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Mycoses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928841/fusarium-species-causing-eumycetoma-report-of-two-cases-and-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#1
Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Alexandro Bonifaz, Andrés Tirado-Sánchez, Jacques F Meis, G Sybren de Hoog, Sarah A Ahmed
Recently, mycetoma was added to the World Health Organization's list of neglected tropical disease priorities. Fusarium as a genus has been reported to cause eumycetoma, but little is known about the species involved in this infection and their identification. In this study, molecular tools were applied to identify Fusarium agents from human eumycetoma cases. The partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene was used as diagnostic parameter. Two additional cases of eumycetoma, due to F. keratoplasticum and F...
December 7, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910211/comparison-of-serum-concentrations-between-different-dosing-strategies-of-posaconazole-delayed-release-tablet-at-a-large-academic-medical-centre
#2
Sarah Welch, Andrea Pallotta, Catherine Weber, Caitlin Siebenaller, Eric Cober, Elizabeth Neuner
It is unclear if the prophylaxis dose of 300 mg/day is sufficient for achieving serum concentrations targeting the treatment of invasive fungal infections. To evaluate differences between PCZ serum concentrations in patients receiving the DRT vs the OS and in patients receiving higher doses than 300 mg/day of the DRT, a retrospective review was conducted on inpatients who received PCZ for either treatment or prophylaxis. Baseline demographics including comorbid conditions, indication and dose of therapy were collected...
December 1, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910191/tintelnotia-a-new-genus-in-phaeosphaeriaceae-harbouring-agents-of-cornea-and-nail-infections-in-humans
#3
S A Ahmed, W Hofmüller, M Seibold, G S de Hoog, H Harak, I Tammer, A D van Diepeningen, W Behrens-Baumann
Phaeosphaeriaceae is a family in the order Pleosporales containing numerous plant pathogens, endophytes, lichenised fungi, and environmental saprobes. A novel genus, Tintelnotia is introduced containing two species, one of which caused an eye infection and several nail infections in humans. All species of Tintelnotia produce conidia in soft pycnidia with a wide ostiole. The generic type species is T. opuntiae causing necrotic spots on cactus plants. The isolates of the human opportunist T. destructans showed variable susceptibility pattern to a panel of common antifungal agents...
December 1, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910139/characterization-of-patients-with-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-according-to-the-new-escmid-ers-ecmm-and-idsa-guidelines
#4
Helmut J F Salzer, Jan Heyckendorf, Barbara Kalsdorf, Thierry Rolling, Christoph Lange
Recently, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) in cooperation with the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) published guidelines for the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Both guidelines, however, carry significant differences. We retrospectively applied the diagnostic recommendations on a patient cohort of 71 previously diagnosed CPA patients in order to compare both guidelines...
December 1, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882618/whole-genome-sequencing-analysis-of-the-cutaneous-pathogenic-yeast-malassezia-restricta-and-identification-of-the-major-lipase-expressed-on-the-scalp-of-patients-with-dandruff
#5
Minji Park, Yong-Joon Cho, Yang Won Lee, Won Hee Jung
Malassezia species are opportunistic pathogenic fungi that are frequently associated with seborrhoeic dermatitis, including dandruff. Most Malassezia species are lipid dependent, a property that is compensated by breaking down host sebum into fatty acids by lipases. In this study, we aimed to sequence and analyse the whole genome of Malassezia restricta KCTC 27527, a clinical isolate from a Korean patient with severe dandruff, to search for lipase orthologues and identify the lipase that is the most frequently expressed on the scalp of patients with dandruff...
November 24, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878878/efficacy-and-safety-of-amphotericin-b-lipid-based-formulations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Laiza M Steimbach, Fernanda S Tonin, Suzane Virtuoso, Helena H L Borba, Andréia C C Sanches, Astrid Wiens, Fernando Fernandez-Llimós, Roberto Pontarolo
Invasive fungal infections, an important cause of mortality, are primarily treated using amphotericin B, which is available in different formulations, both conventional and lipid-based (liposomal, lipid complex, colloidal dispersion and Intralipid(®) infusion). The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy and safety of conventional amphotericin B vs its lipid-based formulations. A systematic review followed by pairwise meta-analysis was performed, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the use of lipid-based amphotericin B in patients with any degree of immunosuppression and susceptibility to invasive fungal infection...
November 22, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862370/comparative-evaluation-of-pan-fungal-real-time-pcr-galactomannan-and-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-for-invasive-fungal-infection-in-paediatric-cancer-patients
#7
Prashant Gupta, Abrar Ahmad, Vineeta Khare, Archana Kumar, Gopa Banerjee, Nitya Verma, Mastan Singh
Limited specific data and investigations are available for the diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infection (IFI) in paediatrics cancer patients. Three non-invasive tests; Platelia Aspergillus EIA for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BDG) assay and pan-fungal real-time PCR for fungal DNA in blood were evaluated. One hundred twenty-five paediatrics cancer patients at the high risk of IFI were enrolled. Single blood and serum samples were evaluated by all the three methods. Patients were classified into 10 proven, 52 probable and 63 no IFI cases in accordance with EORTC MSG 2008 revised guidelines...
