and impact of this residual saturation cannot be ignored for correct predictions of the contaminant fate. In this paper, we present results of micromodel experiments on the dissolution of pure hydrocarbon phase (toluene). They were conducted for two values of the Péclet number...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Keita Nakamura, Mamoru Kikumoto
The Leverett concept is used conventionally to model the relationship between the capillary pressures and the degrees of saturation in the water-nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-air three-phase system in porous media. In this paper, the limitation of the Leverett concept that the concept is not applicable in the case of nonspreading NAPLs is discussed through microscopic consideration. A new concept that can be applied in the case of nonspreading NAPLs as well as spreading NAPLs is then proposed. The validity of the proposed concept is confirmed by comparing with past experimental data and simulation results obtained using the conventional model based on the Leverett concept...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Xiaomeng Liang, Nanxi Lu, Lin-Ching Chang, Thanh H Nguyen, Arash Massoudieh
In this paper, a method for extraction of the behavior parameters of bacterial migration based on the run and tumble conceptual model is described. The methodology is applied to the microscopic images representing the motile movement of flagellated Azotobacter vinelandii. The bacterial cells are considered to change direction during both runs and tumbles as is evident from the movement trajectories. An unsupervised cluster analysis was performed to fractionate each bacterial trajectory into run and tumble segments, and then the distribution of parameters for each mode were extracted by fitting mathematical distributions best representing the data...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Lurong Yang, Xinyu Wang, Itza Mendoza-Sanchez, Linda M Abriola
Sequestered mass in low permeability zones has been increasingly recognized as an important source of organic chemical contamination that acts to sustain downgradient plume concentrations above regulated levels. However, few modeling studies have investigated the influence of this sequestered mass and associated (coupled) mass transfer processes on plume persistence in complex dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. This paper employs a multiphase flow and transport simulator (a modified version of the modular transport simulator MT3DMS) to explore the two- and three-dimensional evolution of source zone mass distribution and near-source plume persistence for two ensembles of highly heterogeneous DNAPL source zone realizations...
April 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Kewei Chen, Hongbin Zhan
The reactive solute transport in a single fracture bounded by upper and lower matrixes is a classical problem that captures the dominant factors affecting transport behavior beyond pore scale. A parallel fracture-matrix system which considers the interaction among multiple paralleled fractures is an extension to a single fracture-matrix system. The existing analytical or semi-analytical solution for solute transport in a parallel fracture-matrix simplifies the problem to various degrees, such as neglecting the transverse dispersion in the fracture and/or the longitudinal diffusion in the matrix...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Ya Wu, Junxia Li, Yanxin Wang, Xianjun Xie
Understanding uranium (U) mobility is vital to minimizing its concentrations in potential drinking water sources. In this study, we report spatial-seasonal variations in U speciation and concentrations in a multi-aquifer system under the impact of Sanggan River in Datong basin, northern China. Hydrochemical and H, O, Sr isotopic data, thermodynamic calculations, and geochemical modeling are used to investigate the mechanisms of surface water-groundwater mixing-induced mobilization and natural attenuation of U...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Sandip S Sathe, Chandan Mahanta, Pushpanjali Mishra
In the dynamic cycling of oxic and anoxic aqueous alluvial aquifer environments, varying Arsenic (As) concentrations are controlled by both abiotic and biotic factors. Studies have shown a significant form of toxic As (III) being released through the reductive dissolution of iron-oxy/hydroxide minerals and microbial reduction mechanisms, which leads to a serious health concern. The present study was performed in order to assess the abiotic and biotic factors influencing As release into the alluvial aquifer groundwater in Brahmaputra floodplain, India...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Rui Zuo, Shuhe Jin, Minhua Chen, Xin Guan, Jinsheng Wang, Yuanzheng Zhai, Yanguo Teng, Xueru Guo
The objective of this study was to explore the controlling factors on the migration and transformation of nitrogenous wastes in groundwater using long-term observations from a contaminated site on the southwestern edge of the Tengger Desert in northwestern China. Contamination was caused by wastewater discharge rich in ammonia. Two long-term groundwater monitoring wells (Wells 1# and 2#) were constructed, and 24 water samples were collected. Five key indicators were tested: ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, dissolved oxygen, and manganese...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Amanda A Pierce, Steven W Chapman, Laura K Zimmerman, Jennifer C Hurley, Ramon Aravena, John A Cherry, Beth L Parker
