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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Allen Rodrigo, Madison Rogers, Blake Bohlig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Michael Shapira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Marina Oliveira Fernandez, Antonio Carlos Marques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Franck Courchamp, Alice Fournier, Céline Bellard, Cleo Bertelsmeier, Elsa Bonnaud, Jonathan M Jeschke, James C Russell
Biological invasions have been unambiguously shown to be one of the major global causes of biodiversity loss. Despite the magnitude of this threat and recent scientific advances, this field remains a regular target of criticism - from outright deniers of the threat to scientists questioning the utility of the discipline. This unique situation, combining internal strife and an unaware society, greatly hinders the progress of invasion biology. It is crucial to identify the specificities of this discipline that lead to such difficulties...
November 23, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
James C Russell, Tim M Blackburn
Scientific consensus on the negative impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) is increasingly being challenged. Whereas informed scepticism of impacts is important, science denialism is counterproductive. Such denialism arises when uncertainty on impacts is confounded by differences in values. Debates on impacts must take into account both the evidence presented and motivations.
November 22, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Zev M Trachtenberg, Thomas J Burns, Kirsten de Beurs, Stephen E Ellis, Kiza K Gates, Bruce W Hoagland, Jeffrey F Kelly, Thomas M Neeson, Asa R Randall, Ingo Schlupp, Peter S Soppelsa, Gerilyn S Soreghan, James J Zeigler
This paper describes a process of 'open' interdisciplinary scholarship. Researchers from across the University of Oklahoma blogged about a recent paper by ecologist Erle Ellis, and met in person to discuss posts. They then hosted Ellis for a seminar on questions that emerged, and for a public panel discussion.
November 21, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Andreas Wagner
Organisms often harbor latent traits that are byproducts of other adaptations. Such latent traits are not themselves adaptive but can become adaptive in the right environment. Here I discuss several examples of such traits. Their abundance suggests that environmental change rather than new mutations might often limit the origin of evolutionary adaptations and innovations. This is important, because environments can change much faster than new mutations arise. I introduce a conceptual model that distinguishes between mutation-limited and environment-limited trait origins and suggest how experiments could help discriminate between them...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Antoinette J Piaggio, Gernot Segelbacher, Philip J Seddon, Luke Alphey, Elizabeth L Bennett, Robert H Carlson, Robert M Friedman, Dona Kanavy, Ryan Phelan, Kent H Redford, Marina Rosales, Lydia Slobodian, Keith Wheeler
Evidence indicates that, despite some critical successes, current conservation approaches are not slowing the overall rate of biodiversity loss. The field of synthetic biology, which is capable of altering natural genomes with extremely precise editing, might offer the potential to resolve some intractable conservation problems (e.g., invasive species or pathogens). However, it is our opinion that there has been insufficient engagement by the conservation community with practitioners of synthetic biology. We contend that rapid, large-scale engagement of these two communities is urgently needed to avoid unintended and deleterious ecological consequences...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Mark Westoby, Georges Kunstler, Michelle L Leishman, John Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Laura E Dee, Stefano Allesina, Aletta Bonn, Anna Eklöf, Steven D Gaines, Jes Hines, Ute Jacob, Eve McDonald-Madden, Hugh Possingham, Matthias Schröter, Ross M Thompson
Managing ecosystems to provide ecosystem services in the face of global change is a pressing challenge for policy and science. Predicting how alternative management actions and changing future conditions will alter services is complicated by interactions among components in ecological and socioeconomic systems. Failure to understand those interactions can lead to detrimental outcomes from management decisions. Network theory that integrates ecological and socioeconomic systems may provide a path to meeting this challenge...
