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Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

Kingshuk Pal, Naaheed Mukadam, Irene Petersen, Claudia Cooper
PURPOSE: We aimed to quantify the relative risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia in people with and without diabetes, and with and without the MetS (MetS); and to identify potential modifiers of the risk of progression from MCI to dementia in people with diabetes or MetS. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycArticles and Web of Science from inception through to 20th March 2018. Where possible, the results from three or more studies were pooled in a meta-analysis, while other findings have been described narratively...
September 4, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Laura Sampson, Silvia S Martins, Shui Yu, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho, Laura Helena Andrade, Maria Carmen Viana, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Corina Benjet, Yolanda Torres, Marina Piazza, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Alfredo H Cia, Juan Carlos Stagnaro, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler, Sandro Galea
PURPOSE: Our understanding of community-level predictors of individual mental disorders in large urban areas of lower income countries is limited. In particular, the proportion of migrant, unemployed, and poorly educated residents in neighborhoods of these urban areas may characterize group contexts and shape residents' health. METHODS: Cross-sectional household interviews of 7251 adults were completed across 83 neighborhoods of Buenos Aires, Argentina; Medellín, Colombia; São Paulo, Brazil; Lima, Peru; and Mexico City, Mexico as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative...
September 1, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Madeline Foley, Laura M Schwab-Reese
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between state-level depression and opioid overdose deaths between 2011 and 2015 in the United States. METHODS: We assessed the association between percent of state populations reporting depression diagnoses and number of opioid analgesic-related deaths using negative binomial generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: A 1% point increase in state-level depression diagnoses was associated with a 26% (95% CI 1-58%) increase in opioid analgesic-related deaths...
September 1, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Xinguang Chen, Yang Sun, Zhi Li, Bin Yu, Ge Gao, Peigang Wang
PURPOSE: Distinctive and dramatic changes in the history of China with a rapid suicide decline in recent years present an opportunity to investigate the risk of suicide. In this study, we investigated suicide risk with a historical perspective with archived data to inform suicide research and prevention policies and strategies. METHOD: Documented age-specific suicide mortality rates in 1987-2012 were decomposed into age, period, and cohort effect using APC-modeling method and intrinsic estimator (IE) technique...
August 31, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Feng Li, Xuesong Lu, Ying Ou, Paul S F Yip
PURPOSE: In global forensic practice, some suicides were misclassified as undetermined deaths, leading to suicide underreporting. In this study, we aimed to explore the influence of undetermined deaths on suicides in Shanghai, China. METHODS: The police records on suicide verdicts and undetermined deaths in Pudong, Shanghai, from 2004 to 2016 were used. In this study, undetermined deaths have been classified into three levels of suicide possibilities namely, probable, possible, and highly unlikely...
August 30, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Theresa L Osypuk, Nicole M Schmidt, Rebecca D Kehm, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, M Maria Glymour
PURPOSE: The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) study is typically interpreted as a trial of changes in neighborhood poverty. However, the program may have also increased exposure to housing discrimination. Few prior studies have tested whether interpersonal and institutional forms of discrimination may have offsetting effects on mental health, particularly using intervention designs. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of MTO, which randomized public housing residents in 5 cities to rental vouchers, or to in-place controls (N = 4248, 1997-2002), which generated variation on neighborhood poverty (% of residents in poverty) and encounters with housing discrimination...
August 30, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Hayley A Hamilton, Ian Colman
PURPOSE: Previous research has found links between involvement in bullying and sleep duration in adolescents. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. This study examined the associations between cyberbullying victimization and school bullying involvement (bully, victim, bully-victim) with short sleep duration in a large sample of middle and high school students and tested whether psychological distress mediates these relationships. METHODS: Data on 5061 students (49% females; mean age = 15...
August 30, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Julia Philipp, Michael Zeiler, Karin Waldherr, Stefanie Truttmann, Wolfgang Dür, Andreas F K Karwautz, Gudrun Wagner
PURPOSE: Epidemiological data are crucial to plan adequate prevention strategies. Thus, this study aims at obtaining the prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) and subthreshold psychiatric disorders based on a representative sample of Austrian adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents aged 10-18 were recruited from Austrian schools. Emotional and behavioral problems were determined using the Youth Self-Report (YSR); the point prevalence of subthreshold psychiatric disorders was assessed using structured diagnostic interviews...
August 29, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sabrina Just Kousgaard, Søren Kjærgaard Boldsen, Christina Mohr-Jensen, Marlene Briciet Lauritsen
PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to estimate the risk of parental separation associated with having a child with ADHD or ASD when controlling for a large range of known risk factors for parental separation using Danish registries. METHODS: The study included all children with ADHD or ASD born between 1990 and 1998 in Denmark and a sex and age matched random sample of children from the background population. We followed these children and their parents from birth until the child's 25th birthday, parental separation or December 31, 2015, whichever came first...
August 28, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Evelyn A Boukouvalas, Sarira El-Den, Timothy F Chen, Rebekah Moles, Bandana Saini, Alison Bell, Claire L O'Reilly
PURPOSE: Health care professionals, including pharmacists, have the potential to recognise and assist those at risk of suicide. The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of utilising people with a lived experience of mental illness as simulated patients on final year pharmacy students' attitudes toward and confidence in caring for people at risk of suicide after first receiving Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training. METHODS: A parallel group repeated measures design was used...
