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European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682676/how-human-microbiome-talks-to-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jing Cong, Xiaochun Zhang
Microbes are ubiquitous in the human body. They usually live in communities, and each of these communities has a distinct taxonomical structure. Due to its close relationship with human health and disease, the human microbiome has received great attention and is probably considered to be the most valuable biomarker in preventing and solving human diseases. In this paper, we first review the value of the human microbiome. Then, we focus on the role of the human microbiome in influencing human health and disease...
April 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679254/metformin-reduces-the-relapse-rate-of-tuberculosis-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-experiences-from-3-year-follow-up
#2
Y Ma, Y Pang, W Shu, Y-H Liu, Q-P Ge, J Du, L Li, W-W Gao
The role of metformin (MET) on treatment effect of diabetic tuberculosis (TB) patients has not been studied in China. Thus, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether MET exhibited more efficacy in combination with anti-TB regimens for diabetic TB patients. All patients recruited came from five tuberculosis control and prevention institutes from July 2009 to July 2016 and completed 3 years of follow-up. We used chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to evaluate the demographic characteristics and the frequency of clinical outcome between MET and non-MET group...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679253/fever-of-unknown-origin-fuo-cmv-infectious-mononucleosis-or-lymphoma
#3
Burke A Cunha, Karishma Chawla
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) refers to fevers of > 101 °F that persist for > 3 weeks and remain undiagnosed after a focused inpatient or outpatient workup. FUO may be due to infectious, malignant/neoplastic, rheumatic/inflammatory, or miscellaneous disorders. The FUO category determines the focus of the diagnostic workup. In the case presented of an FUO in a young woman, there were clinical findings of both CMV infectious mononucleosis or a lymphoma, e.g., highly elevated ESR, elevated ferritin levels, and elevated ACE level, β-2 microglobulins...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675789/experimental-platform-utilising-melting-curve-technology-for-detection-of-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#4
Agnieszka Broda, Vlad Nikolayevskyy, Nicki Casali, Huma Khan, Richard Bowker, Gemma Blackwell, Bhakti Patel, James Hume, Waqar Hussain, Francis Drobniewski
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly infections with approximately a quarter of cases not being identified and/or treated mainly due to a lack of resources. Rapid detection of TB or drug-resistant TB enables timely adequate treatment and is a cornerstone of effective TB management. We evaluated the analytical performance of a single-tube assay for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) on an experimental platform utilising RT-PCR and melting curve analysis that could potentially be operated as a point-of-care (PoC) test in resource-constrained settings with a high burden of TB...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675788/recent-advances-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-in-resource-limited-settings
#5
REVIEW
Mitsuko Seki, Chang-Ki Kim, Satoshi Hayakawa, Satoshi Mitarai
Smear-negative and drug-resistant cases of tuberculosis (TB) disease necessitate the development of new diagnostic methods, especially in resource-limited settings. To improve the current TB situations, sensitive and specific TB point-of-care tests (POCTs) should be developed. This review addresses the current status of TB, novel diagnostic methodologies for TB, and the impact of those new diagnostics on TB control in such situations. Moreover, the perspective of TB management based on laboratory examinations is described...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675787/meropenem-vaborbactam-a-carbapenem-and-beta-lactamase-inhibitor-with-activity-against-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#6
REVIEW
Young R Lee, Nathaniel T Baker
Meropenem-vaborbactam is a carbapenem and β-lactamase inhibitor combination that is newly indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), including adult pyelonephritis. Vaborbactam was developed due to emergence of carbapenem-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae. In a phase I trial, patients that received meropenem-vaborbactam 2-2 g intravenously over 3 h every 8 h, Cmax was 58.2 ± 10.8 μg/mL for meropenem and 59.0 ± 8.4 μg/mL for vaborbactam. AUC0-8 was 186 ± 33...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675786/the-microbiology-of-infected-pancreatic-necrosis-in-the-era-of-minimally-invasive-therapy
#7
Nadav Sahar, Richard A Kozarek, Zaheer S Kanji, Shingo Chihara, S Ian Gan, Shayan Irani, Michael Larsen, Andrew S Ross, Michael Gluck
We aimed to determine the microbiology of infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON) in an era of minimally invasive treatment, since current knowledge is based on surgical specimens performed over two decades ago. We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively maintained database of patients who were treated for symptomatic WON using combined endoscopic and percutaneous drainage between 2008 and 2017. Aspirates from WON at initial treatment were evaluated. One hundred eighty-two patients were included with a mean age of 56 of whom 67% were male...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671175/characterisation-of-bone-and-joint-infections-due-to-group-b-streptococcus-serotype-iii-sequence-type-283
