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Environmental Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432965/spatiotemporal-description-of-btex-volatile-organic-compounds-in-a-middle-eastern-megacity-tehran-study-of-exposure-prediction-for-environmental-health-research-tehran-sepehr
#1
Heresh Amini, Vahid Hosseini, Christian Schindler, Hossein Hassankhany, Masud Yunesian, Sarah B Henderson, Nino Künzli
The spatiotemporal variability of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Tehran, Iran, is not well understood. Here we present the design, methods, and results of the Tehran Study of Exposure Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran SEPEHR) on ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. To date, this is the largest study of its kind in a low- and middle-income country and one of the largest globally. We measured BTEX concentrations at five reference sites and 174 distributed sites identified by a cluster analytic method...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432964/phytate-induced-arsenic-uptake-and-plant-growth-in-arsenic-hyperaccumulator-pteris-vittata
#2
Xue Liu, Jing-Wei Fu, Ni Tang, E B da Silva, Yue Cao, Benjamin L Turner, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Phytate is abundant in soils, which is stable and unavailable for plant uptake. However, it occurs in root exudates of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). To elucidate its effect on As uptake and growth, P. vittata were grown on agar media (63 μM P) containing 50 μM As and/or 50 or 500 μM phytate with non As-hyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis (PE) as a congeneric control for 60 d. Phytate induced efficient As and P uptake, and enhanced growth in PV, but had little effects on PE. The As concentrations in PV fronds and roots were 157 and 31 mg kg(-1) in As50+phytate50, 2...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432963/health-hazards-of-child-labor-in-the-leather-products-and-surgical-instrument-manufacturing-industries-of-sialkot-pakistan
#3
Muhammad Junaid, Riffat Naseem Malik, De-Sheng Pei
Child labor is a major challenge in the developing countries and comprehensive health hazard identification studies on this issue are still lacking. Therefore, the current study is an effort to highlight the health concerns of child labor exposed in the key small scale industries of Sialkot, Pakistan. Our findings revealed jolting levels of heavy metals in the urine, blood, serum, saliva, and hair samples collected from the exposed children. For example, in the urine samples, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were measured at the respective concentrations of 39...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#4
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431318/assessing-seasonal-variation-of-synthetic-musks-in-beach-sands-from-oporto-coastal-area-a-case-study
#5
Vera Homem, Inês Magalhães, Arminda Alves, Lúcia Santos
Synthetic musk compounds are widely used in the formulation of several cosmetics, personal care and household products. Due to their massive and widespread use, together with some health concerns, they are considered emerging pollutants and have been detected in different environmental compartments. This study focused on the evaluation of the concentration of synthetic musks (five nitro, five polycyclic and one macrocyclic musks) in beach sands, from Oporto coastal area (Portugal), contributing to the enhancement of the knowledge of levels, trends and behaviour of these compounds in this particular matrix...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#6
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431316/pbdes-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pose-a-risk-to-captive-giant-pandas
#7
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Aaron M Ellison, Yan Zhao, Qing-Yi Ma
The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431315/effects-of-pm2-5-exposure-on-the-notch-signaling-pathway-and-immune-imbalance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Xing-Yu Gu, Xu Chu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Xiao-Ju Liu
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with T lymphocytes subset (Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg) imbalance. Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the adaptive immunity. The immune disorder induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is related to COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which PM2.5 influences the Notch signaling pathway leading to worsening immune disorder and accelerating COPD development. A COPD mouse model was established by cigarette smoke exposure...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431314/effect-of-metals-on-microcystin-abundance-and-environmental-fate
#9
Guofei Dai, Ningyan Peng, Jiayou Zhong, Ping Yang, Binchun Zou, Hui Chen, Qian Lou, Yuanyuan Fang, Wei Zhang
