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Transplantation Reviews

S Benjamens, S P Berger, A W J M Glaudemans, J S F Sanders, R A Pol, R H J A Slart
BACKGROUND: Clinicians use several diagnostic modalities to recognize post-transplant complications, such as acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, urologic and vascular complications. Currently, there is no consensus about the best procedural approach to evaluate post-transplant renal dysfunction. Renal needle-biopsy is often required, however, this is invasive and may lead to sample errors and complications, and most clinicians prefer using one of the noninvasive diagnostic modalities...
December 29, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Noémi Janszky, Caner Süsal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Sergio A Acuna, Winnie Lam, Corinne Daly, S Joseph Kim, Nancy N Baxter
BACKGROUND: Active malignancies are a contraindication to transplantation, as immunosuppression can lead to worse cancer outcomes; therefore, ensuring transplant candidates are free of malignancy before transplantation is essential. This systematic review assesses the availability, quality, and consistency of recommended cancer evaluation prior to transplantation in Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) for the selection of solid organ transplant candidates. METHODS: We systematically searched for CPGs for the assessment of transplant candidates...
January 2018: Transplantation Reviews
Neetika Garg, Helmut G Rennke, Martha Pavlakis, Kambiz Zandi-Nejad
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious complication of transplantation that adversely affects kidney transplant recipient and allograft survival. Post-transplant TMA is usually classified into two categories: 1) recurrent TMA and 2) de novo TMA. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) resulting from dysregulation and over-activation of the alternate complement pathway is a rare disease but the most common diagnosis associated with recurrence in the allografts. De novo TMA, on the other hand, represents an overwhelming majority of the cases of post-transplant TMA and is a substantially more heterogeneous entity than recurrent aHUS...
January 2018: Transplantation Reviews
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
January 2018: Transplantation Reviews
Waqas Farooqui, Hans Christian Pommergaard, Allan Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplantation is an accepted treatment for end-stage solid organ diseases. During the procedure, ischemia and reperfusion injury may affect graft and patient outcomes. Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIC) has been shown to reduce ischemia and reperfusion injury and can be performed safely. Thus, rIC may potentially improve outcomes after solid organ transplantation. Traditionally, the focus of rIC has been on the donor. However, preconditioning the recipient may be a more suitable approach in transplant settings...
January 2018: Transplantation Reviews
Line Buch Thoefner, Andreas Arendtsen Rostved, Hans-Christian Pommergaard, Allan Rasmussen
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, which contributes to the elevated mortality rate among liver transplant recipients. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. METHODS: The databases Medline and Scopus were searched for observational studies evaluating prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation...
January 2018: Transplantation Reviews
Keren Ladin, Alexis Daniels, Mikala Osani, Raveendhara R Bannuru
Although social support is used to determine transplant eligibility, the relationship between social support, medication adherence, and survival among transplant recipients remains unclear. We estimated the relationship between social support and post-transplant medication adherence and outcomes using 10 electronic databases from inception to January 2016. Study quality was assessed and all review stages were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Thirty-two studies (9102 participants) met inclusion criteria: 21 assessed medication adherence (5197 participants), and 13 assessed clinical outcomes (3905 participants)...
January 2018: Transplantation Reviews
J Moritz Kaths, Andreas Paul, Lisa A Robinson, Markus Selzner
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. Despite its superiority over dialysis, the persisting organ shortage remains a major drawback. Additional sources to increase the donor pool are grafts recovered from extended criteria donors (ECD) and donation after circulatory death (DCD). Although transplantation of marginal grafts demonstrates promising outcomes, increased rates of primary non-function, delayed graft function, and reduced graft survival have been reported. Cold ischemic injury, caused by static cold storage is a significant risk factor for poor outcome...
January 2018: Transplantation Reviews
Isabel Oriol, N Sabé, C Tebé, M Veroux, I F S F Boin, J Carratalà
Contamination of the preservation fluid (PF) used for donated organs is a potential source of post-transplant infection. However, the information on this issue is scarce. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the incidence of culture-positive PF and its impact on solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Seventeen studies were identified and included. The overall incidence of culture-positive PF was 37% (95% CI: 27% to 49%), and the incidence of PF-related infections among SOT recipients with PF cultures that grew pathogenic microorganisms was 10% (95% CI: 7% to 15%)...
December 5, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Shaifali Sandal, Pannya Bansal, Marcelo Cantarovich
PURPOSE: Loop diuretics (LD) attenuate ischemic injury in nephrons. They are thought to decrease delayed graft function (DGF) during kidney transplantation (KT). This review aimed to summarize the current evidence for the perioperative use of LD during KT. METHODS: We performed an analysis of all articles that were published since the inception of Medline and Embase: 26 studies were selected for inclusion. Scope was LD use during the perioperative phase of KT only...