#8
Sean W Ong, Timothy Barkham, Win Mar Kyaw, Hanley J Ho, Monica Chan
In 2015, an epidemic of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype III sequence type 283 (ST283) disease was reported in Singapore, associated with consumption of raw freshwater fish. In this study, we further characterise the characteristics of bone and joint infections associated with ST283 GBS in adults and the differences between ST283 and non-ST283 manifestations. A retrospective study of 54 inpatients with invasive GBS disease involving bones and/or joints from 2010 to 2015 was performed. Archived isolates were identified as GBS serotype III and ST283 positive using PCR methods...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671174/increased-overall-survival-after-introduction-of-structured-bedside-consultation-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia
#9
Maud B P A Ariaans, Elisabeth A Roovers, Mark A A Claassen, Robert-Jan Hassing, Caroline M A Swanink, Elisabeth H Gisolf
Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a common and severe disease. In 2012, a structured bedside consultation (SBC) was introduced at Rijnstate Hospital. We analysed the effect of this SBC on the overall survival of patients with SAB and the effect on the diagnostic workup. We performed a retrospective cohort study, including all patients over 18 years with SAB from 2009 until 2017. The cases preceding versus those after implementation of SBC in 2012 were compared. In total, 613 episodes of SAB were analysed: 234 cases before and 379 cases since SBC...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667110/gender-affects-prognosis-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-differently-depending-on-the-severity-of-underlying-disease
#10
Chang Kyung Kang, Yee Gyung Kwak, Youngmi Park, Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Sook-In Jung, Kyung-Hwa Park, Wan Beom Park, Nam Joong Kim, Young Keun Kim, Hee-Chang Jang, Shinwon Lee, Jae Hyun Jeon, Ki Tae Kwon, Chung-Jong Kim, Yeon-Sook Kim, Hong Bin Kim
We aimed to elucidate the potential impact of gender on prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). We analyzed SAB cases prospectively collected over an 8-year period at 11 hospitals in Korea. SAB-related mortality was pre-defined as a death within 30 days from the onset of SAB without other apparent cause of death. The effect of gender on SAB-related mortality was examined in the entire cohort and in subgroups stratified according to methicillin resistance and Charlson's comorbidity-weighted index (CCWI) score...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663096/plasmids-carrying-dha-1-%C3%AE-lactamases
#11
REVIEW
Claire Hennequin, Viviane Ravet, Frédéric Robin
The aim of this review is to provide an update on the plasmids mediating DHA-1 cephalosporinase in Klebsiella pneumoniae. These plasmids have been mainly found in this bacterium but not only. The first was isolated from Salmonella sp. in France in the early 1990s. They are currently reported worldwide. BlaDHA-1 beta-lactamase gene is usually co-expressed with many other antibiotic resistance genes such as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaCTX-M -, bla SHV -types), oxacillinases (blaOXA-1, blaOXA-30 ), penicillinases (bla TEM -type), carbapenemases (bla OXA48 , blaKPC-2 ), aminoglycosides (aacA, aadA, armA), fluoroquinolones (qnrB4, aac6'-1b-cr), and sulfonamide (sul1) resistance genes...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651616/significant-increase-in-cultivation-of-gardnerella-vaginalis-alloscardovia-omnicolens-actinotignum-schaalii-and-actinomyces-spp-in-urine-samples-with-total-laboratory-automation
#12
Sabrina Klein, Dennis Nurjadi, Susanne Horner, Klaus Heeg, Stefan Zimmermann, Irene Burckhardt
While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651615/usefulness-of-sofia-pneumococcal-fia%C3%A2-test-in-comparison-with-binaxnow%C3%A2-pneumococcal-test-in-urine-samples-for-the-diagnosis-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#13
Joaquin Burgos, Jorge N Garcia-Pérez, Sabina González di Lauro, Vicenç Falcó, Tomás Pumarola, Benito Almirante, M Teresa Martín Gomez
The Sofia Pneumococcal FIA® test is a recently introduced immunofluorescent assay automatically read aimed to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in urine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of SofiaFIA® urinary antigen test (UAT) in comparison with classical immunochromatographic BinaxNOW® test for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP). Observational study was conducted in the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron from December 2015 to August 2016. Consecutive adult patients diagnosed of pneumonia and admitted to the emergency department in whom UAT was requested were prospectively enrolled...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651614/antibiotics-for-recurrent-acute-pharyngo-tonsillitis-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Holger Munck, Anders W Jørgensen, Tejs Ehlers Klug
