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Mycoses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736936/invasive-fungal-infection-following-chemotherapy-for-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-experience-from-a-developing-country
#1
Anu Korula, Aby Abraham, Fouzia N Abubacker, Auro Viswabandya, Kavitha M Lakshmi, O C Abraham, Priscilla Rupali, George M Varghese, Joy S Michael, Alok Srivastava, Vikram Mathews, Biju George
The incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFI) is believed to be higher in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) undergoing chemotherapy in non-HEPA-filtered rooms. The aim of this study is to review the incidence of IFI in a large cohort of patients with AML treated at a single centre in India. Two hundred and twenty-two patients with AML treated with either induction chemotherapy or salvage chemotherapy between 2008 and 2013 were studied retrospectively. IFI was defined as per the revised EORTC-MSG criteria...
July 23, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736880/central-nervous-system-infection-due-to-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato-in-india-analysis-of-clinical-features-molecular-profile-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#2
Shayanki Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, Veenakumari H Bahubali, Netravathi Manjunath, Aarthi Swaminathan, Sayani Maji, Marimuthu Palaniappan, Satishchandra Parthasarathy, Nagarathna Chandrashekar
Cryptococcus gattii species complex has evolved as a pathogen in the last two decades causing infection among both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We aimed to analyse the clinical features of CNS infection caused by C. gattii sensu lato, molecular and antifungal susceptibility profile of this pathogen. Cases diagnosed to have CNS cryptococcosis were included in the study. Cryptococcus recovered from patient's specimen was identified by standard protocol. Species confirmation, mating type and molecular type determination were performed by PCR based methods...
July 23, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730647/swimming-pools-and-fungi-an-epidemiology-survey-in-polish-indoor-swimming-facilities
#3
Marek Jankowski, Anna Charemska, Rafał Czajkowski
Environmental conditions for swimming facilities may support fungal growth and also may represent a biological risk for users. However, since previously published studies both cleaning procedures and sanitary regulations are likely to have been improved. The aim of the study was to examine whether attendance to public swimming pools was still a risk factor for fungal infection of the skin in Poland. We investigated the occurrence of mycotic species, in a sample from Polish swimming pools. Detection and identification of isolated species were achieved by cultural and morphological methods...
July 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699297/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-anidulafungin-vs-fluconazole-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-candidiasis-ic-in-turkey
#4
Chin Fen Neoh, Esin Senol, Ates Kara, Ener Cagri Dinleyici, Stuart J Turner, David C M Kong
Anidulafungin has been shown to be non-inferior to, and possibly more efficacious, than fluconazole in treating patients with invasive candidiasis (IC). This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of anidulafungin vs fluconazole for treatment of IC in the Turkish setting. A decision analytic model was constructed to depict downstream economic consequences of using anidulafungin or fluconazole for treatment of IC in the Turkish hospitals. Transition probabilities (ie treatment success, observed or indeterminate treatment failures) were obtained from a published randomised clinical trial...
July 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699287/an-alternative-method-for-the-analysis-of-melanin-production-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-sensu-lato-and-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato
#5
Raimunda S N Brilhante, Jaime D A España, Lucas P de Alencar, Vandbergue S Pereira, Débora de S C M Castelo-Branco, Waldemiro de A Pereira-Neto, Rossana de A Cordeiro, José J C Sidrim, Marcos F G Rocha
Melanin is an important virulence factor for several microorganisms, including Cryptococcus neoformans sensu lato and Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, thus, the assessment of melanin production and its quantification may contribute to the understanding of microbial pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to standardise an alternative method for the production and indirect quantification of melanin in C. neoformans sensu lato and C. gattii sensu lato. Eight C. neoformans sensu lato and three C. gattii sensu lato, identified through URA5 methodology, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 (negative control) and one Hortaea werneckii (positive control) were inoculated on minimal medium agar with or without L-DOPA, in duplicate, and incubated at 35°C, for 7 days...
July 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699277/clinical-evaluation-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-real-time-pcr-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-dermatophytosis-a-comparison-with-mycological-methods
#6
Marjan Motamedi, Hossein Mirhendi, Kamiar Zomorodian, Hossein Khodadadi, Mahboobeh Kharazi, Zeinab Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Shidfar, Koichi Makimura
Following our previous report on evaluation of the beta tubulin real-time PCR for detection of dermatophytosis, this study aimed to compare the real-time PCR assay with conventional methods for the clinical assessment of its diagnostic performance. Samples from a total of 853 patients with suspected dermatophyte lesions were subjected to direct examination (all samples), culture (499 samples) and real-time PCR (all samples). Fungal DNA was extracted directly from clinical samples using a conical steel bullet, followed by purification with a commercial kit and subjected to the Taq-Man probe-based real-time PCR...