November 23, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Peter Balaz, Petrut Gogalniceanu, Chris Callaghan
Renal failure and haemodialysis are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Patients undergoing renal transplantation undergo rigorous pre-operative vascular assessment, including optimisation of risk factors for stroke. The indication for carotid intervention and the threshold for carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic patients with incidental carotid disease has not been clarified in the context chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review aims to analyse outcomes following carotid endarterectomy in patients with CKD, in order to ascertain whether general guidelines for carotid artery revascularisation apply to this specific cohort...
November 16, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Catrin Pedder Jones, Chris Papadopoulos, Gurch Randhawa
BACKGROUND: Previous research has proposed that primary care interventions to increase organ donation rates can help address the discrepancy between organ donation rates and the number of patients awaiting transplant. However, no systematic review has been conducted to examine interventions in this setting. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise evidence from previous organ donation interventions conducted in a primary care setting. METHODS: Six databases and grey literature were systematically searched between November 2016 and July 2017...
October 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Chiara Sabia, Antonietta Picascia, Vincenzo Grimaldi, Cristiano Amarelli, Ciro Maiello, Claudio Napoli
Heart transplantation is still the only possible life-saving treatment for end-stage heart failure, the critical epilogue of several cardiac diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms are being intensively investigated because they could contribute to establishing innovative diagnostic and predictive biomarkers, as well as ground-breaking therapies both for heart failure and heart transplantation rejection. DNA methylation and histone modifications can modulate the innate and adaptive immune response by acting on the expression of immune-related genes that, in turn, are crucial determinants of transplantation outcome...
October 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Neetika Garg, Milagros D Samaniego, Dana Clark, Arjang Djamali
The diagnostic criteria for antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) are constantly evolving in light of the evidence. Inclusion of C4d-negative ABMR has been one of the major advances in the Banff Classification in recent years. Currently Banff 2015 classification requires evidence of donor specific antibodies (DSA), interaction between DSA and the endothelium, and acute tissue injury (in the form of microvasculature injury (MVI); acute thrombotic microangiopathy; or acute tubular injury in the absence of other apparent cause)...
October 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Sergio A Acuna, Johnny W Huang, Fahima Dossa, Prakesh S Shah, S Joseph Kim, Nancy N Baxter
Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) with a pre-transplant malignancy (PTM) have been thought to be at high risk of cancer recurrence. However, recent population-based studies report cancer recurrence rates in SOTR similar to those of non-transplant patients. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to identify studies reporting cancer recurrence in SOTR with PTM. Quality assessment was performed using a validated tool for assessing the quality of an observational study with no control group designed by the Institute of Health Economics...
October 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Eveline Löfdahl, Göran Rådegran
Heart transplantation (HT) remains the ultimate final therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure, who despite optimal medical and surgical treatments exhibit severe symptoms. To prevent rejection of the transplanted organ, HT patients require life-long immunosuppressive therapy. The goal of the immunosuppression is to minimise the risk of immune-mediated graft rejection, while avoiding clinical side-effects. Current immunosuppressive agents have yielded good survival outcome, however, complications of the immunosuppressive therapy, such as impaired bone strength and increased fracture risk, are common among HT patients rendering increased morbidity and mortality rates...
August 12, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
S Dholakia, E J Sharples, R J Ploeg, P J Friend
The on-going success of whole organ pancreatic transplantation is dependent on overcoming the imbalance between demand and supply of optimal organs as well as tackling the vast comorbidity associated with the procedure. Pancreas steatosis is a common contributing factor to the problem and with obesity pandemics affecting the global population; the size and type of organs received from donors will only make steatosis more of an issue. The aim of this review is to highlight what is known about steatosis in the context of pancreas transplantation identifying potential methods to help its evaluation...
August 10, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Jamal Bamoulid, Thomas Crépin, Cécile Courivaud, Jean-Michel Rebibou, Philippe Saas, Didier Ducloux
Compelling data suggest that lymphocyte depletion following T cell depleting therapy may induce prolonged CD4 T cell lymphopenia and trigger lymphocyte activation in some patients. These profound and non-reversible immune changes in T cell pool subsets are the consequence of both impaired thymic renewal and peripheral homeostatic proliferation. Chronic viral challenges by CMV play a major role in these immune alterations. Even when the consequences of CD4 T cell lymphopenia have been now well described, recent studies shed new light on the clinical consequences of immune activation...
July 2017: Transplantation Reviews
Aydin Seref Koksal, Ahmet Tarik Eminler, Erkan Parlak, Ahmet Gurakar
Biliary strictures constitute 40% to 60% of the biliary complications after liver transplantation. They are more common after living donor related liver transplantation (LDLT) than orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Balloon dilation followed by multiple plastic stent insertion leads to a mean resolution rate of 84% in the treatment of ASs after OLT. Endoscopic treatment of ASs after LDLT is more difficult because of the small size of the ASs, their multiple number and peripheral location. Balloon dilation followed by multiple plastic stent insertion had a mean resolution rate of 53%...
July 2017: Transplantation Reviews
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