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European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052092/a-72-h-intervention-for-improvement-of-the-rate-of-optimal-antibiotic-therapy-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#1
R Murri, F Taccari, T Spanu, T D'Inzeo, I Mastrorosa, F Giovannenze, G Scoppettuolo, G Ventura, C Palazzolo, M Camici, S Lardo, B Fiori, M Sanguinetti, R Cauda, M Fantoni
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are implemented to optimize the use of antibiotics and control the spread of antibiotic resistance. Many antimicrobial stewardship interventions have demonstrated significant efficacy in reducing unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, the duration of antimicrobial therapy, and mortality. We evaluated the benefits of a combination of rapid diagnostic tests and an active re-evaluation of antibiotic therapy 72 h after the onset of bloodstream infection (BSI). All patients with BSI from November 2015 to November 2016 in a 1100-bed university hospital in Rome, where an Infectious Disease Consultancy Unit (Unità di Consulenza Infettivologica, UDCI) is available, were re-evaluated at the bedside 72 h after starting antimicrobial therapy and compared to two pre-intervention periods: the UDCI was called by the ward physician for patients with BSI and the UDCI was called directly by the microbiologist immediately after a pathogen was isolated from blood cultures...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027030/diagnostic-accuracy-of-fungal-identification-in-histopathology-and-cytopathology-specimens
#2
V L Kung, R D Chernock, C-A D Burnham
Tools to diagnose fungal infection are microscopic examination, antigen or antibody-based detection tests, molecular diagnostics, and culture, with culture being the "gold standard" for species-level identification. Although these methods are commonly used in concert and yield concordant results, in some cases tissue is not available for culture, and/or different methodologies yield discrepant results. These discrepancies may be clinically significant, causing confusion and inappropriate or delayed initiation of antifungals...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027028/determination-of-avidity-of-igg-against-protein-antigens-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae-assay-development-and-preliminary-application-in-clinical-settings
#3
D C Andrade, I C Borges, N Ekström, T Jartti, T Puhakka, A Barral, H Kayhty, O Ruuskanen, C M Nascimento-Carvalho
The measurement of antibody levels is a common test for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in research. However, the quality of antibody response, reflected by avidity, has not been adequately evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the role of avidity of IgG against eight pneumococcal proteins in etiologic diagnosis. Eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply, CbpA, PspA1 and 2, PcpA, PhtD, StkP-C, and PcsB-N) were used to develop a multiplex bead-based avidity immunoassay. The assay was tested for effects of the chaotropic agent, multiplexing, and repeatability...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019016/repurposing-zidovudine-in-combination-with-tigecycline-for-treating-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections
#4
S M S Ng, J S P Sioson, J M Yap, F M Ng, H S V Ching, J W P Teo, R Jureen, J Hill, C S B Chia
The global emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) presents a significant clinical concern, prompting the WHO to prioritize CRE as a top priority pathogen in their 2017 global antibiotic-resistant bacteria priority list. Due to the fast-depleting antibiotic arsenal, clinicians are now resorting to using once-abandoned, highly toxic antibiotics such as the polymyxins and aminoglycosides, creating an urgent need for new antibiotics. Drug repurposing, the application of an approved drug for a new therapeutic indication, is deemed a plausible solution to this problem...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990132/oxa-48-like-carbapenemases-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-different-niches
#5
REVIEW
Assia Mairi, Alix Pantel, Albert Sotto, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Aziz Touati
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant enterobacterial species poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. OXA-48-type carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases are widely distributed among Enterobacteriaceae, with significant geographical differences. To date, 11 OXA-48-like variants have been identified, with classical OXA-48 being the most widespread. These enzymes show high-level hydrolytic activity against penicillins and low-level hydrolysis towards carbapenems. Since the first description of the OXA-48 carbapenemase in Turkey, bacterial strains producing the enzyme have been extensively reported in nosocomial and community outbreaks in many parts of the word, particularly in the Mediterranean area and European countries...
