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Transplantation Reviews

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214240/bridging-locoregional-therapy-longitudinal-trends-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Hayley C Oligane, Orrie N Close, Minzhi Xing, Hyun S Kim
The purpose of this article is to analyze longitudinal trends in locoregional therapy (LRT) use and review locoregional therapy's role in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to orthotropic liver transplantation Porrett et al. (2006) . LRT has a role in both bridge to transplantation and downstaging of patients not initially meeting Milan or UCSF Criteria. Due to the lack of randomized controlled trials, no specific bridging LRT modality is recommended over another for treating patients on the waiting list, however each modality has unique and patient-specific advantages...
February 2, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209246/the-clinical-course-of-iga-nephropathy-after-kidney-transplantation-and-its-management
#2
REVIEW
Sophia Lionaki, Konstantinos Panagiotellis, Christine Melexopoulou, John N Boletis
Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy is one of the most common primary glomerulonephritides worldwide causing end stage renal disease in up to 20-40% of affected patients, nearly two decades post diagnosis. Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with renal failure, secondary to glomerular diseases. However, IgA nephropathy has a strong tendency to recur in the graft, and although initially thought to be a benign condition, several reports of graft loss, due to recurrent IgA nephropathy, there have been over the last three decades...
February 2, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187998/a-systematic-review-of-the-use-of-rituximab-for-the-treatment-of-antibody-mediated-renal-transplant-rejection
#3
REVIEW
Philip S Macklin, Peter J Morris, Simon R Knight
Rituximab is a B-lymphocyte depleting agent that is used to treat hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Recently, it has gained interest as an immunomodulatory agent in renal transplantation. This systematic review evaluates the evidence for its use in the treatment of acute and chronic antibody-mediated renal transplant rejection (AAMR; CAMR). A systematic search of four databases and three trial registries was conducted. The small number and heterogeneous nature of included studies precluded meta-analysis and thus a narrative review was conducted...
January 24, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131494/immunomodulation-by-hyperimmunoglobulins-after-solid-organ-transplantation-beyond-prevention-of-viral-infection
#4
REVIEW
Rogier van Gent, Herold J Metselaar, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Hyperimmunoglobulins are pharmaceutical formulations of human IgG which contain high titers of antibodies against specific viruses. They have been successfully used in solid organ transplantation (SOT) to prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The introduction of effective and cheaper antiviral drugs has resulted in decreasing usage of hyperimmunoglobulins in SOT. However, it may still be attractive to combine antiviral drug therapy with hyperimmunoglobulins after SOT, as there is some evidence that hyperimmunoglobulins, similar to high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs), might exert anti-inflammatory activity and thereby prevent immunological graft damage and improve graft and patient survival...
January 19, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139330/management-of-the-obese-kidney-transplant-candidate
#5
REVIEW
Julie Lesage, John S Gill
Obesity is an increasingly common condition that can exclude end stage renal disease patients from consideration of kidney transplantation. The optimal management of obese transplant candidates is uncertain, especially the use of pharmacologic therapies or bariatric surgery. We review the rationale to consider transplantation in obese patients, the impact of obesity on access to kidney transplantation, the evidence for obese patients to lose weight loss prior to kidney transplantation, peri-operative management considerations and specific weight loss strategies prior to transplantation...
January 12, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089555/epstein-barr-virus-and-renal-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Jade Le, Christine M Durand, Irfan Agha, Daniel C Brennan
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma herpesvirus associated with diseases ranging from asymptomatic viremia to post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients. EBV specifically is associated with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), in kidney transplant recipients, with increased risk in EBV seronegative patients with EBV seropositive donors on intensified immunosuppression. The diagnosis of PTLD relies on clinical suspicion plus tissue biopsy with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of blood currently used for risk determination in high-risk recipients...
