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Eleni E Magira, Ying Jiang, Minas Economides, Jeffrey Tarrand, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
There is a paucity of data regarding mixed mold pulmonary infections (MMPIs) in patients with hematologic malignancies with or without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We retrospectively studied 27 such patients (2005-2015) and compared them to patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Factors associated with the diagnosis of MMPIs were significant corticosteroid use [20(74%) vs 6(22%), p<0.001], sputum as the source specimen [13(48%) vs 3(11%), p=0...
July 17, 2018: Mycoses
Svitrigaile Grinceviciene, Kateryna Ruban, Gert Bellen, Gilbert Gg Donders
OBJECTIVE: This study analyses a relation between sexual habits and the presence of Candida in extra-genital locations as well as a potential effect on therapy response. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Candida cultures were obtained from mouth, nose, anus, urine and perineum of 117 women enrolled in a RVVC treatment trial (ReCiDiF). Sexual behaviour and carriage rates of extra-genital Candida of women responding well to treatment were compared to that of non-responders. RESULTS: Most respondents were heterosexual...
July 12, 2018: Mycoses
Lujuan Gao, Yi Sun, Chengyan He, Ming Li, Tongxiang Zeng
BACKGROUND: Exophiala dermatitidis causes a variety of illnesses in humans which are always refractory to available treatment modalities. Hsp90 governs crucial stress responses, cell wall repair mechanisms and antifungal resistance in pathogenic fungi. Thus, targeting Hsp90 with specific inhibitors holds considerable promise as combination strategy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antifungal effect of 17-AAG alone or combined with azoles against E. dermatitidis. METHODS: In vitro interactions of 17-AAG, a Hsp90 inhibitor, and azoles including itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole against Exophiala dermatitidis were evaluated via broth microdilution checkerboard technique, adapted from the CLSI M38-A2 method...
July 12, 2018: Mycoses
Shahram Mahmoudi, Ahmad Masoomi, Kazem Ahmadikia, Seyed Ali Tabatabaei, Mohammad Soleimani, Sassan Rezaie, Hossein Ghahvechian, Ali Banafsheafshan
Mycotic keratitis or keratomycosis is a fungal infection with global distribution. The dominant etiology of this disease varies based on geographical origin, socioeconomic status, and climatic condition. Generally, Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. are common in tropical and sub-tropical regions and Candida spp. are dominant in temperate areas. Demonstration of fungal elements in microscopic examination besides the isolation of fungi in culture is the gold standard of laboratory diagnosis. As the culture is a time-consuming procedure, other approaches such as in vivo confocal microscopy which produces real-time imaging of corneal tissue and molecular techniques have been developed to facilitate rapid diagnosis of fungal keratitis...
July 11, 2018: Mycoses
Giannina Ricci, Daniel Wagner Santos, Joseph A Kovacs, Angela Satie Nishikaku, Taina Veras de Sandes-Freitas, Anderson Messina Rodrigues, Geetha Kutty, Regina Affonso, Hélio Tedesco Silva, José Osmar Medina-Pestana, Marcello Fabiano de Franco, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii can cause severe potentially life-threatening pneumonia (PCP) in kidney transplant patients. Prophylaxis against PCP in this setting of patient is usually performed during six months after transpantation Objectives: To describe the molecular epidemiology of a cluster of PCP in renal transplant recipients in Brazil. METHODS: Renal transplant patients who developed PCP between May and December 2011 had their formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) lung biopsy samples analyzed...
July 11, 2018: Mycoses
Fahimeh Piri, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali Ronagh, Bahram Ahmadi, Koichi Makimura, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei
Conventional direct microscopy with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture were found to lack the ability to establish a fast and specific diagnosis of dermatophytosis. A pan-dermatophyte nested-PCR assay was developed using a novel primer pair targeting the translation elongation factor 1-α (Tef-1α) sequences for direct detection and identification of most veterinary relevant dermatophytes in animal samples suspected to dermatophytosis. A total of 140 animal skin and hair samples were subjected to direct microscopy, culture, and ITS-RFLP/ITS-sequencing of culture isolates for the detection and identification of dermatophytosis agents...
June 26, 2018: Mycoses
O A Cornely, P Koehler, D Arenz, S C Mellinghoff
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a serious threat to immunocompromised and critical care patients. Recent detailed guidelines and treatment algorithms lead microbiologists and clinicians in diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis. Currently, there is no tool available that allows to measure guideline adherence. To develop such a tool, we reviewed current guidelines provided by 5 scientific societies (European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, European Confederation of Medical Mycology, European Respiratory Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology) and selected the strongest recommendations for management as key components for our scoring tool...
