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Environmental Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233568/thallium-contamination-in-arable-soils-and-vegetables-around-a-steel-plant-a-newly-found-significant-source-of-tl-pollution-in-south-china
#1
Juan Liu, Xuwen Luo, Jin Wang, Tangfu Xiao, Diyun Chen, Guodong Sheng, Meiling Yin, Holger Lippold, Chunlin Wang, Yongheng Chen
Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222981/seasonal-variations-of-temperature-related-mortality-burden-from-cardiovascular-disease-and-myocardial-infarction-in-china
#2
Jun Yang, Maigeng Zhou, Chun-Quan Ou, Peng Yin, Mengmeng Li, Shilu Tong, Antonio Gasparrini, Xiaobo Liu, Jing Li, Lina Cao, Haixia Wu, Qiyong Liu
Incidence rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has significant seasonal trend, being higher in winter. However, the extent to which the seasonal variation of CVD deaths was caused by temperature remains unclear. We obtained daily data on temperature and CVD and myocardial infarction (MI) mortality from nine Chinese mega-cities during 2007-2013. Distributed lag non-linear models were applied to assess the city-specific temperature-related daily excess deaths across lag 0-21 days, using the minimum-mortality temperature as reference...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222982/ecotoxicological-assessment-of-cobalt-using-hydra-model-ros-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-as-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#3
Mohammed Zeeshan, Anbazhagan Murugadas, Surendra Ghaskadbi, Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha
The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222980/acute-water-quality-criteria-for-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pesticides-plastic-additives-and-4-nonylphenol-in-seawater
#4
I Durán, R Beiras
Probabilistic environmental quality criteria for Naphthalene (Nap), Phenanthrene (Phe), Fluoranthene (Flu), Pyrene (Pyr), Triclosan (TCS), Tributyltin (TBT), Chlorpyrifos (CPY), Diuron (DUR), γ-Hexaclorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) were derived from acute toxicity data using saltwater species representative of marine ecosystems, including algae, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and chordates. Preferably, data concerns sublethal endpoints and early life stages from bioassays conducted in our laboratory, but the data set was completed with a broad literature survey...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222979/from-macro-to-microplastics-analysis-of-eu-regulation-along-the-life-cycle-of-plastic-bags
#5
REVIEW
Ida M Steensgaard, Kristian Syberg, Sinja Rist, Nanna B Hartmann, Alessio Boldrin, Steffen Foss Hansen
Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222978/toxicity-of-platinum-palladium-and-rhodium-to-daphnia-magna-in-single-and-binary-metal-exposure-experiments
#6
Sonja Zimmermann, Carolina Wolff, Bernd Sures
Mainly due to automobile traffic, but also due to other sources, the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) are introduced into aquatic biotopes where they accumulate in sediments of lakes and rivers. However, the toxicity of these noble metals to aquatic organisms is not well understood and especially toxicity studies under standardized condition are lacking. Thus, the toxicity of Pt, Pd and Rh to Daphnia magna was tested in single metal exposure experiments according to OECD guideline 202...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222977/ambient-temperature-and-emergency-department-visits-time-series-analysis-in-12-chinese-cities
#7
Qi Zhao, Yongming Zhang, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Gongbo Chen, Yanbin Wu, Chen Qiu, Kejing Ying, Huaping Tang, Jian-An Huang, Gail Williams, Rachel Huxley, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been well documented worldwide. However, limited data are available on nonfatal health outcomes, such as emergency department visits (EDVs), particularly from China. OBJECTIVES: To examine the temperature-EDV association in 12 Chinese cities; and to assess the modification effects by region, gender and age. METHODS: Daily meteorological data and non-accidental EDVs were collected during 2011-2014...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216136/arsenic-speciation-in-the-lower-athabasca-river-watershed-a-geochemical-investigation-of-the-dissolved-and-particulate-phases
#8
Mark W Donner, Muhammad Babar Javed, William Shotyk, Kevin A Francesconi, Tariq Siddique
Human and ecosystem health concerns for arsenic (As) in the lower Athabasca River downstream of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) mining (Alberta, Canada) prompted an investigation to determine its forms in surface and groundwater upstream and downstream of industry. Dissolved As species, together with total and particulate As, were used to evaluate the potential bioavailability of As in water as well as to decipher inputs from natural geological processes and ABS mining and upgrading activities. Water samples were collected from the river in October at 13 locations in 2014 and 19 locations in 2015, spanning up to 125 km...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216135/fate-of-phenanthrene-and-mineralization-of-its-non-extractable-residues-in-an-oxic-soil
