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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342635/-nature-knows-no-boundaries-the-role-of-nature-conservation-in-peacebuilding
#1
Alexandre Roulin, Mansour Abu Rashid, Baruch Spiegel, Motti Charter, Amélie N Dreiss, Yossi Leshem
Humanity is facing a biodiversity crisis. To solve environmental problems, we bring people from Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority to the same table. Conservation efforts are beneficial for all communities and facilitate constructive dialog across divides in conflict zones. This pleads for the integration of nature conservation into peacebuilding interventions.
March 22, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336183/evosystem-services-rapid-evolution-and-the-provision-of-ecosystem-services
#2
REVIEW
Seth M Rudman, Maayan Kreitzman, Kai M A Chan, Dolph Schluter
Evolution is recognized as the source of all organisms, and hence many ecosystem services. However, the role that contemporary evolution might play in maintaining and enhancing specific ecosystem services has largely been overlooked. Recent advances at the interface of ecology and evolution have demonstrated how contemporary evolution can shape ecological communities and ecosystem functions. We propose a definition and quantitative criteria to study how rapid evolution affects ecosystem services (here termed contemporary evosystem services) and present plausible scenarios where such services might exist...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318651/postmating-female-control-20-years-of-cryptic-female-choice
#3
REVIEW
Renée C Firman, Clelia Gasparini, Mollie K Manier, Tommaso Pizzari
Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated...
March 16, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285792/new-allometric-scaling-laws-revealed-for-microorganisms
#4
Thomas L Kieft
Allometric scaling relationships based on microbial data sets are revealing novel biological principles; for example, the abundance and diversity of animal-associated microbes scale with individual animal mass. The global abundance of animal-associated microbes and biosphere species richness have also been estimated. The potential for further microbe-inclusive macroecological insights is high.
March 9, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284374/niche-contractions-in-declining-species-mechanisms-and-consequences
#5
REVIEW
Ben C Scheele, Claire N Foster, Sam C Banks, David B Lindenmayer
A fundamental aim of conservation biology is to understand how species respond to threatening processes, with much research effort focused on identifying threats and quantifying spatial and temporal patterns of species decline. Here, we argue that threats often reduce the realized niche breadth of declining species because environmental, biotic, and evolutionary processes reduce or amplify threats, or because a species' capacity to tolerate threats varies across niche space. Our 'niche reduction hypothesis' provides a new lens for understanding why species decline in some locations and not others...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284373/reframing-the-food-biodiversity-challenge
#6
REVIEW
Joern Fischer, David J Abson, Arvid Bergsten, Neil French Collier, Ine Dorresteijn, Jan Hanspach, Kristoffer Hylander, Jannik Schultner, Feyera Senbeta
Given the serious limitations of production-oriented frameworks, we offer here a new conceptual framework for how to analyze the nexus of food security and biodiversity conservation. We introduce four archetypes of social-ecological system states corresponding to win-win (e.g., agroecology), win-lose (e.g., intensive agriculture), lose-win (e.g., fortress conservation), and lose-lose (e.g., degraded landscapes) outcomes for food security and biodiversity conservation. Each archetype is shaped by characteristic external drivers, exhibits characteristic internal social-ecological features, and has characteristic feedbacks that maintain it...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283253/the-overlooked-role-of-facilitation-in-biodiversity-experiments
#7
REVIEW
Alexandra J Wright, David A Wardle, Ragan Callaway, Aurora Gaxiola
Past research has demonstrated that decreased biodiversity often reduces ecosystem productivity, but variation in the shape of biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) relationships begets the need for a deeper mechanistic understanding of what drives these patterns. While mechanisms involving competition are often invoked, the role of facilitation is overlooked, or lumped within several less explicitly defined processes (e.g., complementarity effects). Here, we explore recent advances in understanding how facilitation affects BEF relationships and identify three categories of facilitative mechanisms that can drive variation in those relationships...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279488/does-biodiversity-ecosystem-function-literature-neglect-tropical-ecosystems
#8
David A Clarke, Paul H York, Michael A Rasheed, Tobin D Northfield
Current evidence suggests that there is a positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but few studies have addressed tropical ecosystems where the highest levels of biodiversity occur. We develop two hypotheses for the implications of generalizing from temperate studies to tropical ecosystems, and discuss the need for more tropical research.
