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Mycoses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774605/mixed-infections-are-a-critical-factor-in-the-treatment-of-superficial-mycoses
#1
A Gawaz, G Weisel
BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections of the skin, nails and hair are common with Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans being the main pathogens. Yet, in some patients, mycological cultures show growth of more than one fungal agent in the same anatomical region. OBJECTIVE: This study analyses prevalence, frequency and fungal agents found in superficial fungal mixed infections and discusses consequences for diagnostics and treatment. METHODS: Mycological data obtained between January 2006 to December 2015 from clinical specimens from a total cohort of 7733 patients with suspected fungal infections were retrospectively analysed...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772091/sensitisation-to-outdoor-and-indoor-fungi-in-atopic-dermatitis-patients-and-the-relation-to-the-occurrence-of-food-allergy-to-peanuts-and-walnuts
#2
J Čelakovská, J Bukač, K Ettler, J Vaneckova, K Ettlerova, J Krejsek
The aim of this study is the evaluation of the relation between the sensitisation to outdoor and indoor fungi and allergy to peanuts and walnuts in atopic dermatitis patients aged 14 years and older. The complete dermatological and allergological examinations were perfomed in all included patients; the occurrence of food allergy to peanuts and walnuts was recorded (specific IgE, skin prick test, history of allergic reaction) and the sensitisation to mixture of outdoor fungi and indoor fungi was examined (skin prick test, specific IgE)...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762871/fast-identification-of-dermatophytes-by-maldi-tof-ms-using-direct-transfer-of-fungal-cells-on-ground-steel-target-plates
#3
Keith C da Cunha, Arnaud Riat, Anne-Cecile Normand, Philipp P Bosshard, Margarete T G de Almeida, Renaud Piarroux, Jacques Schrenzel, Lionel Fontao
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytes cause human infections limited to keratinized tissues. We showed that the direct transfer method allows reliable identification of non-dermatophytes mould and yeast by MALDI-TOF/MS. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at assessing whether the direct transfer method can be used for dermatophytes and whether an own mass spectra library would be superior to the Bruker library. METHODS: We used the Bruker Biotyper to build a dermatophyte mass spectra library and assessed its performance by 1/ testing a panel of mass spectrum produced with strains genotypically identified and, 2/ comparing MALDI-TOF/MS identification to morphology-based methods...
May 15, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762868/candidemia-in-children-epidemiology-prevention-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Elpis Mantadakis, Zoe Dorothea Pana, Theoklis Zaoutis
Candidemia is the leading cause of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized children. The highest rates of candidemia have been recorded in neonates and infants <1 year of age. Candidemia is more frequent in neonates and young infants than in adults, and is associated with better clinical outcomes, but higher inpatient costs. Over the last 10 years, a declining trend has been noted in the incidence of pediatric candidemia in the US and elsewhere due to the hospital-wide implementation of central-line insertion and maintenance bundles that emphasize full sterile barrier precautions, chlorhexidine skin preparation during line insertion, meticulous site and tubing care, and daily discussion of catheter necessity...
May 15, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761873/infection-of-trichophyton-verrucosum-in-cattle-breeders-poland-a-40-year-retrospective-study-on-the-genomic-variability-of-strains
#5
Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Aleksandra Trościańczyk, Przemysław Zięba
BACKGROUND: Trichophyton verrucosum is a zoophilic fungus that is the most frequent etiologic agent of dermatophytosis in cattle. During the last few years, the number of cases of T. verrucosum from humans has been increasing constantly, which is correlated with the presence of cattle rearing farms. OBJECTIVES: We identified and analysed T. verrucosum strains isolated from humans and cattle. METHODS: Identification was carried out traditionally by correlating both the clinical manifestations with a micro- and macroscopic examination...
