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Journal of Contaminant Hydrology

Alba Mon, Javier Samper, Luis Montenegro, Acacia Naves, Jesús Fernández
Radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories envisages engineered barriers such as carbon-steel canisters, compacted bentonite and concrete liners. The stability and performance of the bentonite barrier could be affected by the corrosion products at the canister-bentonite interface and the hyper-alkaline conditions caused by the degradation of concrete at the bentonite-concrete interface. Additionally, the host clay formation could also be affected by the hyper-alkaline plume at the concrete-clay interface...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Jyoti Chaubey, Deepak Kashyap
Presented herein is a data parsimonious model for identification of regional and local groundwater pollution sources at a reference time employing corresponding fields of head, concentration and its time derivative. The regional source flux, assumed to be uniformly distributed, is viewed as the causative factor for the widely prevalent background concentration. The localized concentration-excesses are attributed to flux from local sources distributed around the respective centroids. The groundwater pollution is parameterized by flux from regional and local sources, and distribution parameters of the latter...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Adam Dettmer, Raymond Ball, Thomas B Boving, Naima A Khan, Tanner Schaub, Nilusha Sudasinghe, Carlos A Fernandez, Kenneth C Carroll
Recalcitrant organic groundwater contaminants, such as 1,4-dioxane, may require strong oxidants for complete mineralization. However, their efficacy for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is limited by oxidant decay and reactivity. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) was examined for its ability to stabilize aqueous-phase ozone (O3) and prolong oxidation potential through inclusion complex formation. Partial transformation of HPβCD by O3 was observed. However, HPβCD proved to be sufficiently recalcitrant, because it was only partially degraded in the presence of O3...
January 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Ryan R Holmes, Megan L Hart, John T Kevern
Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are a well-known technique for groundwater remediation using industrialized reactive media such as zero-valent iron and activated carbon. Permeable reactive concrete (PRC) is an alternative reactive medium composed of relatively inexpensive materials such as cement and aggregate. A variety of multimodal, simultaneous processes drive remediation of metals from contaminated groundwater within PRC systems due to the complex heterogeneous matrix formed during cement hydration...
January 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Mojtaba G Mahmoodlu, Elizabeth M Pontedeiro, Jesús S Pérez Guerrero, Amir Raoof, S Majid Hassanizadeh, Martinus Th van Genuchten
In this study we performed batch experiments to investigate the dissolution kinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene vapors in water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The batch systems consisted of a water reservoir and a connected headspace, the latter containing a small glass cylinder filled with pure volatile organic compound (VOC). Results showed that air phase concentrations of both TCE and toluene increased relatively quickly to their maximum values and then became constant. We considered subsequent dissolution into both stirred and unstirred water reservoirs...
January 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Mahsa Moslehi, Felipe P J de Barros
We investigate how the uncertainty stemming from disordered porous media that display long-range correlation in the hydraulic conductivity (K) field propagates to predictions of environmental performance metrics (EPMs). In this study, the EPMs are quantities that are of relevance to risk analysis and remediation, such as peak flux-averaged concentration, early and late arrival times among others. By using stochastic simulations, we quantify the uncertainty associated with the EPMs for a given disordered spatial structure of the K-field and identify the probability distribution function (PDF) model that best captures the statistics of the EPMs of interest...
January 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Salini Sasidharan, Saeed Torkzaban, Scott A Bradford, Peter G Cook, Vadakattu V S R Gupta
The influence of temperature on virus (PRD1 and ΦX174) and carboxyl-modified latex nanoparticle (50 and 100nm) attachment was examined in sand-packed columns under various physiochemical conditions. When the solution ionic strength (IS) equaled 10 and 30mM, the attachment rate coefficient (katt) increased up to 109% (p<0.0002) and the percentage of the sand surface area that contributed to attachment (Sf) increased up to 160% (p<0.002) when the temperature was increased from 4 to 20°C. Temperature effects at IS=10 and 30mM were also dependent on the system hydrodynamics; i...
January 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Greg Lekmine, Kaveh Sookhak Lari, Colin D Johnston, Trevor P Bastow, John L Rayner, Greg B Davis
Understanding dissolution dynamics of hazardous compounds from complex gasoline mixtures is a key to long-term predictions of groundwater risks. The aim of this study was to investigate if the local equilibrium assumption for BTEX and TMBs (trimethylbenzenes) dissolution was valid under variable saturation in two dimensional flow conditions and evaluate the impact of local heterogeneities when equilibrium is verified at the scale of investigation. An initial residual gasoline saturation was established over the upper two-thirds of a water saturated sand pack...
January 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Patrick Höhener
BIOCHLOR is a well-known simple tool for evaluating the transport of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater, ideal for rapid screening and teaching. This work extends the BIOCHLOR model for the calculation of stable isotope ratios of carbon and chlorine isotopes in chloroethenes. An exact solution for the three-dimensional reactive transport of a chain of degrading compounds including sorption is provided in a spreadsheet and applied for modeling the transport of individual isotopes (12)C, (13)C, (35)Cl, (37)Cl from a constant source...
