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Mycoses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125660/primary-prophylaxis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-with-posaconazole-or-itraconazole-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-or-high-risk-myelodysplastic-syndromes-undergoing-intensive-cytotoxic-chemotherapy-a-real-world-comparison
#1
Mar Tormo, Ariadna Pérez-Martínez, Marisa Calabuig, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Paula Amat, David Navarro, Carlos Solano
This is an observational-retrospective study comparing the real-world outcomes associated with posaconazole vs. itraconazole as prophylaxis treatments. Two hundred and ninety-three patient admissions attributable to 174 patients were included in the study. Patients were treated with itraconazole (n = 114 admissions; 39%) or posaconazole (n = 179; 61%). Antifungal prophylaxis failure (APF) due to treatment-related adverse events (in 34 out of 293 patient admissions; 11.6%) was more frequent in the posaconazole group (6...
November 10, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125646/epidural-abscess-caused-by-schizophyllum-commune-a-rare-case-of-rhinogenic-cranial-complication-by-a-filamentous-basidiomycete
#2
Kazuya Tone, Ryuichi Fujisaki, Shigehiro Hagiwara, Takashi Tamura, Shinobu Ishigaki, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Makoto Takehisa, Takehiro Watanabe, Takuya Yasui, Takuo Tokairin, Toshiyo Sagawa, Tetsuya Sakamoto, Ken Ito, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Koichi Makimura
Central nervous system (CNS) infections due to filamentous basidiomycetes are extremely rare. We encountered a case of epidural abscess due to Schizophyllum commune that extended from sinusitis. A 53-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with a headache. Computed tomography (CT) of the cranium and sinuses showed ethmoid and sphenoid sinusitis with no intracranial abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with acute sinusitis and underwent antibiotic treatment. However, the symptoms deteriorated, and the patient came to our hospital again with consciousness disturbance...
November 10, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112326/real-world-challenges-and-unmet-needs-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-suspected-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-hematological-diseases-an-illustrative-case-study
#3
Martin Hoenigl, Juergen Prattes, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wölfler, Robert Krause
Recent years have seen important advances in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), complemented by the introduction of new therapies. Despite this, IPA remains a major cause of infection-related mortality in patients with hematological diseases. There are two main reasons for this. First, diagnosis of IPA remains a challenge, since risk factors and the clinical, radiological and mycological presentations vary not only by fungal disease stage, but also by patient group (e.g. neutropenic versus non-neutropenic patients)...
November 7, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110351/posaconazole-liquid-vs-tablet-formulation-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#4
D Telzer, A Weber, F Ihle, S Matthes, F Ceelen, G Zimmermann, N Kneidinger, R Schramm, H Winter, M Zoller, M Vogeser, J Behr, C Neurohr
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole is an extended-spectrum triazole antifungal used in the treatment and prophylaxis of Aspergillus infections. It is available as oral suspension (POS-Liq) and delayed-release tablets (POS-Tab). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this longitudinal, retrospective study was to compare the clinical effectiveness, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of POS-Liq vs. POS-Tab in lung transplant recipients (LTx-recipients), who were treated with both formulations subsequently...
November 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110339/role-of-dectin-1-receptor-on-cytokine-production-by-human-monocytes-challenged-with-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#5
Alexandre Giannecchini Romagnolo, Juliana Carvalho de Quaglia E Silva, Amanda Manoel Della Coletta, Taiane Priscila Gardizani, Ana Teresa Loyola Martins, Graziela Gorete Romagnoli, Ramon Kaneno, Angela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Julio Defaveri, Luciane Alarcão Dias-Melicio
Fungal recognition by Dectin-1 receptor triggers a series of cellular mechanisms involved in a protective activation of the immune system. In this study we aimed to evaluate the participation of Dectin-1 receptor in the induction of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10 and IL-17A secretion by human monocytes activated with different cytokines, and challenged in vitro with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis). Our results show that monocytes challenged with P. brasiliensis (Pb265) are able to produce IL-12, IL-8, IL-17, IL-10, and TNF-α...
November 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110335/correlation-between-fungal-sensitization-in-childhood-persistent-asthma-and-disease-severity
#6
Aman Gupta, Meenu Singh, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Joseph L Mathew, Amit Rawat
BACKGROUND: Fungal sensitization in adults is associated with severe asthma but prevalence and clinical significance of fungal sensitization remains unclear in paediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To study association of fungal sensitization with disease severity in children with persistent asthma PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred children with persistent asthma in age group 7-15 years, symptom duration >2 years and forced expiratory volume in first second >50% of expected were enrolled...
November 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110332/is-mbl-serum-concentration-a-reliable-predictor-for-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#7
Mona Ghazanfari, Mehraban Falahati, Azam Fattahi, Fatemeh Bazrafshan, Sanam Nami, Morteza Hosseinzadeh, Fariba Heydarikohan, Mohsen Ghelman, Majid Khoshmirsafa, Ali Farzanegan
BACKGROUND: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is acommon opportunistic, mucosal fungal infection, predominantly caused by the fungus Candida albicans.Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an acute-phase protein that plays a key role in the innate immunity defense against infectious disease. OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the MBL serum level and the relative expression of MBL mRNA in RVVC using real-time PCR for the first time...