December 29, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989547/graft-inflow-modulation-in-adult-to-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Roberto I Troisi, Giammauro Berardi, Federico Tomassini, Mauricio Sainz-Barriga
INTRODUCTION: Small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) has an incidence between 0 and 43% in small-for-size graft (SFSG) adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Portal hypertension following reperfusion and the hyperdynamic splanchnic state are reported as the major triggering factors of SFSS. Intra- and postoperative strategies to prevent or to reduce its onset are still under debate. We analyzed graft inflow modulation (GIM) during adult LDLT considering the indications, efficacy of the available techniques, changes in hemodynamics and outcomes...
December 8, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011070/prevention-and-management-of-lymphocele-formation-following-kidney-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Mohammad Golriz, Miriam Klauss, Martin Zeier, Arianeb Mehrabi
Despite preventive methods, lymphoceles frequently form following kidney transplantation (KTx), with an incidence of 0.6%-51%. Here, we summarize the current strategies for preventing and managing this complication, and describe the approach used in our department. Rapid diagnosis and early treatment of lymphoceles through a well-defined approach can prevent or reduce the risk of organ loss. Diagnosis can be made by ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging and laparoscopic fenestration is the current therapy of choice when non-surgical methods fail...
November 16, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884503/steering-between-scylla-and-charybdis-picking-out-the-optimum-time-of-double-j-stent-removal-following-renal-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Chrysoula Argyrou, Demetrios Moris, Spiridon Vernadakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884502/the-role-of-arterial-conduits-for-revascularisation-in-adult-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Nikolaos A Chatzizacharias, Mohamed Aly, Raaj K Praseedom
The successful outcome in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is critically dependent on the uncompromised hepatic graft blood inflow. Arterial conduits represent a good solution in cases where conventional revascularisation is not possible. The purpose of this systematic review is to analyse the published evidence on the use of arterial conduits in adult OLT. After review of the Pubmed and EMBASE databases, 19 relevant studies were identified and analysed. Even though patient survival was comparable, most large studies reported worse 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates compared to grafts with standard arterial revascularisation...
November 4, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847221/chronic-allograft-injury-mechanisms-and-potential-treatment-targets
#11
REVIEW
Leonardo V Riella, Arjang Djamali, Julio Pascual
Improving long-term graft survival remains one of the critical challenges facing kidney transplantation since a great portion of kidney grafts are lost by 10years after transplantation. Understanding the causes of chronic allograft injury and providing timely therapeutic interventions are essential for improving these outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the recent data that emerged turning down calcineurin inhibitors as the primary cause of long-term graft injury and highlighting the increased importance of non-compliance, antibody-mediated injury, disease recurrence, and BK nephropathy as culprits...
October 11, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776929/kidney-transplantation-for-hiv-positive-patients
#12
REVIEW
Deirdre Sawinski
HIV+ patients are at increased risk for end-stage renal disease, but HIV infection was once considered a contraindication to renal transplantation. However, contemporary studies from the United States and Europe have now demonstrated that renal transplantation is a safe and effective treatment for end-stage renal disease in HIV patients, with equivalent patient and allograft survival to those uninfected. Broader experience in transplantation in HIV+ patients has identified unique challenges including high rates of acute rejection, delayed graft function, and significant drug-drug interactions...
October 11, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126347/acute-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#13
REVIEW
Scott Davis, James E Cooper
Antibody-mediated rejection has now been recognized as one of the most important causes of graft loss. Transplantation across HLA barriers and nonadherence can result in acute antibody-mediated rejection, which is associated with particularly worse graft outcomes. New technologies, including genomic studies and assays to detect and define donor-specific antibodies, have provided important insights into the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute antibody-mediated rejection but have engendered many questions about the clinical application of these tests in the prognosis and prevention of this protean disease process...
October 10, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919635/a-critical-assessment-on-kidney-allocation-systems
#14
REVIEW
Richard N Formica
The kidney allocation system that took effect on December 4, 2014 represents a significant improvement over the prior approach. It seeks to improve outcomes by longevity matching - pairing kidneys expected to function the longest with recipients expected to live the longest. It addresses the biological barriers faced by highly sensitized patients in an evidence based fashion and it begins to introduce the concept of medical need into kidney allocation by crediting time from the starting dialysis to a patient's waiting time...
