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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087070/can-evolution-supply-what-ecology-demands
#1
REVIEW
Hanna Kokko, Anurag Chaturvedi, Daniel Croll, Martin C Fischer, Frédéric Guillaume, Sophie Karrenberg, Ben Kerr, Gregor Rolshausen, Jessica Stapley
A simplistic view of the adaptive process pictures a hillside along which a population can climb: when ecological 'demands' change, evolution 'supplies' the variation needed for the population to climb to a new peak. Evolutionary ecologists point out that this simplistic view can be incomplete because the fitness landscape changes dynamically as the population evolves. Geneticists meanwhile have identified complexities relating to the nature of genetic variation and its architecture, and the importance of epigenetic variation is under debate...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017452/the-ecology-and-evolution-of-stoichiometric-phenotypes
#2
REVIEW
Miguel C Leal, Ole Seehausen, Blake Matthews
Ecological stoichiometry has generated new insights into how the balance of elements affects ecological interactions and ecosystem processes, but little is known about the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of stoichiometric traits. Understanding the origins and drivers of stoichiometric trait variation between and within species will improve our understanding about the ecological responses of communities to environmental change and the ecosystem effects of organisms. In addition, studying the plasticity, heritability, and genetic basis of stoichiometric traits might improve predictions about how organisms adapt to changing environmental conditions, and help to identify interactions and feedbacks between phenotypic evolution and ecosystem processes...
December 22, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011001/it-s-about-time-a-critique-of-macroecological-inferences-concerning-plant-competition
#3
Christian Damgaard, Jacob Weiner
Several macroecological studies have used static spatial data to evaluate plant competition in natural ecosystems and to investigate its role in plant community dynamics and species assembly. The assumptions on which the inferences are based have not been consistent with ecological knowledge. Inferences about processes, such as competition, from static data are weak. Macroecology will benefit more from dynamic data, even if limited, than from increasingly sophisticated analyses of static spatial patterns.
December 20, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939331/teamwork-soft-skills-and-research-training
#4
Anaïs Gibert, Wade C Tozer, Mark Westoby
We provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on our own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. Each skill can be learned to some extent. We also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students.
December 7, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915201/the-evolutionary-value-of-helpful-microbes-a-response-to-shapira
#5
LETTER
Allen Rodrigo, Madison Rogers, Blake Bohlig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908589/adaptation-from-within-or-from-without-a-reply-to-rodrigo-et-al
#6
LETTER
Michael Shapira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915202/diversity-of-diversities-a-response-to-chaudhary-saeedi-and-costello
#7
LETTER
Marina Oliveira Fernandez, Antonio Carlos Marques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871674/the-white-knight-hypothesis-or-does-the-environment-limit-innovations
#8
REVIEW
Andreas Wagner
Organisms often harbor latent traits that are byproducts of other adaptations. Such latent traits are not themselves adaptive but can become adaptive in the right environment. Here I discuss several examples of such traits. Their abundance suggests that environmental change rather than new mutations might often limit the origin of evolutionary adaptations and innovations. This is important, because environments can change much faster than new mutations arise. I introduce a conceptual model that distinguishes between mutation-limited and environment-limited trait origins and suggest how experiments could help discriminate between them...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871673/is-it-time-for-synthetic-biodiversity-conservation
#9
REVIEW
Antoinette J Piaggio, Gernot Segelbacher, Philip J Seddon, Luke Alphey, Elizabeth L Bennett, Robert H Carlson, Robert M Friedman, Dona Kanavy, Ryan Phelan, Kent H Redford, Marina Rosales, Lydia Slobodian, Keith Wheeler
Evidence indicates that, despite some critical successes, current conservation approaches are not slowing the overall rate of biodiversity loss. The field of synthetic biology, which is capable of altering natural genomes with extremely precise editing, might offer the potential to resolve some intractable conservation problems (e.g., invasive species or pathogens). However, it is our opinion that there has been insufficient engagement by the conservation community with practitioners of synthetic biology. We contend that rapid, large-scale engagement of these two communities is urgently needed to avoid unintended and deleterious ecological consequences...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856059/operationalizing-network-theory-for-ecosystem-service-assessments
#10
REVIEW
Laura E Dee, Stefano Allesina, Aletta Bonn, Anna Eklöf, Steven D Gaines, Jes Hines, Ute Jacob, Eve McDonald-Madden, Hugh Possingham, Matthias Schröter, Ross M Thompson
Managing ecosystems to provide ecosystem services in the face of global change is a pressing challenge for policy and science. Predicting how alternative management actions and changing future conditions will alter services is complicated by interactions among components in ecological and socioeconomic systems. Failure to understand those interactions can lead to detrimental outcomes from management decisions. Network theory that integrates ecological and socioeconomic systems may provide a path to meeting this challenge...
