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Environmental Pollution

Wei Liu, Jingwen Li, Lichen Gao, Zhou Zhang, Jing Zhao, Xin He, Xin Zhang
Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA) is a novel alternative compound for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with its environmental risk not well known. The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of Cl-PFESA in the freshwater alga is crucial for the understanding of its potential hazards to the aquatic environment. Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to Cl-PFESA at ng L(-1) to mg L(-1), with the exposure regime beginning at the environmentally relevant level. The total log BAF of Cl-PFESA in S. obliquus was 4...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yasir Faiz, Naila Siddique, Huan He, Cheng Sun, Shahida Waheed
Seven organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were measured in urban fine and coarse particulate matter (PM) collected from two sites of Nanjing (XCNUC), China and Islamabad (APHSP), Pakistan. The fine PM mass at APHSP site was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in the spring (mean 22.5 μg/m(3)) than in the summer (mean 12.7 μg/m(3)). The total concentration, ∑(7)OPs, of samples collected at APHSP was found significantly higher in coarse (range 672-47621 pg/m(3)) than in fine PM (range 1200-15213 pg/m(3)); while ∑(7)OPs from XCNUC in fine (range 1696-15063 pg/m(3)) and coarse PM (range 2053-5379 pg/m(3)) were statistically different in samples during summer, based on two-sample t-test at 0...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Evangelia S Papadopoulou, Savvas Genitsaris, Michalis Omirou, Chiara Perruchon, Anastasia Stamatopoulou, Ioannis Ioannides, Dimitrios G Karpouzas
The application of the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in fruit packaging plants (FPP) results in the production of effluents which are often disposed in adjacent field sites. These require remediation to prevent further environmental dispersal of TBZ. We assessed the bioaugmentation potential of a newly isolated TBZ-degrading bacterial consortium in a naturally contaminated soil (NCS) exhibiting a natural gradient of TBZ levels (12000, 400, 250 and 12 mg kg(-1)). The effect of aging on bioaugmentation efficacy was comparatively tested in a soil with similar physicochemical properties and soil microbiota, which was artificially, contaminated with the same TBZ levels (ACS)...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Wei Chen, Zhen-Yu Ouyang, Chen Qian, Han-Qing Yu
The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) as emerging contaminants in the environment may cause changes in water or sediment characteristics, and further affect their biogeochemical cycles. Thus, insights into the interactions between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and MPs are essential for the assessment of environmental impacts of MPs in ecosystems. Integrating spectroscopic methods with chemometric analyses, this work explored the chemical and microstructural changes of DOM-MP complex to reveal the mechanism of DOM-MP interaction at a molecular level...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Bo Yao, Shuwen Yan, Lushi Lian, Xin Yang, Chunli Wan, Hengtao Dong, Weihua Song
Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are excreted by humans and animals and released into the aquatic environment through wastewater, which can have potential negative impacts on ecological systems. To conduct a nationwide investigation of the occurrence of PhACs in water resources in China, an analytical procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-MS/MS was used to measure 45 PhACs in surface water samples from a network of 29 rivers across 31 provinces in China in 2014 and 2015. PhACs were prevalent in all sampled streams...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Daniel J Becker, Matthew M Chumchal, Hugh G Broders, Jennifer M Korstian, Elizabeth L Clare, Thomas R Rainwater, Steven G Platt, Nancy B Simmons, M Brock Fenton
Mercury (Hg) is a persistent and widespread heavy metal with neurotoxic effects in wildlife. While bioaccumulation of Hg has historically been studied in aquatic food webs, terrestrial consumers can become contaminated with Hg when they feed on aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, fish, and amphibians). However, the extent to which dietary connectivity to aquatic ecosystems can explain patterns of Hg bioaccumulation in terrestrial consumers has not been well studied. Bats (Order: Chiroptera) can serve as a model system for illuminating the trophic transfer of Hg given their high dietary diversity and foraging links to both aquatic and terrestrial food webs...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Jinjuan Gao, Huahong Shi, Zhijun Dai, Xuefei Mei, Haibo Zong, Hongwei Yang, Lingling Hu, Shushi Li
