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Environmental Pollution

Tao Huang, Shuwen Zhang, Longfei Liu, Jiaojiao Xu
This paper investigated the application of graphite particle electrodes to the removal of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes in a three-dimensional (3D) electrokinetic reactor. The influences of the voltage gradient, mass ratio of graphite powers to fly ashes, nitric acid concentrations, proposing times, and liquid-solid (L-M) ratios on the remedial efficiencies of MSWI fly ashes were comprehensively studied in an orthogonal deign and a sequential double-factor setup...
September 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shaokang Dang, Ding Ding, Yong Lu, Qian Su, Tianwei Lin, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Huiping Zhang, Xuebin Wang, Houzhang Tan, Zhongliang Zhu, Hui Li
Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) exposures during pregnancy could lead to declined birth weight, intrauterine developmental restriction, and premature delivery, however, the underlying mechanisms are still not elucidated. There are few studies concerning the effects of PM2.5 exposure on maternal and child health in Xi'an (one of the cities with severe air pollution of PM2.5 in North China). Then, this study aimed to investigate the effect of PM2.5 exposure in Xi'an on the offspring birth weights and the possibly associated epigenetic mechanisms...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Penghao Wei, Fei Zhao, Xiaona Zhang, Wenmin Liu, Guobin Jiang, Hongfang Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Maternal thyroid hormones (THs) play an essential role in the embryonic and larval development of fish. Previous studies in fish have reported that parental exposure to thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) changed maternal TH levels in the offspring; however, whether this transgenerational thyroid endocrine disruption can further disturb the early development of the offspring still remains largely unknown. Bisphenol S (BPS), a substitute of bisphenol A, has been reported to be a potential TDC. In this study, zebrafish (F0) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 10, and 100 μg/L) of BPS from 2 h post-fertilization to 120 days post-fertilization and then paired to spawn...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Thanh-Son Dao, Thi-My-Chi Vo, Claudia Wiegand, Ba-Trung Bui, Khuong V Dinh
Climate change and human activities induce an increased frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms which could release toxins to aquatic ecosystems. Zooplankton communities belong to the first affected organisms, but in tropical freshwater ecosystems, this issue has yet been poorly investigated. We tested two questions (i) if the tropical Daphnia lumholtzi is capable to develop tolerance to an ecologically relevant concentration of purified microcystin-LR and microcystins from cyanobacterial extract transferable to F1 and F2 generations? And (ii) would F1 and F2 generations recover if reared in toxin-free medium? To answer these questions, we conducted two full factorial mutigenerational experiments, in which D...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yin Yang, Yanfei Guo, Zhengmin Min Qian, Zengliang Ruan, Yang Zheng, Alistair Woodward, Siqi Ai, Steven W Howard, Michael G Vaughn, Wenjun Ma, Fan Wu, Hualiang Lin
The linkage between ambient air pollution exposure and occurrence of diabetes mellitus is not well defined. This study examined the association between exposure to fine particles (PM2.5 ) and the prevalence of diabetes among Chinese elderly people. We surveyed 11,504 adults aged ≥50 years in China, estimated the annual concentrations of ambient PM2.5 using a satellite-based model of aerosol optical depth information. We employed a generalized mixed effects model to examine the association between PM2.5 and the prevalence of diabetes and explored potential effect modifiers...
September 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Karina Dias Amaral, Luis Carlos Martínez, Maria Augusta Pereira Lima, José Eduardo Serrão, Terezinha Maria Castro Della Lucia
Leaf-cutting ants are important pests of forests and agricultural crops in the Neotropical region. Atta sexdens colonies can be composed of thousands of individuals, which form a highly complex society with a single reproductive queen. Successful control of this species is achieved only if the queen is affected. Few data are available on the lethal or sublethal effects of toxic compounds on leaf-cutting ant queens. Azadirachtin has been claimed as an effective biopesticide for insect control, but its action on leaf-cutting ants has been little explored...