November 14, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814919/energy-landscapes-and-the-landscape-of-fear
#11
REVIEW
Austin J Gallagher, Scott Creel, Rory P Wilson, Steven J Cooke
Animals are not distributed randomly in space and time because their movement ecology is influenced by a variety of factors. Energy landscapes and the landscape of fear have recently emerged as largely independent paradigms, both reshaping our perspectives and thinking relating to the spatial ecology of animals across heterogeneous landscapes. We argue that these paradigms are not distinct but rather complementary, collectively providing a better mechanistic basis for understanding the spatial ecology and decision-making of wild animals...
November 1, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029378/urbanization-and-disease-emergence-dynamics-at-the-wildlife-livestock-human-interface
#12
REVIEW
James M Hassell, Michael Begon, Melissa J Ward, Eric M Fèvre
Urbanization is characterized by rapid intensification of agriculture, socioeconomic change, and ecological fragmentation, which can have profound impacts on the epidemiology of infectious disease. Here, we review current scientific evidence for the drivers and epidemiology of emerging wildlife-borne zoonoses in urban landscapes, where anthropogenic pressures can create diverse wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. We argue that these interfaces represent a critical point for cross-species transmission and emergence of pathogens into new host populations, and thus understanding their form and function is necessary to identify suitable interventions to mitigate the risk of disease emergence...
October 28, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029377/introduced-species-disease-ecology-and-biodiversity-disease-relationships
#13
REVIEW
Hillary S Young, Ingrid M Parker, Gregory S Gilbert, Ana Sofia Guerra, Charles L Nunn
Species introductions are a dominant component of biodiversity change but are not explicitly included in most discussions of biodiversity-disease relationships. This is a major oversight given the multitude of effects that introduced species have on both parasitism and native hosts. Drawing on both animal and plant systems, we review the competing mechanistic pathways by which biological introductions influence parasite diversity and prevalence. While some mechanisms - such as local changes in phylogenetic composition and global homogenization - have strong explanatory potential, the net effects of introduced species, especially at local scales, remain poorly understood...
October 28, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955953/a-2017-horizon-scan-of-emerging-issues-for-global-conservation-and-biological-diversity
#14
REVIEW
William J Sutherland, Phoebe Barnard, Steven Broad, Mick Clout, Ben Connor, Isabelle M Côté, Lynn V Dicks, Helen Doran, Abigail C Entwistle, Erica Fleishman, Marie Fox, Kevin J Gaston, David W Gibbons, Zhigang Jiang, Brandon Keim, Fiona A Lickorish, Paul Markillie, Kathryn A Monk, James W Pearce-Higgins, Lloyd S Peck, Jules Pretty, Mark D Spalding, Femke H Tonneijck, Bonnie C Wintle, Nancy Ockendon
We present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects...
January 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889080/invasion-biology-specific-problems-and-possible-solutions
#15
REVIEW
Franck Courchamp, Alice Fournier, Céline Bellard, Cleo Bertelsmeier, Elsa Bonnaud, Jonathan M Jeschke, James C Russell
Biological invasions have been unambiguously shown to be one of the major global causes of biodiversity loss. Despite the magnitude of this threat and recent scientific advances, this field remains a regular target of criticism - from outright deniers of the threat to scientists questioning the utility of the discipline. This unique situation, combining internal strife and an unaware society, greatly hinders the progress of invasion biology. It is crucial to identify the specificities of this discipline that lead to such difficulties...
January 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887747/the-rise-of-invasive-species-denialism
#16
James C Russell, Tim M Blackburn
Scientific consensus on the negative impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) is increasingly being challenged. Whereas informed scepticism of impacts is important, science denialism is counterproductive. Such denialism arises when uncertainty on impacts is confounded by differences in values. Debates on impacts must take into account both the evidence presented and motivations.
January 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884485/the-anthropocene-biosphere-supporting-open-interdisciplinarity-through-blogging
#17
Zev M Trachtenberg, Thomas J Burns, Kirsten de Beurs, Stephen E Ellis, Kiza K Gates, Bruce W Hoagland, Jeffrey F Kelly, Thomas M Neeson, Asa R Randall, Ingo Schlupp, Peter S Soppelsa, Gerilyn S Soreghan, James J Zeigler
This paper describes a process of 'open' interdisciplinary scholarship. Researchers from across the University of Oklahoma blogged about a recent paper by ecologist Erle Ellis, and met in person to discuss posts. They then hosted Ellis for a seminar on questions that emerged, and for a public panel discussion.
January 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871672/how-species-boundaries-are-determined-a-response-to-alexander-et-al
#18
LETTER
Mark Westoby, Georges Kunstler, Michelle L Leishman, John Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832916/potential-environmental-impacts-of-an-underground-revolution-a-response-to-bender-et-al
#19
LETTER
Anderson A S Machado, Kriszta Valyi, Matthias C Rillig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817971/strategies-for-environmentally-sound-soil-ecological-engineering-a-reply-to-machado-et-al
#20
LETTER
S Franz Bender, Cameron Wagg, Marcel G A van der Heijden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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