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Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886915/allergic-skin-diseases
#1
EDITORIAL
Peck Y Ong, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886914/allergic-skin-disease-and-the-practicing-allergist-growing-unmet-need-new-science-and-new-treatments
#2
EDITORIAL
Stephen A Tilles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886913/biologics-in-chronic-urticaria
#3
REVIEW
Adeeb Bulkhi, Andrew J Cooke, Thomas B Casale
Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined as wheals, angioedema, or both, that last more than 6 weeks. Second-generation antihistamines are considered the first-line therapy for CU. Unfortunately, many patients will fail antihistamines and require alternative therapy, including immune response modifiers or biologics. Multiple biological agents have been evaluated for use in antihistamine-refractory CU, including omalizumab, rituximab, and intravenous immunoglobulin; omalizumab is the most efficacious. Because of the success of omalizumab, multiple new biologics that are directed at the IgE pathway are under investigation...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886912/infectious-complications-in-atopic-dermatitis
#4
REVIEW
Di Sun, Peck Y Ong
Atopic dermatitis is characterized by the interplay of skin barrier defects with the immune system and skin microbiome that causes patients to be at risk for infectious complications. This article reviews the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and the mechanisms through which patients are at risk for infection from bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Although these complications may be managed acutely, prevention of secondary infections depends on a multipronged approach in the maintenance of skin integrity, control of flares, and microbial pathogens...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886911/the-role-of-fungi-in-atopic-dermatitis
#5
REVIEW
Martin Glatz, Philipp Bosshard, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier
There is little doubt that Malassezia spp plays a role in atopic dermatitis because it may interact with the local skin immune responses and barrier function, and sensitization against this skin-colonizing yeast can correlate with disease activity. Also, antifungal therapy shows beneficial effects in some patients. However, the pathogenetic mechanism and mutual interaction between Malassezia spp and atopic dermatitis still remain partly unclear and need further investigation.
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886910/current-and-future-biomarkers-in-atopic-dermatitis
#6
REVIEW
Judith L Thijs, Marjolein S de Bruin-Weller, DirkJan Hijnen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease and many attempts have been made to define subsets of patients based on clinical characteristics. However, the current characterization of patients with AD might not adequately reflect the pathophysiologic diversity within patients with AD. This article reviews current biomarkers for AD and future perspectives. In the future, patients with AD will be stratified based on biomarker expression levels in body fluids and tissue, genetic variants, or combined biomarker expression patterns...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886909/clinical-measures-of-chronic-urticaria
#7
REVIEW
Karsten Weller, Frank Siebenhaar, Tomasz Hawro, Sabine Altrichter, Nicole Schoepke, Marcus Maurer
The use of standardized, valid, and reliable clinical measures is an important element in modern patient management, particularly in diseases that are not objectively assessable and are associated with a high disease burden. Chronic urticaria is such a disorder for which several new and well-developed clinical measures became available. These measures comprise tools to assess disease activity, disease control, and health-related quality-of-life impairment. This review provides an overview of the currently available clinical measures for chronic urticaria...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886908/cutaneous-manifestation-of-food-allergy
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan S Tam
Hypersensitivity reactions to foods can have diverse and highly variable manifestations. Cutaneous reactions, such as acute urticaria and angioedema, are among the most common manifestations of food allergy. However, cutaneous manifestations of food allergy encompass more than just IgE-mediated processes and include atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, and even dermatitis herpetiformis. These cutaneous manifestations provide an opportunity to better understand the diversity of adverse immunologic responses to food and the interconnected pathways that produce them...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886907/differential-diagnosis-of-chronic-urticaria-and-angioedema-based-on-molecular-biology-pharmacology-and-proteomics
#9
REVIEW
David H Dreyfus
Differential diagnosis of urticaria and angioedema has been based on the phenotype as either acute or chronic depending on the duration of more than 6 to 8 weeks, respectively. Additional subdivisions include poorly defined terms such as idiopathic, spontaneous, or autoimmune. In this article, the author suggests that an increased understanding of the acquired and innate immune system and data from novel proteomic technology have blurred the lines between these categories of diagnosis. Specific molecular pathways and response to specific medications should be incorporated in classification and diagnosis schemes...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886906/the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-induced-angioedema
#10
REVIEW
Murat Bas
The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant is effective in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. The drug is not approved officially for this indication and has to be administered in an emergency situation off-label. Corticosteroids or antihistamines do not seem to work in this condition. The effectiveness of C1-esterase-inhibitor in angiotensin-converting enzyme-induced angioedema must be verified in a double-blind study.
