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Environmental Pollution

Yanjie Cui, Ling Liang, Qi Zhong, Qian He, Xiaomei Shan, Keyang Chen, Fen Huang
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was used in large quantities, and mainly for killing the intermediate host snails of schistosome in China, thereby resulting in ubiquitous PCP residue in the environment. However, studies considering the carcinogenicity of PCP for humans mainly focused on occupational workers, and the actual carcinogenicity of PCP for general population is uncertain. To investigate the association between cancer risks and PCP exposure in a community population, an ecological study was conducted in three contaminated areas along the Yangtze River...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Wei Chen, Xiao-Yang Liu, Han-Qing Yu
Temperature variation caused by climate change, seasonal variation and geographic locations affects the physicochemical compositions of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), resulting in difference in the fates of CDOM-related environmental pollutants. Exploration into the thermal induced structural transition of CDOM can help to better understand their environmental impacts, but information on this aspect is still lacking. Through integrating fluorescence excitation-emission matrix coupled parallel factor analysis with synchronous fluorescence two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, this study provides an in-depth insight into the temperature-dependent conformational transitions of CDOM and their impact on its hydrophobic interaction with persistent organic pollutants (with phenanthrene as an example) in water...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Jeremy N Moore, Lisa L Williams, Keith A Grasman
A broad suite of 87 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including 26 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 23 non-PBDEs halogenated FRs (NPHFRs), 16 organophosphate esters (OPEs), 4 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 5 emerging perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) or precursors, were determined in 30 individual Caspian tern (listed as a threatened species in the U.S. State of Michigan) eggs collected in 2013 and 2014 from Michigan nesting sites on Two Tree Island (St, Mary's River), Charity Reef (Saginaw Bay) and Channel-Shelter Island (a Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) in Saginaw Bay)...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yuanzhen Chen, Youbin Si, Dongmei Zhou, Fei Dang
With the increasing application in antimicrobial products, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are inevitably released into the terrestrial environment, and pose potential risks to invertebrates such as land snails Achatina fulica, which take up AgNP from food and water. Here we differentiate Ag uptake biodynamic between Ag forms (i.e., PVP-AgNP vs. AgNO3) and between exposure pathways. Snails assimilated Ag efficiently from lettuce leaves pre-exposed to AgNP, with assimilation efficiencies (AEs) averaging 62-85% and food ingestion rates of 0...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Baoshuang Liu, Jianhui Wu, Jiaying Zhang, Lu Wang, Jiamei Yang, Danni Liang, Qili Dai, Xiaohui Bi, Yinchang Feng, Yufen Zhang, Qinxun Zhang
Heze city, a medium-size city in Shandong province, Eastern China. Ambient PM2.5 samples were collected in urban area of Heze from August 2015 to April 2016, and chemical species and sources of PM2.5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the average concentration of PM2.5 was 100.9 μg/m(3) during the sampling period, and the water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species included elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), as well as elements contributed 32.7-51.7%, 16.3% and 12.5%, respectively, to PM2...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Susan Y Jaconis, Theresa M Culley, Alexandra M Meier
The roadside habitat can be challenging for plants, which must maintain normal biological processes despite an influx of airborne pollutants. While the effects of many gases on plants have been quantified, the impacts of particulate pollutants have been relatively less studied. This is especially true of field experiments where particle dispersion may be influenced by meteorology and roadway use. We examined chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) along roadsides in the Cincinnati, Ohio metropolitan area to assess particulate influence on plant pollination through stigmatic clogging...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Noël J Diepens, Evelyne Buffan-Dubau, Hélène Budzinski, Jean Kallerhoff, Georges Merlina, Jérome Silvestre, Isabelle Auby, Nathalie Tapie, Arnaud Elger