Anthropogenic activities are driving an increase in sediment contamination in coastal areas. This poses significant challenges for the management of estuarine ecosystems and their adjacent seas worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted on how dynamic mechanisms affect the sediment toxicity in the estuarine environment. This study was designed to investigate the linkages between sediment toxicity and hydrodynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) area. High sediment toxicity was found in the Yangtze River mouth (Region I), the depocenter of the Yangtze River Delta (Region II), and the southeastern area of the adjacent sea (Region III), while low sediment toxicity was found in the northeastern offshore region (Region IV)...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Chisato Kataoka, Yumie Kato, Tadashi Ariyoshi, Masaki Takasu, Takahito Narazaki, Seiji Nagasaka, Haruki Tatsuta, Shosaku Kashiwada
Fish embryo toxicology is important because embryos are more susceptible than adults to toxicants. In addition, the aquatic toxicity of chemicals depends on water quality. We examined the toxicities to medaka embryos of three types of silver-AgNO3, silver nanocolloids (SNCs), and silver ions from silver nanoparticle plates (SNPPs)-under three pH conditions (4.0, 7.0, and 9.0) in embryo-rearing medium (ERM) or ultrapure water. Furthermore, we tested the later-life-stage effects of SNCs on medaka and their population growth...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Sarah Bruck, Alex T Ford
The ingestion of microplastics (plastic particles <5 mm) has been observed in a range of marine organisms, and adverse effects have been reported in several species after high concentration exposure. However, the long-term effects of low-dose ingestion remains unclear. The aim of this study was thus to assess the chronic effects of low concentrations of polystyrene microparticles to the intertidal amphipod Echinogammarus marinus, using food consumption, growth, and moulting as endpoints. Amphipods were fed a gelatinous algal feed spiked with microbeads (8 μm) in concentrations of ∼0...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Jinjian Ding, Tongqing Deng, Mengmeng Xu, Shen Wang, Fangxing Yang
Foodstuffs may be contaminated by organophosphate esters (OPEs) and become an important source of human exposure since OPEs are ubiquitous in the environment. In the present study, 10 OPEs were analyzed in various food matrices collected from a city in Eastern China including chicken, pork, fishes, vegetables, tofu, eggs, milk and cereals. The concentrations of Σ10OPEs ranged from 1.1 to 9.6 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) in the foodstuffs. Cereals had the highest residual level of total OPEs with a mean value of 5...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Jian Xu, Qiongzhen Wang, Congrui Deng, V Faye McNeill, Alison Fankhauser, Fengwen Wang, Xianjue Zheng, Jiandong Shen, Kan Huang, Guoshun Zhuang
There is growing evidence suggesting that organic aerosols play an important role in the evolution of severe haze episodes. However, long-term investigations of the different characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols during haze and non-haze days are insufficient. In this work, hourly measurements of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were conducted in Shanghai, a megacity in Eastern China, over the course of a year from July 2013 to June 2014. Both OC and EC exhibited a bimodal diel pattern and were highly dependent on the wind speed and direction...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ling Song, Xuejun Liu, Ute Skiba, Bo Zhu, Xifeng Zhang, Meiyu Liu, Marsailidh Twigg, Jianlin Shen, Anthony Dore, Stefan Reis, Mhairi Coyle, Wen Zhang, Peter Levy, David Fowler
The fast economic development of southwest China has resulted in significant increases in the concentrations of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the atmosphere. In this study, an urban (Chengdu, CD), suburban (Shifang, SF) and agriculture (Yanting, YT) - dominated location in the Sichuan Province, southwest China, were selected to investigate the atmospheric composition of Nr, their concentrations and deposition rates. We measured Nr concentrations in precipitation (NH4(+), NO3(-) and organic N (DON)), the gas phase (NH3 and NO2), and the aerosol particles (PM2...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Kees de Hoogh, Harris Héritier, Massimo Stafoggia, Nino Künzli, Itai Kloog
Spatiotemporal resolved models were developed predicting daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations across Switzerland from 2003 to 2013. Relatively sparse PM2.5 monitoring data was supplemented by imputing PM2.5 concentrations at PM10 sites, using PM2.5/PM10 ratios at co-located sites. Daily PM2.5 concentrations were first estimated at a 1 × 1km resolution across Switzerland, using Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data in combination with spatiotemporal predictor data in a four stage approach...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Sutapa Ghosal, Michael Chen, Jeff Wagner, Zhong-Min Wang, Stephen Wall
