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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396685/have-we-outgrown-the-existing-models-of-growth
#1
REVIEW
Dustin J Marshall, Craig R White
Theories of growth have a long history in biology. Two major branches of theory (mechanistic and phenomenological) describe the dynamics of growth and explain variation in the size of organisms. Both theory branches usually assume that reproductive output scales proportionately with body size, in other words that reproductive output is isometric. A meta-analysis of hundreds of marine fishes contradicts this assumption, larger mothers reproduce disproportionately more in 95% of species studied, and patterns in other taxa suggest that reproductive hyperallometry is widespread...
November 2, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376988/an-inconvenient-truth-the-unconsidered-benefits-of-convenience-polyandry
#2
REVIEW
Rebecca A Boulton, Marlene Zuk, David M Shuker
Polyandry, or multiple mating by females with different males, is commonplace. One explanation is that females engage in convenience polyandry, mating multiple times to reduce the costs of sexual harassment. Although the logic underlying convenience polyandry is clear, and harassment often seems to influence mating outcomes, it has not been subjected to as thorough theoretical or empirical attention as other explanations for polyandry. We re-examine here convenience polyandry in the light of new studies demonstrating previously unconsidered benefits of polyandry...
October 27, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385077/securing-a-long-term-future-for-coral-reefs
#3
REVIEW
Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Emma V Kennedy, Hawthorne L Beyer, Caleb McClennen, Hugh P Possingham
Rapid ocean warming as a result of climate change poses a key risk for coral reefs. Even if the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement are achieved, coral reefs are likely to decline by 70-90% relative to their current abundance by midcentury. Although alarming, coral communities that survive will play a key role in the regeneration of reefs by mid-to-late century. Here, we argue for a coordinated, global coral reef conservation strategy that is centred on 50 large (500km2 ) regions that are the least vulnerable to climate change and which are positioned to facilitate future coral reef regeneration...
October 23, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361068/parameter-estimation-in-a-biogeographical-context
#4
LETTER
Mark Pagel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348471/parasites-and-host-species-barriers-in-animal-hybrid-zones
#5
REVIEW
Angela N Theodosopoulos, Amanda K Hund, Scott A Taylor
Species barriers are tested in hybrid zones when gene flow occurs between hybridizing species. Hybridization can erode species barriers, lead to the introgression of adaptive traits, or remain stable through time. Outcomes in hybrid zones are influenced by divergence between the hybridizing taxa, behavior, ecology, and geography. Parasites and pathogens play a major role in host fitness and appear to have varied impacts on species barriers in hybrid zones. We comprehensively reviewed the literature on parasitism in animal hybrid zones and present an evolutionary framework within which to consider parasite-hybrid interactions...
October 19, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314917/the-dark-side-of-animal-phenology
#6
Nico Eisenhauer, Sylvie Herrmann, Jes Hines, François Buscot, Julia Siebert, Madhav P Thakur
Research exploring the timing of recurring biological events has shown that anthropogenic climate change dramatically alters the phenology of many plants and animals. However, we still lack studies on how climate change might alter the phenology of soil invertebrates as well as how this can subsequently affect ecosystem functions.
October 9, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314916/environmental-dna-time-series-in-ecology
#7
REVIEW
Miklós Bálint, Markus Pfenninger, Hans-Peter Grossart, Pierre Taberlet, Mark Vellend, Mathew A Leibold, Göran Englund, Diana Bowler
Ecological communities change in time and space, but long-term dynamics at the century-to-millennia scale are poorly documented due to lack of relevant data sets. Nevertheless, understanding long-term dynamics is important for explaining present-day biodiversity patterns and placing conservation goals in a historical context. Here, we use recent examples and new perspectives to highlight how environmental DNA (eDNA) is starting to provide a powerful new source of temporal data for research questions that have so far been overlooked, by helping to resolve the ecological dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems over hundreds to thousands of years...
October 9, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314915/human-mediated-dispersal-and-the-rewiring-of-spatial-networks
#8
REVIEW
James M Bullock, Dries Bonte, Gesine Pufal, Carolina da Silva Carvalho, Daniel S Chapman, Cristina García, Daniel García, Erik Matthysen, Maria Mar Delgado
Humans fundamentally affect dispersal, directly by transporting individuals and indirectly by altering landscapes and natural vectors. This human-mediated dispersal (HMD) modifies long-distance dispersal, changes dispersal paths, and overall benefits certain species or genotypes while disadvantaging others. HMD is leading to radical changes in the structure and functioning of spatial networks, which are likely to intensify as human activities increase in scope and extent. Here, we provide an overview to guide research into HMD and the resulting rewiring of spatial networks, making predictions about the ecological and evolutionary consequences and how these vary according to spatial scale and the traits of species...
October 9, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287080/sensory-exploitation-sexual-dimorphism-and-human-voice-pitch
#9
David R Feinberg, Benedict C Jones, Marie M Armstrong
Selection for low male voice pitch is generally assumed to occur because it is a valid cue of formidability. Here we summarize recent empirical challenges to this hypothesis. We also outline an alternative account in which selection for low male voice pitch is a byproduct of sensory exploitation.