June 26, 2018: Mycoses
João P Z Siqueira, Nathan Wiederhold, Josepa Gené, Dania García, Margarete T G Almeida, Josep Guarro
BACKGROUND: In the last few decades there has been an emergence of cryptic Aspergillus as agents of human infections due to the increase of immunocompromised population and to the improvement of identification tools. METHODS: Continuing our study on Aspergillus isolates from clinical origin deposited in a mycological reference center in the USA, we selected 37 isolates belonging to less common sections of the genus, to study their species diversity and detect cryptic species by using a polyphasic approach...
June 25, 2018: Mycoses
Adriane Lenhard-Vidal, João Paulo Assolini, Franciele Ayumi Semêncio Chiyoda, Mário Augusto Ono, Ayako Sano, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
Since the new species P. lutzii emerged in 2009, much has been researched on strains previously considered atypical. Still, there is no consensus about recognition of antigens from P. lutzii by antibodies directed to other Paracoccidioides species, which can have great impact on PCM diagnosis. Current research investigated soluble protein/carbohydrate epitopes from P. lutzii LDR2, P. restrepiensis B339 and P. americana LDR3 recognized by IgG directed to P. brasiliensis. Cell free antigens (CFA) were analyzed by: (a)silver and periodic acid-Schiff staining of SDS-PAGE; (b)immunoblot (IB) with rabbit IgG anti-P...
June 25, 2018: Mycoses
D Joseph Sexton, Meghan L Bentz, Rory M Welsh, Anastasia P Litvintseva
Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant pathogenic yeast whose recent emergence is of increasing public-health concern. C. auris can colonize multiple body sites, including patients' skin, and survive for weeks in the healthcare environment, facilitating patient-to-patient transmission and fueling healthcare-associated outbreaks. Rapid and accurate detection of C. auris colonization is essential for timely implementation of infection control measures and prevent transmission. Currently, axilla/groin composite swabs, used to assess colonization status, are processed using a culture-based method that is sensitive and specific but requires 14 days...
June 25, 2018: Mycoses
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Hansraj Choudhary, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Mandeep Garg, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ritesh Agarwal
A.fumigatus-specific IgG is pivotal in making the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). However, the cut-off value for A.fumigatus-specific IgG remains unknown. We included consecutive treatment-naïve subjects with chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA, cases). The controls were subjects with treated pulmonary tuberculosis, who had residual radiological abnormality and minimal symptoms. The diagnosis of CCPA was based on consistent clinicoradiological features along with demonstration of Aspergillus infection (growth of Aspergillus in sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [BALF] culture; serum or BALF galactomannan index>0...
June 19, 2018: Mycoses
Lena Klingspor, Måns Ullberg, Johan Rydberg, Nahid Kondori, Lena Serrander, Jonas Swanberg, Kenneth Nilsson, Cecilia Jendle Bengtén, Marcus Johansson, Margareta Granlund, Eva Törnqvist, Anders Nyberg, Karin Kindlund, Minna Ygge, Dalila Kartout-Boukdir, Michael Toepfer, Eva Hålldin, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Volkan Özenci
OBJECTIVES: To identify the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida spp. among blood culture isolates and to describe the epidemiology of fungal meningitis in Sweden. METHODS: The study was a retrospective, observational nationwide laboratory-based surveillance for fungaemia and fungal meningitis and was conducted from September 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS: In total, 488 Candida blood culture isolates were obtained from 471 patients (58% males)...
June 19, 2018: Mycoses
Saeed Nezafati, Abdolhassan Kazemi, Kasra Asgari, Amir Bahrami, Behrooz Naghili, Javad Yazdani
Inadequate data are available on the global epidemiology of mucormycosis, mainly derived from the evaluation of specific population groups. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is an invading and fatal mycosis, particularly among diabetic patients. In the present study, patients hospitalised in Imam Reza Hospital in Tabriz, from 2007 to 2017, were evaluated. The hospital information system (HIS) was used to collect the records of the patients. A total of 42 patients with a diagnosis of mucormycosis were included in the study, 40 cases (95%) of which had a diagnosis of the rhinocerebral form...
