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Journal of Contaminant Hydrology

Richard J Watts, Miao Yu, Amy L Teel
The activation of peroxymonosulfate by iron (II), iron (III), and iron (III)-EDTA for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) was compared using nitrobenzene as a hydroxyl radical probe, anisole as a hydroxyl radical+sulfate radical probe, and hexachloroethane as a reductant+nucleophile probe. In addition, activated peroxymonosulfate was investigated for the treatment of the model groundwater contaminants perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). The relative activities of hydroxyl radical and sulfate radical in the degradation of the probe compounds and PCE and TCE were isolated using the radical scavengers tert-butanol and isopropanol...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Colby M Steelman, Dylan R Klazinga, Aaron G Cahill, Anthony L Endres, Beth L Parker
Fugitive methane (CH4) leakage associated with conventional and unconventional petroleum development (e.g., shale gas) may pose significant risks to shallow groundwater. While the potential threat of stray (CH4) gas in aquifers has been acknowledged, few studies have examined the nature of its migration and fate in a shallow groundwater flow system. This study examines the geophysical responses observed from surface during a 72day field-scale simulated CH4 leak in an unconfined sandy aquifer at Canadian Forces Base Borden, Canada, to better understand the transient behaviour of fugitive CH4 gas in the subsurface...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
M Korfanta, T Babadagli, K Develi
Surface roughness and flow rate effects on the solvent transport under miscible conditions in a single fracture are studied. Surface replicas of seven different rocks (marble, granite, and limestone) are used to represent different surface roughness characteristics each described by different mathematical models including three fractal dimensions. Distribution of dyed solvent is investigated at various flow rate conditions to clarify the effect of roughness on convective and diffusive mixing. After a qualitative analysis using comparative images of different rocks, the area covered by solvent with respect to time is determined to conduct a semi-quantitative analysis...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Todd Halihan, Valina Sefa, Tom Sale, Mark Lyverse
The detection of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) related impacts in freshwater environments by electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) has been clearly demonstrated in field conditions, but the mechanism generating the resistive signature is poorly understood. An electrical barrier mechanism which allows for detecting NAPLs with ERI is tested by developing a theoretical basis for the mechanism, testing the mechanism in a two-dimensional sand tank with ERI, and performing forward modeling of the laboratory experiment...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Arianna Libera, Felipe P J de Barros, Monica Riva, Alberto Guadagnini
Our study is keyed to the analysis of the interplay between engineering factors (i.e., transient pumping rates versus less realistic but commonly analyzed uniform extraction rates) and the heterogeneous structure of the aquifer (as expressed by the probability distribution characterizing transmissivity) on contaminant transport. We explore the joint influence of diverse (a) groundwater pumping schedules (constant and variable in time) and (b) representations of the stochastic heterogeneous transmissivity (T) field on temporal histories of solute concentrations observed at an extraction well...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Paolo Roberto Di Palma, Andrea Parmigiani, Christian Huber, Nicolas Guyennon, Paolo Viotti
The retention of contaminants in the finest and less-conductive regions of natural aquifer is known to strongly affect the decontamination of polluted aquifers. In fact, contaminant transfer from low to high mobility regions at the back end of a contaminant plume (i.e. back diffusion) is responsible for the long-term release of contaminants during remediation operation. In this paper, we perform pore-scale calculations for the transport of contaminant through heterogeneous porous media composed of low and high mobility regions with two objectives: (i) study the effect of permeability contrast and solute transport conditions on the exchange of solutes between mobile and immobile regions and (ii) estimate the mass of contaminants sequestered in low mobility regions based on concentration breakthrough curves...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
James A Montague, George F Pinder, Jay V Gonyea, Scott Hipko, Richard Watts
Magnetic resonance imaging is used to observe solute transport in a 40cm long, 26cm diameter sand column that contained a central core of low permeability silica surrounded by higher permeability well-sorted sand. Low concentrations (2.9g/L) of Magnevist, a gadolinium based contrast agent, produce density driven convection within the column when it starts in an unstable state. The unstable state, for this experiment, exists when higher density contrast agent is present above the lower density water. We implement a numerical model in OpenFOAM to reproduce the observed fluid flow and transport from a density difference of 0...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Mohammad F Azizian, Lewis Semprini
The simultaneous anaerobic transformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) was evaluated in a continuous flow column. The column was packed with quartz sand and bioaugmented with the Evanite culture (EV) that is capable of transforming PCE to ethene. Azizian and Semprini (2016) reported that PCE and CT could be simultaneously transformed in the column, with PCE (0.1mM) transformed mainly to ethene and CT (0.015mM) to chloroform (CF) (20%) and an unknown transformation product, likely carbon dioxide (CO2)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Aronne Dell'Oca, Giovanni Michele Porta, Alberto Guadagnini, Monica Riva
We assess the impact of an anisotropic space and time grid adaptation technique on our ability to solve numerically solute transport in heterogeneous porous media. Heterogeneity is characterized in terms of the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity, whose natural logarithm, Y, is treated as a second-order stationary random process. We consider nonreactive transport of dissolved chemicals to be governed by an Advection Dispersion Equation at the continuum scale. The flow field, which provides the advective component of transport, is obtained through the numerical solution of Darcy's law...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Allen M Shapiro, Christopher E Evans, Erin C Hayes
Characterizing properties of the rock matrix that control retention and release of chlorinated solvents is essential in evaluating the extent of contamination and the application of remediation technologies in fractured rock. Core samples from seven closely spaced boreholes in a mudstone subject to trichloroethene (TCE) contamination were analyzed using Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry to investigate porosity and pore size distribution as a function of mudstone characteristics, and depth and lateral extent in the aquifer; organic carbon content was also evaluated to identify the potential for adsorption...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Andrea D Chong, K Ulrich Mayer