July 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699222/in-vitro-fungicidal-effects-of-methylene-blue-at-625-nm
#7
J Stephen Guffey, William Payne, Wilson Roegge
The aim of the study is to confirm the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a significant inhibitor of Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and to determine the most appropriate dose and rate of delivery. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte worldwide, responsible for the majority of superficial fungal infections. The traditional treatment of T. rubrum has known adverse effects. An alternative treatment is warranted. Photosensitised T. rubrum specimens were treated with 625-nm light at doses of 3, 12, 24, 40 and 60 J/cm(2) ...
July 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699245/effects-of-intranasally-dosed-posaconazole-on-fungal-load-and-biomarkers-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-infected-immunocompromised-mice
#8
Genki Kimura, Takahiro Nakaoki, Yuki Nishimoto, Yuto Suzuki, Garth Rapeport, Pete Strong, Kazuhiro Ito, Yasuo Kizawa
Although anti-fungal triazoles are dosed orally or systemically for Aspergillus fumigatus infection, systemic adverse events and limited exposure of the lung cavity would make a topical treatment for the lung an attractive option. In this study, we examined the effects of intranasally dosed posaconazole on survival rates and biomarkers in A. fumigatus (itraconazole susceptible: ATCC13073 [Af]; or resistant: NCPF7100 [AfR]) infected, temporarily neutropenic A/J mice. Once daily treatment produced a dose-dependent improvement of survival of Af-infected mice (ED50 : 0...
July 11, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685887/the-first-cases-of-candida-auris-candidaemia-in-oman
#9
Jalila Mohsin, Ferry Hagen, Zainab A M Al-Balushi, G Sybren de Hoog, Anuradha Chowdhary, Jacques F Meis, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi
Candida auris has been recognised as a problematic healthcare-associated emerging yeast which is often misidentified as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Correct early identification of C. auris is important for appropriate antifungal treatment and implementing effective infection control measures. Here we report emergence of the first C. auris cases in Oman, initially misidentified as C. haemulonii.
July 7, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660647/heteroresistance-and-fungi
#10
REVIEW
Gabriella F Ferreira, Daniel A Santos
The concept of heteroresistance refers to the heterogeneous susceptibility to an antimicrobial drug in a microorganism population, meaning that some clones may be resistant and others are susceptible. This phenomenon has been widely studied in bacteria, but little attention has been given to its expression in fungi. We review the available literature on heteroresistance in fungi and invite the reader to recognise this phenomenon as a fungal mechanism to adapt to environmental stress, which may interfere both in resistance and virulence...
June 28, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660636/pulmonary-co-infections-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-non-hiv-patients-a-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Anthi-Marina Markantonatou, Aliki Ioakimidou, Kostoula Arvaniti, Eleni Manou, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Parthena Kiriklidou, Konstantinos Samaras, Anna Kioumi, Timoleon-Achilleas Vyzantiadis
Pneumocystis jirovecii is the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP), a common and often life-threatening opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. However, non-HIV, immunocompromised patients are at risk of PcP as well, whereas the mortality appears to be higher among these patients. Pneumocystis co-infections with other microorganisms are less frequent and only sparse reports of combined PcP and invasive pulmonary fungal infections exist in the literature, especially in the non-HIV patients...
June 28, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660627/four-new-species-of-talaromyces-from-clinical-sources
#12
Marcela Guevara-Suarez, Deanna A Sutton, Josepa Gené, Dania García, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro, José F Cano-Lira
The genus Talaromyces constitutes an important group of molds with species that are mainly found in soil, indoor environments and food products. Traditionally, it has been considered, together with Eupenicillium, the teleomorphic state of Penicillium. However, the taxonomy of these fungi has changed considerably, and Talaromyces currently includes sexually and asexually reproducing species. In a previous study of the occurrence of penicillium-like fungi from clinical samples in the USA, we used the combined phylogeny of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA and β-tubulin (BenA) gene to identify 31 isolates of Talaromyces, 85 of Penicillium and two of Rasamsonia...
June 28, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657120/genetic-diversity-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-fusarium-isolates-in-onychomycosis
#13
Priscila D Rosa, Daiane Heidrich, Carolina Corrêa, Maria Lúcia Scroferneker, Gerson Vettorato, Alexandre M Fuentefria, Luciano Z Goldani
Fusarium species have emerged as an important human pathogen in skin disease, onychomycosis, keratitis and invasive disease. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. The infection has been increasingly described in the immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Considering onychomycosis is a difficult to treat infection, and little is known about the genetic variability and susceptibility pattern of Fusarium spp., further studies are necessary to understand the pathogenesis and better to define the appropriate antifungal treatment for this infection...
June 28, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597967/anidulafungin-for-the-treatment-of-candidaemia-caused-by-candida-parapsilosis-analysis-of-pooled-data-from-six-prospective-clinical-studies
#14
Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Matteo Bassetti, Marcio Nucci, Maria Rita Capparella, Jean L Yan, Jalal Aram, Patricia A Hogan
Concerns with echinocandin use for infections caused by Candida parapsilosis complex species have driven the need for data to support echinocandin clinical efficacy in such patients. Data from six prospective studies were pooled to assess efficacy and safety of anidulafungin in patients with candidaemia caused by C. parapsilosis. Patient-level data were pooled from patients with microbiologically confirmed candidaemia due to C. parapsilosis treated with anidulafungin. Patients received a 200 mg intravenous (IV) loading dose of anidulafungin (day 1) and 100 mg daily thereafter...
