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Behavioral Medicine

Rebecca C Kamody, Kristoffer S Berlin, Tiffany M Rybak, Kimberly L Klages, Gabrielle G Banks, Jeanelle S Ali, Ramin Alemzadeh, Robert J Ferry, Alicia M Diaz Thomas
Psychological flexibility, a complex concept encompassing both acceptance and action related factors, has been identified as a target for intervention for diabetes management. Research suggests acceptance, self-management, and stress, all factors that influence psychological flexibility, have an impact on adaptation to type 1 diabetes (T1D) by youth independently. However, yet to be explored is individually varying patterns of these variables and how they may relate to diabetes adaptation outcomes. The present study aimed to establish individual variations of patterns of these factors to derive profiles of psychological flexibility, and examine their relations to the adaptation outcomes of glycemic control and health-related quality of life...
May 19, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Carlos Osório, Norman Jones, Edgar Jones, Ian Robbins, Simon Wessely, Neil Greenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Remington Lee Nevin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Aaron A Lee, Jeanne M Gabriele
Posttraumatic stress is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and rates of obesity. Black adults are at greater risk for obesity, trauma exposure, development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid sleep problems compared to White adults. Accordingly, Black adults with a history of trauma exposure may be at greater risk for elevated BMI associated with posttraumatic stress and insomnia. Multiple linear regression was used to examine race as a moderator of the relationship between posttraumatic symptoms and insomnia with BMI in a sample of Black and White trauma-exposed Veterans (N = 171), controlling for age and sex...
March 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Anne M Koponen, Nina Simonsen, Sakari B Suominen
Based on self-determination theory (SDT), this study investigated whether the three central SDT variables-perceived autonomy support (from a physician), autonomous motivation and self-care competence-were associated with success in weight management (SWM) among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes when the effect of other important life-context factors was controlled for. Patients participated in a mail survey in 2011. Those who had tried to change their health behavior during the past two years in order to lose weight, either with or without success (n = 1433, mean age 63 years, 50% men), were included in this study...
March 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Carlos Osório, Norman Jones, Edgar Jones, Ian Robbins, Simon Wessely, Neil Greenberg
The association of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters with combat and other operational experiences among United Kingdom Armed Forces (UK AF) personnel who deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 were examined. Previous studies suggest that the risk of developing PTSD rises as combat exposure levels increase. To date, no UK research has investigated how specific classes of combat and operational experiences relate to PTSD symptom clusters. The current study was a secondary analysis of data derived from a two-arm cluster, randomized-controlled trial of a postdeployment operational stress-reduction intervention in deployed UK AF personnel...
March 10, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Amy B Wachholtz, Christopher D Malone, Kenneth I Pargament
Spiritual meditation has been found to reduce the frequency of migraines and physiological reactivity to stress. However, little is known about how introducing a spirituality component into a meditation intervention impacts analgesic medication usage. In this study, 92 meditation-naïve participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) Spiritual Meditation, (n = 25), (2) Internally Focused Secular Meditation (n = 23), (3) Externally Focused Secular Meditation (n = 22), or (4) Progressive Muscle Relaxation (n = 22); and practiced their technique for 20 min/day over 30 days while completing daily diaries...
January 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Jingwen Zhang, John B Jemmott, G Anita Heeren
Given the high risk of HIV infection among university students in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a need for culturally appropriate risk-reduction interventions specifically targeting this population. Efforts to reduce the risk require an understanding of the modifiable antecedents of sexual-risk behaviors. We report the results of a semi-structured elicitation survey based on the reasoned action approach to identify behavioral, normative, and control beliefs regarding abstinence, condom use, and limiting sexual partners...
January 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Bridget A Hearon, Courtney Beard, Lynne M Kopeski, Jasper A J Smits, Michael W Otto, Thröstur Björgvinsson
Despite evidence for both physical and mental health benefits achieved through regular exercise, most Americans fail to meet minimum recommendations. Altering the behavioral contingency from a focus on long-term health benefits to immediate mood benefits represents a novel method for exercise promotion. The current study examined a single-session exercise-for-mood intervention against two time-matched comparison conditions in 152 patients with serious mental illness attending a partial hospital program, a population marked by significant health disparities...
December 27, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
James J Annesi, Jennifer L Unruh-Rewkowski, Nicole Mareno
Maintaining weight-loss beyond 6-9 months within behavioral treatments has been problematic. However, a social cognitive theory-driven, community-based curriculum emphasizing the generalization of physical activity-related self-regulation, to eating-related self-regulation (phase 1 treatment; n = 55), demonstrated success at both inducing lost weight over its initial 6 months, and maintaining that loss through month 24. The present replication study contrasted those outcomes with a phase 2 version of the year-long treatment (n = 74) that added a follow-up component during year 2 consisting of 5 brief phone interactions to reinforce self-regulatory skills...