August 28, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Tonelle E Handley, Jane Rich, Terry J Lewin, Brian J Kelly
PURPOSE: Many major studies of depression in Australia are under-representative of rural and remote residents, limiting the generalizability of their findings. This study explores the contributions of a range of individual, social, and community factors to the trajectory of depressive symptoms among a cohort of rural and remote residents. METHODS: Data from four waves of the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (baseline n = 2639), a 5 year longitudinal study of rural community residents, were examined within generalized linear mixed models to predict depressive symptoms...
August 28, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Margot J Metz, Marjolein A Veerbeek, Jos W R Twisk, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Edwin de Beurs, Aartjan T F Beekman
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of Shared Decision-Making (SDM) using Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) primary on patients' perception of Decisional Conflict (DC), which measures patients' engagement in and satisfaction with clinical decisions, and secondary on working alliance and treatment outcomes. METHOD: Multi-centre two-arm matched-paired cluster randomised-controlled trial in Dutch specialist mental health care. SDM using ROM (SDMR) was compared with Decision-Making As Usual (DMAU)...
August 27, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Chian-Jue Kuo, Wen-Yin Chen, Shang-Ying Tsai, Pao-Huan Chen, Kai-Ting Ko, Chiao-Chicy Chen
PURPOSE: Excessive mortality has been seen in patients with personality disorder (PD), but it has not been well-studied when patients also have other psychiatric comorbidities. This study investigated the mortality rates and causes of death in an Asian cohort with PD. METHOD: We enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with PD as defined by DSM-IV criteria (N = 1172), who had been admitted to a psychiatric service center in northern Taiwan between 1985 and 2008...
August 27, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Habibolah Khazaie, Farid Najafi, Behrooz Hamzeh, Azita Chehri, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Mehdi Moradi-Nazar, Ali Zakiei, Saeid Komasi, Yahya Pasdar
PURPOSES: (1) Cluster analysis of psychiatric disorders and partitioning the youth; (2) determining socio-demographic correlates and parental histories for each one of the clusters; and (3) comparing clusters based on the extent and type of using psychotherapeutic services. METHODS: The current cross-sectional study is a part of the first phase of PERSIAN Youth Cohort. The sample of the study includes 2991 participants aged 15-34 (27 ± 5.1 years, 55.6% female) from Ravansar district in western Iran...
August 25, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Beverly P Bergman, Daniel F Mackay, Daniel J Smith, Jill P Pell
PURPOSE: Although suicide risk in veterans has been widely studied, there is little information on the risk of non-fatal self-harm in this population. We used data from the Scottish Veterans Health Study to conduct an epidemiological analysis of self-harm in veterans, in comparison with people who have never served. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, 30-year cohort study of 56,205 veterans born 1945-1985, and 172,741 people with no record of military service, and used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between veteran status and cumulative risk of non-fatal self-harm, overall and stratified by birth cohort, sex and length of service...
August 25, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Kathleen MacDonald, Nina Fainman-Adelman, Kelly K Anderson, Srividya N Iyer
PURPOSE: While early access to appropriate care can minimise the sequelae of mental illnesses, little is known about how youths come to access mental healthcare. We therefore conducted a systematic review to synthesise literature on the pathways to care of youths across a range of mental health problems. METHODS: Studies were identified through searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, HealthSTAR and CINAHL), supplemented by backward and forward mapping and hand searching...
August 22, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Basma Guarmit, Paul Brousse, Aude Lucarelli, Gerd Donutil, Claire Cropet, Emilie Mosnier, Philippe Travers, Mathieu Nacher
OBJECTIVE: The overall rate of suicide in French Guiana is estimated at 6 per 100,000, a rate that is lower than in mainland France. Given the frequent reports of suicide in Amerindian communities, our hypothesis was that this figure fails to capture a more contrasted reality. Our objective was to refine estimates and determine suicide rates in remote villages of French Guiana. METHODS: We included patients for whom a suicide attempt or suicide was mentioned in medical records...
August 21, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Wanjie Tang, Yi Lu, Jiuping Xu
PURPOSE: Our study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and their comorbidity and correlation with sleep problems among adolescent survivors 3 years after the 2013 Ya'an earthquake. METHODS: A representative sample of 6132 adolescent students was analysed from 11 primary and high schools in the three counties most severely affected by the earthquake. Students were invited to complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale-13, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders...
August 14, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Srividya Iyer, Sally Mustafa, Geneviève Gariépy, Jai Shah, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage, Ashok Malla
PURPOSE: The early phases of psychosis, including the prodrome, often feature educational/occupational difficulties and various symptoms and signs, that can render or keep youths "Not in Employment, Education or Training" (NEET). Conversely, NEET status itself may increase risk for illness progression and impaired functioning, and impede access to appropriate services for psychosis. As these issues have not been investigated, we aimed to examine differences in the illness and care pathways and characteristics of youths with psychosis who are NEET and non-NEET...
August 9, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Rashelle J Musci, Hadi Kharrazi, Renee F Wilson, Ryoko Susukida, Fardad Gharghabi, Allen Zhang, Lawrence Wissow, Karen A Robinson, Holly C Wilcox
PURPOSE: Suicide is now the second leading cause of death among persons between the ages of adolescents and emerging adults and rates have increased despite more funding and broader implementation of youth suicide-prevention programs. A systematic review was conducted focusing on identifying youth suicide-prevention studies within the United States. This paper reports on the methods utilized for understanding possible moderators of suicide-prevention program outcomes. METHODS: We searched six databases from 1990 through August 2017 to identify studies of suicide-preventive interventions among those under age 26 years...
August 7, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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