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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Laura E Dee, Ross Thompson, François Massol, Angela Guerrero, David A Bohan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Nathan W Burke, Russell Bonduriansky
Theory suggests that occasional or conditional sex involving facultative switching between sexual and asexual reproduction is the optimal reproductive strategy. Therefore, the true 'paradox of sex' is the prevalence of obligate sex. This points to the existence of powerful, general impediments to the invasion of obligately sexual populations by facultative mutants, and recent studies raise the intriguing possibility that a key impediment could be sexual conflict. Using Bateman gradients we show that facultative asexuality can amplify sexual conflict over mating, generating strong selection for both female resistance and male coercion...
June 23, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Matthew D Hall, Gilberto Bento, Dieter Ebert
Molecular and cellular studies reveal that the resistance of hosts to parasites and pathogens is a cascade-like process with multiple steps required to be passed for successful infection. By contrast, much of evolutionary reasoning is based on strongly simplified, one- or two-step infection processes with simple genetics or on resistance being a quantitative trait. Here we attempt a conceptual unification of these two perspectives with the aim of cross-fostering research and filling some of the gaps in our concepts of the ecology and evolution of disease...
June 22, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Scott A Morrison, T Scott Sillett, W Chris Funk, Cameron K Ghalambor, Torben C Rick
Historical ecology provides information needed to understand contemporary conditions and make science-based resource management decisions. Gaps in historical records, however, can limit inquiries and inference. Unfortunately, the patchiness of data that poses challenges for today's historical ecologist may be similarly problematic for those in the future seeking to understand what are currently present-day conditions and trends, in part because of societal underinvestment in systematic collection and curation...
June 20, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Michael L Arnold, Krushnamegh Kunte
Genetic exchange between divergent evolutionary lineages, from introgressive hybridization between locally adapted populations to insertion of retroviral sequences into eukaryotic genomes, has now been documented. The detection of frequent divergence-with-gene-flow contrasts the neo-Darwinian paradigm of largely allopatric diversification. Nevertheless, of even greater significance is the growing wealth of data suggesting that the recipients of the transferred genomic material gain adaptive phenotypes from the donor lineages...
June 20, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Lysanne Snijders, Daniel T Blumstein, Christina R Stanley, Daniel W Franks
Many animals preferentially associate with certain other individuals. This social structuring can influence how populations respond to changes to their environment, thus making network analysis a promising technique for understanding, predicting, and potentially manipulating population dynamics. Various network statistics can correlate with individual fitness components and key population-level processes, yet the logical role and formal application of animal social network theory for conservation and management have not been well articulated...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Rubén G Mateo, Karel Mokany, Antoine Guisan
Improving biodiversity predictions is essential if we are to meet the challenges posed by global change. As knowledge is key to feed models, we need to evaluate how debated theory can affect models. An important ongoing debate is whether environmental constraints limit the number of species that can coexist in a community (saturation), with recent findings suggesting that species richness in many communities might be unsaturated. Here, we propose that biodiversity models could address this issue by accounting for a duality: considering communities as unsaturated but where species composition is constrained by different scale-dependent biodiversity drivers...
June 10, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Maurine Neiman, Curtis M Lively, Stephanie Meirmans
Why sexual reproduction predominates in nature remains a mystery. The mystery stems in part from the fact that many of the plausible hypotheses for sex have restrictive assumptions. Two decades ago these limitations inspired the formulation of a 'pluralist' approach in which standalone hypotheses for sex were considered together. Here we review representative literature to address whether this strategy has deepened our understanding of sex. We found surprisingly few papers adopting such an approach, probably reflecting challenges associated with testing multiple mechanisms...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Erin A Tripp, Ning Zhang, Harald Schneider, Ying Huang, Gregory M Mueller, Zhihong Hu, Max Häggblom, Debashish Bhattacharya
Much of the undescribed biodiversity on Earth is microbial, often in mutualistic or pathogenic associations. Physically associated and coevolving life forms comprise a symbiome. We propose that systematics research can accelerate progress in science by introducing a new framework for phylogenetic analysis of symbiomes, here termed SYMPHY (symbiome phylogenetics).
June 1, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
(no author information available yet)
Researchers seeking to increase awareness and action regarding sustainability issues have been overly preaching to relatively small congregations of the already converted, rather than delivering their messages more broadly, thus contributing to a growing mismatch between public opinion and sustainability science. I present suggestions for how we can remedy this and seek your increasing involvement.