Pacific Ocean trawl samples, stomach contents of laboratory-raised fish as well as fish from the subtropical gyres were analyzed by Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to identify polymer residues and any detectable persistent organic pollutants (POP). The goal was to access specific molecular information at the individual particle level in order to identify polymer debris in the natural environment. The identification process was aided by a laboratory generated automated fluorescence removal algorithm. Pacific Ocean trawl samples of plastic debris associated with fish collection sites were analyzed to determine the types of polymers commonly present...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yangqian Jiang, Wei Xia, Bin Zhang, Xinyun Pan, Wenyu Liu, Shuna Jin, Wenqian Huo, Hongxiu Liu, Yang Peng, Xiaojie Sun, Hongling Zhang, Aifen Zhou, Shunqing Xu, Yuanyuan Li
Thallium (Tl) is a well-recognized hazardous toxic heavy metal that has been reported to have embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity. However, little is known about its association with preterm birth (PTB) in humans. We aimed to evaluate the predictors of Tl exposure and assessed its relation with PTB. The study population included 7173 mother-infant pairs from a birth cohort in Wuhan, China. Predictors of Tl concentrations were explored using linear regression analyses, and associations of Tl exposure with risk of PTB or gestational age at birth were estimated using logistic regression or generalized linear models...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Hossain M Anawar, Zed Rengel, Paul Damon, Mark Tibbett
High arsenic (As) concentrations in the soil, water and plant systems can pose a direct health risk to humans and ecosystems. Phosphate (Pi) ions strongly influence As availability in soil, its uptake and toxicity to plants. Better understanding of As(V)-Pi interactions in soils and plants will facilitate a potential remediation strategy for As contaminated soils, reducing As uptake by crop plants and toxicity to human populations via manipulation of soil Pi content. However, the As(V)-Pi interactions in soil-plant systems are complex, leading to contradictory findings among different studies...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Gongbo Chen, Luke D Knibbs, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Wei Cao, Jianping Guo, Hongyan Ren, Boguang Wang, Hao Wang, Gail Williams, N A S Hamm, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: PM1 might be more hazardous than PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm and ≤2.5 μm, respectively). However, studies on PM1 concentrations and its health effects are limited due to a lack of PM1 monitoring data. OBJECTIVES: To estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM1 concentrations in China during 2005-2014 using satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information. METHODS: Two types of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB), were combined...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yixue Li, Guoxing Li, Qiang Zeng, Fengchao Liang, Xiaochuan Pan
Temperature has been associated with population health, but few studies have projected the future temperature-related years of life lost attributable to climate change. To project future temperature-related disease burden in Tianjin, we selected years of life lost (YLL) as the dependent variable to explore YLL attributable to climate change. A generalized linear model (GLM) and distributed lag non-linear model were combined to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of temperature on the YLL of non-accidental mortality...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yue-Shan Zhu, Wan-Dong Yang, Xiu-Wen Li, Hong-Gang Ni, Hui Zeng
The quality of indoor environments has a significant impact on public health. Usually, an indoor environment is treated as a static box, in which physicochemical reactions of indoor air contaminants are negligible. This results in conservative estimates for primary indoor air pollutant concentrations, while also ignoring secondary pollutants. Thus, understanding the relationship between indoor and outdoor particles and particle-bound pollutants is of great significance. For this reason, we collected simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements of the size distribution of airborne brominated flame retardant (BFR) congeners...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Guoliang Shi, Jiayuan Liu, Haiting Wang, Yingze Tian, Jie Wen, Xurong Shi, Yinchang Feng, Cesunica E Ivey, Armistead G Russell
PM2.5 is one of the most studied atmospheric pollutants due to its adverse impacts on human health and welfare and the environment. An improved model (the chemical mass balance gas constraint-Iteration: CMBGC-Iteration) is proposed and applied to identify source categories and estimate source contributions of PM2.5. The CMBGC-Iteration model uses the ratio of gases to PM as constraints and considers the uncertainties of source profiles and receptor datasets, which is crucial information for source apportionment...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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