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Environmental Pollution

Cheng Huang, Qingyao Hu, Hanyu Wang, Liping Qiao, Sheng'ao Jing, Hongli Wang, Min Zhou, Shuhui Zhu, Yingge Ma, Shengrong Lou, Li Li, Shikang Tao, Yingjie Li, Diming Lou
On-board emissions measurements were performed on a Handysize-class bulk carrier operating under real-world conditions. Emission factors (EFs) were determined for criteria pollutants such as NOx , CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), and PM; PM composition, including organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), inorganic species, and a variety of organic compounds and VOC species (including alkanes, alkenes, single-ring aromatics, and oxygenated VOCs) were also analyzed. To investigate the impacts of engine type, fuel, and operating conditions on emissions, measurements were conducted on one main and one auxiliary engines using low- and high-sulfur fuels (LSF and HSF) under actual operating conditions, including at-berth, maneuvering, and cruising at different engine loads...
July 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Siyang Li, Lin Du, Qingzhu Zhang, Wenxing Wang
Phthalate esters which are widely used as industrial chemicals have become widespread contaminants in the marine environment. However, little information is available on the interfacial behavior of phthalate esters in the seawater, where contaminants generally occur at elevated concentrations and have the potential to transfer into the atmosphere through wave breaking on sea surface. We used artificial seawater coated with fatty acids to simulate sea surface microlayer in a Langmuir trough. The interactions of saturated fatty acids (stearic acid (SA) and palmitic acid (PA)) with one of the most abundant phthalate esters (di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)), were investigated under artificial seawater and pure water conditions...
July 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jinchuan Xie, Jinlong Wang, Jianfeng Lin, Xiaohua Zhou
The negative effect of carbonate on the rate and extent of bioreduction of aqueous U(VI) has been commonly reported. The solution pH is a key chemical factor controlling U(VI)aq species and the Gibbs free energy of reaction. Therefore, it is interesting to study whether the negative effect can be diminished under specific pH conditions. Experiments were conducted using Shewanella putrefaciens under anaerobic conditions with varying pH values (4-9) and bicarbonate concentrations ( [Formula: see text] , 0-50 mmol/L)...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Laura Frère, Lois Maignien, Morgane Chalopin, Arnaud Huvet, Emmanuel Rinnert, Hilary Morrison, Sandrine Kerninon, Anne-Laure Cassone, Christophe Lambert, Julie Reveillaud, Ika Paul-Pont
Microplastics (<5 mm) exhibit intrinsic features such as density, hydrophobic surface, or high surface/volume ratio, that are known to promote microbial colonization and biofilm formation in marine ecosystems. Yet, a relatively low number of studies have investigated the nature of microplastic associated bacterial communities in coastal ecosystems and the potential factors influencing their composition and structure. Here, we characterized microplastics collected in the Bay of Brest by manual sorting followed by Raman spectroscopy and studied their associated bacterial assemblages using 16S amplicon high-throughput sequencing...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
An Liu, Nian Hong, Panfeng Zhu, Yuntao Guan
Benzene series (BTEX) pollutants which are generated by traffic can deposit (build-up) on urban road surfaces. When they are washed-off by stormwater runoff, BTEX are toxic to ecological and human health if the stormwater is reused. To understand the risk posed by BTEX, it is essential to have an in-depth investigation on BTEX build-up, one of the most important stormwater pollutant processes. This study analysed the relationship between BTEX build-up and BTEX build-up's influential factors. The outcomes confirmed an important role of climatic factors (particularly temperature) on influencing BTEX build-up...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
L F Estrella, V B Ferreira, C Gallistl, M G R Alves, W Vetter, O Malm, F D B Abadio Finco, J P M Torres
Natural compounds from the metabolism of marine organisms have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples which are not the producers of these compounds. These natural substances are known as halogenated natural products (HNPs). HNPs are possibly toxic halogenated compounds analogous to POPs that may bioaccumulate and biomagnify along the food web and pose a further risk to human and environmental health. The present study analyzed the occurrence of HNPs in the edible muscle of the three most consumed commercial fish species in the state of Rio de Janeiro: sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis), whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and mullet (Mugil liza) from the highly polluted Guanabara Bay (GB) and the less polluted Ilha Grande Bay (IGB)...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Keyong Huang, Qingyang Xiao, Xia Meng, Guannan Geng, Yujie Wang, Alexei Lyapustin, Dongfeng Gu, Yang Liu