October 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986730/acute-hantavirus-infection-presenting-as-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-hus-the-importance-of-early-clinical-diagnosis
#6
J Clement, A P K Lee, G A Verpooten, L Laenen, V Vergote, H De Samblanx, Z N Berneman, M Van Ranst, P Maes
The European prototype of hantavirus, Puumala virus (PUUV), isolated from a common wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), causes nephropathia epidemica (NE). NE can perfectly mimic haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), progressing from an aspecific flu-like syndrome to acute kidney injury with thrombocytopaenia, and presenting with some signs of haemolytic anaemia and/or coagulopathy. Moreover, both NE and HUS can occur in local outbreaks. We report an isolated case of NE, initially referred for plasmapheresis for suspected HUS, although signs of overt haemolysis were lacking...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983823/erratum-to-changes-in-the-pneumococcal-disease-related-hospitalisations-in-spain-after-the-replacement-of-7-valent-by-13-valent-conjugate-vaccine
#7
L Georgalis, A Mozalevskis, M V Martínez de Aragón, M Garrido-Estepa
The original version of this article was published online with an incorrectly arranged Table 2. Also, Figs. 1 and 2 were missing the legends.
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980148/the-pathogenesis-of-microcephaly-resulting-from-congenital-infections-why-is-my-baby-s-head-so-small
#8
REVIEW
L D Frenkel, F Gomez, F Sabahi
The emergence of Zika-virus-associated congenital microcephaly has engendered renewed interest in the pathogenesis of microcephaly induced by infectious agents. Three of the original "TORCH" agents are associated with an appreciable incidence of congenital microcephaly: cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The pathology of congenital microcephaly is characterized by neurotropic infectious agents that involve the fetal nervous system, leading to brain destruction with calcifications, microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and ophthalmologic abnormalities...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980084/comparison-of-maldi-tof-ms-with-the-rapidec-carba-np-test-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#9
M Choquet, R Guiheneuf, S Castelain, V Cattoir, M Auzou, E Pluquet, V Decroix
Although carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have become a serious public health issue, their detection remains challenging. The aim of this study was to implement a test based on imipenem hydrolysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS), using 65 strains producing or not a carbapenemase. Then, we compared its performance to that of the Rapidec Carba NP test using 20 additional strains. The MS-based test effectively discriminated between CPE and other non-carbapenem-susceptible strains compared to the Rapidec Carba NP test (sensitivity 100% and 92%, specificity 94% and 92%, respectively)...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971266/automated-direct-screening-for-resistance-of-gram-negative-blood-cultures-using-the-bd-kiestra-workcell
#10
C S Heather, M Maley
Early detection of resistance in sepsis due to Gram-negative organisms may lead to improved outcomes by reducing the time to effective antibiotic therapy. Traditional methods of resistance detection require incubation times of 18 to 48 h to detect resistance. We have utilised automated specimen processing, digital imaging and zone size measurements in conjunction with direct disc susceptibility testing to develop a method for the rapid screening of Gram-negative blood culture isolates for resistance. Positive clinical blood cultures with Gram-negative organisms were prospectively identified and additional resistant mock specimens were prepared...
October 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963603/intestinal-colonization-with-resistant-bacteria-a-prognostic-marker-of-mortality-in-decompensated-cirrhosis
#11
S Pouriki, G Vrioni, H Sambatakou, A Alexopoulou, L Vasilieva, I Mani, A Tsakris, S P Dourakis
Infections due to drug-resistant (DR) bacteria are increasingly recognized as an emerging problem worldwide. Asymptomatically colonized patients may contribute to the reservoir in the hospital setting, causing both horizontal transmission and endogenous infections. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with DR bacteria on subsequent clinical infection development and prognosis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One hundred seven patients without infection at baseline were screened and prospectively followed-up for 3 months...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951981/prospective-evaluation-of-a-high-multiplexing-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-array-for-the-rapid-identification-and-characterization-of-bacteria-causative-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-from-clinical-specimens-a-proof-of-concept-study
#12
S Roisin, T-D Huang, R de Mendonça, C Nonhoff, P Bogaerts, M Hites, B Delaere, S Hamels, F de Longueville, Y Glupczynski, O Denis
The purpose of this study was evaluation of the VAPChip assay based on the "Rapid-Array-PCR-technology" which targets 13 respiratory pathogens and 24 β-lactam resistance genes directly on respiratory clinical specimens. The first step included analysis of 45 respiratory specimens in order to calibrate and determine the threshold for target genes. The second prospective step involved 85 respiratory samples from patients suspected of nosocomial pneumonia collected in two academic hospitals over an 8-month period...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948376/genetic-diversity-and-macrolide-resistance-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-isolates-from-two-consecutive-epidemics-in-slovenia