Historical heavy use of chlorinated solvents in conjunction with improper disposal practices and accidental releases has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and groundwater in North America and worldwide. As a result, remediation of chlorinated solvents is required at many sites. For source zone treatment, common remediation strategies include in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using potassium or sodium permanganate, and the enhancement of biodegradation by primary substrate addition. It is well known that these remediation methods tend to generate gas (carbon dioxide (CO2) in the case of ISCO using permanganate, CO2 and methane (CH4) in the case of bioremediation)...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Thomas Robert, Richard Martel, René Lefebvre, Jean-Marc Lauzon, Annie Morin
This paper investigates low-concentration (<1wt%) surfactant flushing when used as a follow-up technology for multiphase vacuum extraction on heterogeneous sites. Challenges posed by soil permeability, pore-size distribution, mineralogy, light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) weathering and groundwater hardness were quantified through batch and soil column tests. Compatibility issues between the mixed mineralogy soils, hard groundwater, mixed LNAPL and usual anionic surfactants were observed. The selected solution was a Winsor type I system promoting an interfacial tension of 0...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Jafar Qajar, Christoph H Arns
Percolation of reactive fluids in carbonate rocks affects the rock microstructure and hence changes the rock macroscopic properties. In Part 1 paper, we examined the voxel-wise evolution of microstructure of the rock in terms of mineral dissolution/detachment, mineral deposition, and unchanged regions. In the present work, we investigate the relationships between changes in two characteristic transport properties, i.e. permeability and electrical conductivity and two critical parameters of the pore phase, i...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Belkacem Lahmira, René Lefebvre, Michel Aubertin, Bruno Bussière
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Rajveer Singh, Mayandi Sivaguru, Glenn A Fried, Bruce W Fouke, Robert A Sanford, Martin Carrera, Charles J Werth
Physical, chemical, and biological interactions between groundwater and sedimentary rock directly control the fundamental subsurface properties such as porosity, permeability, and flow. This is true for a variety of subsurface scenarios, ranging from shallow groundwater aquifers to deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs. Microfluidic flow cells are now commonly being used to study these processes at the pore scale in simplified pore structures meant to mimic subsurface reservoirs. However, these micromodels are typically fabricated from glass, silicon, or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and are therefore incapable of replicating the geochemical reactivity and complex three-dimensional pore networks present in subsurface lithologies...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Brady A Ziegler, Madeline E Schreiber, Isabelle M Cozzarelli
In a crude-oil-contaminated sandy aquifer at the Bemidji site in northern Minnesota, biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons has resulted in release of naturally occurring As to groundwater under Fe-reducing conditions. This study used chemical extractions of aquifer sediments collected in 1993 and 2011-2014 to evaluate the relationship between Fe and As in different redox zones (oxic, methanogenic, Fe-reducing, anoxic-suboxic transition) of the contaminated aquifer over a twenty-year period. Results show that 1) the aquifer has the capacity to naturally attenuate the plume of dissolved As, primarily through sorption; 2) Fe and As are linearly correlated in sediment across all redox zones, and a regression analysis between Fe and As reasonably predicted As concentrations in sediment from 1993 using only Fe concentrations; 3) an As-rich "iron curtain," associated with the anoxic-suboxic transition zone, migrated 30m downgradient between 1993 and 2013 as a result of the hydrocarbon plume evolution; and 4) silt lenses in the aquifer preferentially sequester dissolved As, though As is remobilized into groundwater from sediment after reducing conditions are established...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Douglas J Mateas, Geoffrey R Tick, Kenneth C Carroll
Widely used flushing and in-situ destruction based remediation techniques (i.e. pump-and treat, enhanced-solubilization, and chemical oxidation/reduction) for sites contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminant sources have been shown to be ineffective at complete mass removal and reducing aqueous-phase contaminant of concern (COC) concentrations to levels suitable for site closure. A remediation method was developed to reduce the aqueous solubility and mass-flux of COCs within NAPL through the in-situ creation of a NAPL mixture source-zone...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Boris M Van Breukelen, Héloïse A A Thouement, Philip E Stack, Mindy Vanderford, Paul Philp, Tomasz Kuder
Reactive transport modeling of multi-element, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) data has great potential to quantify sequential microbial reductive dechlorination (SRD) and alternative pathways such as oxidation, in support of remediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. As a key step towards this goal, a model was developed that simulates simultaneous carbon, chlorine, and hydrogen isotope fractionation during SRD of trichloroethene, via cis-1,2-dichloroethene (and trans-DCE as minor pathway), and vinyl chloride to ethene, following Monod kinetics...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
D Esrael, M Kacem, B Benadda
We investigate how the simulation of the venting/soil vapour extraction (SVE) process is affected by the mass transfer coefficient, using a model comprising five partial differential equations describing gas flow and mass conservation of phases and including an expression accounting for soil saturation conditions. In doing so, we test five previously reported quations for estimating the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)/gas initial mass transfer coefficient and evaluate an expression that uses a reference NAPL saturation...
July 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Minjune Yang, Michael D Annable, James W Jawitz
Understanding the effects of back diffusion of groundwater contaminants from low-permeability zones to aquifers is critical to making site management decisions related to remedial actions. Here, we combine aquifer and aquitard data to develop recommended site characterization strategies using a three-stage classification of plume life cycle based on the solute origins: aquifer source zone dissolution, source zone dissolution combined with back diffusion from an aquitard, and only back diffusion. We use measured aquitard concentration profile data from three field sites to identify signature shapes that are characteristic of these three stages...
July 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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