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Shang-Yi Lin, Po-Liang Lu, Ban Hock Tan, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Un-In Wu, Jui-Hsuan Yang, Atul K Patel, Ruo Yu Li, Siriorn P Watcharananan, Zhengyin Liu, Ariya Chindamporn, Ai Ling Tan, Pei-Lun Sun, Li-Yin Hsu, Yee-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend echinocandins as first-line therapy for candidemia. However, several non-Candida yeasts are non-susceptible to echinocandins (echinocandin non-susceptible yeast, ENSY), including Cryptococcus, Geotrichum, Malassezia, Pseudozyma, Rhodotorula, Saprochaete, Sporobolomyces, and Trichosporon. In laboratories that are not equipped with rapid diagnostic tools, it often takes several days to identify yeasts, and this may lead to inappropriate presumptive use of echinocandins in patients with ENSY fungemia...
September 19, 2018: Mycoses
C Ferrándiz-Pulido, M T Martin-Gomez, T Repiso, C Juárez, B Ferrer, I López-Lerma, G Aparicio, C González-Cruz, F Moreso, A Román, V García-Patos
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cutaneous infections by dematiaceous fungi is rising in our environment due to the high number of solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). OBJECTIVE: To review our experience in the management of cutaneous phaeohyphomycoses in a Spanish reference center for dermatological care of SOTR. METHODS: Retrospective clinical, histopathological and microbiological review of all SOTR diagnosed of a phaeohyphomycosis in a 7-year period...
September 19, 2018: Mycoses
Adam J DiPippo, Caitlin R Rausch, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole (PCZ) is widely used for prophylaxis or treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in leukemia patients. However, issues with PCZ tolerability can result in treatment interruption. Isavuconazole (ISA) has a similar broad spectrum of activity to PCZ, however real-world data regarding the tolerability of ISA after PCZ toxicity are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To describe the tolerability of ISA after PCZ toxicity in leukemia patients. PATIENTS/METHODS: We retrospectively assessed tolerability of ISA after PCZ toxicity in adult leukemia patients (March 2015 to November 2017)...
September 19, 2018: Mycoses
Jochen Brasch, Vera Beck-Jendroschek, Karin Voss, Andrey Yurkov, Yvonne Gräser
A 68-year-old woman was submitted to our hospital because of erythematous and scaly skin lesions. To exclude tinea samples of stratum corneum were collected and used for mycological investigations. In this material no fungal elements were detected microscopically, but inoculation on Sabouraud agar with cycloheximide yielded a presumptive dermatophyte fungus. Subsequent detailed investigations with conventional morphological and physiological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of the combined LSU rRNA gene (D1/D2 domains) and ITS region sequences suggested that the fungus represents a hitherto undescribed species of the genus Arthroderma...
September 11, 2018: Mycoses
Rosa Paulina Calvillo-Medina, Magda Martínez Neria, Julio Mena-Portales, Luis Barba-Escoto, Tania Raymundo, Juan Campos-Guillén, George H Jones, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda, Jorge Alberto González-Y-Merchand, Victor Manuel Bautista-de Lucio
BACKGROUND: In recent years, human keratitis caused by fungal plant pathogens has become more common. Biofilm is a structure that confers adaptations and virulence to fungi in keratitis. Neoscytalidium spp. are phytopathogenic and recently have been recognized as a human pathogen, using biofilm formation as a virulence factor. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was isolation, identification (at the species level) and characterization of a new fungal keratitis agent...
September 6, 2018: Mycoses
Pietro Nenoff, Shyam B Verma, Silke Uhrlaß, Anke Burmester, Yvonne Gräser
An alarming pan Indian increase in the incidence of superficial dermatophytosis has been noticed over the past 5-6 years. Recent studies have demonstrated emerging predominance of Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes as the causative organism in such cases. Interestingly, a distinct Indian genotype of T. mentagrophytes has been identified and recognised with the help of sequencing of the ITS region of the rDNA. There has however led to a basic confusion owing to the newly introduced taxonomy of dermatophytes in 2017...
September 6, 2018: Mycoses
R O Oladele, I I Osaigbovo, O O Ayanlowo, A O Otu, M Hoenigl, O A Cornely, A Chakrabarti, D W Denning
The discipline of medical mycology has become increasingly relevant in the face of the rising incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFI), which pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for contemporary medical practice. While firmly established in developed countries, medical mycology remains obscure in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). With a teeming vulnerable populace and an incidence rate of 11.8%, Nigeria has one of the highest estimated burdens of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in the world...
