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Environmental Pollution

Chaopu Ti, Longlong Xia, Scott X Chang, Xiaoyuan Yan
Ammonia (NH3 ) emission from agricultural sources has contributed significantly to air pollution, soil acidification, water eutrophication, biodiversity loss, and declining human health. Although there are numerous strategies for reducing NH3 emission from agricultural systems, the effectiveness of these measures is highly variable. Furthermore, the integrated assessment of measures to reduce NH3 emission both from livestock production and cropping systems based on animal and crop type is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis and integrated assessment of measures to reduce NH3 emission from agricultural systems...
November 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ming Liu, Jingbo Chen, Xueshi Sun, Zhizhou Hu, Dejiang Fan
The concentration and speciation of heavy metals (Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd) were studied in surface sediment from the Yangtze River(YR)to the East China Sea (ECS) shelf. The results showed that high contents of metals were found in the YR estuary (YRE) and in the nearshore muddy area, while lower concentrations were found in the YR channel and the ECS shelf. However, after standardization, the total content of most heavy metals from the YR showed little change or slightly increased during the transport process from the river to the estuary but decreased significantly outside the estuary, especially in the sediments of the ECS shelf...
November 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jingsi Chen, Xiaofeng Zhou, Han Zhang, Yueming Liu, Chen Cao, Ruihua Dong, Yaqun Yuan, Min Wang, Yuanan Lu, Min Wu, Shuguang Li, Bo Chen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to phthalates is reported to be associated with increased incidence of microalbuminuria and low-grade albuminuria in children and adolescents. However, this phenomenon of phthalate-related nephrotoxicity is unknown in adults. METHODS: Urine samples of 1663 adults from the 2012 Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) were measured for 10 metabolites of 6 phthalates and for renal function parameters. Their associations were explored by linear and logistic regression models...
November 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jingli Mu, Ling Qu, Fei Jin, Shoufeng Zhang, Chao Fang, Xindong Ma, Weiwei Zhang, Cheng Huo, Yi Cong, Juying Wang
Worldwide the seafloor has been recognized as a major sink for microplastics. However, currently nothing is known about the sediment microplastic pollution in the North Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Here, we present the first record of microplastic contamination in the surface sediment from the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. The microplastics were extracted by the density separation method from collected samples. Each particle was identified using the microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (μFTIR)...
November 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jixuan Ma, Yun Zhou, Yuewei Liu, Lili Xiao, Xingzu Cen, Wei Li, Yanjun Guo, Myongho Kim, Jing Yuan, Weihong Chen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with metabolic diseases. However, relationships between PAH exposures and dyslipidemias have not been well addressed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between urinary PAH metabolite concentrations and dyslipidemias in the general population. METHODS: Twelve urinary PAH metabolites and four serum lipid profiles were measured in 3640 Chinese adults from the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort...
November 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Susana I L Gomes, Carlos P Roca, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) have an estimated production of ca. 20 tons per year in the US. Nickel has been risk-assessed for long in Europe, but not NiNPs, hence the concern for the environment. In the present study, we focused on investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of NiNPs and the comparison to NiNO3 . The high-throughput microarray for the soil ecotox model Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta) was used. To anchor gene to phenotype effect level, organisms were exposed to reproduction effect concentrations EC20 and EC50, for 3 and 7 days...
November 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Qing Sun, Xiaolong Hu, Shuilin Zheng, Jian Zhang, Jiawei Sheng
The N-TiO2 /g-C3 N4 @diatomite (NTCD) composite has been prepared through a simple impregnation method, using titanium tetrachloride as precursor and urea as nitrogen-carbon source. Then the effects of calcination temperature on structure, surface property and photocatalytic activity of the catalysts were investigated. And XRD, TEM, XPS, FTIR and UV-vis diffuse adsorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the obtained powders. The photocatalytic activity of the NTCD was evaluated through the reduction of aqueous Cr (VI) under visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm)...