October 11, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Mathieu Gourlan, David Trouilloud, Julie Boiché
Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the motivational profiles toward Physical Activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes and the relationships between motivational profile, perceived competence and PA. Participants were 350 men and women (Mean age 62.77 years) who were interviewed on their motivations toward PA, perceived level of competence to practice, and PA practice. Cluster analyses reveal the existence of three distinct profiles: "High Combined" (ie, high scores on motivations ranging from intrinsic to external regulation, moderate level on amotivation), "Self-Determined" (ie, high scores on intrinsic, integrated, and identified regulations; low scores on other regulations), and "Moderate" (ie, moderate scores on all regulations)...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Mark Manning, Janice Burnett, Robert Chapman
Assessments of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates typically rely on self-reported screening data, which are often incongruent with medical records. We used multilevel models to examine health-related, socio-demographic and psychological predictors of incongruent self-reports for CRC screening among Medicare-insured African Americans (N = 3,740). Results indicated that living alone decreased, and income increased, the odds of congruently self-reporting endoscopic CRC screening. Being male and having greater number of comorbidities decreased, and having less than a high school education increased, the odds of congruently self-reported fecal occult blood tests...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Rosemary Pimm, Corneel Vandelanotte, Ryan E Rhodes, Camille Short, Mitch J Duncan, Amanda L Rebar
Physical activity is partly regulated by automatic processes such as habits (ie, well-learned responses to cues), but it remains unclear what cues trigger these processes. This study examined the relations of physical activity automaticity and behavior with the consistency of people, activity, routine, location, time, and mood cues present upon initiation of physical activity behavior. Australian adults (N = 1,244, 627 female, M age = 55 years) reported their physical activity automaticity, behavior, and the degree of consistency of these cues each time they start a physical activity behavior...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Yazhuo Deng, KaYiu Lee, Michael Huen Sum Lam, Paul H Lee
This study drew upon an ecological system framework to examine a model focusing on the interrelationship among depressive symptoms, sense of mastery, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), religiosity, and relations with parents and romantic partners among U.S. young adults aged 24 to 34. Cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,982), obtained in 2008 and 2009, were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. The associations of MVPA, relations with parents, and relations with romantic partner to depressive symptoms were mediated through mastery...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Samantha G Farris, Michael J Zvolensky, Peter J Norton, Julianna Hogan, Angela H Smith, Alexander M Talkovsky, Lorra Garey, Norman B Schmidt
Limited work has examined worry, or apprehensive anticipation about future negative events, in terms of smoking. One potential explanatory factor is the tendency to respond inflexibly and with avoidance in the presence of smoking-related distress (smoking-specific experiential avoidance). Participants (n = 465) were treatment-seeking daily smokers. Cross-sectional (pre-treatment) self-report data were utilized to assess trait worry, smoking-specific experiential avoidance, and four smoking criterion variables: nicotine dependence, motivational aspects of quitting, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms reported in past quit attempts...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Margaret M Thorsen, John V Patena, Kate Morrow Guthrie, Anthony Spirito, Megan L Ranney
At-risk adolescents' comprehension of, and preferences for, the content of a text-message (SMS) delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based depression prevention intervention was investigated using two qualitative studies. Adolescents with depressive symptoms and a history of peer violence were recruited from an urban emergency department. Forty-one participants completed semi-structured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis using deductive and inductive codes were used to capture a priori and emerging themes...
September 3, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Ryan Richard Ruff, Jeannie Ng, Girardin Jean-Louis, Brian Elbel, Basile Chaix, Dustin T Duncan
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neighborhood stigma and sleep in a sample of low-income housing residents in New York City. Data were derived from the NYC Low-Income Housing, Neighborhoods, and Health Study (N = 120). Adults living in low-income housing completed a survey consisting of measures of neighborhood stigma, sleep quality, and sleep duration. Neighborhood stigma and sleep were self-reported. Associations between neighborhood stigma and sleep health were analyzed using generalized linear models with cluster variance estimation...
August 5, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Derek M Griffith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Lisa Grace-Leitch, Yuliya Shneyderman
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common and easily transmitted sexually transmitted infections in the United States; infected individuals are frequently unaware that they are carriers, and transmission occurs unknowingly. Infection can lead to genital warts or cervical, penile, anal, or oral cancer. The object of this study was to examine the link between HPV knowledge and self-efficacy for preventive behaviors among college students as well as HPV vaccine acceptability. A cross-sectional survey of students at a two-year college in New York City was conducted electronically...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
José Bauermeister, Lisa Eaton, Rob Stephenson
The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use)...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
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