November 14, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Anderson A S Machado, Kriszta Valyi, Matthias C Rillig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
S Franz Bender, Cameron Wagg, Marcel G A van der Heijden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Austin J Gallagher, Scott Creel, Rory P Wilson, Steven J Cooke
Animals are not distributed randomly in space and time because their movement ecology is influenced by a variety of factors. Energy landscapes and the landscape of fear have recently emerged as largely independent paradigms, both reshaping our perspectives and thinking relating to the spatial ecology of animals across heterogeneous landscapes. We argue that these paradigms are not distinct but rather complementary, collectively providing a better mechanistic basis for understanding the spatial ecology and decision-making of wild animals...
November 1, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Tim Caro
I examine Alfred Russel Wallace's six biological categories of coloration of animals and plants, and review how they have been developed over the subsequent century and a half. These categories are: protective colors; warning colors; mimicry; sexual colors; 'typical colours'; and attractive colors in flowers and fruits. Incredibly, Wallace missed little in his appraisal of the evolutionary drivers of coloration, despite being out of step with modern sexual selection theory, and his categories still characterize much of the way that this burgeoning field is organized...
October 25, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Lucas A Garibaldi, Barbara Gemmill-Herren, Raffaele D'Annolfo, Benjamin E Graeub, Saul A Cunningham, Tom D Breeze
Scientists and policy-makers globally are calling for alternative approaches to conventional intensification of agriculture that enhance ecosystem services provided by biodiversity. The evidence reviewed here suggests that alternative approaches can achieve high crop yields and profits, but the performance of other socioeconomic indicators (as well as long-term trends) is surprisingly poorly documented. Consequently, the implementation of conventional intensification and the discussion of alternative approaches are not based on quantitative evidence of their simultaneous ecological and socioeconomic impacts across the globe...
October 25, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Tamra C Mendelson, Courtney L Fitzpatrick, Mark E Hauber, Charles H Pence, Rafael L Rodríguez, Rebecca J Safran, Caitlin A Stern, Jeffrey R Stevens
Despite the clear fitness consequences of animal decisions, the science of animal decision making in evolutionary biology is underdeveloped compared with decision science in human psychology. Specifically, the field lacks a conceptual framework that defines and describes the relevant components of a decision, leading to imprecise language and concepts. The 'judgment and decision-making' (JDM) framework in human psychology is a powerful tool for framing and understanding human decisions, and we apply it here to components of animal decisions, which we refer to as 'cognitive phenotypes'...
September 29, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Marta A Jarzyna, Walter Jetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Emmanuelle Cam, Lise M Aubry, Matthieu Authier
What causes interindividual variation in fitness? Evidence of heritability of latent individual fitness traits has resparked a debate about the causes of variation in life histories in populations: neutralism versus empirical adaptationism. This debate about the processes underlying observed variation pits neutral stochastic demographic processes against evolutionarily relevant differences among individual fitness traits. Advancing this debate requires careful consideration of differences among inference approaches used by proponents of each hypothesis...
September 21, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
William J Ripple, James A Estes, Oswald J Schmitz, Vanessa Constant, Matthew J Kaylor, Adam Lenz, Jennifer L Motley, Katharine E Self, David S Taylor, Christopher Wolf
Few concepts in ecology have been so influential as that of the trophic cascade. Since the 1980s, the term has been a central or major theme of more than 2000 scientific articles. Despite this importance and widespread usage, basic questions remain about what constitutes a trophic cascade. Inconsistent usage of language impedes scientific progress and the utility of scientific concepts in management and conservation. Herein, we offer a definition of trophic cascade that is designed to be both widely applicable yet explicit enough to exclude extraneous interactions...
September 20, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Margaret Evans, Cory Merow, Sydne Record, Sean M McMahon, Brian J Enquist
Understanding and forecasting species' geographic distributions in the face of global change is a central priority in biodiversity science. The existing view is that one must choose between correlative models for many species versus process-based models for few species. We suggest that opportunities exist to produce process-based range models for many species, by using hierarchical and inverse modeling to borrow strength across species, fill data gaps, fuse diverse data sets, and model across biological and spatial scales...
September 20, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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