November 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086449/seven-years-of-clinical-experience-with-the-yeast-traffic-light-pna-fish-assay-performance-and-possible-implications-on-antifungal-therapy
#8
L Klingspor, E Lindback, M Ullberg, V Özenci
We evaluated the performance of Yeast Traffic Light PNA FISH (YTL PNA FISH) in identification of Candida spp. from blood cultures. A total of 200 new episodes of candidemia were analysed prospectively. The YTL PNA FISH results were reported to the clinicians and data on antifungal therapy was documented. In total, there were 164/200 (82%) positive blood culture bottles with monomicrobial growth. Coverage of monomicrobial yeasts was 150/164 (91.5%). YTL PNA FISH could identify 23/24 (95.8%) Candida spp. in bottles with concomitant growth of bacteria and one yeast...
October 31, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082569/deep-facial-mycosis-due-to-trichophyton-verrucosum-molecular-genetic-identification-of-the-dermatophyte-in-paraffin-embedded-tissue-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
U Wollina, G Hansel, S Uhrlaß, C Krüger, J Schönlebe, U-C Hipler, P Nenoff
Deep trichophytosis is relatively uncommon. The infection of the bearded area is also known as sycosis barbae or tinea barbae and can be caused by various fungal species, most often zoophilic fungi. We report on an 80-year-old male patient with severe sycosis barbae who had no animal contact and was treated with systemic antibiosis without improvement. Microbial and mycological investigations using swabs from oozing lesions revealed Staphylococcus hemolyticus and Candida parapsilosis. Histology demonstrated fungal elements in hair follicles...
October 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082564/could-the-determination-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-mating-type-have-prognostic-value-in-invasive-aspergillosis
#10
M C Monteiro, R Garcia-Rubio, L Alcazar-Fuoli, T Pelaez, E Mellado
A clear link between mating type and virulence has been demonstrated for some fungal pathogens, but not for Aspergillus fumigatus as of yet. An association between mating type and invasiveness has recently been established. The mating type proportion (MAT1-1:MAT1-2) of 213 A. fumigatus strains was determined (48.5%:51.5%) and results were in agreement with previous studies. However, these percentages changed when the strain collection was divided into azole susceptible and resistant strains. The 163 susceptible strains kept these proportions, but among the 50 azole resistant strains 60...
October 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064157/inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-corneal-tissue-in-experimental-keratitis-due-to-fusarium-solani-amelioration-following-topical-therapy-with-voriconazole-and-epigallocatechin-gallate
#11
Vasanthakumar Vasantha Ruban, Archana P Teresa, Mahalingam Sundararajan, Pitchairaj Geraldine, Philip Aloysius Thomas
Combined antifungal and antioxidant therapy may help to reduce oxidative stress in fungal keratitis. Experimental Fusarium solani keratitis was induced by application of F. solani conidia to scarified cornea (right eye) of 16 rabbits (another 4 rabbits were negative controls [Group I]). Five days later, F. solani-infected animals began receiving hourly topical saline alone (Group II), voriconazole (10 mg/ml) alone (Group III), epigallocatechingallate (EGCG, 10 mg/ml) alone (Group IV) or voriconazole and EGCG (Group V)...
October 24, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064130/use-of-csp-typing-for-genotyping-of-azole-resistant-and-susceptible-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-in-iran
#12
Mahsa Falahatinejad, Afsane Vaezi, Hamed Fakhim, Mahdi Abastabar, Tahereh Shokohi, Nina Zahedi, Saham Ansari, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
Aspergillus fumigatus is the leading cause of mortality in severely immunocompromised individuals. Understanding pathogen dispersion and relatedness is essential for determining the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and putative origins of clinical and environmental azole-susceptible and -resistant A. fumigatus isolates from Iran. Seventy-nine isolates, including 64 azole-susceptible and 15 azole-resistant isolates, were genotyped using the cell surface protein (CSP) gene...
October 24, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064123/in-vitro-antifungal-activity-of-amphotericin-b-and-eleven-comparators-against-aspergillus-terreus-species-complex
#13
Afsane Vaezi, Hamed Fakhim, Amir Arastehfar, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad T Hedayati, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Parisa Badiee, Ferry Hagen, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Eric Dannaoui, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
Aspergillus terreus infections are difficult to treat because of the intrinsic resistance to amphotericin B, and higher mortality compared to infections caused by other Aspergillus species. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro antifungal activity of amphotericin B and eleven comparators against clinical (n = 36) and environmental (n = 45) A. terreus isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility was performed using the CLSI M38-A2 procedure. Amphotericin B exhibited the highest MICs (MIC range, 0...