The purpose was to determine the current evidence for preferable antibiotic treatment in three common clinical situations with insufficient consensus: Q1: Can antibiotic treatment prevent future attacks of acute pharyngo-tonsillitis (APT) in patients with recurrent APT (RAPT)? Q2: Which antibiotic regimen is preferable in the treatment of APT in patients with RAPT? Q3: Which antibiotic regimen is preferable in the treatment of relapsing APT? Five databases were searched systematically for randomized clinical trials on patients with RAPT with or without current APT or with relapse of APT...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644540/molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-an-endemic-area-comparison-with-global-data
#15
REVIEW
Theodoros Karampatakis, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Athanassios Tsakris, Emmanuel Roilides
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) is an endemic problem in certain countries including Greece. CRPA and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA) firstly emerged in our region during the 80s, right after the launch of imipenem and meropenem as therapeutic agents against P. aeruginosa infections. The role of outer membrane protein (Opr) inactivation has been known to contribute to imipenem resistance since many years, while efflux overexpression systems have been mainly associated with meropenem resistance...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629487/quasispecies-characters-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-immunoprophylaxis-failure-infants
#16
Xin Wang, Wanyan Deng, Keli Qian, Haijun Deng, Yong Huang, Zeng Tu, Ailong Huang, Quanxin Long
Hepatitis B vaccination prevents 80-95% of transmission and reduces the incidence of HBV in children. The variations in the a determinant of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) have been reported to be the most prevalent cause for vaccine or antibody escape. There is a conflicting evidence on as to whether escape mutants arise de novo in infected infants or whether the mutants, that have preexisted maternally, subsequently undergo selective replication in the infant under immune pressure. Here, we report that nearly 65% (55 of 85) vaccination failure in child patients has no amino acid substitution in a determinant as seen by Sanger sequencing...
April 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627951/risk-factors-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-israel
#17
Wasef Na'amnih, Amos Adler, Tamar Miller-Roll, Dani Cohen, Yehuda Carmeli
To estimate the rate and identified risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) in Israel. We conducted a retro-prospective case-control study of all adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients with an initial episode of CDI (iCDI) at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. We collected demographic, clinical, and epidemiological information for patients who were classified as recurrent (cases) and non-recurrent (control) groups. In total, 648 patients with iCDI were identified in the study...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627950/molecular-based-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-is-associated-with-reduced-mortality
#18
Tomer Avni, Tanya Babich, Haim Ben-Zvi, Alaa Atamna, Dafna Yahav, Daniel Shepshelovich, Yaara Leibovici-Weissman, Jihad Bishara
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) might result in overdiagnosis. The clinical outcomes of symptomatic CDI patients diagnosed by PCR remain uncertain. We aimed to determine whether patients whose diagnosis of CDI was based on PCR had different characteristics and clinical outcomes than those diagnosed by toxin immunoassay. Consecutive CDI patients, hospitalized at Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Petah Tikva, Israel, between January 2013 and January 2016, were identified retrospectively and included in the study...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623451/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-is-associated-with-adverse-clinical-outcomes-in-critically-ill-patients-receiving-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#19
I Rodriguez-Goncer, S Thomas, P Foden, M D Richardson, A Ashworth, J Barker, C G Geraghty, E G Muldoon, T W Felton
To identify the incidence, risk factors and impact on long-term survival of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and Aspergillus colonisation in patients receiving vv-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A retrospective evaluation was performed of patients receiving vv-ECMO at a tertiary hospital in Manchester (UK) between January 2012 and December 2016. Data collected included epidemiological data, microbiological cultures, radiographic findings and outcomes. Cases were classified as proven IPA, putative IPA or Aspergillus colonisation according to a validated clinical algorithm...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603035/clinical-characteristics-of-infections-caused-by-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-p1-genotypes-in-children
#20
Jasna Rodman Berlot, Uroš Krivec, Marina Praprotnik, Tatjana Mrvič, Rok Kogoj, Darja Keše
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) isolates can be classified into two major genetic groups, P1 type 1 (MP1) and P1 type 2 (MP2), based on the DNA sequence of the P1 adhesion protein gene. The aim of our study was to determine if M. pneumoniae P1 genotype is associated with disease manifestation and severity of acute M. pneumoniae infection. We compared epidemiological and clinical data of children infected with either MP1 or MP2. In addition, we separately analysed data of patients presenting with individual manifestations of M...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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