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Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Joern Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Philip W Hedrick, Aurora Garcia-Dorado
Inbreeding depression, the reduction of fitness caused by inbreeding, is a nearly universal phenomenon that depends on past mutation, selection, and genetic drift. Recent estimates suggest that its impact on individual fitness is even greater than previously thought. Genomic information is contributing to its detection and can enlighten important aspects of its genetic architecture. In natural populations, purging and genetic rescue mitigate fitness decline during inbreeding periods, and might be critical to population survival, thus, both mechanisms should be considered when assessing extinction risks...
October 12, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Tom D Breeze, Nicola Gallai, Lucas A Garibaldi, Xui S Li
Over the past 20 years, there has been growing interest in the possible economic impacts of pollination service loss and management. Although the literature area has expanded rapidly, there remains ongoing debate about the usefulness of such exercises. Reviewing the methods and findings of the current body of literature, this review highlights three major trends: (i) estimated benefits are heterogeneous, even when using the same method, due to several often-neglected factors. (ii) The current body of literature focuses heavily on the developed world, neglecting the effects on developing countries...
October 12, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Frederik De Laender, Jason R Rohr, Roman Ashauer, Donald J Baird, Uta Berger, Nico Eisenhauer, Volker Grimm, Udo Hommen, Lorraine Maltby, Carlos J Meliàn, Francesco Pomati, Ivo Roessink, Viktoriia Radchuk, Paul J Van den Brink
For the past 20 years, research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (B-EF) has only implicitly considered the underlying role of environmental change. We illustrate that explicitly reintroducing environmental change drivers in B-EF research is needed to predict the functioning of ecosystems facing changes in biodiversity. Next we show how this reintroduction improves experimental control over community composition and structure, which helps to provide mechanistic insight on how multiple aspects of biodiversity relate to function and how biodiversity and function relate in food webs...
October 11, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Adam E Rosenblatt, Oswald J Schmitz
Climate change ecology has focused on climate effects on trophic interactions through the lenses of temperature effects on organismal physiology and phenological asynchronies. Trophic interactions are also affected by the nutrient content of resources, but this topic has received less attention. Using concepts from nutritional ecology, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding how climate affects food webs through top-down and bottom-up processes impacted by co-occurring environmental drivers. The framework integrates climate effects on consumer physiology and feeding behavior with effects on resource nutrient content...
October 7, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Timothy D Clark, Sandra A Binning, Graham D Raby, Ben Speers-Roesch, Josefin Sundin, Fredrik Jutfelt, Dominique G Roche
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Tamra C Mendelson, Courtney L Fitzpatrick, Mark E Hauber, Charles H Pence, Rafael L Rodríguez, Rebecca J Safran, Caitlin A Stern, Jeffrey R Stevens
Despite the clear fitness consequences of animal decisions, the science of animal decision making in evolutionary biology is underdeveloped compared with decision science in human psychology. Specifically, the field lacks a conceptual framework that defines and describes the relevant components of a decision, leading to imprecise language and concepts. The 'judgment and decision-making' (JDM) framework in human psychology is a powerful tool for framing and understanding human decisions, and we apply it here to components of animal decisions, which we refer to as 'cognitive phenotypes'...
September 29, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Timothy H Parker, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Julia Koricheva, Fiona Fidler, Jarrod D Hadfield, Yung En Chee, Clint D Kelly, Jessica Gurevitch, Shinichi Nakagawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Marta A Jarzyna, Walter Jetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Alison L Greggor, Oded Berger-Tal, Daniel T Blumstein, Lisa Angeloni, Carmen Bessa-Gomes, Bradley F Blackwell, Colleen Cassady St Clair, Kevin Crooks, Shermin de Silva, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Shifra Z Goldenberg, Sarah L Mesnick, Megan Owen, Catherine J Price, David Saltz, Christopher J Schell, Andrew V Suarez, Ronald R Swaisgood, Clark S Winchell, William J Sutherland
Poor communication between academic researchers and wildlife managers limits conservation progress and innovation. As a result, input from overlapping fields, such as animal behaviour, is underused in conservation management despite its demonstrated utility as a conservation tool and countless papers advocating its use. Communication and collaboration across these two disciplines are unlikely to improve without clearly identified management needs and demonstrable impacts of behavioural-based conservation management...
September 27, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Emmanuelle Cam, Lise M Aubry, Matthieu Authier
What causes interindividual variation in fitness? Evidence of heritability of latent individual fitness traits has resparked a debate about the causes of variation in life histories in populations: neutralism versus empirical adaptationism. This debate about the processes underlying observed variation pits neutral stochastic demographic processes against evolutionarily relevant differences among individual fitness traits. Advancing this debate requires careful consideration of differences among inference approaches used by proponents of each hypothesis...
September 21, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
William J Ripple, James A Estes, Oswald J Schmitz, Vanessa Constant, Matthew J Kaylor, Adam Lenz, Jennifer L Motley, Katharine E Self, David S Taylor, Christopher Wolf
Few concepts in ecology have been so influential as that of the trophic cascade. Since the 1980s, the term has been a central or major theme of more than 2000 scientific articles. Despite this importance and widespread usage, basic questions remain about what constitutes a trophic cascade. Inconsistent usage of language impedes scientific progress and the utility of scientific concepts in management and conservation. Herein, we offer a definition of trophic cascade that is designed to be both widely applicable yet explicit enough to exclude extraneous interactions...
September 20, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Margaret Evans, Cory Merow, Sydne Record, Sean M McMahon, Brian J Enquist
Understanding and forecasting species' geographic distributions in the face of global change is a central priority in biodiversity science. The existing view is that one must choose between correlative models for many species versus process-based models for few species. We suggest that opportunities exist to produce process-based range models for many species, by using hierarchical and inverse modeling to borrow strength across species, fill data gaps, fuse diverse data sets, and model across biological and spatial scales...
September 20, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Jake M Alexander, Jeffrey M Diez, Simon P Hart, Jonathan M Levine
Climate change will likely reshuffle ecological communities, causing novel species interactions that could profoundly influence how populations and communities respond to changing conditions. Nonetheless, predicting the impacts of novel interactions is challenging, partly because many methods of inference are contingent on the current configuration of climatic variables and species distributions. Focusing on competition, we argue that experiments designed to quantify novel interactions in ways that can inform species distribution models are urgently needed, and suggest an empirical agenda to pursue this goal, illustrated using plants...
September 15, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Graham P Wallis, Jonathan M Waters, Phaedra Upton, David Craw
The allopatric model of biological speciation involves fracturing of a pre-existing species distribution and subsequent genetic divergence in isolation. Accumulating global evidence from the Pyrénées, Andes, Himalaya, and the Southern Alps in New Zealand shows the Pleistocene to be associated with the generation of new alpine lineages. By synthesising a large number of genetic analyses and incorporating tectonic, climatic, and population-genetic models, we show here how glaciation is the likely driver of speciation transverse to the Southern Alps...
September 15, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Austin J Gallagher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Neil H Carter, John D C Linnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Konstantinos Voskarides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
J Kevin Hiers, Stephen T Jackson, Richard J Hobbs, Emily S Bernhardt, Leonie E Valentine
Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation...
September 9, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Jussi Lehtonen
Few issues have raised more debate among evolutionary biologists than kin selection (KS) versus multilevel selection (MLS). They are formally equivalent, but use different-looking mathematical approaches, and are not causally equivalent: for a given problem KS can be a more suitable causal explanation than MLS, and vice versa. Methods for analyzing a given model from both viewpoints would therefore be valuable. I argue that there is often an easy way to achieve this: MLS can be written using the components of KS...
October 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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