Plumes of trichloroethene (TCE) with degradation products occur at a large industrial site in California where TCE as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) entered the fractured sandstone bedrock at many locations beginning in the late 1940s. Groundwater flows rapidly in closely spaced fractures but plume fronts are strongly retarded relative to groundwater flow velocities owing largely to matrix diffusion in early decades and degradation processes in later decades and going forward. Multiple data types show field evidence for both biotic and abiotic dechlorination of TCE and its degradation products, resulting in non-chlorinated compounds...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Simin Akbariyeh, Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Daniel Snow, Xu Li, Zhenghong Tang, Yusong Li
Contamination of groundwater from nitrogen fertilizers in agricultural lands is an important environmental and water quality management issue. It is well recognized that in agriculturally intensive areas, fertilizers and pesticides may leach through the vadose zone and eventually reach groundwater. While numerical models are commonly used to simulate fate and transport of agricultural contaminants, few models have considered a controlled field work to investigate the influence of soil heterogeneity and groundwater flow on nitrate-N distribution in both root zone and deep vadose zone...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Yoshihiko Hibi, Ayumi Kashihara
A previous study has reported that Knudsen diffusion coefficients obtained by tracer experiments conducted with a binary gas system and a porous medium are consistently smaller than those obtained by permeability experiments conducted with a single-gas system and a porous medium. To date, however, that study is the only one in which tracer experiments have been conducted with a binary gas system. Therefore, to confirm this difference in Knudsen diffusion coefficients, we used a method we had developed previously to conduct tracer experiments with a binary carbon dioxide-nitrogen gas system and five porous media with permeability coefficients ranging from 10-13 to 10-11  m2 ...
March 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Seiyed Mossa Hosseini, Tiziana Tosco, Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani, Craig T Simmons
Non-pumping reactive wells (NPRWs) filled by zero-valent iron (ZVI) can be utilized for the remediation of groundwater contamination of deep aquifers. The efficiency of NPRWs mainly depends on the hydraulic contact time (HCT) of the pollutant with the reactive materials, the extent of the well capture zone (Wcz ), and the relative hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and reactive material (Kr ). We investigated nitrate removal from groundwater using NPRWs filled by ZVI (in nano and micro scales) and examined the effect of NPRWs orientations (i...
March 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Jae-Kyeong Choi, Heonki Kim, Hobin Kwon, Michael D Annable
The effect of groundwater viscosity control on the performance of surfactant-enhanced air sparging (SEAS) was investigated using 1- and 2-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) bench-scale physical models. The viscosity of groundwater was controlled by a thickener, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), while an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), was used to control the surface tension of groundwater. When resident DI water was displaced with a SCMC solution (500 mg/L), a SDBS solution (200 mg/L), and a solution with both SCMC (500 mg/L) and SDBS (200 mg/L), the air saturation for sand-packed columns achieved by air sparging increased by 9...
March 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Naima A Khan, Michael D Johnson, Kenneth C Carroll
Recalcitrant organic contaminants, such as 1,4-dioxane, typically require advanced oxidation process (AOP) oxidants, such as ozone (O3 ), for their complete mineralization during water treatment. Unfortunately, the use of AOPs can be limited by these oxidants' relatively high reactivities and short half-lives. These drawbacks can be minimized by partial encapsulation of the oxidants within a cyclodextrin cavity to form inclusion complexes. We determined the inclusion complexes of O3 and three common co-contaminants (trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,4-dioxane) as guest compounds within hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin...
March 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Lindsay A McMillan, Michael O Rivett, Gary P Wealthall, Peter Zeeb, Peter Dumble
Groundwater-quality assessment at contaminated sites often involves the use of short-screen (1.5 to 3 m) monitoring wells. However, even over these intervals considerable variation may occur in contaminant concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the well screen. This is especially true in heterogeneous dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones, where cm-scale contamination variability may call into question the effectiveness of monitoring wells to deliver representative data. The utility of monitoring wells in such settings is evaluated by reference to high-resolution multilevel sampler (MLS) wells located proximally to short-screen wells, together with sampling capture-zone modelling to explore controls upon well sample provenance and sensitivity to monitoring protocols...
March 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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