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European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222698/efficacy-evaluation-of-iclaprim-in-a-neutropenic-rat-lung-infection-model-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-entrapped-in-alginate-microspheres
#1
David B Huang, Ian Morrissey, Timothy Murphy, Stephen Hawser, Mark H Wilcox
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of iclaprim in a neutropenic rat lung infection model with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) entrapped in alginate beads. An inoculum of 5.25 × 105 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of S. aureus strain AH1252 was administered intratracheally to rats with prepared alginate bacteria suspensions. Beginning 2 h post-infection, rats received: (1) iclaprim 80 mg/kg (n = 16); (2) iclaprim 60 mg/kg (n = 16), or (3) vancomycin 50 mg/kg (n = 24), for 3 days via subcutaneous (SC) injection every 12 h...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222697/clinical-implications-of-rapid-eplex%C3%A2-respiratory-pathogen-panel-testing-compared-to-laboratory-developed-real-time-pcr
#2
Anneloes L van Rijn, Roel H T Nijhuis, Vincent Bekker, Geert H Groeneveld, Els Wessels, Mariet C W Feltkamp, Eric C J Claas
Rapid diagnosis of respiratory infections is of great importance for adequate isolation and treatment. Due to the batch-wise testing, laboratory-developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays (LDT) often result in a time to result of one day. Here, LDT was compared with rapid ePlex® Respiratory Pathogen (RP) Panel testing of GenMark Diagnostics (Carlsbad, CA, USA) with regard to time to result, installed isolation precautions, and antibacterial/antiviral treatment. Between January and March 2017, 68 specimens of 64 patients suspected of an acute respiratory infection were tested with LDT and the ePlex® RP panel...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218468/prediction-of-unfavorable-outcomes-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-results-of-the-multicenter-infectious-diseases-international-research-initiative-id-iri-cryptococcal-meningitis-study
#3
I N Hakyemez, H Erdem, G Beraud, M Lurdes, A Silva-Pinto, C Alexandru, B Bishop, F Mangani, X Argemi, M Poinot, R Hasbun, M Akcaer, S Alp, T Demirdal, K Angamuthu, F Amer, E Ragab, G A Shehata, D Ozturk-Engin, N Ozgunes, L Larsen, S Zimmerli, O R Sipahi, E Tukenmez Tigen, G Celebi, N Oztoprak, A C Yardimci, Y Cag
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, but CM may also occur in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Outcome analyses have been performed in such patients but, due to the high prevalence of HIV infection worldwide, CM patients today may be admitted to hospitals with unknown HIV status, particularly in underdeveloped countries. The objective of this multicenter study was to analyze all types of CM cases in an aggregate cohort to disclose unfavorable outcomes...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218467/antibiotic-prescription-and-clinical-management-of-common-infections-among-general-practitioners-in-latvia-lithuania-and-sweden-a-pilot-survey-with-a-simple-protocol
#4
Uga Dumpis, Annika Hahlin, Sonata Varvuolyte, Stephan Stenmark, Sarmīte Veide, Rolanda Valinteliene, Asta Jurkeviciene, Johan Struwe
Comparative information on diagnosis-related antibiotic prescribing patterns are scarce from primary care within and between countries. To describe and compare antibiotic prescription and routine management of infections in primary care in Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT) and two study sites in Sweden (SE), a cross-sectional observational study on patients who consulted due to sypmtoms compatible with infection was undetraken. Infection and treatment was detected and recorded by physicians only. Data was collected from altogether 8786 consecutive patients with infections in the three countries...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218466/acute-herpes-zoster-and-post-herpetic-neuralgia-in-primary-care-a-study-of-diagnosis-treatment-and-cost
#5
Brendan Crosbie, Sinead Lucey, Lesley Tilson, Lisa Domegan, Jennifer Kieran
Acute herpes zoster and its complication post herpetic neuralgia represent a significant challenge to primary care physicians in their care of an ageing population of patients. This was a cross-sectional observational study by means of a quantitative survey of 1,000 general practitioners registered in Ireland exploring the frequency of diagnosis, methods of treatment and cost of AHZ and PHN in primary care. We recorded an 18% response rate (n = 184) with an 83% completion rate (n = 152/184). 80% of cases of AHZ occurred in patients aged 50 years or more with 81% of study participants encountering cases at a rate of 1-3 patients per month...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214504/postmarketing-experience-with-neutrolin%C3%A2-taurolidine-heparin-calcium-citrate-catheter-lock-solution-in-hemodialysis-patients
#6
Bruce E Reidenberg, Christoph Wanner, Bruce Polsky, Mariana Castanheira, Alla Shelip, Dirk Stalleicken, Antony E Pfaffle
Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) are major complications for patients with life-threatening conditions requiring chronic vascular catheterization. The wide range of etiologic microbes and the ongoing development of resistance to antimicrobials with specific mechanisms of action make this an appropriate target for applying a nonspecific antimicrobial therapeutic. Taurolidine hydrolyzes into two antimicrobial moieties, formaldehyde and methylene glycol, which react with microbial surfaces. Neutrolin® (taurolidine, heparin, calcium citrate) was recently introduced in Germany as an antimicrobial catheter lock solution...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214503/epidemiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-human-coronaviruses-oc43-229e-nl63-and-hku1-a-study-of-hospitalized-children-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infection-in-guangzhou-china
#7
Zhi-Qi Zeng, De-Hui Chen, Wei-Ping Tan, Shu-Yan Qiu, Duo Xu, Huan-Xi Liang, Mei-Xin Chen, Xiao Li, Zheng-Shi Lin, Wen-Kuan Liu, Rong Zhou
