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Behavioral Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020869/ethical-and-practical-considerations-for-collecting-research-related-data-from-commercially-sexually-exploited-children
#1
Emily F Rothman, Amy Farrell, Katherine Bright, Jennifer Paruk
This article presents seven challenges of collecting primary (i.e., firsthand) data from commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC). We drew on our research team's experience collecting longitudinal data from 28 CSEC survivors with a 12-month follow-up period. We used both face-to-face and electronic group brainstorming methods to nominate a list of research-related challenges. The two main themes that were identified were challenges that can limit data quality and concerns about the impact of research on participants, researchers, and others...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020868/social-support-dysfunctional-coping-and-community-reintegration-as-predictors-of-ptsd-among-human-trafficking-survivors
#2
David Okech, Nathan Hansen, Waylon Howard, John K Anarfi, Abigail C Burns
Human trafficking exerts psychological effects on survivors that persist after intervention, and even after community reintegration. Effects include anxiety, depression, alienation, disorientation, aggression, suicidal ideation, attention deficit, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Community supports and coping mechanisms may mitigate these effects. The report presented here is part of a long-term program of research to develop and test evidence-informed mental health and human capacity-building intervention programs for women and girls who are victims of trafficking...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020867/health-issues-associated-with-commercial-sexual-exploitation-and-sex-trafficking-of-children-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#3
PhuongThao D Le, Nessa Ryan, Yael Rosenstock, Emily Goldmann
This article reviews studies examining health issues associated with commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking (CSE/ST) of children in the United States. We searched five health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed articles published in English between January 1990 and April 2017. After independent screening of the records, we identified 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Descriptions of the included studies and their definitions of CSE/ST are provided. Most of the studies sampled children and youth in urban, metropolitan areas and employed cross-sectional surveys or reviewed case files and medical records of convenience samples...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020866/human-trafficking-health-research-progress-and-future-directions
#4
PhuongThao D Le
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020865/psychological-consequences-of-human-trafficking-complex-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-trafficked-children
#5
Livia Ottisova, Patrick Smith, Sian Oram
Trafficked children are frequently exposed to multiple traumatic events, including during their recruitment, transit, and exploitation. It has been hypothesized that such exposures can lead to the development of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Complex PTSD includes (in addition to the core PTSD symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) disturbances in affect regulation, dissociation, self-concept, interpersonal relationships, somatization, and systems of meaning. This historical cohort study aimed to investigate Complex PTSD in trafficked children with a diagnosis of PTSD and compare these with nontrafficked controls exposed to single or multiple trauma...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020864/advancing-the-science-on-the-biopsychosocial-effects-of-human-trafficking
#6
PhuongThao D Le, Perry N Halkitis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558341/a-comparison-of-psychological-symptoms-in-survivors-of-sex-and-labor-trafficking
#7
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the United States. High rates of depression (71%) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558256/exploring-mental-health-and-substance-use-treatment-needs-of-commercially-sexually-exploited-youth-participating-in-a-specialty-juvenile-court
#8
Mekeila C Cook, Elizabeth Barnert, Roya Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Kayleen Ports, Eraka Bath
The study sought to: (1) describe the mental health and substance use profiles among participants of a specialty trafficking court program (the Succeed Though Achievement and Resilience Court); (2) describe youths' mental health and substance use treatment prior to participating in the program; and (3) examine whether abuse influences report of mental health problems and/or substance use. Retrospective case review of court files was performed on commercially sexually exploited youth who volunteered to participate in the court from 2012 to 2014 (N = 184)...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095121/survivors-voices-complex-needs-of-sex-trafficking-survivors-in-the-midwest
#9
Shireen S Rajaram, Sriyani Tidball
Human trafficking is a serious public health issue and has long-term physical, mental, social, and economic consequences for survivors, their families, and communities. The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 defines sex trafficking as a commercial sex act that is induced by force, fraud or coercion, or when a commercial sex act involves a person below 18 years of age. There is inadequate research from the perspectives of survivors. The purpose of this study was to gather data from survivors on their complex needs...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985156/barriers-to-accessing-detox-facilities-substance-use-treatment-and-residential-services-among-women-impacted-by-commercial-sexual-exploitation-and-trafficking
#10
Lara B Gerassi
More than 50% of women entering substance use treatment in the United States reported having traded sex for money or drugs. Women's participation in addiction treatment and related services is essential to their recovery and increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. This article's aim is to explore the barriers related to accessing detox facilities and essential services including substance use treatment and residential services for women impacted by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). Data are drawn from a larger, community-based, grounded theory study...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944090/prospective-relations-between-social-comparison-orientation-and-weight-loss-outcomes
#11
Danielle Arigo, Meghan L Butryn
Maintenance of weight loss after behavioral intervention tends to be poor, and there is need for an improved understanding of factors that are associated with successful maintenance. Social comparison is known to be a powerful influence on treatment outcomes for group-based behavioral weight loss programs, but little is known about the role of individual differences in social comparison orientation (i.e., tendency to value comparison information) in this context. The goal of this study was to examine prospective relations between social comparison orientation and long-term weight loss outcomes (percent weight loss, aerobic-intensity physical activity) among participants in behavioral weight loss treatment...
June 26, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944063/medical-legal-partnership-impact-on-parents-perceived-stress-a-pilot-study
#12
Jennifer N Rosen Valverde, Jeffrey Backstrand, Laurie Hills, Hanan Tanuos
Stress has adverse effects on health, and prolonged stress exposure is a risk factor for several mental and physical illnesses. 1 Families living in poverty face many stressors created and maintained by economic hardship and unaddressed legal and social needs. Medical-Legal Partnerships (MLPs) aim to improve health and well-being by addressing health-harming legal and social needs of patients. This pilot study examined whether MLP-involved parents perceived themselves as stressed; to what they attributed their stress; and whether they reported a reduction in stress when their MLP cases were closed...
