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Mycoses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338249/epidemiology-species-distribution-clinical-characteristics-and-mortality-of-candidaemia-in-a-tertiary-care-university-hospital-in-turkey-2007-2014
#1
Ayşegül Yeşilkaya, Özlem Azap, Mehtap Aydın, Mehtap Akçil Ok
Candidaemia still continues to be a serious medical concern and the epidemiology of candidaemia varies according to geographical areas. We aim to determine the incidence, local epidemiology, Candida species distribution and crude mortality rates of candidaemia. We retrospectively evaluated candidaemia episodes in between January 2007 and August 2014. We compared demographic, clinical, microbiological findings and mortality rates of episodes caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species. Overall the candidaemia incidences were 1...
March 24, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338245/infective-capacity-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-in-a-human-astrocytoma-cell-line
#2
M C Olave, J C Vargas-Zambrano, A M Celis, E Castañeda, J M González
Pathogenesis of cryptococcosis in the central nervous system (CNS) is a topic of ongoing research, including the mechanisms by which this fungus invades and infects the brain. Astrocytes, the most common CNS cells, play a fundamental role in the local immune response. Astrocytes might participate in cryptococcosis either as a host or by responding to fungal antigens. To determine the infectivity of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii in a human astrocytoma cell line and the induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules...
March 24, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321926/evaluation-of-30-cases-of-mucormycosis-at-a-university-hospital-in-iran
#3
Reza Samarei, Naser Gharebaghi, Salar Zayer
Mucormycosis is a deadly invasive fungal infection and mainly affects immunocompromised patients. To investigate the clinical features of patients who developed mucormycosis and to determine the parameters, which influenced the outcome following mycotic infection. The current investigation retrospectively evaluated the demographic characteristics, clinical features, therapeutic data, as well as the outcomes of treatment in all cases of proven and probable mucormycosis diagnosed from 2002 until 2016 in our hospital...
March 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321920/xanthothecium-peruvianum-isolated-from-human-stratum-corneum-a-case-report-characterisation-and-short-review-that-suggest-emendation-of-arachnomyces-peruvianus
#4
REVIEW
Jochen Brasch, Vera Beck-Jendroscheck, Karin Voss, Andrey Yurkov, Alberto Miguel Stchigel, Yvonne Gräser
From stratum corneum samples of a palmar eczema, a fungus was isolated that developed white colonies with a yellowish dark reverse, suggestive of dermatophytes. The isolate produced numerous chlamydospores and sparse aleuroconidia, was resistant to cycloheximide, grew well on human stratum corneum samples and was positive in tests for urease production and hair perforation, but no dermatophyte could be identified. After several weeks, cleistothecia with delicate asci and disc-shaped ascospores were formed, suggesting Arachnomyces spp...
March 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295690/azole-resistance-in-candida-albicans-from-animals-highlights-on-efflux-pump-activity-and-gene-overexpression
#5
Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha, Silviane Praciano Bandeira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Luciana Magalhães Melo, Jamille Alencar Sales, Manoel de Araújo Neto Paiva, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro Teixeira, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira-Neto, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante
This study investigated potential mechanisms of azole resistance among Candida albicans from animals, including efflux pump activity, ergosterol content and gene expression. For this purpose, 30 azole-resistant C. albicans strains from animals were tested for their antifungal susceptibility, according to document M27-A3, efflux pump activity by rhodamine 6G test, ergosterol content and expression of the genes CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, ERG11 by RT-qPCR. These strains were resistant to at least one azole derivative...
March 10, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295653/paracoccidioidomycosis-infection-in-domestic-and-wild-mammals-by-paracoccidioides-lutzii
#6
Josiara F Mendes, Gabriel B Klafke, Ana Paula N Albano, Ângela L Cabana, Alessandra J Teles, Zoilo P de Camargo, Melissa O Xavier, Mário Carlos A Meireles
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis that occurs in several Latin American countries, especially in Brazil. It is caused by the thermo-dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides spp. Serological studies to detect animal infection represent an excellent strategy for data on the agent's ecology. Although the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is an endemic area for PCM in humans, there is scarce information available on the ecology of the agent in the region. This study aimed to investigate the infection by Paracoccidioides lutzii in animals living in RS, Brazil...
March 10, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276198/anthropogenic-impact-on-environmental-filamentous-fungi-communities-along-the-mediterranean-littoral
#7
Mohammed Hashim Al-Yasiri, Anne-Cécile Normand, Jean-François Mauffrey, Stéphane Ranque
We hypothesised that anthropogenic influences impact the filamentous fungi community structure and that particular species or species patterns might serve as markers to characterise ecosystems. This study aimed to describe the filamentous fungi community structure in various biotopes along the Mediterranean shore that were exposed to various levels of anthropogenic influence. We sampled filamentous fungi from yellow-legged gull faecal samples at five study sites along the Mediterranean littoral in southern France...
