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Environmental Pollution

Lara Zácari Fanali, Lilian Franco-Belussi, Cláudia Regina Bonini-Domingos, Classius de Oliveira
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a bio-accumulative toxic compound found in the atmosphere, water, and soil that may affect the life cycle of amphibians. In this study, a few contamination biomarkers, such as hepatic melanomacrophages (MMs), mast cells, erythrocyte micronuclei (MN) and white blood cells were used to determine how BaP acts in these cells in the anurans Physalaemus cuvieri and Leptodactylus fuscus. Animals of both species were divided into three treatment groups: 1 day, 7 days and 13 days, subcutaneously injected 2 mg/kg BaP diluted in mineral oil and control group with only mineral oil...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alice Jarošíková, Vojtěch Ettler, Martin Mihaljevič, Vít Penížek, Tomáš Matoušek, Adam Culka, Petr Drahota
Dust emissions from copper smelters processing arsenic-bearing ores represent a risk to soil environments due to the high levels of As and other inorganic contaminants. Using an in situ experiment in four different forest and grassland soils (pH 3.2-8.0) we studied the transformation of As-rich (>50 wt% As) copper smelter dust over 24 months. Double polyamide bags with 1 g of flue dust were buried at different depths in soil pits and in 6-month intervals; then those bags, surrounding soil columns, and soil pore waters were collected and analysed...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ye Zhang, April Z Gu, Tianyu Cen, Xiangyang Li, Miao He, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Although widespread antibiotic resistance has been mostly attributed to the selective pressure generated by overuse and misuse of antibiotics, recent growing evidence suggests that chemicals other than antibiotics, such as certain metals, can also select and stimulate antibiotic resistance via both co-resistance and cross-resistance mechanisms. For instance, tetL, merE, and oprD genes are resistant to both antibiotics and metals. However, the potential de novo resistance induced by heavy metals at environmentally-relevant low concentrations (much below theminimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs], also referred as sub-inhibitory) has hardly been explored...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Patrick Louchouarn, Shaya M Seward, Gerard Cornelissen, Hans Peter H Arp, Kevin M Yeager, Robin Brinkmeyer, Peter H Santschi
Sediments from a waste pit in Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were characterized using a number of molecular markers of natural organic matter fractions (e.g., pyrogenic carbon residues, PAHs, lignins), in addition to dioxins, in order to test the hypothesis that the dispersal and mobility of dioxins from the waste pit in the San Jacinto River is minimal. Station SG-6, sampled at the site of the submerged waste pit, had the highest dioxin/furan concentrations reported for the Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay (HSC/GB) system (10,000-46,000 pg/g), which translated into some of the highest reported World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (TEQs: 2000-11,000 pg/g) in HSC sediments...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Anjali Kumar, Timothy J Divoll, Priya M Ganguli, Florencia A Trama, Carl H Lamborg
Mercury, a toxic trace metal, has been used extensively as an inexpensive and readily available method of extracting gold from fine-grained sediment. Worldwide, artisanal mining is responsible for one third of all mercury released into the environment. By testing bat hair from museum specimens and field collected samples from areas both impacted and unimpacted by artisanal gold mining in Perú, we show monomethylmercury (MMHg) has increased in the last 100 years. MMHg concentrations were also greatest in the highest bat trophic level (insectivores), and in areas experiencing extractive artisanal mining...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biochar aging on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (the total content - Ctot , and the freely dissolved - Cfree ) in biochar and its ecotoxicity. Two biochars (BCS and BCM) with varying properties were aged for 420 days at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, 70 °C), at a variable temperature (-20/20 °C), in the presence of nutrients, and in the presence of inoculum and nutrients. After the aging process, Ctot and Cfree PAHs were determined in samples obtained and an ecotoxicological analysis was performed, which involved tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), invertebrates (Folsomia candida) and plants (Lepidium sativum)...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sakineh Mashjoor, Morteza Yousefzadi, Hossein Zolgharnain, Ehsan Kamrani, Mojtaba Alishahi
