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Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

W Veling, J K Burns, E M Makhathini, S Mtshemla, S Nene, S Shabalala, N Mbatha, A Tomita, J Baumgartner, I Susser, H W Hoek, E Susser
PURPOSE: There is considerable variation in epidemiology and clinical course of psychotic disorders across social and geographical contexts. To date, very little data are available from low- and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, most people with psychoses remain undetected and untreated, partly due to lack of formal health care services. This study in rural South Africa aimed to investigate if it is possible to identify individuals with recent-onset psychosis in collaboration with traditional health practitioners (THPs)...
November 9, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Mi Hyun Lee, Jae-Won Choi, Joonki Lee, Aesun Shin, Seong Min Oh, Sun Jae Jung, Yu Jin Lee
PURPOSE: This study investigated prescriptions for sedative-hypnotics via data obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) service. METHODS: Data on sedative-hypnotic prescriptions from the HIRA service of the Republic of Korea were analyzed from 2011 to 2015. We included prescriptions for subjects > 18 years of age from hospitals and community healthcare centers. In addition, subgroup analyses with a subsample restricted to prescriptions from patients with diagnostic codes F510 (nonorganic insomnia) or G470 (insomnia) were performed...
November 7, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Ling-Yi Wang, Shih-Fen Chen, Jen-Huai Chiang, Chung-Y Hsu, Yu-Chih Shen
PURPOSE: Studies suggested autoimmunity plays a role in the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to determine if a history of systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) is associated with an increased risk of subsequent onset of OCD. METHODS: Patients with or without SADs were identified in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. The SADs cohort consisted of 63,165, while the comparison cohort consisted of 315,825 patients...
November 7, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Karin Beckman, Henrik Lysell, Axel Haglund, Marie Dahlin
PURPOSE: Gender differences in youth self-harm are sparsely studied regarding long-term prognoses. We aimed to study the gender differences in effects of adolescent self-harm in early adult life in four domains: 1/family situation, 2/education and employment, 3/mental illness and suicidal behaviour, and 4/suicide and all-cause mortality. METHOD: A register-based cohort study including all Swedish residents aged 20 during 2001-2005 was performed. Exposure was self-harm at ages 10-20, and outcomes were death and suicide and past-year records of self-harm, marital status/children, education/employment, and mental health at age 30...
November 7, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Eloise Crush, Louise Arseneault, Helen L Fisher
The article Girls get by with a little help from their friends: gender differences in protective effects of social support for psychotic phenomena amongst poly-victimised adolescents, written by Eloise Crush, Louise Arseneault and Helen L. Fisher, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 25 September 2018 without open access.
November 2, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Stephanie R Penney, Michael C Seto, Anne G Crocker, Tonia L Nicholls, Teresa Grimbos, Padraig L Darby, Alexander I F Simpson
PURPOSE: To quantify the demand for forensic psychiatric services in Ontario over the past 25 years and investigate whether the sociodemographic, clinical and offense-based characteristics of forensic patients have changed over time. METHODS: We investigated all forensic admissions from 1987 to 2012 resulting in a disposition of Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder (N = 2533). We present annual proportions of patients with specified sociodemographic, clinical and offense characteristics, and investigate whether the duration of forensic system tenure varies as a function of admission year, psychiatric diagnosis, or index offense...
October 27, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sarah Margaret Goodday, Susan Bondy, Rinku Sutradhar, Hilary K Brown, Anne Rhodes
PURPOSE: To (1) determine the association between exposure to maternal depressive symptoms in childhood and offspring suicide-related thoughts (SRT) and attempts (SA) in youth and young adults and (2) identify effect measure modifiers (offspring sex, family structure, maternal perceived social support, and social cohesion) of the association in 1. METHOD: A cohort was constructed by linking all cycles from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, a Canadian nationally representative survey, from 1994 to 2009 in 16,903 subjects 0 to 25 years...
October 24, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Scott D Emerson, Nicole S Carbert
PURPOSE: Mental illness represents a major public health burden among Canada's large immigrant population. A burgeoning cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental evidence base implicates nutrition in mental health. Healthier diets (e.g., those rich in certain micro-nutrients) may benefit cognitive, social, and emotional functioning through attenuated inflammation and other bio-psychological pathways. The present study examined associations between nutrition and three markers of mental health among immigrants to Canada...
October 23, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Anna M Ross, Amy J Morgan, Anthony F Jorm, Nicola J Reavley
PURPOSE: This review aims to summarise the evidence on the impact of news media and social media reports of severe mental illness (SMI) on stigma, and interventions that aim to mitigate any adverse impact. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted in December 2017 to identify studies that report on the impact of media coverage or media interventions on stigma related to schizophrenia, psychosis, bipolar disorder, or mental illness in general...
October 22, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Nao Shiraishi, Jacqueline Reilly
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia places a heavy burden on the individual with the disorder, as well as on his or her family; this burden continues over the long course of the disease. This study aimed to provide an overview of the positive and negative impacts of schizophrenia on family caregivers. METHODS: From April to June 2017, two investigators conducted a systematic review and meta-summary of studies obtained from five electronic databases and the footnotes and citations of eligible studies...