October 1, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268523/anagenesis-and-cladogenesis-are-useful-island-biogeography-terms
#10
LETTER
Shai Meiri, Pasquale Raia, Ana M C Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266244/microbiomes-as-metacommunities-understanding-host-associated-microbes-through-metacommunity-ecology
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth Theresa Miller, Richard Svanbäck, Brendan J M Bohannan
Interest in host-associated microbiomes has skyrocketed recently, yet our ability to explain microbiome variation has remained stubbornly low. Considering scales of interaction beyond the level of the individual host could lead to new insights. Metacommunity theory has many of the tools necessary for modeling multiscale processes and has been successfully applied to host microbiomes. However, the biotic nature of the host requires an expansion of theory to incorporate feedback between the habitat patch (host) and their local (microbial) community...
September 25, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266243/babies-bathwater-and-straw-men-not-quite-a-response-to-meiri-et-al
#12
LETTER
Brent C Emerson, Jairo Patiño
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340868/aging-human-populations-good-for-us-good-for-the-earth
#13
REVIEW
Frank Götmark, Philip Cafaro, Jane O'Sullivan
As the nations of the world grapple with the task of creating sustainable societies, ending and in some cases reversing population growth will be necessary to succeed. Yet stable or declining populations are typically reported in the media as a problem, or even a crisis, due to demographic aging. This is misguided, as economic analyses show that the costs connected with aging societies are manageable, while the economic, social, and environmental benefits of smaller populations are substantial. Earth's human-carrying capacity has been exceeded; hence, population growth must end and aging societies are unavoidable...
November 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297245/speciation-and-the-city
#14
REVIEW
Ken A Thompson, Loren H Rieseberg, Dolph Schluter
Many outstanding questions about speciation are difficult to test empirically because of a lack of suitable study systems. Here, we highlight studies of evolutionary ecology in urban environments to argue that cities provide ideal conditions that can be leveraged to study the speciation process. Considering general findings from these studies, we discuss the mechanisms of speciation that are likely to occur in cities. We also discuss fundamental questions about speciation that urban environments are uniquely suited to address, such as those about the earliest stages of divergence or the role of phenotypic plasticity...
November 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292431/ecological-function-analysis-incorporating-species-roles-into-conservation
#15
REVIEW
Jedediah F Brodie, Kent H Redford, Daniel F Doak
Effective conservation strategies must ensure that species remain not just extant, but able to maintain key roles in species interactions and in the maintenance of communities and ecosystems. Such ecological functions, however, have not been well incorporated into management or policy. We present a framework for quantifying ecological function that is complementary to population viability analysis (PVA) and that allows function to be integrated into strategic planning processes. Ecological function analysis (EFA) focuses on preventing secondary extinctions and maintaining ecosystem structure, biogeochemical processes, and resiliency...
November 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270172/the-art-of-scientific-performance
#16
Ralf Seppelt, Michael Beckmann, Tomáš Václavík, Martin Volk
Humanity builds upon scientific findings, but the credibility of science might be at risk in a 'postfactual' era of advanced information technologies. Here we propose a systemic change for science, to turn away from a growth paradigm and to refocus on quality, characterized by curiosity, surprise, discovery, and societal relevance.
November 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268524/navigating-novelty-and-risk-in-resilience-management
#17
REVIEW
Joan Dudney, Richard J Hobbs, Robert Heilmayr, John J Battles, Katharine N Suding
Resilience theory is increasingly applied to the management of global change impacts. There is growing concern, however, that misapplications of resilience-based management (RBM) can sometimes lead to undesirable outcomes. We address here an inescapable conundrum in the application of resilience theory: systems will need to track environmental change, but management that aims to support adaptive capacity can introduce undesirable levels of change. We provide a framework that links concepts from novel ecosystems and resilience theory to inform management of ecosystem change...
November 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245075/a-paradigm-shift-in-the-trophic-importance-of-jellyfish
#18
REVIEW
Graeme C Hays, Thomas K Doyle, Jonathan D R Houghton
The past 30 years have seen several paradigm shifts in our understanding of how ocean ecosystems function. Now recent technological advances add to an overwhelming body of evidence for another paradigm shift in terms of the role of gelatinous plankton (jellyfish) in marine food webs. Traditionally viewed as trophic dead ends, stable isotope analysis of predator tissues, animal-borne cameras, and DNA analysis of fecal and gut samples (metabarcoding) are all indicating that many taxa routinely consume jellyfish...
November 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243834/expanding-the-role-of-targets-in-conservation-policy
#19
Tim S Doherty, Lucie M Bland, Brett A Bryan, Timothy Neale, Emily Nicholson, Euan G Ritchie, Don A Driscoll
Conservation targets perform beneficial auxiliary functions that are rarely acknowledged, including raising awareness, building partnerships, promoting investment, and developing new knowledge. Building on these auxiliary functions could enable more rapid progress towards current targets and inform the design of future targets.
November 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241778/the-peril-of-gene-targeted-conservation
#20
REVIEW
Marty Kardos, Aaron B A Shafer
The genomics revolution has sparked interest in using our increased understanding of the loci involved in phenotypic variation and adaptation to advance the conservation of biodiversity. Despite much interest and discussion, it remains unclear whether, when, and how such analyses should be used to guide conservation action. Such 'gene-targeted' conservation strategies, while promising, are complicated by several factors including the complex genomic architecture of phenotypic variation and the strong potential for undesirable outcomes such as the loss of genome-wide genetic variation and evolutionary potential...
November 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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