April 29, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Anna F Cord, Kate A Brauman, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Andreas Huth, Guy Ziv, Ralf Seppelt
Managing ecosystem services in the context of global sustainability policies requires reliable monitoring mechanisms. While satellite Earth observation offers great promise to support this need, significant challenges remain in quantifying connections between ecosystem functions, ecosystem services, and human well-being benefits. Here, we provide a framework showing how Earth observation together with socioeconomic information and model-based analysis can support assessments of ecosystem service supply, demand, and benefit, and illustrate this for three services...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Anthony Ricciardi, Tim M Blackburn, James T Carlton, Jaimie T A Dick, Philip E Hulme, Josephine C Iacarella, Jonathan M Jeschke, Andrew M Liebhold, Julie L Lockwood, Hugh J MacIsaac, Petr Pyšek, David M Richardson, Gregory M Ruiz, Daniel Simberloff, William J Sutherland, David A Wardle, David C Aldridge
We identified emerging scientific, technological, and sociopolitical issues likely to affect how biological invasions are studied and managed over the next two decades. Issues were ranked according to their probability of emergence, pervasiveness, potential impact, and novelty. Top-ranked issues include the application of genomic modification tools to control invasions, effects of Arctic globalization on invasion risk in the Northern Hemisphere, commercial use of microbes to facilitate crop production, the emergence of invasive microbial pathogens, and the fate of intercontinental trade agreements...
April 7, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
George J F Swan, Steve M Redpath, Stuart Bearhop, Robbie A McDonald
As a result of ecological and social drivers, the management of problems caused by wildlife is becoming more selective, often targeting specific animals. Narrowing the sights of management relies upon the ecology of certain 'problem individuals' and their disproportionate contribution to impacts upon human interests. We assess the ecological evidence for problem individuals and confirm that some individuals or classes can be both disproportionately responsible and more likely to reoffend. The benefits of management can sometimes be short-lived, and selective management can affect tolerance of wildlife for better or worse, but, when effectively targeted, selective management can bring benefits by mitigating impact and conflict, often in a more socially acceptable way...
July 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
William Godsoe, Jill Jankowski, Robert D Holt, Dominique Gravel
There is no consensus on when biotic interactions impact the range limits of species. Starting from MacArthur's use of invasibility to understand how biotic interactions influence coexistence, here we examine how biotic interactions shape species distributions. Range limits emerge from how birth, death, and movement rates vary with the environment. We clarify some basic issues revolving around niche definitions, illustrated with simple resource-consumer theory. We then highlight two different avenues for linking community theory and range theory; the first based on calculating the effects of biotic interactions on range limits across scales and landscape configurations, and the second based on aggregate measures of diffuse interactions and network strength...
July 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Ary A Hoffmann, Carla M Sgrò, Torsten N Kristensen
Additive genetic variance (VA) reflects the potential for evolutionary shifts and can be low for some traits or populations. High VA is critical for the conservation of threatened species under selection to facilitate adaptation. Theory predicts tight associations between population size and VA, but data from some experimental models, and managed and natural populations do not always support this prediction. However, VA comparisons often have low statistical power, are undertaken in highly controlled environments distinct from natural habitats, and focus on traits with limited ecological relevance...
July 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Charles G Willis, Elizabeth R Ellwood, Richard B Primack, Charles C Davis, Katelin D Pearson, Amanda S Gallinat, Jenn M Yost, Gil Nelson, Susan J Mazer, Natalie L Rossington, Tim H Sparks, Pamela S Soltis
The timing of phenological events, such as leaf-out and flowering, strongly influence plant success and their study is vital to understanding how plants will respond to climate change. Phenological research, however, is often limited by the temporal, geographic, or phylogenetic scope of available data. Hundreds of millions of plant specimens in herbaria worldwide offer a potential solution to this problem, especially as digitization efforts drastically improve access to collections. Herbarium specimens represent snapshots of phenological events and have been reliably used to characterize phenological responses to climate...
July 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Bert Scholtens
Finance ignores ecosystems, which has resulted in a growing list of environmental and social problems. In this article, the importance of ecology for finance is assessed. We suggest The piece also suggests that the financial intermediation perspective can align finance and ecology for the benefit of society. This requires that financial institutions account for information about the impact of finance on the environment and vice versa, and that they are held accountable by their supervisors in this domain.
July 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
David A Bohan, Corinne Vacher, Alireza Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alan Raybould, Alex J Dumbrell, Guy Woodward
We foresee a new global-scale, ecological approach to biomonitoring emerging within the next decade that can detect ecosystem change accurately, cheaply, and generically. Next-generation sequencing of DNA sampled from the Earth's environments would provide data for the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units or ecological functions. Machine-learning methods would then be used to reconstruct the ecological networks of interactions implicit in the raw NGS data. Ultimately, we envision the development of autonomous samplers that would sample nucleic acids and upload NGS sequence data to the cloud for network reconstruction...
July 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Dona Kanavy, Megan Serr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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