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Journal of Contaminant Hydrology

Rajveer Singh, Mayandi Sivaguru, Glenn A Fried, Bruce W Fouke, Robert A Sanford, Martin Carrera, Charles J Werth
Physical, chemical, and biological interactions between groundwater and sedimentary rock directly control the fundamental subsurface properties such as porosity, permeability, and flow. This is true for a variety of subsurface scenarios, ranging from shallow groundwater aquifers to deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs. Microfluidic flow cells are now commonly being used to study these processes at the pore scale in simplified pore structures meant to mimic subsurface reservoirs. However, these micromodels are typically fabricated from glass, silicon, or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and are therefore incapable of replicating the geochemical reactivity and complex three-dimensional pore networks present in subsurface lithologies...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Douglas J Mateas, Geoffrey R Tick, Kenneth C Carroll
Widely used flushing and in-situ destruction based remediation techniques (i.e. pump-and treat, enhanced-solubilization, and chemical oxidation/reduction) for sites contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminant sources have been shown to be ineffective at complete mass removal and reducing aqueous-phase contaminant of concern (COC) concentrations to levels suitable for site closure. A remediation method was developed to reduce the aqueous solubility and mass-flux of COCs within NAPL through the in-situ creation of a NAPL mixture source-zone...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
James A Montague, George F Pinder, Jay V Gonyea, Scott Hipko, Richard Watts
Magnetic resonance imaging is used to observe solute transport in a 40cm long, 26cm diameter sand column that contained a central core of low permeability silica surrounded by higher permeability well-sorted sand. Low concentrations (2.9g/L) of Magnevist, a gadolinium based contrast agent, produce density driven convection within the column when it starts in an unstable state. The unstable state, for this experiment, exists when higher density contrast agent is present above the lower density water. We implement a numerical model in OpenFOAM to reproduce the observed fluid flow and transport from a density difference of 0...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Boris M Van Breukelen, Heloïse A A Thouement, Philip E Stack, Mindy Vanderford, Paul Philp, Tomasz Kuder
Reactive transport modeling of multi-element, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) data has great potential to quantify sequential microbial reductive dechlorination (SRD) and alternative pathways such as oxidation, in support of remediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. As a key step towards this goal, a model was developed that simulates simultaneous carbon, chlorine, and hydrogen isotope fractionation during SRD of trichloroethene, via cis-1,2-dichloroethene (and trans-DCE as minor pathway), and vinyl chloride to ethene, following Monod kinetics...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Mohammad F Azizian, Lewis Semprini
The simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was evaluated in a continuous flow column. The column was packed with quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. Azizian and Semprini (2016) reported that PCE and CT could be simultaneously transformed in the column, with PCE (0.1mM) transformed mainly to ethene and CT (0.015mM) to chloroform (CF) (20%) and an unknown transformation product, likely carbon dioxide (CO2)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Aronne Dell'Oca, Giovanni Michele Porta, Alberto Guadagnini, Monica Riva
We assess the impact of an anisotropic space and time grid adaptation technique on our ability to solve numerically solute transport in heterogeneous porous media. Heterogeneity is characterized in terms of the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity, whose natural logarithm, Y, is treated as a second-order stationary random process. We consider nonreactive transport of dissolved chemicals to be governed by an Advection Dispersion Equation at the continuum scale. The flow field, which provides the advective component of transport, is obtained through the numerical solution of Darcy's law...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Allen M Shapiro, Christopher E Evans, Erin C Hayes
Characterizing properties of the rock matrix that control retention and release of chlorinated solvents is essential in evaluating the extent of contamination and the application of remediation technologies in fractured rock. Core samples from seven closely spaced boreholes in a mudstone subject to trichloroethene (TCE) contamination were analyzed using Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry to investigate porosity and pore size distribution as a function of mudstone characteristics, and depth and lateral extent in the aquifer; organic carbon content was also evaluated to identify the potential for adsorption...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Natalie Schmidt, Declan Page, Andreas Tiehm
Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds was examined in long term batch experiments for a period of two and a half years to obtain more insight into the effects of redox conditions. A mix including lipid lowering agents (e.g. clofibric acid, gemfibrozil), analgesics (e.g. diclofenac, naproxen), beta blockers (e.g. atenolol, propranolol), X-ray contrast media (e.g. diatrizoic acid, iomeprol) as well as the antiepileptic carbamazepine and endocrine disruptors (e.g. bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol) was analyzed in batch tests in the presence of oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III), and sulfate...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Behrouz Mehdinejadiani
This study represents the first attempt to estimate the solute transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation using Bees Algorithm. The numerical studies as well as the experimental studies were performed to certify the integrity of Bees Algorithm. The experimental ones were conducted in a sandbox for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils. A detailed comparative study was carried out between the results obtained from Bees Algorithm and those from Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN routines in FracFit toolbox...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Amir Mohammadi, Sepideh Nemati, Mohammad Mosaferi, Ali Abdollahnejhad, Mohammad Almasian, Amir Sheikhmohammadi