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) remains a worldwide public health issue. However, epidemiological studies on the chronic health impacts of PM2.5 in the developing countries are hindered by the lack of monitoring data. Despite the recent development of using satellite remote sensing to predict ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in China, methods for generating reliable historical PM2.5 exposure, especially prior to the construction of PM2.5 monitoring network in 2013, are still very rare. In this study, a high-performance machine-learning model was developed directly at monthly level to estimate PM2...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Gongbo Chen, Yichao Wang, Shanshan Li, Wei Cao, Hongyan Ren, Luke D Knibbs, Michael J Abramson, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated historical exposures to PM10 at a national scale in China using satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD). Also, long-term trends have not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: In this study, daily concentrations of PM10 over China during the past 12 years were estimated with the most recent ground monitoring data, AOD, land use information, weather data and a machine learning approach. METHODS: Daily measurements of PM10 during 2014-2016 were collected from 1479 sites in China...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Whasun Lim, Yikyung An, Changwon Yang, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide widely used in agriculture. Additionally, it is applied to pigs for control of endo- and ectoparasites. Previous studies have shown the effects of trichlorfon in pigs during late stages of gestation; however, little is known about its effects during early pregnancy, including implantation and placentation. We investigated whether trichlorfon affects proliferation and apoptosis of porcine trophectoderm (pTr) and uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. Trichlorfon inhibited the proliferation of pTr and pLE cells, as evidenced by cell cycle arrest, and altered the expression of proliferation-related proteins...
July 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Linlin Tian, Hiroko Akiyama, Bo Zhu, Xi Shen
Nitrogen (N)-enriched leaching water may act as a source of indirect N2 O emission when it is discharged to agricultural drainage ditches. In this study, indirect N2 O emissions from an agricultural drainage ditch mainly receiving interflow water were measured using the static chamber-gas chromatography technique during 2012-2015 in the central Sichuan Basin in southwestern China. We found the drainage ditch was a source of indirect N2 O emissions contributing an inter-annual mean flux of 6.56 ± 1.12 μg N m-2  h-1 and a mean indirect N2 O emission factor (EF5g ) value of 0...
July 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dominique Belpomme, Lennart Hardell, Igor Belyaev, Ernesto Burgio, David O Carpenter
Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiaoxia Sun, Junhua Liang, Mingliang Zhu, Yongfang Zhao, Bo Zhang
Marine plastic pollution is a worldwide problem. Microplastics (MPs) are the predominant form of marine plastic debris, a form small enough to be ingested by and potentially harm marine organisms. It is urgent to develop ecologically relevant metrics for the risk assessment of MPs based on in situ data, especially for coastal areas. For the first time, we performed a comprehensive study of the characteristics of MPs in seawater and zooplankton in the Yellow Sea. For MPs in seawater, the average concentration is 0...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
A Monteiro, M Russo, C Gama, C Borrego
Due to its dependence on fossil fuel combustion, emissions from the marine transport sector can significantly contribute to air pollution. This work aims to evaluate the impact of maritime transport emissions on air quality in Portugal using a numerical air quality modelling approach, with high-resolution emission data. Emissions from the European TNO inventory were compiled and pre-processed at hourly and high spatial (∼3 × 3 km2 ) resolutions. Scenarios with and without these maritime emissions were then simulated with the WRF-CHIMERE modelling system, extensively tested and validated for Portugal domain, in order to evaluate their impact on air quality...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hui Li, Fengkui Duan, Yongliang Ma, Kebin He, Lidan Zhu, Tao Ma, Siqi Ye, Shuo Yang, Tao Huang, Takashi Kimoto