#9
Yongfeng Wang, Jun Xu, Jun Shan, Yini Ma, Rong Ji
The fate of organic pollutants in the environment, especially the formation and stability of non-extractable (i.e., bound) residues (NERs) determines their environmental risk. Using (14)C-tracers, we studied the fate of the carcinogen phenanthrene in active or sterilized oxic loamy soil in the absence and presence of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi and characterized the NERs derived from phenanthrene. After incubation of (14)C-phenanthrene in active soil for 28 days, 40 ± 3.1% of the initial amount was mineralized and 70...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216134/spatial-distribution-and-composition-of-aliphatic-hydrocarbons-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-hopanes-in-superficial-sediments-of-the-coral-reefs-of-the-persian-gulf-iran
#10
Ranjbar Jafarabadi Ali, Riyahi Bakhtiari Alireza, Aliabadian Mansour, Shadmehri Toosi Amirhossein
This study is the first quantitative report on petroleum biomarkers from the coral reefs systems of the Persian Gulf. 120 reef surface sediment samples from ten fragile coral reef ecosystems were collected and analyzed for grain size, biogenic elements, elemental ratios, and petroleum biomarkers (n-alkanes, PAHs(1) and Hopanes) to assess the sources and early diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter. The mean grain size of the reef sediments ranged from 13.56 to 37.11% (Clay), 26.92 to 51.73% (Sand) and 35...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216133/effects-of-copper-oxide-nanomaterials-cuonms-are-life-stage-dependent-full-life-cycle-in-enchytraeus-crypticus
#11
Rita C Bicho, Fátima C F Santos, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Copper oxide nanomaterials (CuONMs) have various applications in industry and enter the terrestrial environment, e.g. via sewage sludge. The effects of CuONMs and copper chloride (CuCl2) were studied comparing the standard enchytraeid reproduction test (ERT) and the full life cycle test (FLCt) with Enchytraeus crypticus. CuONMs mainly affected growth or juveniles' development, whereas CuCl2 mainly affected embryo development and/or hatching success and adults survival. Compared to the ERT, the FLCt allowed discrimination of effects between life stages and provided indication of the underlying mechanisms; further, the FLCt showed increased sensitivity, e...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216132/arsenic-v-bioconcentration-kinetics-in-freshwater-macroinvertebrates-and-periphyton-is-influenced-by-ph
#12
Adeline R Lopez, David H Funk, David B Buchwalter
Arsenic is an important environmental pollutant whose speciation and mobility in freshwater food webs is complex. Few studies have characterized uptake and efflux rates of arsenic in aquatic benthic invertebrates. Further, we lack a fundamental understanding of how pH influences uptake kinetics in these organisms or how this key environmental variable could alter dietary exposure for primary consumers. Here we used a radiotracer approach to characterize arsenate accumulation dynamics in benthic invertebrates, the influence of pH on uptake in a subset of these organisms, and the influence of pH on uptake of arsenate by periphyton - an important food source at the base of aquatic food webs...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215582/microplastics-in-sea-coastal-zone-lessons-learned-from-the-baltic-amber
#13
REVIEW
Irina Chubarenko, Natalia Stepanova
Baltic amber, adored for its beauty already in Homer's Odyssey (ca. 800 B.C.E), has its material density close to that of wide-spread plastics like polyamide, polystyrene, or acrylic. Migrations of amber stones in the sea and their massive washing ashore have been monitored by Baltic citizens for ages. Based on the collected information, we present the hypothesis on the behaviour of microplastic particles in sea coastal zone. Fresh-to-strong winds generate surface waves, currents and roll-structures, whose joint effect washes ashore from the underwater slope both amber stones and plastics - and carries them back to the sea in a few days...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215581/does-temperature-modify-the-effect-of-pm10-on-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Fei Chen, Zhiwei Fan, Zhijiao Qiao, Yan Cui, Meixia Zhang, Xing Zhao, Xiaosong Li
Large and growing literature has explored whether temperature modified the effect of particular matter (PM) on mortality, but results of the modification effect are inconsistent. In this study, we reviewed information from 29 studies to get the qualitative evidence of the modification effects of temperature on PM to mortality, and the data from 16 of the 29 studies were extracted to conduct a meta-analysis. Temperatures were grouped into three level: "low", "middle" and "high" according to the original studies...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214193/quantification-of-the-overall-measurement-uncertainty-associated-with-the-passive-moss-biomonitoring-technique-sample-collection-and-processing