Metals can react with microcystin (MC), which is released from cyanobacterial blooms through various mechanisms; these reactions may mitigate the environmental and health risks of MCs but may also cause harm to aquatic ecosystems and humans. Several studies were conducted, including laboratory tests, ecological simulations, and a field investigation of Poyang Lake. The laboratory studies showed that Fe(3+), Cu(2+), and Pb(2+) stimulated MC photodegradation under high light intensity at the water-sediment interface, which reduced the MC accumulation in the sediment...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427843/relative-importance-of-different-exposure-routes-of-heavy-metals-for-humans-living-near-a-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator
#10
Tong Li, Yi Wan, Yujie Ben, Senrong Fan, Jianying Hu
The potential health effects of toxic chemicals (e.g. heavy metals) emitted by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are of great concern to local residents, however there have been few studies on the contributions of different exposure pathways and their subsequent effects on the body burden of residents living near MSWIs. In this study, multiple exposure routes of heavy metals including Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn were assessed by investigating the metals in foods (such as vegetables, crops, meats and fruits etc...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420490/are-herbarium-mosses-reliable-indicators-of-historical-nitrogen-deposition
#11
Tora Finderup Nielsen, Jesper Ruf Larsen, Anders Michelsen, Hans Henrik Bruun
Mosses collected decades ago and stored in herbaria are often used to assess historical nitrogen deposition. This method is effectively based on the assumption that tissue N concentration remains constant during storage. The present study raises serious doubt about the generality of that assumption. We measured tissue N and C concentrations as well as δ(15)N, δ(13)C, Pb and Mg in herbarium and present day samples of seven bryophyte species from six sites across Denmark. While an increase in nitrogen deposition during the last century is well-documented for the study site, we surprisingly found foliar N concentration to be higher in historical samples than in modern samples...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419921/development-of-pm2-5-and-no2-models-in-a-lur-framework-incorporating-satellite-remote-sensing-and-air-quality-model-data-in-pearl-river-delta-region-china
#12
Xiaofan Yang, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Huan Liu, Hanyang Man, Zhaofeng Lv, Kebin He, Kees de Hoogh
High resolution pollution maps are critical to understand the exposure and health effect of local residents to air pollution. Currently, none of the single technologies used to measure or estimate concentrations of pollutants can provide sufficient resolved exposure data. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed to combine ground-based measurements, satellite remote sensing (SRS) and air quality model (AQM), together with geographic and local source related spatial inputs, to generate high resolution pollution maps for both PM2...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419920/the-retention-and-distribution-of-parent-alkylated-and-n-o-s-containing-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-the-epidermal-tissue-of-mangrove-seedlings
#13
Ruilong Li, Huadong Tan, Yaxian Zhu, Yong Zhang
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) located on the epidermal tissues showed distinctive toxic effects to root, while the retention and distribution of PAHs on mangrove seedlings poorly understood. Our results confirmed that the partition coefficients (Kf) of the PAHs retained on the epidermal tissue of mangrove roots, such as Kandelia obovata, Avicennia marina and Aegiceras corniculatum, were much higher than the Poaceae plants roots, for example wheat and maize (Wild et al., 2005). Moreover, to the parent and alkyl PAHs, a well negative correlation was observed between the surface polarity of these three species of mangrove root and the Kf values (p < 0...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419919/synthesis-of-layered-titanate-nanowires-at-low-temperature-and-their-application-in-efficient-removal-of-u-vi
#14
Ling Yin, Pengyi Wang, Tao Wen, Shujun Yu, Xiangxue Wang, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Xiangke Wang
Uranium(VI) has become one of the most potential contaminants due to its productive and irreversibility impact on the surrounding environment. Titanate nanowires (TNWs) have attracted significant attention because of its high ion exchange ability and facile synthesis. Herein the TNWs were synthesized, and the morphology and structure of TNWs were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in detail...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416223/study-on-emission-of-hazardous-trace-elements-in-a-350%C3%A2-mw-coal-fired-power-plant-part-2-arsenic-chromium-barium-manganese-lead
#15
Shilin Zhao, Yufeng Duan, Lei Chen, Yaning Li, Ting Yao, Shuai Liu, Meng Liu, Jianhong Lu
