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Behavioral Medicine

Inbar Levkovich, Miri Cohen, Khaled Karkabi
The study explored the experience of fatigue, its effects and ways of coping with fatigue and the role of family and social support among breast cancer patients. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 breast cancer patients stages I-III, aged 34-67, who were up to one year after the termination of chemotherapy. Two main themes emerged: "Being imprisoned in the body of an 80-year-old", focuses the fatigue experienced by younger and older women, during and post treatment, including the different patterns of fatigue and the various means of coping with fatigue; The "Family's bear-hug" exemplifies the role of the environment in coping with the experience of fatigue and the complexities entailed in receiving support from family and friends...
November 2, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Sriyani Tidball, Shireen S Rajaram
Human trafficking is a serious public health issue and has long-term physical, mental, social, and economic consequences for survivors, their families, and communities. The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 defines sex trafficking as a commercial sex act that is induced by force, fraud or coercion, or when a commercial sex act involves a person below 18 years of age. There is inadequate research from the perspectives of survivors. The purpose of this study was to gather data from survivors on their complex needs...
November 2, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Mayara C S Santos, Selma M de Andrade, Alberto D González, Douglas Fernando Dias, Arthur Eumann Mesas
Chronic pain (CP) is a public health problem with harmful social and individual effects, and its relationships with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors are unclear. This study examined the relationship between CP and PA and time spent watching television as an indicator of leisure time sedentary behavior, and explored the effects of major confounding factors. The information was obtained between 2012 and 2013 from individual interviews with 943 teachers from public schools in Londrina, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed in 2014 using a logistic regression model adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, depression, and working conditions variables...
October 6, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Lara B Gerassi
More than 50% of women entering substance use treatment in the U.S. reported having traded sex for money or drugs. Women's participation in addiction treatment and related services is essential to their recovery and increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. This paper's aim is to explore the barriers related to accessing detox facilities and essential services including substance use treatment and residential services for women impacted by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). Data are drawn from a larger, community-based, grounded theory study...
October 6, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Kelly M Carpenter, Katrina A Vickerman, Erica E Salmon, Harold S Javitz, Elissa S Epel, Jennifer C Lovejoy
This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of integrating mindfulness training into a phone-based weight loss program to improve outcomes in those with high levels of emotional eating. Participants were 75 enrollees into an employer-sponsored weight loss program who reported high levels of overeating in response to thoughts and feelings. Seventy-five overweight and obese participants (92% female, 65% Caucasian, aged 26 to 68 years) were randomized to the new mindfulness weight loss program (n = 50) or the standard behavioral weight loss program (n = 25)...
October 6, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
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October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Michael J Parks
Contact with correctional facilities adversely affects midlife health status and contributes to health disparities in the United States. Sexual health of correctional populations has become a focus for public health research and health promotion programs. Relying on the Health Belief Model, most research has focused almost exclusively on case studies of inmates' disease risk, perceptions of disease susceptibility, and condom use. There is a dearth of research on attitudes and behaviors beyond disease risk perceptions and condom use, particularly within a nationally representative sample of adults...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Milena Ilic, Zeljko Todorovic, Milena Jovanovic, Irena Ilic
The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) contains 15 items that evaluate the following burnout dimensions: Emotional Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Academic Efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensionality of the MBI-SS on a sample of Serbian medical students (N = 760). The overall Cronbach's α coefficient of the MBI-SS questionnaire was 0.757, while the Cronbach's α coefficients for Emotional Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Academic Efficacy were 0.869, 0.856, and 0.852, respectively...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Timothy G Heckman, Bernadette D Heckman, Timothy Anderson, Travis I Lovejoy, John C Markowitz, Ye Shen, Mark Sutton
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62)...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Carlos Osório, Thomas Probert, Edgar Jones, Allan H Young, Ian Robbins
There is significant variation in the way individuals react and respond to extreme stress and adversity. While some individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder, others recover from stressful experiences without displaying significant symptoms of psychological ill-health, demonstrating stress-resilience. To understand why some individuals exhibit characteristics of a resilient profile, the interplay between neurochemical, genetic, and epigenetic processes over time needs to be explained...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Lorraine R Reitzel, Sarah D Childress, Ezemenari M Obasi, Lorra Garey, Damon J Vidrine, Lorna H McNeill, Michael J Zvolensky
Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of anxiety-related sensations and subjective social status is a self-perception of social standing relative to others: both constructs have been linked to psychological symptomatology. This study investigated the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptomatology expression among 124 black adults. Participants provided sociodemographics and completed self-report questionnaires. The interactive associations between anxiety sensitivity and social status on anxiety symptomatology and depressive symptomatology were examined with hierarchical linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographics and negative affectivity...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Florian Labhart, Emmanuel Kuntsche, Matthias Wicki, Gerhard Gmel
Using a full cross-lagged model, this study investigates the extent to which drinking motives predict alcohol use and related consequences, and vice versa. At baseline and 15 months later, 4575 men (mean age = 19.4 years) in Switzerland completed a questionnaire assessing drinking motives, average weekly consumption, risky single-occasion drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Results indicated that social and enhancement motives more strongly influenced alcohol use over time than the other way round...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Nazmy Villarroel, Lucía Artazcoz
This study analyzes the differences in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and nonrestorative sleep (NRS) between people born in Spain and immigrants from 7 countries with most immigrants in Spain. Data come from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. The sample was composed of all individuals aged 16 to 64 years from Spain and the 7 countries with most immigrants in Spain (N = 22,224). In both sexes, people from Bolivia had a higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms and NRS. Conversely, people from Ecuador, Morocco, and Romania had less insomnia symptoms and NRS than Spanish-born participants...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Minsung Sohn, Kyung-Hwan Cho, Kyung-Do Han, Mankyu Choi, Yang-Hyun Kim
We examined relationships between sitting time and obesity or abdominal obesity according to sex and socioeconomic status in elderly people. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013, and 1565 participants were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine relationships between sitting time and obesity or abdominal obesity according to sex and socioeconomic status. Sitting time was positively correlated with body mass index in men and women and waist circumference in men...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Jairo N Fuertes, Sofia Rubinstein, Mariela Reyes, Pichet Iampornpipopchai, Shanza Mujeeb, Carroll R Smith, Arielle Toporovsky
Over the past 20 years, the role of psychological and social factors, including the physician-patient working alliance, have emerged as integral components of medical care for patients with a myriad of health conditions. The current study examines a model comprised of psychological-interpersonal factors and the extent to which it explains patient satisfaction with and adherence to hemodialysis treatment. One hundred and seven adults with end-stage renal disease who were receiving regular outpatient hemodialysis participated in the study...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Meghan L Underhill, Karleen R Habin, Kristen M Shannon
The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of cancer risk, cause, and needs in participants from a low socioeconomic background at risk for hereditary cancer. We surveyed 307 individuals with the Cancer Awareness and Needs survey and received 128 responses (41.6% response rate). Family history, genetics, and tobacco use were selected most frequently as a cause of cancer; 36% (n = 46) selected fate and/or God's will. A total of 87.5% (n = 112) understood that having a close family member with breast cancer could increase personal risk; however responses were varied when asked if this was related to risk for other cancers...
October 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Niko Männikkö, Heidi Ruotsalainen, Zsolt Demetrovics, Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, Laura Myllymäki, Jouko Miettunen, Maria Kääriäinen
Multiplatform digital media use and gaming have been increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine associations between sociodemographics and digital gaming behavior characteristics (i.e., gaming time, medium, and genres) with problematic gaming behavior in adolescents. A convenience sample of Finnish junior high school students (n = 560; mean age 14 years, ranging from 12 to 16 years) participated in the cross-sectional survey, of which, 83% (n = 465) reported having played digital games regularly...
September 14, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Alyssa E Rodemann, Danielle Arigo
Establishing healthy habits in college is important for long-term health. Despite existing health promotion efforts, many college students fail to meet recommendations for behaviors such as healthy eating and exercise, which may be due to low perceived risk for health problems. The goals of this study were to examine: (1) the accuracy of life expectancy predictions, (2) potential individual differences in accuracy (i.e., gender and conscientiousness), and (3) potential change in accuracy after inducing awareness of current health behaviors...
September 14, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Clare Brown, Feifei Wei
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Analyzing the ability for different mechanisms to reduce smoking rates can provide healthcare systems with information to establish the most effective smoking cessation efforts. Health insurance provides individuals with direct mechanisms to curb smoking behavior, such as access to smoking cessation resources. Gaining insurance may additionally indirectly influence smoking cessation by altering risk perceptions. Behavioral economic theory suggests that gaining health insurance may reduce current smokers' rate of discounting on the future, which could increase smoking cessation...
September 6, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Susan L Kasser, Maria Kosma
Among those with multiple sclerosis (MS), mobility impairment is common and significantly affects independent functioning and quality of life. The purpose of the study was to examine the role of physical activity in mobility impairment in individuals with MS and explore the social cognitive factors of social support, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy that facilitate physical activity among those with the disease. A sample of 319 individuals with MS were assessed on the following: family and friend social support, self-efficacy, and physical and social outcome expectations...
September 1, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
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