#15
J R Aboal, M T Boquete, A Carballeira, A Casanova, S Debén, J A Fernández
In this study we examined 6080 data gathered by our research group during more than 20 years of research on the moss biomonitoring technique, in order to quantify the variability generated by different aspects of the protocol and to calculate the overall measurement uncertainty associated with the technique. The median variance of the concentrations of different pollutants measured in moss tissues attributed to the different methodological aspects was high, reaching values of 2851 (ng·g(-1))(2) for Cd (sample treatment), 35...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214192/land-use-regression-with-long-term-satellite-based-greenness-index-and-culture-specific-sources-to-model-pm2-5-spatial-temporal-variability
#16
Chih-Da Wu, Yu-Cheng Chen, Wen-Chi Pan, Yu-Ting Zeng, Mu-Jean Chen, Yue Leon Guo, Shih-Chun Candice Lung
This study utilized a long-term satellite-based vegetation index, and considered culture-specific emission sources (temples and Chinese restaurants) with Land-use Regression (LUR) modelling to estimate the spatial-temporal variability of PM2.5 using data from Taipei metropolis, which exhibits typical Asian city characteristics. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations from 2006 to 2012 of 17 air quality monitoring stations established by Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan were used for model development...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214191/potential-of-different-am-fungi-native-from-as-contaminated-and-uncontaminated-soils-for-supporting-leucaena-leucocephala-growth-in-as-contaminated-soil
#17
Jerusa Schneider, Jochen Bundschuh, Wesley de Melo Rangel, Luiz Roberto Guimarães Guilherme
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation is considered a potential biotechnological tool for an eco-friendly remediation of hazardous contaminants. However, the mechanisms explaining how AM fungi attenuate the phytotoxicity of metal(oid)s, in particular arsenic (As), are still not fully understood. The influence of As on plant growth and the antioxidant system was studied in Leucaena leucocephala plants inoculated with different isolates of AM fungi and exposed to increasing concentrations of As (0, 35, and 75 mg dm(-3)) in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209434/spatial-and-temporal-trends-of-short-and-medium-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-sediments-off-the-urbanized-coastal-zones-in-china-and-japan-a-comparison-study
#18
Lixi Zeng, James C W Lam, Yuichi Horii, Xiaolin Li, Weifang Chen, Jian-Wen Qiu, Kenneth M Y Leung, Eriko Yamazaki, Nobuyoshi Yamashita, Paul K S Lam
To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, and assess the effectiveness of control measures on the contamination by chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in East Asia, surface and core sediments were sampled from the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan (i.e., Pearl River Delta (PRD), Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay) and analyzed for short-chain (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs). Much higher concentrations of CPs were found in the industrialized PRD than in adjacent Hong Kong waters...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209433/surface-runoff-and-subsurface-tile-drain-losses-of-neonicotinoids-and-companion-herbicides-at-edge-of-field
#19
François Chrétien, Isabelle Giroux, Georges Thériault, Patrick Gagnon, Julie Corriveau
With their application as seed coatings, the use of neonicotinoid insecticides increased dramatically during the last decade. They are now frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations susceptible to harm aquatic invertebrates at individual and population levels. This study intent was to document surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of two common neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and clothianidin) compared to those of companion herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate, S-metolachlor and mesotrione) at the edge of a 22...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202269/trace-elements-in-fragments-of-fishing-net-and-other-filamentous-plastic-litter-from-two-beaches-in-sw-england
#20
Andrew Turner
Filamentous plastic litter collected from two beaches in south west England has been characterized by FTIR and XRF. The majority of samples were constructed of polyethylene and consisted of twisted or braided strands of a variety of colours that appeared to be derived from commercial fishing nets. A number of different elements were detected among the samples but, from an environmental perspective, the regular occurrence of Cr and Pb and the occasional or isolated occurrence of Br, Cd and Se were of greatest concern...
February 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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