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Pamela Thomson, Emilio Mayayo, Loida López-Fernández, Josep Guarro, Javier Capilla
Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus laurentii are uncommon species of this genus that in recent decades have increasingly caused opportunistic infections in humans, mainly in immunocompromised patients; the best therapy for such infection being unknown. Using a murine model of systemic infection by these fungi, we have evaluated the efficacy of amphotericin B (AMB) at 0.8 mg/kg, administered intravenously, fluconazole (FLC) or voriconazole (VRC), both administered orally, at 25 mg/kg and the combination of AMB plus VRC against three C...
October 3, 2016: Mycoses
Frederik Hermans, Sien Ombelet, Karlien Degezelle, Dries Testelmans, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Geert M Verleden, Eric K Verbeken, Pascal Van Bleyenbergh, Katrien Lagrou, Robin Vos
A lung transplant recipient was diagnosed with penicilliosis due to Talaromyces marneffei, a fungus endemic in South-East Asia, which was acquired by donor transmission. This first case of Talaromyces marneffei-transmission by transplantation underscores that current globalisation of travelling necessitates increased vigilance for transmission of unusual pathogens in organ recipients.
September 30, 2016: Mycoses
Gilbert G G Donders, Jack D Sobel
Although being an utterly frequent, non-mortal, yet distressing disease, and despite good knowledge of the pathogenesis and the availability of specific and safe treatment, vulvovaginal Candida (VVC) infection remains one of the most enigmatic problems for both physicians and patients. Good treatment requires a proper diagnosis. Too many caregivers (and patients treating themselves) react too simple-minded on the symptoms of VVC and treat VVC where they see it on the vulva. In this opinion paper, we plea for a thorough examination of women with VVC, especially in those women who suffer from recurrent disease since a long time, sometimes decades, which necessitates intensive examination of the vaginal flora, as this is invariably the reservoir for relapses and recurrent vulvitis...
September 30, 2016: Mycoses
Lucas G G Cabrera, Aline F Santos, Ursulla V Andrade, Carlos Ivan A Guedes, Sandra M V L Oliveira, Marilene R Chang, Rinaldo P Mendes, Anamaria M M Paniago
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. About 80% of PCM patients are present with its chronic form. The lungs are affected in most patients with the chronic form; however, pleural involvement has rarely been reported. We describe nine cases of PCM that presented with lung involvement and spontaneous pneumothorax. All patients, except one whose condition was not investigated, were smokers. PCM was diagnosed during the pneumothorax episode in three patients, and from 3 to 16 years before the pneumothorax episode in six patients...
September 30, 2016: Mycoses
Alessio Mesini, Roberto Bandettini, Ilaria Caviglia, Francesca Fioredda, Loredana Amoroso, Maura Faraci, Girolamo Mattioli, Giorgio Piaggio, Francesco M Risso, Andrea Moscatelli, Anna Loy, Elio Castagnola
To describe the epidemiology of invasive Candida infection in a tertiary care paediatric hospital. Prospective single-centre survey on all Candida strains isolated from normally sterile fluids and urines in the period 2005-2015 . A total of 299 ICI were documented in 262 patients. Urinary tract infection represented the most frequent diagnosis (62%), followed by fungaemia (34%) and peritonitis (4%). Fungaemia was most frequent in children with cancer (59%) or in low birth weight neonates (61%), while urinary tract infections were more frequent in patients with urinary tract malformation...
September 29, 2016: Mycoses
Sara Gago, Carmen Serrano, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Isabel Cuesta, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos, Ana Isabel Aller, Alicia Gómez-López, Emilia Mellado
Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the leading causes of death in HIV/AIDS patients. Our aim was to in order to characterise the epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility pattern and virulence of 28 Cyptococcus sp. strains recovered from 12 AIDS patients during two years in a Spanish single institution. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI protocols. Clinical strains were molecularly characterised by serotyping, mating type, PCR fingerprinting (M13 and GACA4 microsatellites) and analysis of two rDNA regions (IGS1 and ITS)...
September 15, 2016: Mycoses
Florencia D Rojas, Susana B Córdoba, María de Los Ángeles Sosa, Laura C Zalazar, Mariana S Fernández, María E Cattana, Liliana R Alegre, Alfonso J Carrillo-Muñoz, Gustavo E Giusiano
All Malassezia species are lipophilic; thus, modifications are required in susceptibility testing methods to ensure their growth. Antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia species using agar and broth dilution methods has been studied. Currently, few tests using disc diffusion methods are being performed. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of Malassezia yeast against antifungal agents using broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods, then to compare both methodologies. Fifty Malassezia isolates were studied...