September 5, 2018: Mycoses
Noura Al-Sweih, Suhail Ahmad, Seema Khan, Leena Joseph, Mohammad Asadzadeh, Ziauddin Khan
BACKGROUND: Cyberlindnera fabianii has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here, we describe an outbreak of C. fabianii fungemia involving 10 preterm neonates during a seven-month period in Kuwait and review the published reports. METHODS: Blood cultures were processed and yeast isolates were initially identified by ID 32 C and/or VITEK 2. Molecular identification was done by PCR-sequencing of internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region and D1/D2 domains of rDNA...
September 5, 2018: Mycoses
Antonio Vena, Patricia Muñoz, Jesús Guinea, Pilar Escribano, Teresa Peláez, Maricela Valerio, Francisco Bonache, Sara Gago, Ana Álvarez-Uría, Emilio Bouza
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus isolates with high MICs to fluconazole are increasingly reported and a potential clinical impact has been advocated. However, there are different methods to evaluate fluconazole MICs and comparative analysis among such techniques and their comprehensive correlation with clinical outcome are not available. METHODS: Over a 13-year period (2000-2013), fluconazole MICs were determined for 62 cryptococcal isolates recovered from 22 patients with cryptococcosis using CLSI M27-A3, EUCAST, E-test and Sensititre YeastOne, simultaneously...
September 5, 2018: Mycoses
Bruno Méhul, Niccolo de Coi, Philippe Grundt, Alexandre Genette, Johannes J Voegel, Monod Michel
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is the most prevalent nail disease and is mainly caused by two dermatophyte species Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale with a frequency in the range of 80% and 20%, respectively. The secreted protease Sub6 of the subtilisin family, which was never detected in vitro growth conditions, was found to be a robust marker of onychomycosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to detect tinea unguium using anti-Sub6 monoclonal antibodies in proteins extracted from clinical nail samples...
August 28, 2018: Mycoses
Sandra Milena Leal Pinto, Laura Viviana Herrera Sandoval, Leonor Yamile Vargas
BACKGROUND: Microsporum spp. are keratinophilic dermatophytes that mainly invade the stratum corneum of the skin and hair causing clinical symptoms associated with tinea. Its treatment has several limitations, and the search for new active molecules is necessary. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antifungal and cytotoxic potential of Eugenia caryophyllus essential oil (EO), eugenol, isoeugenol and methylisoeugenol against Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Vero cells. METHODS: The EO was extracted by conventional heating-assisted hydrodistillation, the eugenol obtained commercially and the derivatives through Williamson synthesis...
August 24, 2018: Mycoses
Wencke Walter, Martin Bornhäuser, Friedrich Stölzel, Anne Zeidler, Holger Knoth
BACKGROUND: Screening for Aspergillus (Asp-AG) and Candida antigen (Ca-AG) with immunoassays is established for stem cell recipients at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI). While parenteral nutrition (PN) will be applied in case of complications leading to insufficient alimentation, piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) is started at the onset of febrile neutropenia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate drug-laboratory interactions between PN as well as TZP and both immunoassays which could affect the specificity of the assays and lead to false assumption of an IFI...
August 14, 2018: Mycoses
Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Macit Ilkit, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Ramazan Inci, Emel Tumbay, David W Denning
The current number of fungal infections occurring each year in Turkey is unknown. We estimated the burden of serious human fungal diseases based on the population at risk, existing epidemiological data from 1920 to 2017 and modelling previously described by the LIFE program ( Among the population of Turkey (80.8 million in 2017), approximately 1 785 811 (2.21%) people are estimated to suffer from a serious fungal infection each year. The model used predicts high prevalences of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis episodes (312 994 cases) (392/100 000), of severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (42 989 cases) (53...
August 14, 2018: Mycoses
Sanaz Aghaei Gharehbolagh, Parivash Kordbacheh, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Roshanak Daie Ghazvini, Yazdan Asgari, Setareh Agha Kuchak Afshari, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Sassan Rezaie
Dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD) is a key enzyme in biosynthetic pathway of isoleucine and valine. This pathway is absent in human but exists in various organisms such as fungi. Using RNA-seq analysis in this study, we identified MGL_3741gene which encodes DHAD protein in Malassezia globosa (M. globosa). Furthermore, we found that mentioned gene is homologous to the Ustilago maydis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus fumigatus ILV3P. For understanding the probable role of this gene in pathogenicity of M...