October 24, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024067/evaluation-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-identifying-dermatophytes-in-clinical-samples-a-multicentre-study
#14
Shany Sherman, Maya Goshen, Orit Treigerman, Keren Ben-Zion, Marie-Jeanne Carp, Noam Maisler, Inbal Binsky Ehrenreich, Aviva Kimchi, Sara Lifshitz, Gill Smollan, Batya Davidovici, Michael David, Emmilia Hodak, Rina Segal
BACKGROUND: The gold-standard method for dermatophyte identification involves direct microscopy and culture, which have inherent shortcomings. Only few molecular methods have been standardised for routine clinical work. OBJECTIVES: To develop and test a platform for identifying the most common dermatophytes in Israel using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). METHODS: Specific primers were designed for the multiplex system (LightCycler 480) according to known cultures and validated by reference isolates...
October 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024057/increasing-candidemia-incidence-from-2004-to-2015-with-a-shift-in-epidemiology-in-patients-pre-exposed-to-antifungals
#15
Berdieke Goemaere, Pierre Becker, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Johan Maertens, Isabel Spriet, Marijke Hendrickx, Katrien Lagrou
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is an important health problem in immunocompromised patients with an epidemiology varying with region, period and patient population involved. OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of candidemia and the associated species distribution over a 12-year period at a large tertiary care centre in Belgium were analysed. The trend in incidence in the intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs was investigated as well as the influence of antifungal exposure on the species distribution...
October 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984994/novel-bi-allelic-splice-mutations-in-card9-causing-adult-onset-candida-endophthalmitis
#16
Christina Gavino, Sibylle Mellinghoff, Oliver A Cornely, Marija Landekic, Catherine Le, Melanie Langelier, Makan Golizeh, Susanna Proske, Donald C Vinh
BACKGROUND: CARD9 deficiency (CANDF2; OMIM# 212050) is an autosomal-recessive monogenic inborn error of immunity conferring susceptibility to invasive fungal diseases, including the very distinct syndrome of spontaneous central nervous system candidiasis, in which opportunistic yeasts of the genus Candida infect the central nervous system (either brain parenchyma and/or meninges) in the absence of trauma, chemotherapy or underlying systemic disease. METHODS: We present a patient with spontaneous endophthalmitis of the right eye due to Candida albicans; further investigations revealed concomitant cerebral abscess...
October 6, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976036/overexpression-of-nlrp3-nlrc4-and-aim2-inflammasomes-and-their-priming-associated-molecules-tlr2-tlr4-dectin-1-dectin-2-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-malassezia-folliculitis
#17
Ni Liang, Yan-Ping Yang, Wei Li, Ya-Yun Wu, Zi-Wei Zhang, Yun Luo, Yi-Ming Fan
The activation of NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes is pivotal for innate immunity against some pathogenic fungi, but their role in the pathogenesis of Malassezia folliculitis (MF) remains unclear. The objective of the study was to determine the expression of 4 canonical inflammasomes (NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2) and their priming-associated molecules (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and NFκB) in MF lesion. Expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, caspase-1, IL-1β, TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and NFκB was detected by immunohistochemistry in skin lesion of 23 MF patients and normal skin of 12 healthy subjects...
October 4, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972292/embryonated-chicken-eggs-an-experimental-model-for-pythium-insidiosum-infection
#18
Camila M Verdi, Francielli P K Jesus, Glaucia Kommers, Pauline C Ledur, Maria I Azevedo, Erico S Loreto, Juliana S M Tondolo, Eduardo N C Andrade, Karine B Schlemmer, Sydney H Alves, Janio M Santurio
Pythiosis is a severe disease caused by Pythium insidiosum. Currently, the research on the treatment of pythiosis uses rabbits as an experimental infection model. To reduce the use of animals in scientific experimentation, alternative models are increasingly necessary options. The objective of this study was to establish a new experimental infection model for pythiosis using embryonated chicken eggs. First, we tested the inoculation of 4 zoospore concentrations into the egg allantoic cavity at 3 embryonic days...
October 3, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945326/reliable-differentiation-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-from-pneumocystis-colonization-by-quantification-of-major-surface-glycoprotein-gene-using-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#19
Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Megha Sharma, Madhubala Sharma, Pankaj Rawat, Anup Ghosh, V Lakshmishree, Ritesh Aggarwal, Meenu Singh, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: A clear differentiation between pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii and 'colonization' is required for optimal case management. OBJECTIVE: A quantification of fungal burden using major surface glycoprotein (MSG) gene-based real-time PCR was undertaken for the same. METHODS: Lower respiratory tract samples collected from 104 patients of clinically suspected Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) were subjected to quantitative PCR using MSG gene...
September 25, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945325/isolation-of-candida-auris-from-nine-patients-in-central-america-importance-of-accurate-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing
#20
Ana B Araúz, Diego H Caceres, Erika Santiago, Paige Armstrong, Susan Arosemena, Carolina Ramos, Andres Espinosa-Bode, Jovanna Borace, Lizbeth Hayer, Israel Cedeño, Brendan R Jackson, Nestor Sosa, Elizabeth L Berkow, Shawn R Lockhart, Amalia Rodriguez-French, Tom Chiller
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) fungus associated with invasive infections and high mortality. This report describes nine patients from whom C. auris was isolated at a hospital in Panama City, Panama, the first such cases in Central America, and highlights the challenges of accurate identification and methods for susceptibility testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 25, 2017: Mycoses
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