September 14, 2016: Mycoses
Thaísa C Silva, Carolina M Treméa, Ana Laura S A Zara, Ana Flávia Mendonça, Cássia S M Godoy, Carolina R Costa, Lúcia K H Souza, Maria R R Silva
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis that is considered an important public health problem. In this work, we performed a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study with a secondary data analysis of medical records from 2000 to 2012 at a tertiary hospital. The study sample consisted of 275 patients with laboratory-confirmed Disseminated Histoplasmosis (DH)/AIDS. The results showed that the prevalence of DH associated with AIDS was 4.4%. The majority of patients were young adult men with fever in 84...
September 14, 2016: Mycoses
Yi-Chun Chen, Shu-Fang Kuo, Fang-Ju Chen, Chen-Hsiang Lee
The Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) revised the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for the azoles and echinocandins against Candida species in 2012. We aimed to report the epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species and evaluate the impact of new CBPs on antifungal susceptibility in our region. All blood isolates of Candida species were obtained from 2007 to 2012. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, echinocandins and flucytosine against Candida isolates were determined by Sensititre YeastOne system...
September 12, 2016: Mycoses
Meirong Li, Zhuanggui Chen, Songchao Yin, Ruzeng Xue, Zhirui Chen, Huaiqiu Huang, Ling Wei, Chun Lu, Gerit Sybren De Hoog, Wei Lai, Peiying Feng
Onychomycosis is a rare nail disorder in early childhood, while onychomadesis is a periodic idiopathic, non-inflammatory disease that affects the nail matrix and is common in children especially in those who suffer from viral infections. In this study, we investigated recent cases of onychomycosis subsequent to periods of onychomadesis in children. Sixteen young children (six males, 10 females) with a mean age of 36.5 months were diagnosed with onychomadesis, and 13 of the patients had a history of viral infection prior to nail changes...
September 12, 2016: Mycoses
Szu-Yun Fang, Kai-Che Wei, Wen-Chieh Chen, Shin-Jung Lee, Kuo-Chung Yang, Chieh-Shan Wu, Pei-Lun Sun
Superficial candida infections of the skin are common, but deep cutaneous candidiasis, including secondary dissemination to the skin from systemic candidiasis, candidaemia or primary invasion due to skin defects such as trauma, is rare. These patients are usually immunosuppressed, but immunocompetent hosts can be affected as well. Candida albicans is the most common pathogen. However, non-albicans Candida species can cause deep skin invasion in rare circumstances. We report a case of deep cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida duobushaemulonii in a 68-year-old man...
September 7, 2016: Mycoses
Xinyue Chen, Ruoyu Zhang, Ayako Takada, Shun Iwatani, Chiemi Oka, Toshitaka Kitamoto, Susumu Kajiwara
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a transition from yeast cells to filamentous cells that is related to its pathogenicity. The complex multicellular processes involved in biofilm formation by this fungus also include this transition. In this work, we investigated the morphological role of the Bgl2 protein (Bgl2p) in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans. Bgl2p has been identified as a β-1, 3-glucosyltransferase, and transcription of the CaBGL2 gene is upregulated during biofilm formation...
September 5, 2016: Mycoses
Carlos Solano, Monica Slavin, Alissa J Shaul, David I Marks, Catherine Cordonnier, Oliver A Cornely, Antonio Pagliuca, Lael Cragin, Isidro Jarque, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Sonja Sorensen, David J Vanness, Claudie Charbonneau, Jon Andoni Barrueta, Carmen Peral, Marina De Salas-Cansado, Eric J Bow
Patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) are at risk of developing invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Even with introduction of oral triazole antifungal agents (fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole) IFI-associated morbidity and mortality rates and economic burden remain high. Despite their proven efficacy, it is currently unknown which is the most cost-effective antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) agent. To determine the costs and outcomes associated with AFP, a decision-analytic model was used to simulate treatment in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 patients undergoing alloHSCT from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System...
