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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Yang Niu, Hang Sun, Martin Stevens
Camouflage is a key defensive strategy in animals, and it has been used to illustrate and study evolution for 150 years. It is now evident that many camouflage concepts likely also apply to plants, attracting greatly increased attention. Here, we review the hypotheses and evidence for different camouflage strategies used by plants and conceptualise the state of play in plant concealment under a general framework of camouflage theory. In addition, we compare the camouflage strategies used by plants and animals, outline key factors promoting and constraining the evolution of concealment, and highlight the evolutionary and ecological implications of plant camouflage...
June 20, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
William F Laurance
Efforts to protect nature are facing a growing crisis, one that often revolves around the burgeoning impacts of roads and other infrastructure on biodiversity and ecosystems. Potential solutions are possible but they will involve serious trade-offs and the confrontation of deep misconceptions. Here, I identify some time-critical tactics to aid scientists in informing and influencing the global infrastructure debate.
June 14, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Liam Heneghan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Cody K Porter, Christopher K Akcali
Adaptation in mating signals and preferences has generally been explained by sexual selection. We propose that adaptation in such mating traits might also arise via a non-mutually exclusive process wherein individuals preferentially disperse to habitats where they experience high mating performance. Here we explore the evolutionary implications of this process.
June 9, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Klara K Nordén, Trevor D Price
The remarkable diversity of color in nature remains largely unexplained. Recent studies on birds show how historical reconstructions, the identification of genes affecting color differences, and an increased understanding of the underlying developmental mechanisms are helping to explain why species are the color they are.
May 25, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Akira S Mori, Forest Isbell, Rupert Seidl
Evidence is increasing for positive effects of α-diversity on ecosystem functioning. We highlight here the crucial role of β-diversity - a hitherto underexplored facet of biodiversity - for a better process-level understanding of biodiversity change and its consequences for ecosystems. A focus on β-diversity has the potential to improve predictions of natural and anthropogenic influences on diversity and ecosystem functioning. However, linking the causes and consequences of biodiversity change is complex because species assemblages in nature are shaped by many factors simultaneously, including disturbance, environmental heterogeneity, deterministic niche factors, and stochasticity...
May 25, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
J C Buck, S B Weinstein, H S Young
Predators often cause prey to adopt defensive strategies that reduce predation risk. The 'ecology of fear' examines these trait changes and their consequences. Similarly, parasites can cause hosts to adopt defensive strategies that reduce infection risk. However the ecological and evolutionary consequences of these behaviors (the 'ecology of disgust') are seldom considered. Here we identify direct and indirect effects of parasite avoidance on hosts and parasites, and examine differences between predators and parasites in terms of cost, detectability, and aggregation...
May 25, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Guillaume Chapron, Harold Levrel, Yves Meinard, Franck Courchamp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Carlos J Melián, Blake Matthews, Cecilia S de Andreazzi, Jorge P Rodríguez, Luke J Harmon, Miguel A Fortuna
Biological systems consist of elements that interact within and across hierarchical levels. For example, interactions among genes determine traits of individuals, competitive and cooperative interactions among individuals influence population dynamics, and interactions among species affect the dynamics of communities and ecosystem processes. Such systems can be represented as hierarchical networks, but can have complex dynamics when interdependencies among levels of the hierarchy occur. We propose integrating ecological and evolutionary processes in hierarchical networks to explore interdependencies in biological systems...
May 24, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Brian R Silliman, Qiang He
Consumer-prey interactions form the foundation of food webs and are affected by the physical environment. Multiple foundational theories in ecology [e.g., the environmental stress model (ESM), the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH), and ecosystem resilience theory] assume increased physical stress dampens top-down control of prey. In the large majority of empirical studies, however, physical stress either does not affect or amplifies consumer control. Additive and synergistic impacts of physical stress on consumer control appear more common, for example, for herbivory versus predation, and for warm- versus cold-blooded consumers...