October 8, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836384/sensitization-assessment-before-kidney-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Ben C Reynolds, Kathryn J Tinckam
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end stage renal disease to optimize survival, freedom from morbidity and quality of life. A fundamental aspect of the pre-transplant assessment is a thorough understanding of their immunological history and prior exposures, so that the immunological risk from a given donor can be estimated, if not quantified, in order to guide interventions to optimize transplant access and success. The methodologies available to complete this assessment have evolved rapidly, with flow cytometric based analyses now standard in many laboratories, availability of comprehensive molecular methods for HLA typing of both donors and recipients, and an increasing recognition of the vital dialogue that must occur between the HLA laboratory and transplant clinicians...
October 8, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553809/hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-solid-organ-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Reza Elahimehr, Andrew T Scheinok, Dianne B McKay
Solid organ transplantation provides lifesaving therapy for patients with end stage organ disease. In order for the transplanted organ to survive, the recipient must take a lifelong cocktail of immunosuppressive medications that increase the risk for infections, malignancies and drug toxicities. Data from many animal studies have shown that recipients can be made tolerant of their transplanted organ by infusing stem cells, particularly hematopoietic stem cells, prior to the transplant. The animal data have been translated into humans and now several clinical trials have demonstrated that infusion of hematopoietic stem cells, along with specialized conditioning regimens, can permit solid organ allograft survival without immunosuppressive medications...
October 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534874/from-chronic-kidney-disease-to-kidney-transplantation-the-impact-of-obesity-and-its-treatment-modalities
#17
REVIEW
Brian Camilleri, Julie M Bridson, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
Obesity is associated with worse short-term outcomes after kidney transplantation but the effect on long-term outcomes is unknown. Although some studies have reported worse outcomes for obese recipients when compared to recipients with a BMI in the normal range, obese recipients who receive a transplant have better outcomes than those who remain wait-listed. Whether transplant candidates should be advised to lose weight before or after transplant has been debated and this is mainly due to the gap in the literature linking pre-transplant weight loss with better outcomes post-transplantation...
October 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531698/biliary-complications-following-living-donor-hepatectomy
#18
REVIEW
Hillary J Braun, Nancy L Ascher, Garrett R Roll, John P Roberts
BACKGROUND: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has become increasingly common in an effort to increase organ availability for the treatment of end-stage liver disease. Donor safety is a primary concern in LDLT. The majority of complications experienced by living donors are infectious or biliary in nature. The purpose of this paper was to review the existing literature on biliary complications in living donors. METHODS: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in English between 2006-present, focused on adult-to-adult LDLT, and were available via PubMed/MEDLINE...
October 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531697/from-hla-typing-to-anti-hla-antibody-detection-and-beyond-the-road-ahead
#19
REVIEW
Antonietta Picascia, Vincenzo Grimaldi, Claudio Napoli
The complex polymorphism of the HLA genes and the need of a proper identification of anti-HLA antibodies have led to continuously develop novel practical and feasible technologies in the field of organ and tissue transplantation. Technologies to identify HLA molecules have evolved from the serological to the molecular methods and a true innovation in the DNA sequencing has taken place with the development of next generation sequencing. An interesting field to explore is how the information resulting from the HLA-DNA sequencing can be applied in the clinical setting by including the alloimmunization assessment...
October 2016: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527917/combined-heart-liver-transplantation-indications-outcomes-and-current-experience
#20
REVIEW
Eliza W Beal, Khalid Mumtaz, Don Hayes, Bryan A Whitson, Sylvester M Black
Combined heart-liver transplantation is a rare, life-saving procedure that treats complex and often fatal diseases including familial amyloidosis polyneuropathy and late stage congenital heart disease status-post previous repair. There were 159 combined heart-liver transplantations performed between January 1, 1988 and October 3, 2014 in the United States. A multitude of potential techniques to be used for combined heart and liver transplant including: orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) and orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) on full cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), OHT with CPB and OLT with venovenous bypass (VVB), OHT with CPB and OLT without VVB, en-bloc technique and sequential transplantation...
October 2016: Transplantation Reviews
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