Hazardous Trace elements (HTEs) emitted from coal combustion has raised widespread concern. Studies on the emission characteristics of five HTEs, namely arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) at three different loads (100%, 83%, 71% output) and different coal types were performed on a 350 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with SCR, ESP + FF, and WFGD. HTEs in the flue gas at the inlet/outlet of each air pollution control device (APCD) were sampled simultaneously based on US EPA Method 29...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413083/a-novel-nuclear-xenobiotic-receptors-ahr-pxr-car-mediated-mechanism-of-dehp-induced-cerebellar-toxicity-in-quails-coturnix-japonica-via-disrupting-cyp-enzyme-system-homeostasis
#16
Zheng-Hai Du, Jun Xia, Xiao-Chen Sun, Xue-Nan Li, Cong Zhang, Hua-Shan Zhao, Shi-Yong Zhu, Jin-Long Li
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is causing serious health hazard in wildlife animal and human through environment and food chain, including the effect of brain development and impacted neurobehavioral outcomes. However, DEHP exposure caused cerebellar toxicity in bird remains unclear. To evaluate DEHP-exerted potential neurotoxicity in cerebellum, male quails were exposed with 0, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg BW/day DEHP by gavage treatment for 45 days. Neurobehavioral abnormality and cerebellar histopathological alternation were observed in DEHP-induced quails...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413084/brominated-dioxins-furans-and-hydroxylated-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-occurrences-in-commercial-1-2-bis-2-4-6-tribromophenoxy-ethane-btbpe-and-2-4-6-tribromophenol-and-formation-during-synthesis-of-btbpe
#17
Man Ren, Hao Zeng, Ping-An Peng, Hui-Ru Li, Cai-Ming Tang, Jian-Fang Hu
Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) can be formed from bromophenols (BPs) by thermal degradation, biosynthesis or phototransformation. However, it is unknown whether PBDDs and OH-PBDEs can be formed during the chemical production processes that utilize BPs as raw materials. 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) is an important raw material for the synthesis of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), a novel brominated flame retardant. In this study, PBDDs, polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and OH-PBDEs have been identified and quantified in commercially available BTBPE and 2,4,6-TBP...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412030/simple-quantification-method-for-n-nitrosamines-in-atmospheric-particulates-based-on-facile-pretreatment-and-gc-ms-ms
#18
Youngmin Hong, Kyung Hwan Kim, Byoung-In Sang, Hyunook Kim
Nine N-nitrosamines (i.e., N-nitrosomethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitorosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) in atmospheric PM2.5 collected in the fall season from an roadside site and a residential in Seoul, Korea have been analyzed using a newly developed method consisting of simple direct liquid extraction assisted by ultrasonication and subsequent quantification using a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-TQMS)...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411499/characteristics-and-environmental-fate-of-the-anionic-surfactant-sodium-lauryl-ether-sulphate-sles-used-as-the-main-component-in-foaming-agents-for-mechanized-tunnelling
#19
REVIEW
Anna Barra Caracciolo, Martina Cardoni, Tanita Pescatore, Luisa Patrolecco
The anionic surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) is the main component of most commercial products used for soil conditioning in the excavation industry, in particular as lubricants for mechanized tunnelling. Its use during the excavation processes can result in either the subsequent possible re-use of the huge amount of soil debris as by-products (e.g. land covering) or its discharge as waste. Currently, there are neither SLES soil threshold limits in European legislation, nor comprehensive studies on the environmental risk for soil ecosystems in these exposure scenarios...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411498/a-pilot-study-on-the-association-between-rare-earth-elements-in-maternal-hair-and-the-risk-of-neural-tube-defects-in-north-china
#20
Wenhua Huo, Yibing Zhu, Zhenjiang Li, Yiming Pang, Bin Wang, Zhiwen Li
Rare earth elements (REEs) have many applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine, resulting in occupational and environmental exposure and concerns regarding REE-associated health effects. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the adverse effects of REEs on pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the REE concentrations in maternal hair growing during early pregnancy and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. We included 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women delivering healthy infants (controls)...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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