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886905/cutaneous-manifestation-of-drug-allergy-and-hypersensitivity
#11
REVIEW
Anna Zalewska-Janowska, Radoslaw Spiewak, Marek L Kowalski
Drug hypersensitivity reactions may manifest with either organ-specific or systemic symptoms, but cutaneous eruptions are the most common manifestations. Different medications may cause identical skin symptoms, whereas hypersensitivity to a single drug may manifest with various patterns of symptoms depending on the pathomechanism of hypersensitivity. Drug reactions should be also taken into account in the differential diagnosis of numerous skin rashes. Analysis of morphology of drug-induced lesions, about potential immunologic or nonimmunological mechanisms, is important for the final diagnosis...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886904/mastocytosis-and-anaphylaxis
#12
REVIEW
Anna Schuch, Knut Brockow
This article updates current knowledge on epidemiology, risk factors, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Hyperactive mast cells and higher number of effector mast cells are speculated to facilitate anaphylaxis in this condition. In children, increased risk is limited to those with extensive skin involvement and high tryptase. In adults, manifestations of anaphylaxis are severe with high frequency of cardiovascular symptoms. Hymenoptera stings are the most common triggers for these reactions; however, idiopathic anaphylaxis and reactions to food or drugs occur...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886903/allergic-contact-dermatitis
#13
REVIEW
Lisa Kostner, Florian Anzengruber, Caroline Guillod, Mike Recher, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Alexander A Navarini
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886902/wet-wrap-therapy-in-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis
#14
REVIEW
Noreen Heer Nicol, Mark Boguniewicz
National and international guidelines address stepwise atopic dermatitis (AD) management. Wet wrap therapy (WWT) is important as an acute therapeutic intervention for treatment of moderate to severe AD. Using clothing instead of bandages makes this intervention simpler, less time intensive, and less expensive. Education of patients and caregivers is critical to success; methodology must be standardized. Future studies must carefully describe all procedure components. Incorporation of validated outcomes tools would help with interpretation...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886901/itch-in-atopic-dermatitis
#15
REVIEW
Makiko Kido-Nakahara, Masutaka Furue, Dugarmaa Ulzii, Takeshi Nakahara
Chronic itch in inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, markedly diminishes the quality of life of affected individuals. Comprehensive progress has been made in understanding itch signaling and associated mediators in the skin, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and central nervous system, which may amplify or suppress atopic itch. Conventional therapies for atopic dermatitis are capable of reducing atopic itch; however, most patients are not satisfied with the antipruritic capacity of conventional treatments...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886900/differential-diagnosis-of-atopic-dermatitis
#16
REVIEW
Meagan Barrett, Minnelly Luu
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory condition of the skin that is usually seen in childhood, but can onset or persist into adulthood. The characteristic distribution and morphology based on age, chronic relapsing course, and pruritus comprise the clinical criteria used in the diagnosis of AD. However, the numerous morphologies ranging from acute, weeping erythematous papules to chronic lichenified plaques, can be simulated by multiple other conditions, including inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, and photo-dermatoses...
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886899/atopic-dermatitis-and-allergic-urticaria-cutaneous-manifestations-of-immunodeficiency
#17
REVIEW
Martin Robert Gaudinski, Joshua D Milner
Atopic dermatitis and allergic urticaria are common conditions of the skin that can also be the presenting symptoms of uncommon diseases. Defects leading to immunodeficiency may be associated with atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria. Unusually severe or otherwise atypical presentations of atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria may lead to clinical suspicion of an underlying immunodeficiency.
February 2017: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712771/aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease-the-hunt-for-the-rosetta-stone-of-respiratory-inflammation
#18
Andrew A White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712770/from-samter-s-triad-to-nerd-the-long-and-winding-road-to-understanding-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#19
Stephen A Tilles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712769/genetic-and-epigenetic-components-of-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#20
Amber Dahlin, Scott T Weiss
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) severity and its clinical phenotypes are characterized by genetic variation within pathways for arachidonic acid metabolism, inflammation, and immune responses. Epigenetic effects, including DNA methylation and histone protein modification, contribute to regulation of many genes that contribute to inflammatory states in AERD. The development of noninvasive, predictive clinical tests using data from genetic, epigenetic, pharmacogenetic, and biomarker studies will improve precision medicine efforts for AERD and asthma treatment...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
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