Human coronaviruses (HCoV) OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1 are common respiratory viruses which cause various respiratory diseases, including pneumonia. There is a paucity of evidence on the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of these four HCoV strains worldwide. We collected 11,399 throat swabs from hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection from July 2009 to June 2016 in Guangzhou, China. These were tested for four strains of HCoV infection using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197989/direct-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-from-clinical-samples-from-denmark-not-only-genotypes-ii-and-iii
#8
P Jokelainen, J-B Murat, H V Nielsen
Genetic variation within Toxoplasma gondii can have both clinical and epidemiological significance, while the genotypes circulating in many parts of the world, including the Nordic country Denmark, are still unknown. We genetically characterized T. gondii strains that had been detected in human clinical samples in Denmark in 2011-2016. Samples that had tested positive for T. gondii DNA and had a quantification cycle value <33 were included in this study and subjected to direct genetic characterization of T...
December 3, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197988/impact-of-circulating-bacterial-dna-in-long-term-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-diabetic-patients-with-hiv-infection-cohort-study
#9
Ó Moreno-Pérez, L Giner, S Reus, V Boix, R Alfayate, R Frances, E Merino, A Pico, J Portilla
In HIV-infected patients, the damage in the gut mucosal immune system is not completely restored after antiretroviral therapy (ART). It results in microbial translocation, which could influence the immune and inflammatory response. We aimed at investigating the long-term impact of bacterial-DNA translocation (bactDNA) on glucose homeostasis in an HIV population. This was a cohort study in HIV-infected patients whereby inclusion criteria were: patients with age >18 years, ART-naïve or on effective ART (<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and without diabetes or chronic hepatitis C...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196878/gut-microbiome-production-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-obesity-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Selvasankar Murugesan, Khemlal Nirmalkar, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo, Matilde García-Espitia, Daniela Ramírez-Sánchez, Jaime García-Mena
Obesity has been a worldwide multifactorial epidemic malady for the last 2 decades. Changes in gut microbiota composition and its metabolites - short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) - have been associated with obesity. Recent evidence suggests that SCFAs made by the gut microbiota may regulate directly or indirectly physiological and pathological processes in relation to obesity. We review the influence of gut microbiota in energy, glucose, and lipid homeostasis control via their metabolites. Gut microbial disturbances in obese children may have a role in their metabolism...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189981/healthcare-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-polish-hospitals-prevalence-epidemiology-and-microbiology-summary-data-from-the-ecdc-point-prevalence-survey-of-healthcare-associated-infections-2012-2015
#11
Aleksander Deptuła, Ewa Trejnowska, Grzegorz Dubiel, Monika Wanke-Rytt, Maria Deptuła, Waleria Hryniewicz
Aggregated data from the Polish Point Prevalence Survey of Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use (PPS HAI&AU) collected between 2012 and 2015 were used to describe the epidemiology of healthcare associated bloodstream infections (BSI) in Polish hospitals, in order to assess the rationale for introducing a BSI surveillance programme in our country and analyse selected risk factors. Data were collected according to the ECDC PPS HAI&AU protocol. Within four years, records for 71,039 patients were collected in 36 (2012), 32 (2013), 112 (2014), and 158 (2015) hospitals; representativeness was evaluated as good in 2012-2013, and excellent from 2014...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189980/patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-have-impaired-il-1%C3%AE-production-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
E Lachmandas, K Thiem, C van den Heuvel, A Hijmans, B E de Galan, C J Tack, M G Netea, R van Crevel, J A van Diepen
Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Although the underlying mechanism is unclear, evidence suggests a role for chronic hyperglycaemia. We examined the influence of hyperglycaemia on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cytokine responses in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 24 male T1D patients with sub-optimal glucose control [HbA1c > 7.0% (53 mmol/L)] and from 24 age-matched male healthy controls were stimulated with M...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188467/diagnosing-tick-borne-encephalitis-a-re-evaluation-of-notified-cases
#13
Malin Veje, Marie Studahl, Maja Johansson, Patrik Johansson, Peter Nolskog, Tomas Bergström
We set out to investigate the serological response of TBE virus (TBEV)-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in stored serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in notified TBE patients, in order to confirm or reject the diagnosis. We applied the ELISA methods used in clinical practice, Enzygnost and Immunozym, and assessed RT-PCR as a diagnostic tool. A total of 173 TBE cases were notified to the Public Health Agency. Samples from 129 patients were eligible for the study. Stored serum samples were found for 111 patients and CSF samples for 88 patients...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185089/pharmacoeconomic-evaluation-of-micafungin-versus-caspofungin-as-definitive-therapy-for-candidaemia-and-invasive-candidiasis-ic-in-turkey
#14
C F Neoh, E Senol, A Kara, E C Dinleyici, S J Turner, D C M Kong
Micafungin was shown to be as efficacious as caspofungin in treating patients with candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC). However, it remains unknown if micafungin or caspofungin is a cost-effective definitive therapy for candidaemia and IC in Turkey. The present study aimed to determine the economic impact of using micafungin versus caspofungin for treatment of candidaemia and IC in the Turkish setting. A decision analytic model was constructed and was populated with data (i.e. transition probabilities, duration of initial antifungal treatment, reasons for treatment failure, percentage of patients who stepped down to oral fluconazole, and duration on oral fluconazole) obtained from a published randomised clinical trial...