Following the recent progress in magnetic nanotechnology, concern over the optimal benefits and potential risks of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe NPs), has increased. Hence, to minimize the negative impacts of inorganic Fe NPs, we report the phyco-synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic Fe3 O4 NPs via reduction of ferric/ferrous chloride solution (2:1 M ratio; 88 °C) with green macroalga, Ulva flexuosa (wulfen) J.Agardh aqueous extract. The biogenic process is clean, eco-friendly, rapid, and facile to handle...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
James P Meador, Andrew Yeh, Evan P Gallagher
Several metabolic parameters were assessed in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) residing in two estuaries receiving wastewater treatment effluent and one reference estuary. We also conducted a laboratory study with fish dosed for 32 days with 16 of the most common contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) detected in feral fish. Several blood chemistry parameters and other indicators of health were measured in fish from the field and laboratory study that were used to assess potential metabolic disruption...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Li-Ying Ren, Zhi-Neng Hong, Wei Qian, Jiu-Yu Li, Ren-Kou Xu
The primary objective of this study was to identify the capacity and mechanism of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) adsorption on soil colloids of Alfisol and Ultisol at different pH and ionic strengths. Two kinds of EPS were extracted from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens by centrifugation, and their adsorption on Ultisol and Alfisol was investigated using a batch adsorption experiment and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The average diameter of EPS from B...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Pollution
D Ziou, F Kerouh
The concept of the smart city raised several technological and scientific issues including light pollution. There are various negative impacts of light pollution on economy, ecology, and heath. This paper deals with the census of the colour of light emitted by lamps used in a city environment. To this end, we derive a light bulb colour estimator based on Bayesian reasoning, directional data, and image formation model in which the usual concept of reflectance is not used. All choices we made are devoted to designing an algorithm which can be run almost in real-time...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Junwen Zhang, Teng Ma, Yani Yan, Xianjun Xie, Olusegun K Abass, Congqiang Liu, Zhiqi Zhao, Zhizhen Wang
High arsenic groundwater generally coexists with elevated Fe2+ concentrations (mg L-1 levels) under reducing conditions, but an explanation for the extremely high arsenic (up to ∼2690) concentrations at very low Fe2+ (i.e., μg L-1 levels) in groundwater of Datong Basin remains elusive. Field groundwater investigation and laboratory microcosm experiments were implemented in this study. The field groundwater was characterized by weakly alkaline (pH 7.69 to 8.34) and reducing conditions (Eh -221.7 to -31...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Qiong Wang, Huanhuan Zhang, Qianhong Liang, Luke D Knibbs, Meng Ren, Changchang Li, Junzhe Bao, Suhan Wang, Yiling He, Lei Zhu, Xuemei Wang, Qingguo Zhao, Cunrui Huang
The impact of ambient air pollution on pregnant women is a concern in China. However, little is known about the association between air pollution and preeclampsia and the potential modifying effects of meteorological conditions have not been assessed. This study aimed to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia, and to explore whether temperature and humidity modify the effects. We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 1.21 million singleton births from the birth registration system in Shenzhen, China, between 2005 and 2012...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dezhen Wang, Wentao Zhu, Li Chen, Jin Yan, Miaomiao Teng, Zhiqiang Zhou
The widespread application of organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs) has led to considerable human exposure, with major concerns regarding their health risks. Herein, we investigate the effects of triphenyl phosphate (TPP), one of the most widely used OPFRs, and one of its main metabolite diphenyl phosphate (DPP) on the endocrine systems and metabolic profiles after neonatal exposure from postnatal days 1-10 at two dosages (2 and 200 μg per day). Both TPP and DPP had no negative effect on uterine weight, glucose tolerance, and estradiol...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jun Li, Guo-Li Yuan, Ping Li, Xu-Chuan Duan, Hong-Hui Yu, Jun-Lang Qiu, Gen-Hou Wang