May 22, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Zak Ratajczak, Stephen R Carpenter, Anthony R Ives, Christopher J Kucharik, Tanjona Ramiadantsoa, M Allison Stegner, John W Williams, Jien Zhang, Monica G Turner
Abrupt ecological changes are, by definition, those that occur over short periods of time relative to typical rates of change for a given ecosystem. The potential for such changes is growing due to anthropogenic pressures, which challenges the resilience of societies and ecosystems. Abrupt ecological changes are difficult to diagnose because they can arise from a variety of circumstances, including rapid changes in external drivers (e.g., climate, or resource extraction), nonlinear responses to gradual changes in drivers, and interactions among multiple drivers and disturbances...
May 18, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Cleo Bertelsmeier, Laurent Keller
Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity, agriculture, and human health. Invasive populations can be the source of additional new introductions, leading to a self-accelerating process whereby invasion begets invasion. This phenomenon, coined bridgehead effect, has been proposed to stem from the evolution of higher invasiveness in a primary introduced population. There is, however, no conclusive evidence that the success of bridgehead populations stems from the evolution of increased invasiveness...
May 12, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
William J Ripple, Erik Meijaard, Thomas Newsome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Michael A Gil, Andrew M Hein, Orr Spiegel, Marissa L Baskett, Andrew Sih
When individual animals make decisions, they routinely use information produced intentionally or unintentionally by other individuals. Despite its prevalence and established fitness consequences, the effects of such social information on ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesize results from ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behavior to show how the use of social information can profoundly influence the dynamics of populations and communities. We combine recent theoretical and empirical results and introduce simple population models to illustrate how social information use can drive positive density-dependent growth of populations and communities (Allee effects)...
May 7, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey, Chelsea J Little, Florian Altermatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Pierre-Cyril Renaud, Fabio de O Roque, Franco L Souza, Olivier Pays, François Laurent, Hervé Fritz, Erich Fischer, Christo Fabricius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Brent C Emerson, Jairo Patiño
Anagenesis and cladogenesis are fundamental evolutionary concepts, but are increasingly being adopted as speciation models in the field of island biogeography. Here, we review the origin of the terms 'anagenetic' and 'cladogenetic' speciation, critique their utility, and finally suggest alternative terminology that better describes the geographical relationships of insular sister species.
May 3, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Jeremy E Niven, Adrian T A Bell
The behavioural lateralisation of a species is thought to be influenced by social organisation. However, recent studies of insect species with different social structures suggest that traits showing both population-level and individual-level lateralisation can be found in single species. This has broad implications for our understanding of how lateralisation and handedness evolves.
April 28, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Steve M Redpath, Aidan Keane, Henrik Andrén, Zachary Baynham-Herd, Nils Bunnefeld, A Bradley Duthie, Jens Frank, Claude A Garcia, Johan Månsson, Lovisa Nilsson, Chris R J Pollard, O Sarobidy Rakotonarivo, Carl F Salk, Henry Travers
Conservation conflicts represent complex multilayered problems that are challenging to study. We explore the utility of theoretical, experimental, and constructivist approaches to games to help to understand and manage these challenges. We show how these approaches can help to develop theory, understand patterns in conflict, and highlight potentially effective management solutions. The choice of approach should be guided by the research question and by whether the focus is on testing hypotheses, predicting behaviour, or engaging stakeholders...
June 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Alexandra Alvergne, Vedrana Högqvist Tabor
Why do some females menstruate at all? Answering this question has implications for understanding the tight links between reproductive function and organismal immunity. Here we build on the growing evidence that menstruation is the byproduct of a 'choosy uterus' to: (i) make the theoretical case for the idea that female immunity is cyclical in menstruating species, (ii) evaluate the evidence for the menstrual modulation of immunity and health in humans, and (iii) speculate on the implications of cyclical female health for female behaviour, male immunity, and host-pathogen interactions...
June 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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