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Environmental Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343716/transformation-of-zinc-concentrate-in-surface-and-subsurface-environments-implications-for-assessing-zinc-mobility-toxicity-and%C3%A2-choosing-an-optimal-remediation-strategy
#1
Man Jae Kwon, Maxim I Boyanov, Jung-Seok Yang, Seunghak Lee, Yun Ho Hwang, Ju Yeon Lee, Bhoopesh Mishra, Kenneth M Kemner
Zinc contamination in near- and sub-surface environments is a serious threat to many ecosystems and to public health. Sufficient understanding of Zn speciation and transport mechanisms is therefore critical to evaluating its risk to the environment and to developing remediation strategies. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of contaminated soils in the vicinity of a Zn ore transportation route were thoroughly investigated using a variety of analytical techniques (sequential extraction, XRF, XRD, SEM, and XAFS)...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343715/occurrence-profiles-and-toxic-equivalents-of-chlorinated-and-brominated-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-e-waste-open-burning-soils
#2
Chiya Nishimura, Yuichi Horii, Shuhei Tanaka, Kwadwo Ansong Asante, Florencio Ballesteros, Pham Hung Viet, Takaaki Itai, Hidetaka Takigami, Shinsuke Tanabe, Takashi Fujimori
We conducted this study to assess the occurrence, profiles, and toxicity of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Br-PAHs) in e-waste open burning soils (EOBS). In this study, concentrations of 15 PAHs, 26 Cl-PAHs and 14 Br-PAHs were analyzed in EOBS samples. We found that e-waste open burning is an important emission source of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs as well as PAHs. Concentrations of total Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in e-waste open burning soil samples ranged from 21 to 2800 ng/g and from 5...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343714/sensitivity-of-eastern-oyster-crassostrea-virginica-spermatozoa-and-oocytes-to-dispersed-oil-cellular-responses-and-impacts-on-fertilization-and-embryogenesis
#3
J Vignier, A K Volety, A Rolton, N Le Goïc, F-L E Chu, R Robert, P Soudant
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill released millions of barrels of oil and dispersant into the Gulf of Mexico. The timing of the spill coincided with the spawning season of Crassostrea virginica. Consequently, gametes released in the water were likely exposed to oil and dispersant. This study aimed to (i) evaluate the cellular effects of acute exposure of spermatozoa and oocytes to surface slick oil, dispersed mechanically (HEWAF) and chemically (CEWAF), using flow-cytometric (FCM) analyses, and (ii) determine whether the observed cellular effects relate to impairments of fertilization and embryogenesis of gametes exposed to the same concentrations of CEWAF and HEWAF...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343101/the-influence-of-odd-even-car-trial-on-fine-and-coarse-particles-in-delhi
#4
Prashant Kumar, Sunil Gulia, Roy M Harrison, Mukesh Khare
The odd-even car trial scheme, which reduced car traffic between 08.00 and 20.00 h daily, was applied from 1 to 15 January 2016 (winter scheme, WS) and 15-30 April 2016 (summer scheme, SS). The daily average PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded national standards, with highest concentrations (313 μg m(-3) and 639 μg m(-3), respectively) during winter and lowest (53 μg m(-3) and 130 μg m(-3)) during the monsoon (June-August). PM concentrations during the trials can be interpreted either as reduced or increased, depending on the periods used for comparison purposes...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343100/the-potential-of-l-%C3%A2-scoparium-k-%C3%A2-robusta-and-p-%C3%A2-radiata-to-mitigate-n-losses-in-silvopastural-systems
#5
J Esperschuetz, N Balaine, T Clough, S Bulman, N M Dickinson, J Horswell, B H Robinson
Silvopastoral systems aim to enhance economic, cultural and social principles by sustainably combining forest management with agriculture. In these typically high-nitrogen (N) environments, plant species selection can profoundly influence N fluxes. For grazed pastures, plants may be exposed to urine patches that have received the equivalent of up to 1000 kg N ha(-1). We aimed to determine the growth and N fluxes in three potential trees that may be used in silvopastoral systems: L. scoparium, K. robusta and P...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343099/source-apportionments-of-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-in-israeli-jordanian-and-palestinian-cities
#6
Jongbae Heo, Bo Wu, Ziad Abdeen, Radwan Qasrawi, Jeremy A Sarnat, Geula Sharf, Kobby Shpund, James J Schauer
This manuscript evaluates spatial and temporal variations of source contributions to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities. Twenty-four hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected every six days over a 1-year period (January to December 2007) in four cities in Israel (West Jerusalem, Eilat, Tel Aviv, and Haifa), four cities in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Rahma, and Zarka), and three cities in Palestine (Nablus, East Jerusalem, and Hebron). The PM2.5 samples were analyzed for major chemical components, including organic carbon and elemental carbon, ions, and metals, and the results were used in a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to estimate source contributions to PM2...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341327/importance-of-the-structure-and-nanoporosity-of-organic-matter-on-the-desorption-kinetics-of-benzo-a-pyrene-in-sediments