In the background region of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the rapid urbanization probably results in the massive generation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which lacks monitoring and evaluation. Since landfill could serve as an important sink of the locally used POPs, the analysis of POPs in the Tibetan landfill area might help us to understand the source composition and their transport in the TP. In this study, the concentration variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in five soil profiles and seven surficial sediments around the largest Tibetan landfill were investigated...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Liqiang Tan, Xiaoli Tan, Huiyang Mei, Yuejie Ai, Lu Sun, Guixia Zhao, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Changlun Chen, Xiangke Wang
The coagulation behaviors of humic acid (HA) with Cs+ (10-500 mM), Sr2+ (0.8-10.0 mM) and Eu3+ (0.01-1.0 mM) at different pH values (2.8, 7.1 and 10.0) were acquired through a dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique combined with spectroscopic analysis and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The coagulation rate and the average hydrodynamic diameter (<Dh >) increased significantly as the concentration of nuclides increased. <Dh > could be scaled to time t as <Dh >∝ ta at higher Sr2+ concentrations, which shows that HA coagulation is consistent with the diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) model...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Albert Serra-Compte, Ana Luisa Maulvault, Carolina Camacho, Diana Álvarez-Muñoz, Damià Barceló, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, António Marques
Warming and acidification are expected impacts of climate change to the marine environment. Besides, organisms that live in coastal areas, such as bivalves, can also be exposed to anthropogenic pollutants like pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In this study, the effects of warming and acidification on the bioconcentration, metabolization and depuration of five PhACs (sotalol, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, carbamazepine and citalopram) and two EDCs (methylparaben and triclosan) were investigated in the mussel species (Mytilus galloprovincialis), under controlled conditions...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hongxiu Liu, Shi Lu, Bin Zhang, Wei Xia, Wenyu Liu, Yang Peng, Hongling Zhang, Kangbing Wu, Shunqing Xu, Yuanyuan Li
Maternal arsenic exposure leads to adverse birth outcomes, but the critical window of this susceptibility keeps unclear. To determine whether the associations between maternal arsenic exposure and birth outcomes were trimester-specific, we conducted a birth cohort study of 1390 women from 2014 to 2016 in Wuhan, China. We examined associations between total urinary arsenic concentrations in three trimesters and birth weight, birth length and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA), and the differences of these associations across trimesters using generalized estimating equations...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
C Dussud, A L Meistertzheim, P Conan, M Pujo-Pay, M George, P Fabre, J Coudane, P Higgs, A Elineau, M L Pedrotti, G Gorsky, J F Ghiglione
Plastic pollution is widespread in ocean ecosystems worldwide, but it is unknown if plastic offers a unique habitat for bacteria compared to communities in the water column and attached to naturally-occurring organic particles. The large set of samples taken during the Tara-Mediterranean expedition revealed for the first time a clear niche partitioning between free-living (FL), organic particle-attached (PA) and the recently introduced plastic marine debris (PMD). Bacterial counts in PMD presented higher cell enrichment factors than generally observed for PA fraction, when compared to FL bacteria in the surrounding waters...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kristofer Lasko, Krishna Vadrevu
In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, rice residues are routinely burned after the harvest to prepare fields for the next season. Specific to Vietnam, the two prevalent burning practices include: a). piling the residues after hand harvesting; b). burning the residues without piling, after machine harvesting. In this study, we synthesized field and laboratory studies from the literature on rice residue burning emission factors for PM2.5 . We found significant differences in the resulting burning-practice specific emission factors, with 16...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Paula Méndez-Fernandez, Satie Taniguchi, Marcos C O Santos, Irma Cascão, Sophie Quérouil, Vidal Martín, Marisa Tejedor, Manuel Carrillo, Carolina Rinaldi, Renato Rinaldi, Rosalinda C Montone
The Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) is an endemic species of the tropical-temperate Atlantic Ocean with widespread distribution. Although this species has been the subject of a large number of studies throughout its range, it remains in the "data deficient" category of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Chemical pollution by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been listed as one of the major threats to this species, however, there is no information on a wide scale...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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