May 15, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738604/five-year-profile-of-candidemia-at-an-indian-trauma-center-high-rates-of-candida-auris-blood-stream-infections
#6
Purva Mathur, Fahmi Hasan, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Rajesh Malhotra, Kamini Walia, Anuradha Chowdhary
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a potentially fatal infection with varied distribution of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility profiles. The recent emergence of Candida auris in invasive candidiasis is a cause for concern. This study describes the profile of candidemia at an Indian tertiary care hospital and reports the emergence of Candida auris. METHODS: All patients diagnosed as having candidemia between 2012 to 2017 were studied. The isolates were identified using conventional methods, VITEK 2 and by the MALDI-TOF MS...
May 8, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702751/airway-persistence-by-the-emerging-multi-azole-resistant-rasamsonia-argillacea-complex-in-cystic-fibrosis
#7
Alireza Abdolrasouli, Amelia C Bercusson, Johanna L Rhodes, Ferry Hagen, Jochem B Buil, Alison Y Y Tang, Leonard L de Boer, Anand Shah, Andrew J Milburn, J Stuart Elborn, Andrew L Jones, Jacques F Meis, Matthew C Fisher, Silke Schelenz, Nicholas J Simmonds, Darius Armstrong-James
Infections caused by Rasamsonia argillacea complex have been reported in various clinical settings. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the main underlying conditions. An observational cohort study of CF patients with Rasamsonia in respiratory samples was conducted. Eight isolates from six patients were identified as R. argillacea complex and tested for antifungal susceptibility. All isolates had high MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole and low MECs to echinocandins. Four patients experienced lung function decline in the year preceding first Rasamsonia isolation...
April 27, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693758/performance-of-serum-1-3-%C3%A3-d-glucan-screening-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-neutropenic-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#8
Elisa Furfaro, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Valerio Del Bono, Alessio Signori, Fabio Guolo, Paola Minetto, Marino Clavio, Filippo Ballerini, Marco Gobbi, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
OBJECTIVES: To report our experience with the use of (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) screening for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. METHODS: The performance of BDG screening was assessed retrospectively through per patient and per sample analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 20 among 167 patients developed IA (12%). In the per patient analysis, BDG showed 60% sensitivity and 78% specificity when the criterion for positivity was the presence of at least one BDG value ≥80 pg/ml...
April 25, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693737/how-to-prophylax-against-invasive-fungal-infections-in-adult-all-an-unmet-need
#9
Oliver A Cornely, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Although the benefit for any type of antifungal prophylaxis in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia is well accepted, less is known about the risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and the optimal prophylaxis strategies in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Based on recent studies, ALL is a disease that appears to be associated with significant risk for IFIs. The pharmacokinetic interactions between azoles and vincristine, an antineoplastic agent that is part of modern combination chemotherapies in ALL, results in clinically significant neurotoxicity that makes the use of azoles problematic...
April 25, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693732/dna-sequencing-to-clarify-the-taxonomical-conundrum-of-the-clinical-coelomycetes
#10
REVIEW
Nicomedes Valenzuela-Lopez, José F Cano-Lira, Alberto M Stchigel, Josep Guarro
The taxonomy of the fungi that produce human infections and that develop asexual fruiting bodies in culture has become very complex. Recent molecular studies have produced dramatic changes in their classification. Currently, the coelomycetes traditionally included in Sphaeropsidales and Melanconiales are in fact distributed across at least three different classes of the Phylum Ascomycota. Approximately 1,000 genera and 7,000 species have been grouped in the classes Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and their proper identification can only be made by analysing their DNA sequences and comparing them with those corresponding to type strains available in the adequate databases...