March 9, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276102/mucormycosis-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-gujarat-india
#8
Atul K Patel, Ketan K Patel, Kamlesh Patel, Swati Gohel, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The prevalence of mucormycosis is reportedly high in India, although the studies are mainly from north and south India only. We analysed the mucormycosis cases at tertiary care centres of West India. We retrieved the clinical details of all the patients with probable and proven mucormycosis diagnosed at Sterling Hospital and ID clinic at Ahmedabad, Gujarat over the period from 1 January 2013 through 30 April 2015. The data were analysed to determine demography, risk factors, underlying diseases, site of infection and outcome of these patients...
March 9, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240390/a-novel-dimorphic-pathogen-emergomyces-orientalis-onygenales-agent-of-disseminated-infection
#9
Peng Wang, Chris Kenyon, Sybren de Hoog, Lina Guo, Hongwei Fan, Hongrui Liu, Zhongwei Li, Ruiyuan Sheng, Ying Yang, Yanping Jiang, Li Zhang, Yingchun Xu
A novel dimorphic fungus, Emergomyces orientalis sp. nov. a close relative of systemic pathogens in the family Ajellomycetaceae (Blastomyces, Histoplasma). The fungus is reported in a 64-year-old male from Shanxi, China. The patient developed disseminated skin lesions, productive cough with fever and showed nodular opacities in his left lung on chest radiography. The patient had no identified cause of immunodeficiency apart from type-2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical, histopathological and mycological characteristics of the agent are given, and its phylogenetic position is determined with multilocus sequence data...
February 27, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239908/pathogenicity-of-conidiobolus-coronatus-and-fusarium-solani-in-mouse-models
#10
Yadi Li, Xiangang Fang, Xiaoqian Zhou, Suying Geng, Yuxin Wang, Xiumin Yang
To study the pathogenicity of Conidiobolus coronatus (C. coronatus) and Fusarium solani (F. solani) in animal models. Immunocompromised mice were treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone via intraperitoneal injection before and after inoculation. According to pathogenic characteristics of different fungi, C. coronatus was used to infect mice via intravenous inoculation, intraperitoneal inoculation, gastrointestinal infusion and intradermal inoculation methods. And F. solani was used to infect mice by inoculation via the abraded or normal skin...
February 27, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220547/identification-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-dermatophyte-isolates-by-repetitive-sequence-pcr-based-dna-fingerprinting-using-the-diversilab-system-in-turkey
#11
A Nedret Koc, Mustafa A Atalay, Melek Inci, Fatma M Sariguzel, Hafize Sav
Dermatophyte species, isolation and identification in clinical samples are still difficult and take a long time. The identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophytes commonly isolated in a clinical laboratory in Turkey by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were assessed by comparing the results with those of reference identification. A total of 44 dermatophytes isolated from various clinical specimens of 20 patients with superficial mycoses in Kayseri and 24 patients in Hatay were studied. The identification of dermatophyte isolates was based on the reference identification and rep-PCR using the DiversiLab System (BioMerieux)...
February 21, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205355/trametes-polyzona-an-emerging-filamentous-basidiomycete-in-r%C3%A3-union-island
#12
Alexandre Gauthier, Julien Jaubert, Nicolas Traversier, Jérôme Lemant, Laurent Balu, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Stephane Welti, Anne Favel, Sandrine Picot, Gautier Hoarau
We describe two serious Trametes polyzona pulmonary infections, which occurred in Réunion Island, in critically ill patients. The identification was performed using sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA and D1/D2 region of 28S rDNA. In one case, the significance of T. polyzona in the pathological process was certain, proven by histopathological evidence of fungal lung infection. T. polyzona, an emerging filamentous basidiomycete, prevalent in tropical areas, has not been described so far in human infections...
February 16, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198097/inibitory-effects-of-linalool-on-fungal-pathogenicity-of-clinical-isolates-of-microsporum-canis-and-microsporum-gypseum
#13
Kaltz V S Silva, Maria I O Lima, Gustavo N Cardoso, Aldeir S Santos, Gezaíldo S Silva, Fillipe O Pereira
In humans worldwide, Microsporum sp. is a frequent agent of dermatophytsosis. When considering the emergence of resistant fungi and the clinical relevance of dermatophytosis, terpene antifungal activity is of great interest. Linalool is a monoterpene alcohol with pharmacological properties. In this study, antifungal in vitro activity of linalool and ketoconazole (as a positive control) were evaluated against clinical isolates of M. canis and M. gypseum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of each drug were determined by broth microdilution...