October 22, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Brian S Barnett, Veronica Kusunzi, Lucy Magola, Christina P C Borba, Michael Udedi, Kazione Kulisewa, Mina C Hosseinipour
PURPOSE: Studies of factors affecting length of stay during psychiatric hospitalization in sub-Saharan Africa are sparse. A better understanding of such factors may lead to interventions resulting in quicker patient stabilization and discharge, freeing up needed psychiatric beds and reducing health care system expenditures. Therefore, we sought to identify factors associated with long length of stay in Malawi. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 417 patients hospitalized at Kamuzu Central Hospital's Bwaila Psychiatric Unit in Lilongwe, Malawi from January 1 to December 31, 2011...
October 22, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sosei Yamaguchi, Yasutaka Ojio, Shuntaro Ando, Peter Bernick, Kazusa Ohta, Kei-Ichiro Watanabe, Graham Thornicroft, Takuma Shiozawa, Shinsuke Koike
PURPOSE: There is a critical need to clarify the long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions. The study aimed to assess the long-term effects of repeated filmed social contact or internet-based self-study on mental health-related stigma through a randomised controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. METHODS: We randomly allocated 259 university or college students to a filmed social contact group, an internet-based self-study group, or a control group. The filmed social contact and internet-based self-study groups each received a 30-min initial intervention followed by emailed interventions every 2 months over a 12-month period...
October 12, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sherry Kit Wa Chan, O W T Li, C L M Hui, W C Chang, E H M Lee, E Y H Chen
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of media reporting of a homicide committed by a patient with schizophrenia on the knowledge about and stigma regarding psychosis among the general Hong Kong population. The effects of using the term 'schizophrenia (jing-shen-fen-lei)' in the news on the perceptions of the new Chinese term 'psychosis (si-jue-shi-tiao)' were explored. METHODS: Random telephone surveys of the general Hong Kong population were conducted in April 2009 (1 month before the incident) and June 2009 (1 week after the incident)...
October 12, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Gregory Mantzouranis, Vanessa Baier, Laurent Holzer, Sébastien Urben, Eva Villard
PURPOSE: The efficacy of assertive community treatment for children and adolescents is proven in the United States, but remains controversial in Europe. Moreover, most studies showing positive outcomes of assertive community treatment are limited to statistically significant differences and do not consider whether the treatment is also subjectively clinically meaningful for the patient. Using a naturalistic sample, the present study aims to assess statistical and clinical significance of an assertive community treatment unit for adolescents in Europe...
October 11, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Tao-Hsin Tung, Yi-Ying Hsiao, Sheng-Ang Shen, Chien Huang
PURPOSE: In Taiwan, few studies explored the morbidity of mental disorders among prisoners. The purpose of this study is conducted to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in Taiwanese prisoners. METHODS: Based on Nationwide population-based databank, 82,650 prisons were studied for mental disorders. Mental disorders were assessed with the International Classification of Diseases 9th revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). RESULT: The prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners was estimated 11...
October 11, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Philip Hyland, Mark Shevlin, Marylene Cloitre, Thanos Karatzias, Frédérique Vallières, Gráinne McGinty, Robert Fox, Joanna McHugh Power
PURPOSE: Loneliness is a recognised public-health concern that is traditionally regarded as a unidimensional construct. Theories of loneliness predict the existence of subtypes of loneliness. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to test for the presence of loneliness subtypes and to examine their association with multiple mental health variables. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of US adults (N = 1839) completed the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, along with self-report measures of childhood and adulthood trauma, psychological wellbeing, major depression, and generalized anxiety...
October 6, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sara Evans-Lacko, Susanne Stolzenburg, Petra C Gronholm, Wagner Ribeiro, Marianna York-Smith, Georg Schomerus
PURPOSE: Self-identification of having a mental illness has been shown to be an important factor underpinning help-seeking behaviour and may mediate the relationship between personal stigma and mental health service use. This study validates a new scale for the self-identification of having a mental illness among a non-clinical, community cohort of young people in the UK. METHODS: Following consultation with a group of young person experts with experience of mental health problems, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the self-identification of mental illness scale (SELF-I) among 423 young people aged 13-24 years who are part of an ongoing prospective community cohort...
October 4, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Ping He, Yanan Luo, Chao Guo, Gong Chen, Xinming Song, Xiaoying Zheng
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the long-term effect of prenatal exposure to the Sino-Japanese War during 1937-1945 on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood among Chinese wartime survivors. METHODS: We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability conducted in 31 provinces in 2006. We restricted our analysis to 369,469 adults born between 1931 and 1950. Schizophrenia was ascertained by psychiatrists based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision...
September 29, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Helen Brooks, Karina Lovell, Penny Bee, Claire Fraser, Christine Molloy, Anne Rogers
PURPOSE: Shared decision-making (SDM) and the wider elements of intersecting professional and lay practices are seen as necessary components in the implementation of mental health interventions. A randomised controlled trial of a user- and carer-informed training package in the United Kingdom to enhance SDM in care planning in secondary mental health care settings showed no effect on patient-level outcomes. This paper reports on the parallel process evaluation to establish the influences on implementation at service user, carer, mental health professional and organisational levels...
September 28, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Bonu Sengupta, Robert H Jantzen
PURPOSE: After a steady decline in the incidence of suicide in the last 3 decades of the twentieth century, suicide rates in the US and likewise in New York City (NYC) began to rise. A breakdown of the city's rates by gender reveals that since 2000, suicides among men had held steady while the rate among women had increased in every age group, in divergence from the national pattern of rising rates in both genders. This study considers a broad range of socioeconomic variables to identify those most strongly associated with suicide rates of women in NYC...
September 28, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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