April 25, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687483/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-dutch-haematology-units-facing-a-rapidly-increasing-prevalence-of-azole-resistance-a-nationwide-survey-and-rationale-for-the-db-msg-002-study-protocol
#11
Alexander F A D Schauwvlieghe, Nick de Jonge, Karin van Dijk, Paul E Verweij, Roger J Brüggemann, Bart J Biemond, Aldert Bart, Peter A von dem Borne, Annelies Verbon, Martha T van der Beek, Astrid M P Demandt, Guy J Oudhuis, Jan J Cornelissen, Walter J F M van der Velden, Lambert F R Span, Greetje A Kampinga, Anke H Bruns, Alieke G Vonk, Pieter-Jan A Haas, Jeanette K Doorduijn, Bart J A Rijnders
BACKGROUND: Patients with haematological malignancies are at risk for invasive fungal diseases (IFD). A survey was conducted in all Dutch academic haematology centres on their current diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic approach towards IFD in the context of azole resistance. METHODS: In all 8 centres, a haematologist and microbiologist filled in the questionnaire that focused on different subgroups of haematology patients. RESULTS: Fungal prophylaxis during neutropenia was directed against Candida and consisted of fluconazole and/or amphotericin B suspension...
April 23, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663565/risk-factors-for-early-invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#12
Yehonatan Pasternak, Shiri Rubin, Efraim Bilavsky, Yael Mozer-Glassberg, Itzhak Levy, Elhanan Nahum, Eran Rom, Michael Gurevich, Haim Ben-Zvi, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) post-liver transplantation are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality;however, studies reporting on these infections in the pediatric population are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of IFIs in pediatric liver transplant recipients during the early post-transplantation period (≤3 months). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected for all pediatric liver transplant recipients registered in a national transplantation center from 2004-2014...
April 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663539/cryptococcal-infections-over-a-15-year-period-at-a-tertiary-facility-impact-of-guideline-management
#13
Ian Gassiep, Joel Douglas, Theophilus I Emeto, Katherine Crawley, Elliott G Playford
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection caused primarily by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species, presenting predominantly as meningoencephalitis. The aim of this study is to assess all cryptococcal infections managed at our facility from 2001-2015 to determine incidence, risk factors, and comparison of outcomes prior to and following introduction of the 2010 Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed and treated for cryptococcal infection occurring between January 2001 and December 2015...
April 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663530/geographical-evaluation-of-neuroparacoccidioidomycosis-and-paracoccidioidomycosis-in-southern-brazil
#14
Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Gabriel L O Salvador, Thiago Henrique Roza, Luís Felipe Izycki, Isaias Dos Santos, Afonso Aragão, Amanda Kulik, Marisol Muro, Luis Fernando Bleggi Torres, Lucia Helena de Noronha
BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent systemic mycosis among immunocompetent patients in Latin America. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the expansion over time and the geographical distribution of confirmed Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM) and PCM cases, and relate it to environmental characteristics such as climate, soil types, and coffee crops. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of autopsy and biopsy reports between 1951 and 2014 from the Medical Pathology Section of the Hospital de Clinicas, UFPR, Curitiba, Southern Brazil...
April 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655180/an-outbreak-due-to-candida-auris-with-prolonged-colonization-and-candidemia-in-a-tertiary-care-european-hospital
#15
Alba Ruiz-Gaitan, Ana María Moret, María Tasias-Pitarch, Ana Isabel Aleixandre-Lopez, Héctor Martínez-Morel, Eva Calabuig, Miguel Salavert-Lletí, Paula Ramírez, José Luis López-Hontangas, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F Meis, Juan Mollar-Maseres, Javier Pemán
Multi-drug resistant Candida auris has emerged as a cause of insidious hospital outbreaks and complicated infections. We present the analysis of an ongoing C. auris outbreak including the largest published series of C. auris bloodstream infection. All C. auris positive patients from April-2016 to January-2017 were included. Environmental, clinical and microbiological data were recorded. Definitive isolate identification was performed by ITS-rDNA sequencing, and typing by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting...