August 14, 2018: Mycoses
Karine B Schlemmer, Francielli P K Jesus, Érico S Loreto, Juliana S M Tondolo, Pauline C Ledur, Andressa Dallabrida, Taiara M da Silva, Glaucia D Kommers, Sydney H Alves, Janio M Santurio
We report a malasseziosis model in immunocompromised Swiss mice. For this model, the mice were immunosuppressed with a combination of cyclophosphamide at 150mg/kg and hydrocortisone acetate at 250mg/kg. Two groups were formed according to the site of inoculation. Dermatitis group received an intradermal injection of 5×106 cell/mouse at a shaved dorsal region while the otitis group received the same inoculum in the middle ear. Five animal/group were euthanized at different times, and the skin and ear were histopathologically analyzed...
August 14, 2018: Mycoses
Markus Ruhnke, Gerhard Behre, Dieter Buchheidt, Maximilian Christopeit, Axel Hamprecht, Werner Heinz, Claus-Peter Heussel, Marius Horger, Oliver Kurzai, Meinolf Karthaus, Jürgen Löffler, Georg Maschmeyer, Olaf Penack, Christina Rieger, Volker Rickerts, Jörg Ritter, Martin Schmidt-Hieber, Nikolai Schuelper, Stefan Schwartz, Andrew Ullmann, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Marie von Lilienfeld-Toal, Thomas Weber, Hans H Wolf
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. These infections are mostly life-threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other Non-Aspergillus moulds are increasingly identified in case of documented IFD. For definite diagnosis of IFD, a combination of diagnostic tools have to be applied, including conventional mycological culture and non-conventional microbiological tests such as antibody/antigen and molecular tests, as well as histopathology and radiology...
August 11, 2018: Mycoses
Nahid Gholinejad-Ghadi, Tahereh Shokohi, Zahra Seifi, Seyed Reza Aghili, Emmanuel Roilides, Mehdi Nikkhah, Rostam Pormosa, Hossein Karami, Laleh Vahedi Larjani, Maryam Ghasemi, Iman Haghani
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of mucormycosis, a life-threatening fungal infection, remains a challenge for physicians. OBJECTIVES: To identify the causative Mucorales in fresh clinical samples and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of patients with proven mucormycosis by molecular method. PATIENTS/METHODS: Fresh clinical samples of patients with proven mucormycosis according to the EORTC/MSG criteria admitted between 2015 and 2017 and histopathologically proven FFPE archives collected during 2004-2007 and 2015-2017 from Mazandaran University-affiliated hospitals of northern Iran were included...
August 9, 2018: Mycoses
Martin Hoenigl, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Esther Segal, Alexandre Alanio, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Sharon C-A Chen, Nelesh Govender, Ferry Hagen, Nikolaj Klimko, Jacques F Meis, Alessandro C Pasqualotto, Danila Seidel, Thomas J Walsh, Katrien Lagrou, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Oliver A Cornely
Invasive mycoses present a global challenge with expansion into new hosts, emergence of new pathogens, and development of multidrug resistance. In parallel, new antifungal agents and advanced laboratory diagnostic systems are being developed. In response to these evolving challenges, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) is committed to providing international expertise, guidance, and leadership with the key objectives of improving diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and survival of persons with invasive fungal diseases...
August 7, 2018: Mycoses
Antonio Martínez-Murcia, Aaron Navarro, Gema Bru, Anuradha Chowdhary, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F Meis
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant pathogenic fungus that causes candidaemia with high mortality rates and exhibits the ability to persist within the hospital environment. Candida auris is phylogenetically closely related to Candida haemulonii, C. lusitaniae, C. pseudohaemulonii and C. duobushaemulonii and is frequently misidentified by commercial identification methods. In the present study, the GPS™ MONODOSE dtec-qPCR kit (dried single-dose PCR tubes) for the detection of C. auris was validated following the guidelines of the UNE/EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, the French Standard NF T90-471:2010 and using fast-cycling protocols...
July 30, 2018: Mycoses
Kantarawee Khayhan, Siriprapa Juntaboon, Wenjie Fang, Tanawat Chaowasku, Dechphipat Amornthipayawong, Teun Boekhout
Isolation of representatives of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex can be made using dopamine containing media, such as Niger seed agar and l-DOPA agar. Here, we describe an alternative medium that uses banana flowers. Banana is a dopamine containing fruit and is widely available in tropical and subtropical countries that have high numbers of cryptococcosis patients. This banana blossom-based agar is useful for the enrichment of isolates of the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex from environmental and clinical materials...
July 26, 2018: Mycoses
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