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Environmental Pollution

Cristina Panti, Matteo Baini, Amy Lusher, Gema Hernandez-Milan, Elisa L Bravo Rebolledo, Bianca Unger, Kristian Syberg, Mark P Simmonds, Maria Cristina Fossi
Marine litter is a pollution problem affecting thousands of marine species in all the world's seas and oceans. Marine litter, in particular plastic, has negative impacts on marine wildlife primarily due to ingestion and entanglement. Since most marine mammal species negatively interact with marine litter, a first workshop under the framework of the European Cetacean Society Conference, was held in 2017 to bring together the main experts on the topic of marine mammals and marine litter from academic and research institutes, non-governmental organisations, foundations and International Agreements...
January 9, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Ruixue Huang, PingKun Zhou
Numerous recent studies have underlined the crucial players of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), i.e., microRNAs(miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs(lncRNAs) and circle RNAs(circRNAs) participating in genotoxic responses induced by a wide variety of environmental genotoxicants consistently. Genotoxic-derived ncRNAs provide us a new epigenetic molecular-ecological network (MEN) insights into the underlying mechanisms regarding genotoxicant exposure and genotoxic effects, which can modify ncRNAs to render them "genotoxic" and inheritable, thus potentially leading to disease risk via epigenetic changes...
January 9, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Xiaodi Li, Qiang Xie, Shouhui Chen, Mingchao Xing, Tong Guan, Deyi Wu
Release of phosphorus (P) from sediment to overlying water has to be dealt with to address algal blooms in eutrophic lakes. In this study, the sediment from the Lake Taihu was amended with lanthanum modified zeolite (LMZ) to reduce P release under different pH, temperature and anaerobic conditions. LMZ performed well, to decreasing P concentration in Lake Taihu water in the presence of sediment. The EPC0 value, the critical P concentration at which there was neither P adsorption nor P release, was lowered by adding LMZ, suggesting that amendment with LMZ could diminish the risk of P release from the sediment...
January 8, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Qihang Wu, Jonathan Y S Leung, Yongming Du, Deguan Kong, Yongfeng Shi, Yuqi Wang, Tangfu Xiao
Despite the endeavour to eradicate informal e-waste recycling, remediation of polluted sites is not mandatory in many developing countries and thus the hazard of pollutants remaining in soil is often overlooked. It is noteworthy that a majority of previous studies only analysed a few pollutants in e-waste to reflect the impact of informal e-waste recycling. However, the actual impact may have been largely underestimated since e-waste contains various groups of pollutants and the effect of some emerging pollutants in e-waste remains unexplored...
January 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Thorben Müller, Matthias Alexander Gesing, Markus Segeler, Caroline Müller
Sublethal insecticide exposure poses risks for many non-target organisms and is a challenge for successful implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Next to detrimental effects of short-term insecticide exposure on fitness-related traits of organisms, also properties such as chemical signaling traits can be altered, which mediate intra- and interspecific communication. We investigated the effects of different durations of larval sublethal exposure to the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin on performance traits of larvae and adults of the herbivorous mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae...
January 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Qingcai Chen, Haoyao Sun, Zhen Mu, Yuqin Wang, Yanguang Li, Lixin Zhang, Mamin Wang, Zimeng Zhang
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are a new class of environmental risk substances that can stably exist in atmospheric particles and pose a potential threat to human health. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study the concentration levels, species characteristics, and sources of EPFRs in PM2.5 in Xi'an in 2017. The results showed that the concentrations of EPFRs in PM2.5 in Xi'an in 2017 ranged from 9.8 × 1011 to 6.9 × 1014 spins/m3 . The highest concentration of EPFRs occurred in winter when the average concentration was 2...