This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of carboxymethyl cellulose-stabilized iron nanoparticles (C-nZVI) for the removal of arsenite ions from aqueous solutions. Iron nanoparticles and carboxymethyl cellulose-stabilized iron nanoparticles were freshly synthesized. The synthesized nanomaterials had a size of 10nm approximately. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) images depicted bulkier dendrite flocs of non-stabilized iron nanoparticles. It described nanoscale particles as not discrete resulting from the aggregation of particles...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Zeyu Hou, Wenxi Lu, Haibo Xue, Jin Lin
Surrogate-based simulation-optimization technique is an effective approach for optimizing the surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) strategy for clearing DNAPLs. The performance of the surrogate model, which is used to replace the simulation model for the aim of reducing computation burden, is the key of corresponding researches. However, previous researches are generally based on a stand-alone surrogate model, and rarely make efforts to improve the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model sufficiently by combining various methods...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
R J Lenhard, J L Rayner, G B Davis
A model is presented to account for elevation-dependent residual and entrapped LNAPL above and below, respectively, the water-saturated zone when predicting subsurface LNAPL specific volume (fluid volume per unit area) and transmissivity from current and historic fluid levels in wells. Physically-based free, residual, and entrapped LNAPL saturation distributions and LNAPL relative permeabilities are integrated over a vertical slice of the subsurface to yield the LNAPL specific volumes and transmissivity. The model accounts for effects of fluctuating water tables...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Fadji Hassane Maina, Philippe Ackerer, Anis Younes, Alberto Guadagnini, Brian Berkowitz
We present a combined experimental and numerical modeling study that addresses two principal questions: (i) is any particular Eulerian-based method used to solve the classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE) clearly superior (relative to the others), in terms of yielding solutions that reproduce BTCs of the kind that are typically sampled at the outlet of a laboratory cell? and (ii) in the presence of matches of comparable quality against such BTCs, do any of these methods render different (or similar) numerical BTCs at locations within the domain? To address these questions, we obtained measurements from carefully controlled laboratory experiments, and employ them as a reference against which numerical results are benchmarked and compared...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
N D Woodman, T C Rees-White, R P Beaven, A M Stringfellow, J A Barker
This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5m and 20m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Daniele la Cecilia, Federico Maggi
A comprehensive biodegradation reaction network of atrazine (ATZ) and its 18 byproducts was coupled to the nitrogen cycle and integrated in a computational solver to assess the in-situ biodegradation effectiveness and leaching along a 5m deep soil cultivated with wheat in West Wyalong, New South Wales, Australia. Biodegradation removed 97.7% of 2kg/ha ATZ yearly applications in the root zone, but removal substantially decreased at increasing depths; dechlorination removed 79% of ATZ in aerobic conditions and 18% in anaerobic conditions, whereas deethylation and oxidation removed only 0...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Qi Ouyang, Wenxi Lu, Jin Lin, Wenbing Deng, Weiguo Cheng
The surrogate-based simulation-optimization techniques are frequently used for optimal groundwater remediation design. When this technique is used, surrogate errors caused by surrogate-modeling uncertainty may lead to generation of infeasible designs. In this paper, a conservative strategy that pushes the optimal design into the feasible region was used to address surrogate-modeling uncertainty. In addition, chance-constrained programming (CCP) was adopted to compare with the conservative strategy in addressing this uncertainty...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Asmita Shukla, Sanjay Shukla, Michael D Annable, Alan W Hodges
Stormwater detention areas (SDAs) play an important role in treating end-of-the-farm runoff in phosphorous (P) limited agroecosystems. Phosphorus transport from the SDAs, including those through subsurface pathways, are not well understood. The prevailing understanding of these systems assumes that biogeochemical processes play the primary treatment role and that subsurface losses can be neglected. Water and P fluxes from a SDA located in a row-crop farm were measured for two years (2009-2011) to assess the SDA's role in reducing downstream P loads...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Qi-Bo Huang, Xiao-Qun Qin, Peng-Yu Liu, Lian-Kai Zhang, Chun-Tian Su
Carbonate weathering and the CO2 consumption in karstic area are extensive affected by anthropogenic activities, especially sulfuric and nitric acids usage in the upper-middle reaches of Wujiang River, China. The carbonic acid would be substituted by protons from sulfuric and nitric acids which can be reduce CO2 absorption. Therefore, The goal of this study was to highlight the impacts of sulfuric and nitric acids on carbonate dissolution and the associated deficit of CO2 uptaking during carbonate weathering...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
D Esrael, M Kacem, B Benadda
We investigate how the simulation of the venting/soil vapour extraction (SVE) process is affected by the mass transfer coefficient, using a model comprising five partial differential equations describing gas flow and mass conservation of phases and including an expression accounting for soil saturation conditions. In doing so, we test five previously reported quations for estimating the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)/gas initial mass transfer coefficient and evaluate an expression that uses a reference NAPL saturation...
July 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Minjune Yang, Michael D Annable, James W Jawitz
Understanding the effects of back diffusion of groundwater contaminants from low-permeability zones to aquifers is critical to making site management decisions related to remedial actions. Here, we combine aquifer and aquitard data to develop recommended site characterization strategies using a three-stage classification of plume life cycle based on the solute origins: aquifer source zone dissolution, source zone dissolution combined with back diffusion from an aquitard, and only back diffusion. We use measured aquitard concentration profile data from three field sites to identify signature shapes that are characteristic of these three stages...
July 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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