November 16, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862414/epidemiology-and-cost-implications-of-candidemia-a-6-year-analysis-from-a-developing-country
#8
Aysegul Ulu Kilic, Emine Alp, Fatma Cevahir, Zeynep Ture, Nuran Yozgat
Surveillance of candidemia is essential to monitor trends in species distribution and change in the incidence and antifungal resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate prevalence, resistance rates, antifungal utilization and costs. A 6-year retrospective analysis of the data belonging to patients with candidemia hospitalized between 2010 and 2016 was performed. The annual usage of fluconazole and caspofungin and the usage of these antifungals in different units were described in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days...
November 9, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862383/a-comparative-study-of-three-extraction-protocols-of-dna-from-nails-potential-use-in-the-diagnosis-of-onychomycoses
#9
T Kotrotsiou, A Chatzimichaloglou, A Nasr, E Spandou, A Patsatsi, D Sotiriadis, T-A Vyzantiadis
Molecular techniques can be useful adjuncts to the diagnosis of onychomycoses. However, the nail presents difficulties in the extraction of its DNA. The comparison of three extraction protocols of DNA from nails and their ranking for possible use in the molecular diagnosis of onychomycoses are described. Extraction was performed on weighed nail clippings of equal size from positive (31) or negative (14) samples, according to the culture result. At Prot1, the extraction was performed according to Tahir and Watson, with an additional step implementing silica columns...
November 9, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781311/phellinus-species-an-emerging-cause-of-refractory-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-x-linked-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#10
REVIEW
Ghady Haidar, Christa S Zerbe, Michelle Cheng, Adrian M Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kathleen R Sheridan
Aspergillus spp. are a leading cause of mortality in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), but other fungi have emerged in the era of mould prophylaxis. Of these, Phellinus spp. are an under-recognised cause of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in CGD, and data on their presentation and management are scarce. We present a patient with CGD who developed disseminated IFI involving the lungs and brain. Surgical specimens grew a basidiomycete which was disregarded as a contaminant. After three months of progressive disease despite antifungals, he was diagnosed with Phellinus tropicalis by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing...
October 26, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774659/the-role-of-drug-efflux-pumps-in-malassezia-pachydermatis-and-malassezia-furfur-defence-against-azoles
#11
Roberta Iatta, Maria Rita Puttilli, Davide Immediato, Domenico Otranto, Claudia Cafarchia
This study aims to evaluate the effect of efflux pump modulators (EPMs) on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole (FLZ) and voriconazole (VOR) in Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis. The in vitro efficacy of azoles, in combination with EPMs (ie haloperidol-HAL, promethazine-PTZ and cyclosporine A-CYS), against 21 M. furfur from bloodstream infection patients and 14 M. pachydermatis from the skin of dogs with dermatitis, was assessed using a broth microdilution chequerboard analysis...
October 24, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766695/invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-patients-treated-with-tumor-necrosis-alpha-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitors
#12
Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ioannis Kyriakidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
Macromolecular immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity represent a recent and important addition to our therapeutic armamentarium. Tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and clinical utilization of its antagonists has revolutionized treatment of juvenile rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis. Clinical utility has also been demonstrated for use against steroid-refractory graft-vs-host disease and other immune-mediated conditions...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766684/multidrug-resistant-fusarium-in-keratitis-a-clinico-mycological-study-of-keratitis-infections-in-chennai-india
#13
Ananya Tupaki-Sreepurna, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Anupma J Kindo, Murugan Sundaram, G Sybren de Hoog
In this study, we aimed to present the first molecular epidemiological data from Chennai, India, analyse keratitis cases that have been monitored in a university hospital during 2 years, identify the responsible Fusarium species and determine antifungal susceptibilities. A total of 10 cases of keratitis were included in the study. Fusarium isolates were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1). Antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766680/molecular-identification-of-unusual-mycetoma-agents-isolated-from-patients-in-venezuela
#14
Olga C Rojas, Rafael B R León-Cachón, Maria Moreno-Treviño, Gloria M González
Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, subcutaneous disease endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. It is currently a health problem in rural areas of Africa, Asia and South America. Nine cases of mycetoma were analysed in a retrospective study. All isolates were identified by morphological features. The level of species identification was reached by molecular tools. Definitive identification of fungi was performed using sequence analysis of the ITS of the ribosomal DNA region and the ribosomal large-subunit D1/D2...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761948/skin-permeation-of-econazole-nitrate-formulated-in-an-enhanced-hydrophilic-multiple-emulsion
#15
Joaquim Suñer-Carbó, Antonio Boix-Montañés, Lyda Halbaut-Bellowa, Nelvis Velázquez-Carralero, Joanna Zamarbide-Ledesma, Nuria Bozal-de-Febrer, Ana Cristina Calpena-Campmany
Local delivery of imidazolic antifungals is limited by its extreme lipophilicity. Multiple emulsions (ME) are a potential vehicle to enhance the delivery of econazole nitrate (ECN), an antifungal targeted to deep-seated epidermal yeast infections. An 1% ECN hydrophilic ME was compared with a commercial formulation in terms of rheology, droplet size and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida species. Comparative in vitro drug release, human skin permeation and drug retention were investigated using vertical diffusion cells...
