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Environmental Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644983/future-heat-waves-due-to-climate-change-threaten-the-survival-of-p-%C3%A2-oceanica-seedlings
#1
Laura Guerrero-Meseguer, Arnaldo Marín, Carlos Sanz-Lázaro
Extreme weather events are major drivers of ecological change, and their occurrence is likely to increase due to climate change. The transient increases in atmospheric temperatures are leading to a greater occurrence of heat waves, extreme events that can produce a substantial warming of water, especially in enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we tested the effects of current and predicted heat waves on the early stages of development of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Temperatures above 27 °C limited the growth of the plant by inhibiting its photosynthetic system...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644982/assessment-of-sublethal-endpoints-after-chronic-exposure-of-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-to-palladium-platinum-and-rhodium
#2
Gerhard Schertzinger, Sonja Zimmermann, Daniel Grabner, Bernd Sures
The aim of this study was to investigate chronic effects of the platinum-group elements (PGE) palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aquatic toxicity testing was carried out according to ISO 10872 by determining 96 h EC50 values for sublethal endpoints, including growth, fertility and reproduction. Single PGE standard solutions were used as metal source. Based on the EC50 values for Pt, reproduction (96 h EC50 = 497 μg/L) was the most sensitive endpoint followed by fertility (96 h EC50 = 726 μg/L) and growth (96 h EC50 = 808 μg/L)...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641197/effects-of-organophosphorus-flame-retardant-tdcpp-on-normal-human-corneal-epithelial-cells-implications-for-human-health
#3
Ping Xiang, Rong-Yan Liu, Chao Li, Peng Gao, Xin-Yi Cui, Lena Q Ma
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is one of the most detected organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the environment, especially in indoor dust. Continuous daily exposure to TDCPP-containing dust may adversely impact human cornea. However, its detrimental effects on human corneal epithelium are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the cell apoptosis in normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) after TDCPP exposure and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our data indicated a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability after TDCPP exposure with LC50 at 202 μg/mL...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641196/c1-c2-alkyl-aminiums-in-urban-aerosols-insights-from-ambient-and-fuel-combustion-emission-measurements-in-the-yangtze-river-delta-region-of-china
#4
Wenchao Shen, Lili Ren, Yi Zhao, Luyu Zhou, Liang Dai, Xinlei Ge, Shaofei Kong, Qin Yan, Honghui Xu, Yujun Jiang, Jun He, Mindong Chen, Huan Yu
We measured low molar-mass alkyl aminiums (methylaminium, dimethylaminium, ethylaminium and diethylaminium) in urban aerosols in the Yangtze River Delta region of eastern China in August 2014 and from November 2015 to May 2016. After examining artifact formation on sample filters, methylaminium, dimethylaminium and ethylaminium concentrations were quantified. The three C1-C2 aminiums exhibited a unimodal size distribution that maximized between 0.56 and 1.0 μm. Their concentrations in PM2.5 were 5.7 ± 3...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641195/biotransformation-in-the-zebrafish-embryo-temporal-gene-transcription-changes-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-and-internal-exposure-dynamics-of-the-ahr-binding-xenobiotic-benz-a-anthracene
#5
Agnes Kühnert, Carolina Vogs, Bettina Seiwert, Silke Aulhorn, Rolf Altenburger, Henner Hollert, Eberhard Küster, Wibke Busch
Not much is known about the biotransformation capability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. For understanding possible toxicity differences to adult fish, it might be crucial to understand the biotransformation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos i.e. as part of toxicokinetics. The biotransformation capabilities were analysed for two different stages of zebrafish embryos in conjunction with the internal concentrations of a xenobiotic. Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA)...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633120/heatwave-and-infants-hospital-admissions-under-different-heatwave-definitions
#6
Zhiwei Xu, James Lewis Crooks, Deborah Black, Wenbiao Hu, Shilu Tong
OBJECTIVES: Data on the health impacts of heatwaves in infants are limited, and this study aimed to examine how heatwaves affect hospital admissions in infants. METHODS: A quasi-Poisson generalized additive model was used to assess the effects of heatwaves on hospital admissions in infants from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2015 in Brisbane, Australia, using a series of heatwave definitions after controlling for possible confounders. A case-only analysis was conducted to examine the possible modification effects of personal and community characteristics on the heatwaves effects on infants' hospital admissions...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628867/the-improvement-of-multi-contaminated-sandy-loam-soil-chemical-and-biological-properties-by-the-biochar-wood-ash-and-humic-substances-amendments
#7
Maria Pukalchik, Filip Mercl, Maria Panova, Kateřina Břendová, Vera A Terekhova, Pavel Tlustoš
Addition of low amount of humic substances, as a supplement to biochar or wood ash, can markedly enhance their remediation ability.