#7
Youda Huang, Dainan Zhang, Dandan Duan, Yu Yang, Yongqiang Xiong, Yong Ran
The desorption kinetics and mechanism were investigated using a Tenax extraction technique on different sediments spiked with radiocarbon-labeled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Five sedimentary fractions were sequentially fractionated, and the only nonhydrolyzable organic carbon fractions (NHC) were characterized using advanced solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), improved six end-member model, and a CO2 gas adsorption technique. The sediments contained high percentages of algaenan and/or sporopollenin but low percentages of black carbon and lignin...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341326/a-novel-xrf-method-to-measure-environmental-release-of-copper-and-zinc-from-antifouling-paints
#8
Erik Ytreberg, Maria Lagerström, Albin Holmqvist, Britta Eklund, Hans Elwing, Magnus Dahlström, Peter Dahl, Mia Dahlström
The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341328/assessment-of-bioavailability-of-selenium-in-different-plant-soil-systems-by-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-dgt
#9
Qin Peng, Mengke Wang, Zewei Cui, Jie Huang, Changer Chen, Lu Guo, Dongli Liang
Uptake of selenium (Se) by plants largely depend on the availability of Se in soil. Soils and plants were sampled four times within 8 weeks of plant growth in pot experiments using four plant species. Sequential extraction and diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) method were employed to measure Se concentrations in potted soils in selenite- or selenate-amended soils. Results showed that DGT-measured Se concentrations (CDGT-Se) were generally several folds higher for selenate than selenite amended soils, which were obviously affected by the plant species and the duration of their growth...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336097/ranking-current-and-prospective-no2-pollution-mitigation-strategies-an-environmental-and-economic-modelling-investigation-in-oxford-street-london
#10
A P R Jeanjean, J Gallagher, P S Monks, R J Leigh
Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336094/distinct-succession-patterns-of-abundant-and-rare-bacteria-in-temporal-microcosms-with-pollutants
#11
Shuo Jiao, Yantao Luo, Mingmei Lu, Xiao Xiao, Yanbing Lin, Weimin Chen, Gehong Wei
Elucidating the driving forces behind the temporal dynamics of abundant and rare microbes is essential for understanding the assembly and succession of microbial communities. Here, we explored the successional trajectories and mechanisms of abundant and rare bacteria via soil-enrichment subcultures in response to various pollutants (phenanthrene, n-octadecane, and CdCl2) using time-series Illumina sequencing datasets. The results reveal different successional patterns of abundant and rare sub-communities in eighty pollutant-degrading consortia and two original soil samples...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336093/concurrent-methylation-and-demethylation-of-arsenic-by-fungi-and-their-differential-expression-in-the-protoplasm-proteome
#12
Shiming Su, Xibai Zeng, Lingyu Bai, Yanan Wang, Lili Zhang, Mansheng Li, Cuixia Wu
Microbial methylation and demethylation are central to arsenic's (As) biogeochemical cycling. Here, the transformations of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) (50 mg L(-1)) for 15 days in cells of As-methylating fungi, Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1, were evaluated, and trace concentrations of As(III) and As(V) were observed in fungal cell extracts. Trace amounts of DMA(V) were also detected in MMA(V) and P. janthinellum SM-12F4 incubations. In situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicated that after exposure to MMA(V) (500 mg L(-1)) for 15 days, 28...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336092/physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-salix-integra-thunb-under-copper-stress-as-affected-by-soil-flooding
#13
Yini Cao, Chuanxin Ma, Guangcai Chen, Jianfeng Zhang, Baoshan Xing
To explore the joint effect of copper (Cu) and flooding on Salix integra Thunb. (S. integra), the physiological and biochemical parameters of the seedlings grown in Cu amended soil (50, 150, 450 mg kg(-1)) with or without the flooding for 60 days were evaluated. The results suggested that the flooding significantly inhibited the root growth in terms of root length and root tips. The Cu exposures of 50 and 150 mg kg(-1) notably enhanced the root growth as compared to the control. Majority of Cu was accumulated in S...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336091/altered-cellular-metabolism-of-hepg2-cells-caused-by-microcystin-lr
#14
Junguo Ma, Yiyi Feng, Siyu Jiang, Xiaoyu Li