November 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181634/population-structure-and-virulence-gene-profiles-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-collected-from-different-hosts-worldwide
#15
Marina Morach, Roger Stephan, Sarah Schmitt, Christa Ewers, Michael Zschöck, Julian Reyes-Velez, Urs Gilli, María Del Pilar Crespo-Ortiz, Margaret Crumlish, Revathi Gunturu, Claudia A Daubenberger, Margaret Ip, Walter Regli, Sophia Johler
Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates and causes severe infections in pregnant women and nonpregnant predisposed adults, in addition to various animal species worldwide. Still, information on the population structure of S. agalactiae and the geographical distribution of different clones is limited. Further data are urgently needed to identify particularly successful clones and obtain insights into possible routes of transmission within one host species and across species borders...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177635/the-arlrs-two-component-system-is-a-regulator-of-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-endothelial-cell-damage
#16
Kati Seidl, Michèle Leemann, Annelies S Zinkernagel
Staphylococcus aureus endovascular infections retain a high morbidity and mortality despite antibiotics and supportive care. The destruction of endothelial cells (ECs) is a critical step in the pathogenesis of S. aureus endovascular infections. In order to better understand S. aureus-induced EC damage, we systematically screened a collection of two-component regulatory system mutants of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 strain JE2 for damage induction in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). This screen revealed that the two-component regulatory system ArlRS is required for maximum damage: arlRS inactivation leads to a > 70% reduction in damage...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177612/evaluation-of-colistin-stability-in-agar-and-comparison-of-four-methods-for-mic-testing-of-colistin
#17
Agata Turlej-Rogacka, Basil Britto Xavier, Lore Janssens, Christine Lammens, Olympia Zarkotou, Spyros Pournaras, Herman Goossens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar
Susceptibility testing for colistin remains challenging primarily due to its inherent properties. We evaluated colistin stability in agar and reproducibility of colistin MICs obtained by agar dilution, broth macro- and micro-dilution and MIC gradient strips on 3-7 iterations of each method using clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae (susceptible-CS, and resistant-CR, n = 2 each), mcr-harboring Escherichia coli (n = 2), and reference strains E. coli ATCC25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853. MICs for reference strains were not in the given range using Etest and broth microdilution (ATCC25922, 0...
November 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177611/appropriate-non-carbapenems-are-not-inferior-to-carbapenems-as-initial-empirical-therapy-for-bacteremia-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-a-propensity-score-weighted-multicenter-cohort-study
#18
J-H Ko, N R Lee, E-J Joo, S-Y Moon, J-K Choi, D A Park, K R Peck
The efficacy of empirical non-carbapenem antibiotics for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia (ESBL-B) is still inconclusive. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study to evaluate the efficacy of empirical non-carbapenem antibiotics for treating ESBL-B. Electronic medical records of individuals who were diagnosed with ESBL-B were reviewed between January 2010 and December 2014 at four university hospitals in Korea. Patients were classified into non-carbapenem and carbapenem groups according to the empirical antibiotic regimen...
November 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170902/carbapenem-heteroresistance-among-isolates-of-the-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-is-it-a-real-concern
#19
LETTER
A E B da Silva, A F Martins, C S Nodari, C M Magagnin, A L Barth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164361/bacteraemia-in-emergency-departments-effective-antibiotic-reassessment-is-associated-with-a-better-outcome
#20
Charlotte Aillet, Didier Jammes, Agnès Fribourg, Sophie Léotard, Olivier Pellat, Patricia Etienne, Dominique Néri, Djamel Lameche, Olivier Pantaloni, Serge Tournoud, Pierre-Marie Roger
Patients with bacteraemia constitute an useful population for an audit of antibiotic treatments. Empirical antibiotic therapy (EAT) and its reassessment must take into account clinical data and microbiological results. Our aim was to determine the impact of these sequential steps of the therapy on survival. This was a retrospective multicentre study which included patients admitted to emergency departments (ED) for whom blood cultures were positive over a 4-month period. Microbial results were compiled from the database of the laboratories...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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