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628866/anticancer-drugs-consumption-trends-in-spain-prediction-of-environmental-concentrations-and-potential-risks
#8
Helena Franquet-Griell, Cristian Gómez-Canela, Francesc Ventura, Silvia Lacorte
This study presents the occurrence and impact of 78 anticancer drugs in Spanish river basins based on consumption data in pharmacies during the period 2010-2015 and calculation of the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC). The total consumption of anticancer drugs in Spanish pharmacies was of 23.4 tons in 2015, being mycophenolic acid and hydroxycarbamide the drugs with the highest prescription. Their PECs in river at national scale were up to 80 ng/L. However, the use of different dilution factors revealed major differences between hydrographic basins, and PECriver rose up to 68,014 ng/L in highly populated rivers with low flows...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628865/urban-emissions-hotspots-quantifying-vehicle-congestion-and-air-pollution-using-mobile-phone-gps-data
#9
Conor K Gately, Lucy R Hutyra, Scott Peterson, Ian Sue Wing
On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and CO2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628864/polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-thyroid-hormones-in-cord-blood
#10
Guodong Ding, Jing Yu, Limei Chen, Caifeng Wang, Yijun Zhou, Yi Hu, Rong Shi, Yan Zhang, Chang Cui, Yu Gao, Ying Tian, Fang Liu
Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been increasing over the last three decades in China and around the world. Animal studies suggest that PBDEs could reduce blood levels of thyroid hormones, but it is unclear whether PBDEs disrupt thyroid function in humans. We used data from a prospective birth cohort of 123 pregnant women who were enrolled between September 2010 and March 2011 in Shandong, China. We measured the concentrations of eight PBDE congeners (n = 106) and five thyroid hormones (n = 107) in cord serum samples...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624629/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-exposure-triggers-different-gene-expression-patterns-in-maize-shoots-and-roots
#11
Hongwei Xun, Xintong Ma, Jing Chen, Zhongzhou Yang, Bao Liu, Xiang Gao, Guo Li, Jiamiao Yu, Li Wang, Jinsong Pang
The potential impacts of environmentally accumulated zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnOs) on plant growth have not been well studied. A transcriptome profile analysis of maize exposed to nZnOs showed that the genes in the shoots and roots responded differently. Although the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the roots was greater than that in the shoots, the number of up- or down-regulated genes in both the shoots and roots was similar. The enrichment of gene ontology (GO) terms was also significantly different in the shoots and roots...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624628/time-dependent-inhibitory-effects-of-tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate-on-growth-and-transcription-of-genes-involved-in-the-gh-igf-axis-but-not-the-hpt-axis-in-female-zebrafish
#12
Ya Zhu, Guanyong Su, Dandong Yang, Yongkang Zhang, Liqin Yu, Yufei Li, John P Giesy, Robert J Letcher, Chunsheng Liu
Growth curves were used to determine sensitive exposure windows for evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals to zebrafish. Dose- and time-dependent effects on body mass, body length and expression of genes involved in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). Based on growth curves, zebrafish grew most rapidly between 60 and 90 days post fertilization (dpf)...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624627/histopathological-and-proteomic-responses-in-male-chinese-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus-indicate-hepatotoxicity-following-benzotriazole-exposure
#13
Xuefang Liang, Jinmiao Zha, Christopher J Martyniuk, Zijian Wang, Ji Zhao
Benzotriazole (BT) and its associated derivatives are used ubiquitously in industrial processes, and can be detected in indoor temperature coolants and in chemicals designed to inhibit corrosion. This chemical has been widely detected in aquatic environments and shows some degree of environmental persistence. Evidence has shown that BT exposure can negatively affect endocrine systems and can result in neurotoxicity in fish. However, no study has examined whether this chemical exhibits hepatotoxicity in fish, and if so, what are the underlying mechanism associated with the damage...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624130/assessing-the-hydrogeochemical-processes-affecting-groundwater-pollution-in-arid-areas-using-an-integration-of-geochemical-equilibrium-and-multivariate-statistical-techniques
#14
Mohamed El Alfy, Aref Lashin, Fathy Abdalla, Abdulaziz Al-Bassam
Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623803/oxidative-status-in-relation-to-metal-pollution-and-calcium-availability-in-pied-flycatcher-nestlings-a-calcium-manipulation-experiment