January 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Zhou Tong, Xu Dong, Shasha Yang, Mingna Sun, Tongchun Gao, Jinsheng Duan, Haiqun Cao
Tetraconazole, a chiral triazole fungicide, is widely used for the prevention of plant disease in wheat fields. However, the chirality of pesticides like tetraconazole can cause diverse biological responses. Therefore, it is important that research is conducted to investigate the enantioselective effects of chiral enantiomers in this regard. The absolute configurations of two tetraconazole enantiomers were initially confirmed by ECD (Electrostatic circular dichroism). The bioassay test showed that the fungicidal activity of (R)-(+)-tetraconazole against two pathogens (R...
January 7, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Chunmao Zhu, Yugo Kanaya, Hisayuki Yoshikawa-Inoue, Tomohisa Irino, Osamu Seki, Yasunori Tohjima
A field study was conducted to clarify sources of atmospheric black carbon and related carbonaceous components at Rishiri Island, Japan. We quantified equivalent black carbon (eBC) particle mass and the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE), atmospheric CO and CH4 , in addition to levoglucosan in total suspended particles, a typical tracer of biomass burning. Sixteen high eBC events were identified attributable to either anthropogenic sources or biomass burning in Siberia/China. These events were often accompanied by increases of co-emitted gases such as CH4 and CO...
January 3, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Leilei Bai, Qi Zhang, Changhui Wang, Xiaolong Yao, Hui Zhang, Helong Jiang
Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) produced in algal blooms and overgrowths of macrophyte changes the elimination and ecotoxicity of estrogens in freshwater lakes. The complexation of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and various DOMs, including the water- and sediment-derived DOMs from the algal-dominant zone in Lake Taihu (TW and TS, respectively) and the macrophyte-dominant zone in Poyang Lake (PW and PS, respectively), and the humic acid (HA), was investigated along with the subsequent effects on EE2 biodegradation...
January 2, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Lars Gutow, Kevin Bartl, Reinhard Saborowski, Jan Beermann
The rapid dissemination of microplastics in many habitats of the oceans has raised concerns about the consequences for marine biota and ecosystems. Many adverse effects of microplastics on marine invertebrates are consequences of ingestion. Accordingly, the identification of mechanisms that facilitate the uptake of microplastics is essential for the evaluation of possible implications for marine organisms and food webs. Gastropods produce mucus for locomotion. Gastropod pedal mucus naturally retains formerly suspended micro-organisms, such as bacteria, microalgae, and seaweed spores...
January 2, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Hui-Bin Guo, Mei Li, Yan Lyu, Tian-Tao Cheng, Jun-Jun Xv, Xiang Li
Particulate matter (PM) oxidative potential (OP) is an emerging health metric, but studies examining the OP of indoor PM are rare. This paper focuses on the relationships between respiratory exposure to OP and PM water-soluble composition in indoor environments. Size-resolved PM samples were collected between November 2015 and June 2016 from an office, home (including bedroom, living room, and storeroom), and laboratory using a MOUDI sampler. Particles from each source were segregated into eleven size bins, and the water-soluble metal content and dithiothreitol (DTT) loss rate were measured in each PM extract...
December 31, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wei Huang, Chao Zhao, Huan Zhong, Shoudong Zhang, Yiji Xia, Zongwei Cai
In recent years, concerns about using Bisphenol A (BPA) in daily consume products and its effects in many chronic human diseases have prompted the removal of BPA. However, the widely used BPA alternatives, including Bisphenol S (BPS), have a high structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that they may have similar biological effects towards human beings. Indeed, BPS was also found to have endocrine-disrupting effects. Epigenetic mechanism was reported to be involved in BPA-induced biological effects in both in vitro and in vivo models...
December 31, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jin Hee Kim, Seungho Lee, Kyoung-Nam Kim, Yun-Chul Hong
Pyrethroids are a class of man-made insecticides associated with various adverse health outcomes including respiratory problems. However, there were limited evidences on the relation between 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) as a metabolite of pyrethroids and pulmonary function, particularly among elderly population who have declining pulmonary function. Therefore, we collected urine samples and performed pulmonary function test (PFT) repeatedly in a total of 559 Korean elderly living in Seoul as an urban area...