April 14, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611246/isavuconazole-for-treatment-of-rare-invasive-fungal-diseases
#16
Oliver A Cornely, Kathleen M Mullane, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Rochelle M Maher, Rodney Croos-Dabrera, Qiaoyang Lu, Christopher Lademacher, John R Perfect, Ilana Oren, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann, Michael Giladi, Francisco M Marty, Galia Rahav
BACKGROUND: Data regarding treatment of rare invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To document the efficacy and safety of isavuconazole for treatment of uncommonly diagnosed IFDs. PATIENTS/METHODS: VITAL was a single-arm, international, open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of isavuconazole (200 mg orally or intravenously every 8 hours for 48 hours, then once daily). The primary outcome was overall response at Day 42; key secondary outcomes were overall responses at Day 84 and end of treatment (EOT), mortality at Days 42 and 84, and safety...
April 3, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611232/serodiagnosis-of-aspergillosis-in-falcons-falco-spp-by-afmp1p-based-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#17
Ulrich Wernery, Chi-Ching Tsang, Christiana Hebel, Alexandra Damerau, Jörg Kinne, Jian-Piao Cai, Harald Küspert, Ka-Fai Chan, Marina Joseph, Shaolong Xue, Rekha Raghavan, James Y M Tang, Ginu Syriac, Susanna K P Lau, Shantymol Jose, Patrick C Y Woo
Aspergillosis in falcons may be associated with high mortality and difficulties in clinical and laboratory diagnosis. We previously cloned an immunogenic protein, Afmp1p, in Aspergillus fumigatus and showed that anti-Afmp1p antibodies were present in human patients with A. fumigatus infections. In this study, we hypothesise that a similar Afmp1p-based ELISA could be applied to serodiagnose falcon aspergillosis. A specific polyclonal antibody was first generated to detect falcon serum IgY. HRP-conjugate of this antibody was then used to measure anti-Afmp1p antibodies in sera collected from falcons experimentally infected with A...
April 3, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611230/in-vitro-activities-of-antifungal-drugs-against-environmental-exophiala-isolates-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Dolunay Gülmez, Özlem Doğan, Barış Boral, Aylin Döğen, Macit İlkit, G Sybren de Hoog, Sevtap Arikan-Akdagli
BACKGROUND: Exophiala is a genus of black fungi isolated worldwide from environmental and clinical specimens. Data on antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala isolates are limited and the methodology on susceptibility testing is not yet standardized. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of environmental Exophiala isolates. METHODS: A total of 87 Exophiala isolated from dishwashers or railway ties were included...
April 3, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611227/isavuconazole-for-treatment-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-caused-by-more-than-one-fungal-species
#19
Francisco M Marty, Oliver A Cornely, Kathleen M Mullane, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Rochelle M Maher, Rodney Croos-Dabrera, Qiaoyang Lu, Christopher Lademacher, Ilana Oren, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann, Michael Giladi, Galia Rahav, John R Perfect
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to treat invasive fungal disease (IFD) caused by more than one fungal species is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To document the efficacy and safety of isavuconazole for treatment of IFDs caused by more than one fungal species. PATIENTS/METHODS: VITAL was a single-arm, international, open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of isavuconazole (200 mg orally or intravenously every 8 hours for 48 hours, then once daily) for treatment of rare IFDs...
April 3, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611226/susceptibility-of-a-fumigatus-specific-t-cell-assays-to-pre-analytic-blood-storage-and-pbmc-cryopreservation-greatly-depends-on-readout-platform-and-analytes
#20
Chris D Lauruschkat, Sebastian Wurster, Lukas Page, Maria Lazariotou, Mariola Dragan, Philipp Weis, Andrew J Ullmann, Hermann Einsele, Jürgen Löffler
Mould specific T-cells detectable by flow cytometry or ELISPOT were proposed as a novel biomarker in invasive aspergillosis. To define protocols facilitating sample shipment and longitudinal analysis, this study evaluated the susceptibility of different functional assays for A. fumigatus specific T-cell quantification and characterisation to pre-analytic delays. PBMCs from six healthy donors were analysed after immediate isolation, after 6 hours whole blood storage or after cryopreservation using three different common media...
April 3, 2018: Mycoses
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