September 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Suling Zhu, Ling Yang, Weini Wang, Xingrong Liu, Mingming Lu, Xiping Shen
Air pollution forecasting is significant for public health and controlling pollution, and statistical methods are important air pollution forecasting techniques. Nevertheless, the research of AQI (air quality index) forecasting is very rare. So an accurate and stable AQI forecasting model is very urgent and necessary. For the high complex, volatile and nonlinear AQI series, this research presents a novel optimal-combined model based on CEEMD (complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition), PSOGSA (particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm), PSO (particle swarm optimization) and combined forecasting method...
September 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Li Wang, Cheng Xue, Yushu Zhang, Zhiguo Li, Chuang Liu, Xia Pan, Fang Chen, Yi Liu
Soil organic matter (SOM) is the principal aggregating agent for soil aggregation and also the main adsorbent for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), which may thereby affect OCP distribution in soils subjected to different land use types. However, the potential effects of land use on SOM and OCP distribution patterns in soil aggregates are not well understood. In this study, soils from farmlands and barelands in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area were analyzed to determine the influence of land use on OCP distribution and composition in different aggregate fractions (>3, 1-3, 0...
September 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yanwei Su, Chao Quan, Xiandong Li, Yuqin Shi, Peng Duan, Kedi Yang
BPA and NP are both typical endocrine disruptors, the exposed populations are widespread, and the health risks mustn't be ignored. However, the interactions between them on spermatogenesis are rarely mentioned. And the underlying mechanism is unclear yet. In the present study, prepubertal SD rats were exposed to different low doses of BPA and NP separately or jointly for 4 weeks. The results indicate that the joint exposure induced excessive apoptosis and autophagy in the testes, as proved by a series of characteristics such as chromatin condensation and autophagosomes formation...
September 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yanan Zhang, Pu Mao, Guiying Li, Junjie Hu, Yingxin Yu, Taicheng An
Due to frequent detection in environment as well as in the human body, the adverse effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) have been extensively studied in the past few years. However, information regarding the inhalation toxicity of BDE209 to humans is currently limited. In this study, the cytotoxicity, cell damage, and inflammation markers including IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the Beas-2B cell line induced by BDE209 were measured using a central composite design. Results showed that as BDE209 concentrations (5-65 μg mL-1 ) and exposure time (6-30 h) were increased, cell viability sharply decreased from 99...
September 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Peng Cai, Xing Liu, Dandan Ji, Shanshan Yang, Sharon L Walker, Yichao Wu, Chunhui Gao, Qiaoyun Huang
Soil, composed mainly of minerals, plays a central role in the circulation of microbial pathogens in the environment. Herein, the growth, biofilm formation, and virulence gene expression of the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 were monitored following exposure to montmorillonite, kaolinite, and goethite, three common soil minerals in the clay size fraction. E. coli O157:H7 growth was notably promoted (P < 0.05), while biofilm formation was inhibited in the presence of montmorillonite (P < 0...
September 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hong Ren, Mingjie Kang, Lujie Ren, Yue Zhao, Xiaole Pan, Siyao Yue, Linjie Li, Wanyu Zhao, Lianfang Wei, Qiaorong Xie, Jie Li, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, Pingqing Fu
Organic tracers are useful for investigating the sources of carbonaceous aerosols but there are still no adequate studies in China. To obtain insights into the diurnal variations, properties, and the influence of regional emission controls on carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing, day-/nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected before (Oct. 15th - Nov. 2nd) and during (Nov. 3rd - Nov. 12th) the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. Eleven organic compound classes were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
September 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xin Ren, Ruonan Li, Junze Liu, Kai Huang, Sheng Wu, Yansen Li, Chunmei Li
Glyphosate is the active ingredient of the commercial formulation Roundup® , which is used worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of pure glyphosate or Roundup® on pregnant mice and their fetuses during pregnancy. From gestation days (GDs) 1-19, ICR mice were orally administered distilled water, 0.5% glyphosate solution or 0.5%-glyphosate Roundup® solution. The ovaries and serum were collected at GD19. The results showed decreases in body weight gain and, ovary and liver weight in glyphosate-treated mice...