December 29, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alexander R Gerson, Daniel A Cristol, Chad L Seewagen
For most birds, energy efficiency and conservation are paramount to balancing the competing demands of self-maintenance, reproduction, and other demanding life history stages. Yet the ability to maximize energy output for behaviors like predator escape and migration is often also critical. Environmental perturbations that affect energy metabolism may therefore have important consequences for fitness and survival. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global pollutant that has wide-ranging impacts on physiological systems, but its effects on the metabolism of birds and other vertebrates are poorly understood...
December 29, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wen Yang, Scott A Bradford, Yang Wang, Prabhakar Sharma, Jianying Shang, Baoguo Li
Application of biochar in the field has received considerable attention in recent years, but there is still little known about the fate and transport of biochar colloids (BCs) in the subsurface. Natural organic matter (NOM), which mainly consists of humic substance (HS) and proteins, is ubiquitous in the natural environment and its dissolved fraction is active and mobile. In this study, the transport of BCs in saturated porous media has been examined in the presence of two HS (humic and fulvic acids) and two proteins...
December 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Anoosha Attaran, Arash Salahinejad, Adam L Crane, Som Niyogi, Douglas P Chivers
Selenium (Se) is a metalloid of potential interest from both a toxicological and nutritional perspective, having a range of safe intake. The adverse neuro-behavioural effects of Se have been investigated in both humans and fishes, but little is known about its effects on social behaviours or the serotonergic signaling pathway in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chorionic dietary exposure to Se (as selenomethionine) at different concentrations (control, 2.1, 11.6 or 31.5 μg/g dry wt...
December 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yi Li, Hainan Wu, Yun Shen, Chao Wang, Peifang Wang, Wenlong Zhang, Yu Gao, Lihua Niu
In order to accurately monitor the changes in a freshwater ecosystem in response to anthropogenic stressors, microbe-environment correlations and microbe-microbe interactions were combined to determine crucial indicator taxa in contaminated sediments. The diversity, composition, and co-occurrence pattern of bacterial communities in 23 sediment samples collected from Lake Taihu were explored using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis. Fisher's exact test showed that the cluster analyses of samples could show a direct correlation between the relative abundance of bacterial communities and the physicochemical properties of the sediment (P < 0...
December 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yuan-Lai Luo, Xiao-Jun Luo, Mei-Xia Ye, Lan Lin, Yan-Hong Zeng, Bi-Xian Mai
A combination of previous studies and the present study indicated species-specific debromination of polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in teleost fish. Three situations of debromination were found, namely rapid debromination represented by debromination of BDE 99 to BDE 47 observed in common carp, tilapia, crucian carp, and oscar fish; slow debromination represented by debromination of BDE 99 to BDE 49 observed in the abovementioned fish and rainbow trout, salmon, and snakehead; and no or minor debromination observed in catfish...
December 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sarah McCarrick, Virginia Cunha, Ondřej Zapletal, Jan Vondráček, Kristian Dreij
Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are a group of environmental pollutants found in complex mixtures together with PAHs. In contrast to the extensively studied PAHs, which have been established to have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, much less is known about the effects of oxy-PAHs. The present work aimed to investigate the genotoxic potency of a set of environmentally relevant oxy-PAHs along with environmental soil samples in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). We found that all oxy-PAHs tested induced DNA strand breaks in a dose-dependent manner and some of the oxy-PAHs further induced micronuclei formation...
December 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mengqi Jiang, Yanping Zhou, Xiyan Ji, Huimin Li, Zheng Zheng, Jibiao Zhang
The present study investigated the physiological responses, photosynthetic activity, and microbial community structure of leaf-associated biofilms on the microphyte Vallisneria natans during a harmful algal bloom. Results of the physiological and photosynthetic indices (Fv /Fm ratios [maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII)]; malondialdehyde content; total chlorophyll; and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) indicated that algal blooms could cause inhibition of photosynthesis, oxidative stress and an antioxidant system stress response in Vallisneria natans leaf-associated biofilms...
December 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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