November 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jing Wu, Dandan Cao, Wei Gao, Kun Lv, Yong Liang, Jianjie Fu, Yan Gao, Yawei Wang, Guibin Jiang
Large amounts of short chain and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) are released into the environment during production and usage. However, compared to SCCPs, there is a significant lack of attention for MCCPs. In this work, 83 air samples, collected between 2012 and 2015 from the Tibetan Plateau, were analyzed to investigate the airborne levels and distributions of MCCPs, further to evaluate their potential long-range transport behavior on the alpine area. The total air MCCP concentrations at Shergyla Mountain and Lhasa were between 50 and 690 pg/m3 and 800-6700 pg/m3 , respectively...
November 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Iana Markevych, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt, Marie Standl, Dorothea Sugiri, Tamara Schikowski, Sibylle Koletzko, Gunda Herberth, Carl-Peter Bauer, Andrea von Berg, Dietrich Berdel, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported the association between greenspace and academic performance at school level. We examined associations between both residential and school greenspace and individual school grades in German adolescents. METHODS: German and maths grades from the latest school certificate, residential and school greenspace, and covariates were available for 1351 10 and 15 years old Munich children and 1078 Wesel children from two German birth cohorts - GINIplus and LISA...
October 31, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Rui Huang, Zhiqi Liu, Boyin Yan, Jingjing Zhang, Dongmei Liu, Yongpeng Xu, Peng Wang, Fuyi Cui, Zhiquan Liu
It is necessary and important to investigate the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water treatment systems for the management of disinfection formation risk. In the present study, the formation potential of trichloromethane (TCM) and haloacetic acids in different algal metabolites were compared, and the formation kinetics of these DBPs were investigated. The results indicated that DBP formation potential, the traditional index widely used to evaluate the disinfection formation risk, can represent neither the total precursors of DBPs nor the possible generated amounts of DBPs in drinking water systems...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mengsi Deng, Jiarong Li, Shuangqi Zhang, Ming Shan, Jill Baumgartner, Ellison Carter, Xudong Yang
Previous studies of solid fuel emissions in household stoves focused more on emission measurements of the overall combustion process instead of the dynamic burning rate and its connection to the emissions. This study put forward a measurement system to monitor the dynamic fuel burning rate and emission rate directly, and explored their relationships during different combustion phases. Experiments were conducted using two types of wood charcoal consumed in a small open pan (i.e. fire basin) used commonly for space heating in rural China...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ziyue Chen, Yan Zhuang, Xiaoming Xie, Danlu Chen, Nianliang Cheng, Lin Yang, Ruiyuan Li
Recently, ground ozone has become one major airborne pollutant and the frequency of ozone-induced pollution episodes has increased rapidly across China. However, due to the lack of long-term observation data, relevant research on the characteristics and influencing factors of urban ozone concentrations remains limited. Based on ground ozone observation data during 2006-2016, we quantified the causality influence of individual meteorological factors on ozone concentrations in Beijing using a convergent cross mapping (CCM) method...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Peng Zhang, Jingyun Huang, Jinian Shu, Bo Yang
Despite extensive effort to characterize xylene-isomer-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) over the past decade, differences in SOA composition among xylene isomers, and their relative contributions to SOA formation remain poorly understood. Herein, we reinvestigated the photooxidation of o-, m-, and p-xylene under two limiting NO conditions. Dicarbonyls, TBM (the acronym of C3 -trione, 2,3-butanedione, and 3-methyl-2-oxiranecarbaldehyde with the same [M+H]+ m/z value of 87), and highly oxidized species (HOS), based on the m/z 61 fragment, were determined to be the predominant SOA components arising from xylene photooxidation; however, their relative contributions to SOA formation appear to depend on the xylene substitution pattern...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Waqar Ali, Nisbah Mushtaq, Tariq Javed, Hua Zhang, Kamran Ali, Atta Rasool, Abida Farooqi
Stable isotopes ratios (‰) of Hydrogen (δ2 H) and Oxygen (δ1 ⁸O) were used to trace the groundwater recharge mechanism and geochemistry of arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater from four selected sites (Larkana, Naudero, Ghari Khuda Buksh and Dokri) of Larkana district. The stable isotope values of δ2 H and δ1 ⁸O range from 70.78‰ to -56.01‰ and from -10.92‰ to -7.35‰, relative to Vienna Standard for Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) respectively, in all groundwater samples, thus indicating the recharge source of groundwater from high-salinity older water...