March 6, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268023/the-fate-of-the-world-s-plants
#9
Stuart L Pimm, Peter H Raven
A recent report assessing the world's plant species finds continuing progress in completing the taxonomic catalog. However, many undescribed species remain. The report concludes that, presently, 21% of known species risk extinction. We show this statement applies to the short-term and ignores the as-yet undescribed species, which are also likely at risk of extinction. Human actions will extirpate many more by the end of this century.
March 3, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258761/schism-and-synthesis-at-the-royal-society
#10
Kevin N Laland
November 7-9, 2016 witnessed a joint discussion meeting of the Royal Society and the British Academy (the UK national academies for the sciences and social sciences, respectively) entitled 'New Trends in Evolutionary Biology: Biological, Philosophical and Social Science Perspectives'. The meeting, anticipated with a mix of feverish enthusiasm and dread, sold out months in advance, the eager audience perhaps expecting radical and traditional evolutionists to go toe to toe, rather than the constructive dialogue among biologists, social scientists, and researchers in the humanities that the academies advertised...
February 28, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245930/grand-views-of-evolution
#11
REVIEW
Harold P de Vladar, Mauro Santos, Eörs Szathmáry
Despite major advances in evolutionary theories, some aspects of evolution remain neglected: whether evolution: would come to a halt without abiotic change; is unbounded and open-ended; or is progressive and something beyond fitness is maximized. Here, we discuss some models of ecology and evolution and argue that ecological change, resulting in Red Queen dynamics, facilitates (but does not ensure) innovation. We distinguish three forms of open-endedness. In weak open-endedness, novel phenotypes can occur indefinitely...
February 25, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242055/invasive-alien-species-denialism-disagreement-definitions-and-dialogue
#12
LETTER
James C Russell, Tim M Blackburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089120/population-genetics-and-demography-unite-ecology-and-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Winsor H Lowe, Ryan P Kovach, Fred W Allendorf
The interplay of ecology and evolution has been a rich area of research for decades. A surge of interest in this area was catalyzed by the observation that evolution by natural selection can operate at the same contemporary timescales as ecological dynamics. Specifically, recent eco-evolutionary research focuses on how rapid adaptation influences ecology, and vice versa. Evolution by non-adaptive forces also occurs quickly, with ecological consequences, but understanding the full scope of ecology-evolution (eco-evo) interactions requires explicitly addressing population-level processes - genetic and demographic...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283252/-the-denialists-are-coming-well-not-exactly-a-response-to-russell-and-blackburn
#14
LETTER
Mark A Davis, Matthew K Chew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279487/rise-of-invasive-species-denialism-a-response-to-russell-and-blackburn
#15
LETTER
John C Briggs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256276/marine-species-richness-is-bimodal-with-latitude-a-reply-to-fernandez-and-marques
#16
LETTER
Chhaya Chaudhary, Hanieh Saeedi, Mark J Costello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249695/determining-whether-the-impacts-of-introduced-species-are-negative-cannot-be-based-solely-on-science-a-response-to-russell-and-blackburn
#17
LETTER
Jacques Tassin, Ken Thompson, Scott P Carroll, Chris D Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242057/guidance-needed-on-setting-dynamic-conservation-targets-a-response-to-hiers-et-al
#18
LETTER
Karen D Holl, Pedro H S Brancalion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242056/disagreement-about-invasive-species-does-not-equate-to-denialism-a-response-to-russell-and-blackburn
#19
LETTER
Sarah L Crowley, Steve Hinchliffe, Steve M Redpath, Robbie A McDonald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215448/evolution-in-a-community-context-on-integrating-ecological-interactions-and-macroevolution
#20
REVIEW
Marjorie G Weber, Catherine E Wagner, Rebecca J Best, Luke J Harmon, Blake Matthews
Despite a conceptual understanding that evolution and species interactions are inextricably linked, it remains challenging to study ecological and evolutionary dynamics together over long temporal scales. In this review, we argue that, despite inherent challenges associated with reconstructing historical processes, the interplay of ecology and evolution is central to our understanding of macroevolution and community coexistence, and cannot be safely ignored in community and comparative phylogenetic studies...
April 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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