February 15, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176377/novel-taxa-of-thermally-dimorphic-systemic-pathogens-in-the-ajellomycetaceae-onygenales
#14
Karolina Dukik, Jose F Muñoz, Yanping Jiang, Peiying Feng, Lynne Sigler, J Benjamin Stielow, Joanna Freeke, Azadeh Jamalian, Bert Gerrits van den Ende, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Ilan S Schwartz, Nelesh P Govender, Tsidiso G Maphanga, Christina A Cuomo, Leandro F Moreno, Chris Kenyon, Andrew M Borman, Sybren de Hoog
Recent discoveries of novel systemic fungal pathogens with thermally dimorphic yeast-like phases have challenged the current taxonomy of the Ajellomycetaceae, a family currently comprising the genera Blastomyces, Emmonsia, Emmonsiellopsis, Helicocarpus, Histoplasma, Lacazia and Paracoccidioides. Our morphological, phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses demonstrated species relationships and their specific phenotypes, clarified generic boundaries and provided the first annotated genome assemblies to support the description of two new species...
February 7, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144986/a-re-appraisal-of-the-conventional-history-of-antibiosis-and-penicillin
#15
S N Arseculeratne, G Arseculeratne
The popular perception of the history of antibiosis and penicillin is that Alexander Fleming was the sole researcher on penicillin. The literature, however, has documentation of preceding persons who reported definitively on these topics, from the late 19(th) century. Divergent reports on "firsts" in the discovery of antimicrobial activity of Penicillium and on the use of penicillin as a therapeutic agent, are present. This review adds knowledge from diverse sources, and restores historical priorities to the conventional story of Penicillin...
February 1, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139861/species-diversity-antifungal-susceptibility-and-phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterisation-of-exophiala-spp-infecting-patients-in-different-medical-centres-in-brazil
#16
Wendy C Silva, Sarah S Gonçalves, Daniel W C L Santos, Ana Carolina B Padovan, Fernando C Bizerra, Analy S A Melo
The Exophiala genus is responsible for many superficial and invasive infections resulting from black fungi. Identification of Exophiala at the species level is based on morphological observations complemented by molecular tests. The aim of this study was to identify 23 clinical isolates of Exophiala spp. and evaluate the antifungal susceptibility to seven different agents. Molecular identification was based on an analysis of ITS region of rDNA using genomic databases. The micromorphology was evaluated by microculture and scanning electron microscopy...
January 31, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139856/epidemiological-investigation-of-candida-species-causing-bloodstream-infection-in-paediatric-small-bowel-transplant-recipients
#17
Mallory J Suhr, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Nabaraj Banjara, Diana F Florescu, David F Mercer, Peter C Iwen, Heather E Hallen-Adams
Small bowel transplantation (SBT) can be a life-saving medical procedure. However, these recipients experience high risk of bloodstream infections caused by Candida. This research aims to characterise the SBT recipient gut microbiota over time following transplantation and investigate the epidemiology of candidaemia in seven paediatric patients. Candida species from the recipients' ileum and bloodstream were identified by internal transcribed spacer sequence and distinguished to strain by multilocus sequence typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA...
January 31, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139853/aspergillus-sensitisation-in-bidi-smokers-with-and-without-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease
#18
Ritesh Agarwal, Sumita Bhogal, Hansraj Choudhary, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Digambar Behera, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Recent studies have described fungal sensitisation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no study has evaluated fungal sensitisation specifically in bidi smokers. Herein, we evaluate the prevalence of Aspergillus sensitisation in bidi smokers. Bidi smokers with and without COPD underwent chest radiography, spirometry, Aspergillus skin test, A. fumigatus precipitins, A. fumigatus-specific IgE and total IgE. Aspergillus sensitisation was defined as the presence of either immediate cutaneous hyperreactivity to Aspergillus antigen or raised A...
January 31, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133894/seven-cases-of-saccharomyces-fungaemia-related-to-use-of-probiotics
#19
Ujjwayini Roy, Laxman G Jessani, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Soma Dutta, Chandrashish Chakravarty, Joseph Jillwin, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Probiotics are increasingly used in critically ill patients without enough safety data. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of probiotics with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungaemia. Seven patients with S. cerevisiae fungaemia were reported at two hospitals in India between July 2014 and September 2015. Detailed clinical history of patients was recorded. Besides the seven patient isolates, three probiotics sachets used in those patients and five unrelated clinical isolates were used for association study by Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP)...
January 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120351/comparative-efficacy-of-topical-application-of-tacrolimus-and-clotrimazole-in-the-treatment-of-pityriasis-versicolor-a-single-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#20
Mozhdeh Sepaskhah, Maryam Sadat Sadat, Keyvan Pakshir, Zahra Bagheri
BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common superficial fungal disease. Possibility of emergence of resistant strains to azoles, and difficulty in differentiation of hypopigmented PV and early vitiligo, encouraged us to evaluate the efficacy of topical tacrolimus (a calcineurin inhibitor agent with proven in vitro anti-Malassezia effect) for PV treatment generally and its effect on PV-induced hypopigmentation specifically. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of topical tacrolimus on pityriasis versicolor...
January 25, 2017: Mycoses
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