This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure on the metabolism and drug resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. For this purpose, we first conducted an experiment to make sure that MC-LR could penetrate the HepG2 cell membrane effectively. The transcriptional levels of phase I (such as CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP26B1) and phase II (such as EPHX1, SULTs, and GSTM) enzymes and export pump genes (such as MRP1 and MDR1) were altered by MC-LR-exposure for 24 h, indicating that MC-LR treatment may destabilize the metabolism of HepG2 cells...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336096/multigenerational-effects-of-two-glucocorticoids-prednisolone-and-dexamethasone-on-life-history-parameters-of-crustacean-ceriodaphnia-dubia-cladocera
#15
Navdeep Bal, Anupama Kumar, Jun Du, Dayanthi Nugegoda
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX) and prednisolone (PDS) have been used since the 1940s to cure inflammatory and auto-immune disorders. Their use has been linked to a host of deleterious effects in aquatic ecosystems such as osteoporosis in vertebrates, developmental impairments in molluscs and reduced fecundity and growth in cladocerans. Apart from these handful of studies, the effects of GCs on aquatic biota are largely unknown. The present study is a first of its kind aiming to assess the multi-generational exposure effects of DEX and PDS on the life history parameters of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336095/chlorinated-pesticides-and-natural-brominated-anisoles-in-air-at-three-northern-baltic-stations
#16
Terry F Bidleman, Hjalmar Laudon, Olle Nygren, Staffan Svanberg, Mats Tysklind
Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81-147 d and a temperature range of -2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log KOA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336090/trace-metal-behavior-in-sediments-of-jiulong-river-estuary-and-implication-for-benthic-exchange-fluxes
#17
Wenhao Wang, Wen-Xiong Wang
Severe metal pollution due to industrial effluents releases has been documented in Jiulong River estuary, Southern China. However, integrated understanding of trace metal behavior in the sediment is lacking. In the present study, DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) technique was employed together with sediment cores to study the porewater dynamics of trace metals as well as the benthic exchange fluxes from four sampling sites over three different months. The sedimentary environment showed distinct spatial and temporal variations due to effluent discharge and biological activities...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336089/cold-lake-blend-diluted-bitumen-toxicity-to-the-early-development-of-japanese-medaka
#18
Barry N Madison, Peter V Hodson, Valerie S Langlois
Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Alberta oil sands (Canada) is transported across major continental watersheds, yet little is known about its toxicity to fish if spilled into aquatic environments. The toxicity of Cold Lake (CLB) dilbit was assessed for medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) using Corexit(®)EC9500A as dispersant. The effects of CLB toxicity were similar to conventional crude oils and Access Western Blend (AWB) dilbit. The prevalence of malformations and cyp1a mRNA synthesis in hatched fish increased monotonically with concentration during WAF and CEWAF treatments and provided a novel indicator of dilbit PAH toxicity...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325597/relationships-between-acrylamide-and-glycidamide-hemoglobin-adduct-levels-and-allergy-related-outcomes-in-general-us-population-nhanes-2005-2006
#19
Jing Guo, Dongdong Yu, Na Lv, Rongpan Bai, Chunjing Xu, Guangdi Chen, Weiming Cao
BACKGROUND: Acrylamide-induced immunotoxicity and allergic dermatitis have been reported in animal experiments and clinical reports, respectively. However, epidemiological evidence from the general population is limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to estimate the associations between acrylamide exposure and allergy-related outcomes in the general US population. METHODS: A total of 6982 subjects were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 (NHANES)...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318793/fate-and-mass-balance-of-bisphenol-analogues-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-xiamen-city-china
#20
Qian Sun, Yuwen Wang, Yan Li, Muhammad Ashfaq, Lanhua Dai, Xiaoqing Xie, Chang-Ping Yu
Due to the well-known endocrine disrupting ability of bisphenol A (BPA), its production and usage have been regulated. Consequently, other bisphenol analogues (BPs) have been used as the replacement of BPA. Despite their widespread use, few studies have investigated the occurrence and fate of BPs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we conducted a city-wide monitoring survey and collected the wastewater and sludge samples from seven WWTPs in Xiamen, China over seven days. The concentrations of dissolved and adsorbed BPs in the influent and effluent, together with the BP concentrations in the sludge were determined...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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