Worldwide seagrass declines have been observed due to multiple stressors. One of them is the mixture of pesticides used in intensive agriculture and boat antifouling paints in coastal areas. Effects of mixture toxicity are complex and poorly understood. However, consideration of mixture toxicity is more realistic and ecologically relevant for environmental risk assessment (ERA). The first aim of this study was to determine short-term effects of realistic herbicide mixture exposure on physiological endpoints of Zostera noltei...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Shilpi Samiksha, Ramya Sunder Raman, Jayant Nirmalkar, Samresh Kumar, Rohit Sirvaiya
Size classified (PM10 and PM2.5) paved and unpaved road dust chemical source profiles, optical attenuation and potential health risk from exposure to these sources are reported in this study. A total of 45 samples from 9 paved road and 6 unpaved road sites located in and around Bhopal were re-suspended in the laboratory, collected onto filter substrates and subjected to a variety of chemical analyses. In general, road dust was enriched (compared to upper continental crustal abundance) in anthropogenic pollutants including Sb, Cu, Zn, Co, and Pb...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Victor H Estellano, Karla Pozo, Petra Přibylová, Jana Klánová, Ondřej Audy, Silvano Focardi
Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured for an entire year in the region of Tuscany, Italy. Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed over four sampling periods of 3-5 months from April 2008 to July 2009 in urban (n = 6) and rural (n = 4) sites. The aim of the study was to characterize the spatial and seasonal variations in selected POPs. The POP concentrations (pg m(-3)) in the air were dominated by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑7PCBs)...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Cristina Botías, Arthur David, Elizabeth M Hill, Dave Goulson
The increased use of pesticides has caused concern over the possible direct association of exposure to combinations of these compounds with bee health problems. There is growing proof that bees are regularly exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals, but most research has been focused on managed bees living in farmland, whereas little is known about exposure of wild bees, both in farmland and urban habitats. To determine exposure of wild bumblebees to pesticides in agricultural and urban environments through the season, specimens of five different species were collected from farms and ornamental urban gardens in three sampling periods...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yuanxiang Jin, Sisheng Wu, Zhaoyang Zeng, Zhengwei Fu
Environmental pollutants have become an increasingly common health hazard in the last several decades. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the profound relationship between gut microbiota and our health. Gut microbiota are very sensitive to drugs, diet, and even environmental pollutants. In this review, we discuss the possible effects of environmental pollutants including antibiotics, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, nanomaterials, and food additives on gut microbiota and their subsequent effects on health...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xinghua Zhang, Yangmei Zhang, Junying Sun, Yangchun Yu, Francesco Canonaco, Andre S H Prévôt, Gang Li
An Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometry (Q-AMS) was utilized to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron particles (NR-PM1) from October 27 to December 3, 2014 at an urban site in Lanzhou, northwest China. The average NR-PM1 mass concentration was 37.3 μg m(-3) (ranging from 2.9 to 128.2 μg m(-3)) under an AMS collection efficiency of unity and was composed of organics (48.4%), sulfate (17.8%), nitrate (14.6%), ammonium (13.7%), and chloride (5.7%). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) with the multi-linear engine (ME-2) solver identified six organic aerosol (OA) factors, including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), coal combustion OA (CCOA), cooking-related OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and two oxygenated OA (OOA1 and OOA2), which accounted for 8...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Bing Zhang, Yan Yang, Xiang Zhou, Ping Shen, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
The common soil arthropod Folsomia candida can survive well when fed only maize pollen and thus may be exposed to insecticidal proteins by ingesting insect-resistant genetically engineered maize pollen containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins when being released into the soil. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj-producing transgenic Bt maize (Shuangkang 12-5) pollen on F. candida fitness. Survival, development, and the reproduction were not significantly reduced when F...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Mingming Sun, Mao Ye, Kuan Liu, Arthur P Schwab, Manqiang Liu, Jiaguo Jiao, Yanfang Feng, Jinzhong Wan, Da Tian, Jun Wu, Huixin Li, Feng Hu, Xin Jiang