#13
R Kogoj, M Praprotnik, T Mrvič, M Korva, D Keše
Two nationwide Mycoplasma pneumoniae epidemics occurred in Slovenia between 2006 and 2016. The aim of this study was to assess which M. pneumoniae genotypes were present in our area during the selected timeframe, whether the origin of the epidemics was monoclonal or polyclonal and whether the proportion between detected genotypes changed over time. We were also interested in the presence of macrolide resistance (MR) and whether it could be linked to specific genotypes. We performed pyrosequencing of the P1 gene and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) typing from 872 M...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924947/development-of-a-rapid-maldi-tof-ms-based-epidemiological-screening-method-using-mrsa-as-a-model-organism
#14
Åsa Lindgren, Nahid Karami, Roger Karlsson, Christina Åhrén, Martin Welker, Edward R B Moore, Liselott Svensson Stadler
In this study we present a method using whole cell MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK MS RUO/SARAMIS as a rapid epidemiological screening tool. MRSA was used as a model organism for setting up the screening strategy. A collection of well-characterised MRSA strains representing the 19 most common Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-types in the region of South-West Sweden for the past 20 years was analysed with MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 111 MRSA strains were used for creating 19 PFGE-specific Superspectra using VITEK MS RUO/SARAMIS...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920166/clinical-significance-of-aspergillus-species-isolated-from-respiratory-specimens-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease
#15
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is associated with mortality in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). An Aspergillus-positive respiratory specimen often reflects colonization, and thus the clinical significance of Aspergillus isolation in MAC-LD patients is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MAC-LD patients in whom Aspergillus was isolated from respiratory specimens. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 329 MAC-LD patients...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918585/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-intestinal-carriage-of-ctx-m-type-esbls-in-enterobacteriaceae-from-a-thai-community
#16
P R Niumsup, U Tansawai, A Na-Udom, D Jantapalaboon, K Assawatheptawee, A Kiddee, T Romgaew, S Lamlertthon, T R Walsh
The incidence of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Thailand is increasing and human intestinal flora is an important reservoir for these organisms. This study was carried out to determine the intestinal carriage of bla CTX-M extended spectrum ß-lactamase-positive Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL + E) and AmpC-positive Enterobacteriaceae in a community setting in Northern Thailand, and to identify potential risk factors for carriage. A total of 307 fecal samples were collected from healthy volunteers in Phitsanulok province, and cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CtxRE) were isolated using selective media...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914384/gonorrhea-resistance-don-t-forget-the-old-chaps
#17
LETTER
D Raoult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913563/dylan-under-the-microscope-microbiology-in-subterranean-homesick-blues
#18
EDITORIAL
G T Rijkers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890996/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-at-birth-and-in-vitro-cytokine-responses-to-non-specific-stimulation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
T N Nissen, N M Birk, B A Blok, R J W Arts, A Andersen, J Kjærgaard, L M Thøstesen, T Hoffmann, D L Jeppesen, S D Nielsen, P-E Kofoed, L G Stensballe, P Aaby, M Ruhwald, M G Netea, C S Benn, O Pryds
Several studies have shown increased in vitro cytokine responses to non-related pathogens after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. A total of 158 infants (80 BCG administered within 7 days of birth; 78 controls) were bled 4 days post-randomization, and at age 3 and 13 months. Geometric mean concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 (24 h stimulation) and IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22 (96 h stimulation) in response to in vitro stimulation with RPMI, LPS, PHA, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Candida albicans and BCG were compared among BCG vaccinated children and controls...
September 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887643/clinical-predictors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-nosocomial-and-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-a-multicenter-matched-case-control-study
#20
J Torre-Cisneros, C Natera, F Mesa, M Trikic, J Rodríguez-Baño
The situations in which coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia (NP) or severe healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is needed are poorly defined, particularly outside intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was to characterize if the risk of MRSA NP/HCAP can be defined by clinical variables. We designed an observational, retrospective, multicenter, case-control study to analyze the association between defined clinical variables and risk of MRSA NP/HCAP in non-ICU patients using conditional multivariable logistic regression...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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