September 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Michael G Bertram, Minna Saaristo, Jake M Martin, Tiarne E Ecker, Marcus Michelangeli, Christopher P Johnstone, Bob B M Wong
The capacity of pharmaceutical pollution to alter behaviour in wildlife is of increasing environmental concern. A major pathway of these pollutants into the environment is the treatment of livestock with hormonal growth promotants (HGPs), which are highly potent veterinary pharmaceuticals that enter aquatic ecosystems via effluent runoff. Hormonal growth promotants are designed to exert biological effects at low doses, can act on physiological pathways that are evolutionarily conserved across taxa, and have been detected in ecosystems worldwide...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
G Braun, Z Sebesvari, M Braun, J Kruse, W Amelung, N T An, F G Renaud
The Red River Delta is a major agricultural production area of Vietnam with year-round use of pesticides for paddy rice cultivation and other production systems. The delta is protected from flooding, storm surges and saline water intrusion by a sophisticated river and sea-dyke system. Little is known about the effects of such a dyke system on pesticide pollution in the enclosed landscape. Our aim was to address this gap by i) determining pesticide prevalence in soils and sediments within a dyked agricultural area, and by ii) assessing whether and to which degree this dyke system might affect the spatial distribution of pesticides...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Zhengsheng Xie, Chunlan Fan, Rui Lu, Pengxia Liu, Beibei Wang, Shengli Du, Cheng Jin, Shunxi Deng, Yanpeng Li
Frequent low visibility, haze pollution caused by heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) loading, has been entailing significant environmental issues and health risks in China since 2013. A substantial fraction of bioaerosols was observed in PM (1.5-15%) during haze periods with intensive pollution. However, systematic and consistent results of the variations of bioaerosol characteristics during haze pollution are lacking. The role of bioaerosols in air quality and interaction with environment conditions are not yet well characterized...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xianliang Yi, Keke Zhang, Gaorui Han, Mingyue Yu, Tongtong Chi, Siyuan Jing, Zhaochuan Li, Jingjing Zhan, Minghuo Wu
Marine organisms are naturally exposed to different environmental pollutants including organic pollutants and nanoparticles. The interactive effects between nanoparticles and other chemicals on aquatic organisms have raised concerns regarding the potential of nanomaterials as the vector for other chemicals. In the present study, the effect of nano zinc oxide (nZnO) on the bioavailability of triphenyltin chloride (TPTCl) was studied, and their combined acute and reproductive toxicity to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus were evaluated...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Juan Xu, Yan-Yun Hu, Xiu-Yan Li, Jie-Jie Chen, Guo-Ping Sheng
Antibiotics residuals in the environments receive wide concerns due to the high risk of generating antibiotic resistance. Natural organic matters (NOM) existed in the environments are considered to have the capacity of binding with organic contaminants, consequently influencing their speciation and transformation in the natural environments. To assess the migration of antibiotics in the environments, it is crucial to understand the binding mechanisms between NOM and antibiotics, which is still unclear due to the limit of available research methods...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Keni Cota-Ruiz, José A Hernández-Viezcas, Armando Varela-Ramírez, Carolina Valdés, José A Núñez-Gastélum, Alejandro Martínez-Martínez, Marcos Delgado-Rios, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
Bulk Cu compounds such as Cu(OH)2 are extensively used as pesticides in agriculture. Recent investigations suggest that Cu-based nanomaterials can replace bulk materials reducing the environmental impacts of Cu. In this study, stress responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings to Cu(OH)2 nanoparticle or compounds were evaluated. Seeds were immersed in suspension/solutions of a Cu(OH)2 nanoform, bulk Cu(OH)2 , CuSO4 , and Cu(NO3 )2  at 25 and 75 mg/L. Six days later, the germination, seedling growth, and the physiological and biochemical responses of sprouts were evaluated...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Adrislaine S Mansano, Jaqueline P Souza, Juliana Cancino-Bernardi, Francine P Venturini, Valéria S Marangoni, Valtencir Zucolotto
The increase of production and consumption of copper oxide nanostructures in several areas contributes to their release into aquatic ecosystems. Toxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs), in particular, on tropical aquatic organisms are still unknown, representing a risk for biota. In this study, the effects of rod-shaped CuO NPs on the Neotropical species Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Hyphessobrycon eques were investigated. We also compared the toxicity of CuO NPs and CuCl2 on these species to investigate the contribution of particles and cupper ions to the CuO NPs toxicity...
September 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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