August 26, 2016: Mycoses
Tallulah Spina-Tensini, Marisol Dominguez Muro, Flávio Queiroz-Telles, Isabella Strozzi, Samia Talise Moraes, Ricardo Rasmussen Petterle, Marcelo Vettorello, Claudia Staudacher, Luiz Alberto Lopes Miguez, Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida
Cryptococcal meningitis is mainly caused by members of the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complexes. The ecological niches of Cryptococcus species have extensively been studied, but its epidemiological relationship with meningitis cases is still unknown. In this study, we estimate the relationship between cryptococcal meningitis cases and tree and pigeon populations, the classical niches of members of C. neoformans/C. gattii sensu lato. We analysed the records of every patient whose cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded Cryptococcus spp...
August 26, 2016: Mycoses
Dimitrios Rigopoulos, Vasilios Papanagiotou, Ralph Daniel, Bianca Maria Piraccini
Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease and affects large parts of the population. Psoriasis is a frequently encountered skin disorder with nail involvement being found in up to 80% of the patients at some time of the course of the disease. It has been postulated that onychomycosis occurs more frequently in patients with nail psoriasis, but the results of studies in the literature are controversial. Moreover, onychomycosis could exacerbate psoriasis through Koebner phenomenon and the treatment of psoriasis could predispose to onychomycosis...
August 15, 2016: Mycoses
Ritesh Agarwal, Devika Dua, Hansraj Choudhary, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Mandeep Garg, Digambar Behera, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Few studies have evaluated the utility of Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgG in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Herein, we evaluate the role of specific IgG in diagnosis and monitoring treatment response in ABPA. Forty-eight control subjects with A. fumigatus-associated asthma underwent A. fumigatus-specific IgG measurements at baseline, while specific IgG was assayed in 102 treatment-naïve subjects of ABPA at baseline, after eight weeks of glucocorticoid therapy, and during exacerbations...
August 15, 2016: Mycoses
Claudia Sassi, Marta Stanzani, Russell E Lewis, Nicola Vianelli, Andrea Tarsi, Antonio Poerio, Michele Cavo, Giuseppe Battista
In neutropenic patients, lungs are involved in 50%-80% of cases of fusariosis, but imaging of pulmonary fusariosis has been previously described as indistinguishable from other invasive mould diseases. Our attempt was to identify a radiological pattern that may distinguish pulmonary fusariosis from other mould diseases. We examined the CT findings of nine neutropenic haematology patients with invasive fusariosis. As control group for comparison, we examined 14 invasive mould diseases (11 aspergillosis, 3 mucormycosis) in haematology patients with similar underlying disease and timing of CT imaging...
July 29, 2016: Mycoses
Eleonora Dubljanin, Aleksandar Džamić, Isidora Vujčić, Sandra Š Grujičić, Valentina A Arsenijević, Sanja Mitrović, Ivana Čolović Čalovski
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the fingernails and/or toenails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte moulds. The epidemiology of onychomycosis in Serbia is yet to be fully established. This epidemiological study was aimed at evaluating the epidemiology of onychomycosis in a sample of the Serbian patients at risk of onychomycosis, to determine the fungal aetiological agents and to identify the possible risk factors. The study population included 374 patients from six centres in Serbia with suspected onychomycosis...
July 29, 2016: Mycoses
Liv Hesstvedt, Maiken C Arendrup, Eira Poikonen, Lena Klingpor, Vanda Friman, Ingvild Nordøy
National data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden demonstrate remarkable differences in candidaemia epidemiology. Only Denmark has reported a high incidence of 10 per 100 000 inhabitants and a species shift towards increased C. glabrata candidaemias. The reasons for this development remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore possible contributing factors for the differences in Candida epidemiology in the Nordic countries. We used public data from 2011 from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden on epidemiology, demographics, health facilities, predisposing risk factors, consumption of antimicrobial drugs and fungicides in agricultural industry...
July 28, 2016: Mycoses
Fulgence K Kassi, Pascal Drakulovski, Virginie Bellet, Donika Krasteva, François Gatchitch, Adama Doumbia, Gisèle A Kouakou, Eric Delaporte, Jacques Reynes, Michèle Mallié, Hervé I E Menan, Sebastien Bertout
Cryptococcal meningitis is a severe opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. In Ivory Coast, despite the availability of antiretroviral treatment (ART), this infection is still prevalent. The study investigates the genetic diversity of 363 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus from 61 Ivorian HIV-positive patients, the occurrence of mixed infections and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolates. Serotyping was performed via LAC1 and CAP64 gene amplification. Genotyping was performed using the phage M13 core (GACA)4 and (GTG)5 primers and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the URA5 gene...
July 27, 2016: Mycoses
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