June 9, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568970/the-changing-trends-and-profile-of-pneumocystosis-mortality-in-the-united-states-1999-2014
#15
Ranjana N Wickramasekaran, Mirna Ponce Jewell, Frank Sorvillo, Tony Kuo
Pneumocystosis (PCP) mortality in the U.S. has received less attention in recent years. This study describes recent trends in mortality and the estimated burden of PCP in the U.S., using the national multiple cause of death data during 1999-2014. PCP mortality rates were calculated for age, sex, race and year. Demographic differences were presented for decedents with and without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-diagnosis. Matched odds ratios (MOR) were generated to describe associations between non-HIV conditions and PCP mortality...
May 31, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557001/assessment-of-in-vitro-inhibitory-activity-of-hydrogen-peroxide-on-the-growth-of-malassezia-pachydermatis-and-to-compare-its-efficacy-with-commercial-ear-cleaners
#16
Edrei Javier Marrero, Freddy Alejandro Silva, Inmaculada Rosario, Soraya Déniz, Fernando Real, Daniel Padilla, Esther Licia Díaz, Begoña Acosta-Hernández
Otitis caused by Malassezia pachydermatis is generally a common and recurrent disease in canine clinical pathology. The increased incidence of fungal resistant to antifungal in both humans and pets is a cause for concern and is associated with the indiscriminate use of antifungals. Finding the most effective disinfectants and antifungals has become essential. To evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity of hydrogen peroxide on the growth of M. pachydermatis and compare its efficacy with commercial ear cleaners...
May 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543785/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characteristics-of-candida-albicans-isolates-from-bloodstream-and-mucosal-infections
#17
Marina Mandelblat, Michael Frenkel, Darren Abbey, Ronen Ben Ami, Judith Berman, Esther Segal
The interaction of Candida albicans with the host is of a complex nature involving fungal factors and host's response. In this study, we concentrated on the phenotypic expression of virulence attributes and genotypic characteristics of C. albicans isolates from two distinct clinical entities of candidiasis-blood stream and vaginal infections, and the possible role of these factors. Hence, we conducted a comparative in vitro assessment of virulence characteristics, including adhesion to epithelial cells and HaCat cell line, biofilm formation, aspartic proteinases and phospholipase activity of 20 C...
May 22, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508389/usefulness-of-techniques-based-on-real-time-pcr-for-the-identification-of-onychomycosis-causing-species
#18
Anissa Z Hafirassou, Clara Valero, Nadia Gassem, Ilhem Mihoubi, Maria J Buitrago
Onychomycosis (OM) is a nail infection caused mainly by dermatophyte species but other species of yeast and moulds are frequently involved as well. Classical diagnosis has limitations thus empirical treatment is common. The usefulness of different real time PCR (RT-PCR) assays for identifying species causing OM was assessed in samples from seventy patients and fifteen controls. Conventional methods and four different RT-PCR assays were used: a panfungal, a pandermatophyte and two specific assays for detecting Candida spp...
May 16, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504471/scedosporium-apiospermum-complex-in-cystic-fibrosis-should-we-treat
#19
Maria Noni, Anna Katelari, Aikaterini Kapi, Angeliki Stathi, George Dimopoulos, Stavros-Eleftherios Doudounakis
Species of the Scedosporium apiospermum complex are the second most frequent filamentous fungi after Aspergillus fumigatus that can be found in cystic fibrosis (CF). Mixed colonisation by S. apiospermum complex and A. fumigatus is also quite common. In this study we summarise all CF patients who were colonised by S. apiospermum complex during their childhood and we present two CF patients who were treated as fungal bronchitis due to S. apiospermum complex. The medical records of 400 CF patients were reviewed in order to identify those with positive respiratory cultures for S...
May 15, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504456/performance-of-mycology-and-histopathology-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-toenail-onychomycosis-due-to-filamentous-fungi-dermatophyte-and-non-dermatophyte-moulds
#20
Fernanda G Lavorato, Dávson A Guimarães, Mario G Premazzi, Juan M Piñeiro-Maceira, Andréa R Bernardes-Engemann, Rosane Orofino-Costa
Improvement of laboratory diagnosis of onychomychosis is important so that adequate treatment can be safely implemented. To evaluate and compare the performance of mycological and histopathological examinations in onychomycoses caused by dermatophyte and non-dermatophyte moulds. Patients with lateral/distal subungual onychomycosis in at least one hallux were enrolled in the protocol and assessed via mycological and histopathological tests. The isolation of filamentous fungi was considered the gold standard...
May 15, 2017: Mycoses
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