October 29, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Neel Kamal Koju, Xin Song, Na Lin, Keke Xu, Heng Fu
Efficient injection and distribution of nanoparticles in porous media are considered a formidable technical hurdle for injection-based in situ remediation. One approach to enhance the mobility of nanoparticles in an aquifer is to use surface modifiers. In this study, nanoscale magnesia (NMgOs), an innovative and effective remedial material for cadmium (Cd) removal from groundwater, was modified with the negatively charged and eco-friendly humic acid to enhance its mobility in aquifers. A two-dimensional reactor (60 × 50 × 10 cm), with 2 injection wells and 30 monitoring wells was designed, constructed, and sand-packed in the laboratory to simulate a saturated aquifer...
October 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Auriba Raza, Marcus Dahlquist, Martin Jonsson, Jacob Hollenberg, Leif Svensson, Tomas Lind, Petter L S Ljungman
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported associations between exposure to particulate matter and incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and some have observed associations with ozone (O3 ). There are no studies investigating susceptibility based on previous disease history to short-term O3 exposure and the risk of OHCA. AIM: To investigate the role of previous cardiovascular-related hospitalizations in modifying the associations between the risk of OHCA and short-term increase in O3 concentrations...
October 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jie Cheng, Lili Xue, Min Zhu, Jiayin Feng, Jue Shen-Tu, Jianming Xu, Philip C Brookes, Caixian Tang, Yan He
An anaerobic incubation was launched with varying nitrate (1, 5, 10 and 20 mM exogenous NaNO3 ) and molybdate (20 mM Na2 MoO4 , a sulfate-reducing inhibitor) additions to investigate the characteristics of PCP dechlorination, as well as the reduction of natural co-occurring electron acceptors, including NO3 - , Fe(III) and SO4 2- , and the responses of microbial community structures under a unique reductive mangrove soil. Regardless of exogenous addition, nitrate was rapidly eliminated in the first 12 days...
October 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Muhammad Ubaid Ali, Guijian Liu, Balal Yousaf, Habib Ullah, Qumber Abbas, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba Munir, Samina Irshad
The current study investigates the concentration of eleven trace elements in biomaterials including hair (85) and nails (85) along with seventy five (75) road dust samples collected from a healthy population of habitable urban-industrial areas of Hefei, China. The samples were acid digested and analyzed using ICP-MS for trace elements content. The mean concentration of Elements followed descending order of Zn > Mg > Fe > Cr > Al > Sn > Sr > Ti > Cu > As > Cd and Mg > Zn > Fe > Cr > Al > Sn > Ti > Cu > Sr > As > Cd in hair and nails, respectively...
October 26, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jessica Purswani, Isabel M Guisado, Julio Coello-Cabezas, Jesús González-López, Clementina Pozo
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation technologies based on two-phase partitioning systems such as extractive membrane biofilm reactors (EMBFR) permit separation of biological and contaminant compartments, thus allowing optimization of the biological section. In this study, we set-up an EMBFR with three MTBE-degrading and cooperating strains (termed social biofilm: Agrobacterium sp. MS2, Paenibacillus etheri SH7T and Rhodococcus ruber EE6). The removal efficiency of the social-biofilm EMBFR was 80%, and functional stability was observed in the reactor, i...
October 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Chunfang Zhang, Hanghai Zhou, Yaozong Cui, Chunsheng Wang, Yanhong Li, Dongdong Zhang
Microplastic particles are a global concern due to their widespread and growing threat to marine and coastal environments. To improve knowledge of microplastic pollution in China, we investigated 25 sediment samples collected with a box corer in the Southern Yellow Sea and East China Sea off the coast of China. The microplastics were extracted from sediments via density separation, after which they were observed under a microscope and characterized according to shape, color, and size, while polymer type identification was performed using micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
October 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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