Mixed contamination of nitrate and antibiotics/antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) is an emerging environmental risk to farmland soil. This is the first study to explore the role of excessive anthropogenic nitrate input in the anoxic dissipation of soil antibiotic/ARGs. During the initial 10 days of incubation, the presence of soil antibiotics significantly inhibited NO3(-) dissipation, N2O production rate, and denitrifying genes (DNGs) abundance in soil (p < 0.05). Between days 10 and 30, by contrast, enhanced denitrification clearly prompted the decline in antibiotic contents and ARG abundance...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
J Gao, B Zhu, H Xiao, H Kang, X Hou, Y Yin, L Zhang, Q Miao
Comprehensive measurements were conducted at the summit of Mount (Mt.) Huang, a rural site located in eastern China during the summer of 2011. They observed that ozone showed pronounced diurnal variations with high concentrations at night and low values during daytime. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate the ozone concentrations at Mt. Huang in June 2011. With processes analysis and online ozone tagging method we coupled into the model system, the causes of this diurnal pattern and the contributions from different source regions were investigated...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
S Henrik Barmentlo, Cornelis A M van Gestel, José Álvarez-Rogel, M Nazaret González-Alcaraz
This study aimed at assessing the effects of increased air temperature and reduced soil moisture content on the multi-generation toxicity of a soil polluted by metal/metalloid mining wastes. Enchytraeus crypticus was exposed to dilution series of the polluted soil in Lufa 2.2 soil under different combinations of air temperature (20 °C and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC) over three generations standardized on physiological time. Generation time was shorter with increasing air temperature and/or soil moisture content...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Meiqing Jin, Jie Fu, Bin Xue, Shanshan Zhou, Lina Zhang, An Li
The spatial distribution, compositional profiles, and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and chlordanes (CHLs), in the surface sediments in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and adjacent areas were investigated. The total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs varied from 0.64 to 3.17 ng/g dw, 0.19-0.65 ng/g dw, and 0.03-0.16 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea for most pollutants except for trans-CHL, ΣCHLs (sum of trans- and cis-chlordane) and p,p'-DDD...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Wenjuan Tan, Wenchao Du, Ana C Barrios, Raul Armendariz, Nubia Zuverza-Mena, Zhaoxia Ji, Chong Hyun Chang, Jeffrey I Zink, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
Little is known about the effects of surface coating on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants. In this study, basil (Ocimum basilicum) was cultivated for 65 days in soil amended with unmodified, hydrophobic (coated with aluminum oxide and dimethicone), and hydrophilic (coated with aluminum oxide and glycerol) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) at 125, 250, 500, and 750 mg nano-TiO2 kg(-1) soil. ICP-OES/MS, SPAD meter, and UV/Vis spectrometry were used to determine Ti and essential elements in tissues, relative chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, and antioxidant response, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Hongkai Zhu, Kai Zhang, Hongwen Sun, Fei Wang, Yiming Yao
To investigate the environmental fate of 3 main hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs), samples from various environmental media, including outdoor settled dust, soil, sediment, plant tissues (holly, cypress and pine) and marine species (shrimp, crab and fish) were obtained around an expanded polystyrene material manufacturing plant in Tianjin, China. The 3 main HBCD diastereoisomers were detected with the total concentrations ranging from 328 to 31,752 ng/g dry weight (dw), 2.91-1730 ng/g dw, 23...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Louise Champoux, Jean-François Rail, Raphael A Lavoie
Northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, Canada, were collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in eggs from 2004 and 2009, and several brominated and nonbrominated flame retardants (FRs) were measured every 2-5 years in eggs from 1994 to 2014. The sum (Σ) concentrations of PCDDs/Fs were significantly lower in 2009 relative to 2004, but the total toxic equivalent concentrations for PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs showed no significant differences (196 ng/kg wet weight (ww) in 2004 and 220 ng/kg ww in 2009)...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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