June 26, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671691/committed-action-disability-and-perceived-health-in-individuals-with-fibromyalgia
#13
Santiago Galán, Rubén Roy, Ester Solé, Mélanie Racine, Rocío de la Vega, Mark P Jensen, Jordi Miró
Committed action, one of the components of psychological flexibility, has been shown to be related with measures of pain-relevant function domains in patients with chronic pain. However, the associations between measures of committed action and of physical health and function in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM) have not yet been examined. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to better understand the role that committed action plays in (1) pain-related disability and (2) mental and physical health in individuals with FM...
April 19, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652628/salience-and-impact-of-health-warning-label-on-cigarette-packs-in-vietnam-findings-from-the-global-adult-tobacco-survey-2015
#14
Nguyen Ngoc Bich, Tran Thu Ngan, Kim Bao Giang, Phan Thi Hai, Doan Thi Thu Huyen, Luong Ngoc Khue, Nguyen Tuan Lam, Hoang Van Minh, Pham Thi Quynh Nga, Nguyen The Quan, Vu Hoang Loan
Viet Nam is among the countries having highest rate of male smokers in the world. The country has joined the Global Tobacco Surveillance System since 2010. Under this system, two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) were conducted in 2010 and 2015. Those two surveys provide excellent comparable data on tobacco usage and its related aspects in Vietnam. This study using the data from GATS 2015 to examine the salience and impact of cigarette pack health warnings on quitting intention in Vietnam. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey in which 9,513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method...
April 13, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617221/the-effects-of-mindfulness-based-interventions-on-diabetes-related-distress-quality-of-life-and-metabolic-control-among-persons-with-diabetes-a-meta-analytic-review
#15
Leah M Bogusch, William H O'Brien
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have improved psychological outcomes for multiple chronic health conditions, including diabetes. A meta-analytic review of the literature was conducted on all located studies (n = 14) investigating MBIs that targeted diabetes-related distress (DRD) and diabetes-related outcomes among people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. PsychInfo, PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for MBIs that were designed to improve DRD and other secondary outcomes, including quality of life and measures of metabolic control...
April 4, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876188/the-impact-of-insurance-gain-and-discussions-with-healthcare-providers-on-quitting-smoking
#16
Clare C Brown, Feifei Wei
Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Analyzing the ability for different mechanisms to reduce smoking rates can provide healthcare systems with information to establish the most effective smoking cessation efforts. Health insurance provides individuals with direct mechanisms to curb smoking behavior, such as access to smoking cessation resources. Gaining insurance may additionally indirectly influence smoking cessation by altering risk perceptions. Behavioral economic theory suggests that gaining health insurance may reduce current smokers' rate of discounting on the future, which could increase smoking cessation...
April 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632006/psychosocial-obstacles-to-smoking-cessation-attempts-among-young-adult-sexual-minority-women-who-smoke
#17
José A Bauermeister, Emily J Youatt, Emily S Pingel, Jorge H Soler, Michelle M Johns
Sexual minority women (SMW; i.e., women who identify their sexuality as lesbian, bisexual, or something other than heterosexual) report greater smoking behaviors than their heterosexual counterparts across all ages. We conducted a multivariable regression to examine the correlates of prior smoking cessation attempts and smoking cessation intentions in a sample of young SMW who smoke (N = 338; aged 18-24 years). Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., race/ethnicity, sexual identity, age, urbanity), general (i...
April 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632005/sleep-problems-and-life-satisfaction-as-predictors-of-health-in-men-with-sex-chromosome-aneuploidies
#18
Krister W Fjermestad, Simen Stokke
More knowledge is needed about men with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA). We present self-reported data from 53 men with SCA (Mage = 36.8 years, SD = 12.3, range 19-67). The Health Survey-Short Form (SF-36) measured eight health domains (physical functioning, role-physical, role-emotional, vitality, emotional health, social functioning, pain, general health). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index measured sleep problems. The Personal Wellbeing Index measured satisfaction with eight life domains. Compared to norms, SCA reported poorer health (mean d = -0...
April 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632004/behavioral-interventions-to-reduce-infections-in-pediatric-long-term-care-facilities-the-keep-it-clean-for-kids-trial
#19
Elaine L Larson, Meghan T Murray, Bevin Cohen, Edwin Simpser, Marianne Pavia, Olivia Jackson, Haomiao Jia, R Gordon Hutcheon, Linda Mosiello, Natalie Neu, Lisa Saiman
Children in pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTCF) represent a highly vulnerable population and infectious outbreaks occur frequently, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality, and resource use. The purpose of this quasi-experimental trial using time series analysis was to assess the impact of a 4-year theoretically based behavioral intervention on infection prevention practices and clinical outcomes in three pLTCF (288 beds) in New York metropolitan area including 720 residents, ages 1 day to 26 years with mean lengths of stay: 7...
April 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632003/factor-structure-of-the-urdu-version-of-the-spence-children-s-anxiety-scale-in-pakistan
#20
Farah Qadir, Aneela Maqsood, Najam Us-Sahar, Nadia Bukhtawer, Amna Khalid, Regina Pauli, Catherine Gilvarry, Girmay Medhin, Cecilia A Essau
Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is one of the most commonly used self-report questionnaires to measure symptoms of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Despite its common use, studies that examine the psychometric properties of SCAS in Pakistan is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Urdu translated version of the SCAS among adolescents in Pakistan. A total of 1277 students (708 boys and 569 girls), aged 13 to17 years, who had been recruited from 13 schools in Rawalpindi, Pakistan participated in the study...
April 2018: Behavioral Medicine
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