Continuous haze monitoring was conducted from 12:00 3 April to 12:00 8 April 2016 in Beijing, China to develop a more detailed understanding of spring haze characteristics. The PM2.5 concentration ranged from 6.30 to 165 μg m-3 with an average of 63.8 μg m-3 . Nitrate was the most abundant species, accounting for 36.4% of PM2.5 , followed by organic carbon (21.5%), NH4 + (19.3%), SO4 2- (18.8%), and elemental carbon (4.10%), indicating the key role of nitrate in this haze event. Species contribution varied based on the phase of the haze event...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jun Zeng, Qinghe Zhu, Yucheng Wu, Jun Shan, Rong Ji, Xiangui Lin
Laccases are capable of rapidly oxidizing benzo[a]pyrene. It is thought that the metabolites with an increase in water solubility caused by the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene may stimulate the subsequent mineralization. However, to date, there has been no experimental evidence to support this. In this study, the fate of benzo[a]pyrene in soil affected by laccase amendment and the resulting soil bacterial responses were investigated. Laccase amendment promoted benzo[a]pyrene dissipation (15.6%) from soil, accompanied by trace mineralization (<0...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Qingwei Guo, Ningning Li, Yongxin Bing, Sili Chen, Zhengke Zhang, Sha Chang, Yao Chen, Shuguang Xie
Heavy metals are widely detected in natural environments, however their impacts on denitrifier community in freshwater ecosystem remain unclear. The present study investigated the changes of denitrifier communities (based on nosZ (nitrous oxide reductase) gene) in a freshwater reservoir contaminated by a severe accidental spill of heavy metals. The abundance of nosZ-denitrifiers drastically decreased, and their community richness, diversity and structure also showed considerable variations. The mainly detected denitrifying bacteria included Pseudogulbenkiania, Pseudomonas and two unknown groups...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Bruno M Dala-Paula, Flávia B Custódio, Eliana A N Knupp, Helena E L Palmieri, José Bento B Silva, Maria Beatriz A Glória
Urban agriculture plays an important role in sustainable food supply. However, because of the atmospheric pollution and soil contamination associated with urban areas, this activity may be of concern. In fact, contamination of soil with metals and the transference of contaminants to vegetables can represent health and safety risks associated with urban agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of selected trace metals (cadmium, copper and lead) in three lettuce cultivars produced in three different urban gardens in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil and their respective soils...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Admir Créso Targino, Patricia Krecl, João Edson Danziger Filho, Julián Felipe Segura, Mark David Gibson
In 2015, a controversial bicycle lane was installed on Paulista Avenue -a thoroughfare in the heart of the megacity of São Paulo with a high rate of motorised vehicles. For the first time, on-bicycle air pollution concentrations were assessed along this lane using black carbon (BC) as an indicator of fossil fuel combustion. We measured BC concentrations with a hand-held microaethalometer at a high temporal resolution, enabling the capture of fine spatial gradients along the route. Although this new link expanded the city's cycling network, our pioneering study showed that BC concentrations were large (mean 8...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nora Braak, Rebecca Neve, Andrew K Jones, Melanie Gibbs, Casper J Breuker
Pesticides, in particular insecticides, can be very beneficial but have also been found to have harmful side effects on non-target insects. Butterflies play an important role in ecosystems, are well monitored and are recognised as good indicators of environmental health. The amount of information already known about butterfly ecology and the increased availability of genomes make them a very valuable model for the study of non-target effects of pesticide usage. The effects of pesticides are not simply linear, but complex through their interactions with a large variety of biotic and abiotic factors...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Manuela S Santana, Leonardo Sandrini-Neto, Francisco Filipak Neto, Ciro A Oliveira Ribeiro, Maikon Di Domenico, Maritana M Prodocimo
Biomarkers of antioxidant and biotransformation systems are commonly used to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in fish. Despite their extensive application of biomarkers, contradictory results are vastly reported in the literature, even for the same species in similar contamination scenarios. This study aims to verify response patterns of biomarkers in fish exposed to PAHs. Through systematic reviews and meta-analyses, we were able to evaluate: (i) overall magnitude of PAHs effects on biotransformation and oxidative stress biomarkers; (ii) patterns of response among experimental approaches (laboratory, field and active biomonitoring), environment (marine and freshwater) and fish habitat (pelagic, demersal, etc...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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