October 20, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696562/combined-antifungal-therapy-against-systemic-murine-infections-by-rare-cryptococcus-species
#16
Pamela Thomson, Emilio Mayayo, Loida López-Fernández, Josep Guarro, Javier Capilla
Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus laurentii are uncommon species of this genus that in recent decades have increasingly caused opportunistic infections in humans, mainly in immunocompromised patients; the best therapy for such infection being unknown. Using a murine model of systemic infection by these fungi, we have evaluated the efficacy of amphotericin B (AMB) at 0.8 mg/kg, administered intravenously, fluconazole (FLC) or voriconazole (VRC), both administered orally, at 25 mg/kg and the combination of AMB plus VRC against three C...
October 3, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687582/first-in-man-observation-of-talaromyces-marneffei-transmission-by-organ-transplantation
#17
Frederik Hermans, Sien Ombelet, Karlien Degezelle, Dries Testelmans, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Geert M Verleden, Eric K Verbeken, Pascal Van Bleyenbergh, Katrien Lagrou, Robin Vos
A lung transplant recipient was diagnosed with penicilliosis due to Talaromyces marneffei, a fungus endemic in South-East Asia, which was acquired by donor transmission. This first case of Talaromyces marneffei-transmission by transplantation underscores that current globalisation of travelling necessitates increased vigilance for transmission of unusual pathogens in organ recipients.
September 30, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687503/candida-vulvovaginitis-a-store-with-a-buttery-and-a-show-window
#18
Gilbert G G Donders, Jack D Sobel
Although being an utterly frequent, non-mortal, yet distressing disease, and despite good knowledge of the pathogenesis and the availability of specific and safe treatment, vulvovaginal Candida (VVC) infection remains one of the most enigmatic problems for both physicians and patients. Good treatment requires a proper diagnosis. Too many caregivers (and patients treating themselves) react too simple-minded on the symptoms of VVC and treat VVC where they see it on the vulva. In this opinion paper, we plea for a thorough examination of women with VVC, especially in those women who suffer from recurrent disease since a long time, sometimes decades, which necessitates intensive examination of the vaginal flora, as this is invariably the reservoir for relapses and recurrent vulvitis...
September 30, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687259/spontaneous-pneumothorax-in-paracoccidioidomycosis-patients-from-an-endemic-area-in-midwestern-brazil
#19
Lucas G G Cabrera, Aline F Santos, Ursulla V Andrade, Carlos Ivan A Guedes, Sandra M V L Oliveira, Marilene R Chang, Rinaldo P Mendes, Anamaria M M Paniago
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. About 80% of PCM patients are present with its chronic form. The lungs are affected in most patients with the chronic form; however, pleural involvement has rarely been reported. We describe nine cases of PCM that presented with lung involvement and spontaneous pneumothorax. All patients, except one whose condition was not investigated, were smokers. PCM was diagnosed during the pneumothorax episode in three patients, and from 3 to 16 years before the pneumothorax episode in six patients...
September 30, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681940/candida-infections-in-paediatrics-results-from-a-prospective-single-centre-study-in-a-tertiary-care-children-s-hospital
#20
Alessio Mesini, Roberto Bandettini, Ilaria Caviglia, Francesca Fioredda, Loredana Amoroso, Maura Faraci, Girolamo Mattioli, Giorgio Piaggio, Francesco M Risso, Andrea Moscatelli, Anna Loy, Elio Castagnola
To describe the epidemiology of invasive Candida infection in a tertiary care paediatric hospital. Prospective single-centre survey on all Candida strains isolated from normally sterile fluids and urines in the period 2005-2015 . A total of 299 ICI were documented in 262 patients. Urinary tract infection represented the most frequent diagnosis (62%), followed by fungaemia (34%) and peritonitis (4%). Fungaemia was most frequent in children with cancer (59%) or in low birth weight neonates (61%), while urinary tract infections were more frequent in patients with urinary tract malformation...
September 29, 2016: Mycoses
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