December 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Feike J Leij, Scott A Bradford, Antonella Sciortino
Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for aqueous and solid phase colloid concentrations in a porous medium where colloids were subject to advective transport and reversible time and/or depth-dependent retention. Time-dependent blocking and ripening retention were described using a Langmuir-type equation with a rate coefficient that respectively decreased and increased linearly with the retained concentration...
December 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Zhenhui Li, Cheng You, Matthew Gonzales, Anna K Wendt, Fei Wu, Susan L Brantley
Since the 1800s, natural gas has been extracted from wells drilled into conventional reservoirs. Today, gas is also extracted from shale using high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). These wells sometimes leak methane and must be re-sealed with cement. Some researchers argue that methane concentrations, C, increase in groundwater near shale-gas wells and that "fracked" wells leak more than conventional wells. We developed techniques to mine datasets of groundwater chemistry in Pennsylvania townships where contamination had been reported...
December 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Samuel K Kumahor, Pavel Hron, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Sondra Klitzke, Friederike Lang, Hans-Jörg Vogel
Engineered nanoparticles released into soils may be coated with humic substances, potentially modifying their surface properties. Due to their amphiphilic nature, humic coating is expected to affect interaction of nanoparticle at the air-water interface. In this study, we explored the roles of the air-water interface and solid-water interface as potential sites for nanoparticle attachment and the importance of hydrophobic interactions for nanoparticle attachment at the air-water interface. By exposing Ag nanoparticles to soil solution extracted from the upper soil horizon of a floodplain soil, the mobility of the resulting "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles was investigated and compared with the mobility of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles as investigated in an earlier study...
December 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Reynold Chow, Michael E Frind, Emil O Frind, Jon P Jones, Marcelo R Sousa, David L Rudolph, John W Molson, Wolfgang Nowak
This study addresses the delineation of areas that contribute baseflow to a stream reach, also known as stream capture zones. Such areas can be delineated using standard well capture zone delineation methods, with three important differences: (1) natural gradients are smaller compared to those produced by supply wells and are therefore subject to greater numerical errors, (2) stream discharge varies seasonally, and (3) stream discharge varies spatially. This study focuses on model-related uncertainties due to model characteristics, discretization schemes, delineation methods, and particle tracking algorithms...
December 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Y Xiang, T Al, M Mazurek
The effect of confining pressure (CP) on the diffusion of tritiated-water (HTO) and iodide (I(-)) tracers through Ordovician rocks from the Michigan Basin, southwestern Ontario, Canada, and Opalinus Clay from Schlattingen, Switzerland was investigated in laboratory experiments. Four samples representing different formations and lithologies in the Michigan Basin were studied: Queenston Formation shale, Georgian Bay Formation shale, Cobourg Formation limestone and Cobourg Formation argillaceous limestone. Estimated in situ vertical stresses at the depths from which the samples were retrieved range from 12...
December 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
James L Hoggan, David A Sabatini, Tohren C G Kibbey
Recent developments in nanotechnology have seen an increase in the use of manufactured nanomaterials. Although their unique physicochemical properties are desirable for many products and applications, concern continues to exist about their environmental fate and potential to cause risk to human and ecological health. The purpose of this work was to examine one aspect of nanomaterial environmental fate: transport and retention in the unsaturated zone during drainage. The work made use of tall segmented columns packed with layers of two different porous media, one medium sand and one fine sand...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
HaiMing Li, JinBu Wei, YaChao Ge, ZhanQuan Wang, Ye Wang, YingLong Li
This experiment was conducted with an indoor sand-column device, the migration of colloids with the presence of Na(+) and Ca(2+) and the migration of ammonia nitrogen with the presence of Na(+), Ca(2+) or/and colloids was studied. The results showed that the migration of colloids was influenced by the ion valence state, different ions with different valence could block the migration of colloids. In addition, the blocking effect of bivalent ions was more obvious than that of monovalent ions. In the presence of Na(+) and Ca(2+), the Rd value of the ammonia-nitrogen migration process were 1...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Shiyang Yin, Wenyong Wu, Honglu Liu, Zhe Bao
Reclaimed water reuse is an effective method of alleviating agricultural water shortages, which entails some potential risks for groundwater. In this study, the impacts of wastewater reuse on groundwater were evaluated by combination of groundwater chemistry and isotopes. In reclaimed water infiltration, salt composition was affected not only by ion exchange and dissolution equilibrium but also by carbonic acid equilibrium. The dissolution and precipitation of calcites and dolomites as well as exchange and adsorption between Na and Ca/Mg were simultaneous, leading to significant changes in Na/Cl, (Ca+Mg)/Cl, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)...
October 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
G Medici, L J West, N P Mountney
Sandstone aquifers are commonly assumed to represent porous media characterized by a permeable matrix. However, such aquifers may be heavy fractured when rock properties and timing of deformation favour brittle failure and crack opening. In many aquifer types, fractures associated with faults, bedding planes and stratabound joints represent preferential pathways for fluids and contaminants. In this paper, well test and outcrop-scale studies reveal how strongly lithified siliciclastic rocks may be entirely dominated by fracture flow at shallow depths (≤180m), similar to limestone and crystalline aquifers...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Soumyadeep Mukhopadhyay, Sumona Mukherjee, Adeeb Hayyan, Maan Hayyan, Mohd Ali Hashim, Bhaskar Sen Gupta
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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