#15
Silvia Espín, Sandra Ruiz, Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Thomas Lilley, Tapio Eeva
Metal exposure can produce oxidative stress by disrupting the prooxidant/antioxidant balance. It has been suggested that calcium (Ca) may provide protection against metal toxicity in the organism. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of Ca availability and metal pollution on oxidative stress biomarkers in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. For this purpose, we performed a Ca-supplementation experiment with birds inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. An array of oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GSH:GSSG ratio, GPx, GST, CAT, SOD, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) was measured in red blood cells...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623802/developmental-toxicity-of-glycine-coated-silica-nanoparticles-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#16
Eduard Dumitrescu, Dinusha P Karunaratne, Morgan K Prochaska, Xiaobo Liu, Kenneth N Wallace, Silvana Andreescu
Nanoparticle (NP) surface coatings are known to influence the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. This work examines the effect of glycine functionalization on silica NPs and investigates changes in viability and developmental defects in the organs of zebrafish embryos upon exposure. Silica NPs and glycine-functionalized silica NPs are synthesized and characterized. Exposure of zebrafish embryos to glycine-silica NPs affects the mortality percentage in a similar manner to soluble glycine. Developmental defects are observed in embryos exposed to soluble glycine, glycine-silica NPs, or silica NPs in comparison with the unexposed embryos...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622963/commentary-on-characteristics-of-cadmium-uptake-and-membrane-transport-in-roots-of-intact-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-seedlings-reported-by-lian-zhen-li-chen-tu-willie-j-g-m-peijnenburg-yong-ming-luo
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622663/sensitive-immunoassay-for-simultaneous-determination-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a-bis-2-hydroxyethyl-ether-and-tetrabromobisphenol-a-mono-hydroxyethyl-ether-an-effective-and-reliable-strategy-to-estimate-the-typical-tetrabromobisphenol-a-derivative-and-byproduct
#18
Zhen Zhang, Nuanfei Zhu, Menglu Huang, Yaru Liang, Kun Zeng, Xiangyang Wu, Zhenjiang Liu, Qianchi Ma, Guangbo Qu, Jianbo Shi
Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ether (TBBPA DHEE), as one of the TBBPA derivatives, is frequently applied as a flame retardant. To date, however, little evidence has been gathered regarding its environmental behavior and fate. This is mainly attributed to the lack of an analytical approach available to measure it. Mass spectrometry cannot determine levels of TBBPA DHEE. LC-MS could not ionize TBBPA DHEE to yield enough fragments, while GC-MS could not be applied for the analysis either, due to the thermal degradation of TBBPA DHEE...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622662/the-chronic-effects-of-fullerenec60-associated-sediments-in-the-midge-chironomus-riparius-responses-in-the-first-and-the-second-generation
#19
G C Waissi, K Väänänen, I Nybom, K Pakarinen, J Akkanen, M T Leppänen, J V K Kukkonen
The life cycle parameters of the benthic invertebrate Chironomus riparius make it a relevant organism for use in multi-generation chronic ecotoxicology tests. Since studies on chronic exposures with fullerene carbon nanoparticles have revealed adverse effects at lower concentration ranges, it is crucial to gain understanding of the consequences in following generations. The aims of this study were to investigate whether sediment-associated fullereneC60 impacts on C. riparius emergence and breeding, thus affecting the growth of the second generation...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622661/air-pollution-and-genomic-instability-the-role-of-particulate-matter-in-lung-carcinogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Miguel Santibáñez-Andrade, Ericka Marel Quezada-Maldonado, Álvaro Osornio-Vargas, Yesennia Sánchez-Pérez, Claudia M García-Cuellar
In this review, we summarize and discuss the evidence regarding the interaction between air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM), and genomic instability. PM has been widely studied in the context of several diseases, and its role in lung carcinogenesis gained relevance due to an increase in cancer cases for which smoking does not seem to represent the main risk factor. According to epidemiological and toxicological evidence, PM acts as a carcinogenic factor in humans, inducing high rates of genomic alterations...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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