June 13, 2018: Mycoses
Helena Hiemisch Lobo Borba, Laiza Maria Steimbach, Bruno Salgado Riveros, Fernanda Stumpf Tonin, Vinicius Lins Ferreira, Bruna Aline de Queiros Bagatim, Gisele Balan, Roberto Pontarolo, Astrid Wiens
Amphotericin formulations, indicated for invasive fungal infections (IFIs), vary in effectiveness, safety and costs. In Brazil, only the conventional formulation is provided by the Public Health System. The aim of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing conventional amphotericin B (CAB), liposomal amphotericin B (LAB) and amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC). Therefore, a decision tree was developed. The model began with high-risking patients on suspicion or confirmation of IFI. The analysis was conducted under the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System...
June 12, 2018: Mycoses
Li Zhang, Hui Xu, Yuling Shi, Jing Yu, Yunjiao Tao, Xiuli Li
Although standard itraconazole pulse therapy is a well-established regimen for toenail onychomycosis, the cure rate for onychomycosis remains low. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different cycles of itraconazole pulse therapy, determine the optimal dosage and number of cycles for onychomycosis. A total of 90 outpatients of our hospital with onychomycosis were randomised into three treatment groups: (1) standard itraconazole pulse therapy (200 mg twice per day, 1 week each month for three pulses); (2) long-term pulse therapy (200 mg twice per day, 1 week each month for six pulses); (3) low-dose and long-term pulse therapy (200 mg/d, 1 week per month for six pulses) and were followed up for 15 months...
June 12, 2018: Mycoses
Markus Stein, Vanessa Tran, Kimberly A Nichol, Philippe Lagacé-Wiens, Peter Pieroni, Heather J Adam, Christine Turenne, Andrew J Walkty, Anne-Cécile Normand, Marijke Hendrickx, Renaud Piarroux, James A Karlowsky
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is commonly used by clinical microbiology laboratories to identify bacterial pathogens and yeasts, but not for the identification of moulds. Recent progress in extraction protocols and the composition of comparative libraries support potential application of MALDI-TOF MS for mould identification in clinical microbiology laboratories. We evaluated the performance of the Bruker Microflex™ MALDI-TOF MS instrument (Billerica, MA, USA) to identify clinical isolates and reference strains of moulds using 3 libraries, the Bruker mould library, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) library and the Mass Spectrometry Identification (MSI) online library, and compared those results to conventional (morphological) and molecular (18S/ITS; gold standard) identification methods...
June 12, 2018: Mycoses
Harsimran Kaur, Anup Ghosh, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) mucormycosis is always a challenge due to its non-specific clinical presentations and often diagnosed at autopsy. Recently increased number of GI mucormycosis has been reported in immunocompetent hosts and during 1948 through 2017, 200 cases of GI mucormycosis are available in literature. We could review 176 cases where case details were available. Majority (50.6%) of the cases were reported from Asia. The disease is nearly equally recorded in adults and paediatric population...
May 31, 2018: Mycoses
Zahra Farhour, Vikram Mehraj, Jun Chen, Rayoun Ramendra, Hongzhou Lu, Jean-Pierre Routy
People living with HIV (PLHIV) are highly vulnerable to invasive fungal infections (IFIs) due to their immune dysfunction. Diagnosis and treatment of IFIs remain challenging due to the requirement of deep tissue sampling to visualise and culture fungi before initiating treatment. Such techniques are less practical in resource-limited settings due to their cost and requirement of relatively invasive procedures. Hence, identification of surrogate markers for the early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of IFIs is required...
May 31, 2018: Mycoses
A Gawaz, G Weisel
BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections of the skin, nails and hair are common with Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans being the main pathogens. Yet, in some patients, mycological cultures show growth of more than one fungal agent in the same anatomical region. OBJECTIVE: This study analyses prevalence, frequency and fungal agents found in superficial fungal mixed infections and discusses consequences for diagnostics and treatment. METHODS: Mycological data obtained between January 2006 to December 2015 from clinical specimens from a total cohort of 7733 patients with suspected fungal infections were retrospectively analysed...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
Jarmila Čelakovská, Josef Bukač, Karel Ettler, Jaroslava Vaneckova, Kvetuse Ettlerova, Jan Krejsek
The aim of this study is the evaluation of the relation between the sensitisation to outdoor and indoor fungi and allergy to peanuts and walnuts in atopic dermatitis patients aged 14 years and older. The complete dermatological and allergological examinations were performed in all included patients; the occurrence of food allergy to peanuts and walnuts was recorded (specific IgE, skin prick test, history of allergic reaction) and the sensitisation to mixture of outdoor fungi and indoor fungi was also examined (skin prick test, specific IgE)...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
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