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Behavioral Medicine

Bridget A Hearon, Courtney Beard, Lynne M Kopeski, Jasper A J Smits, Michael W Otto, Thröstur Björgvinsson
Despite evidence for both physical and mental health benefits achieved through regular exercise, most Americans fail to meet minimum recommendations. Altering the behavioral contingency from a focus on long-term health benefits to immediate mood benefits represents a novel method for exercise promotion. The current study examined a single-session exercise-for-mood intervention against two time-matched comparison conditions in 152 patients with serious mental illness attending a partial hospital program, a population marked by significant health disparities...
December 27, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
James J Annesi, Jennifer L Unruh-Rewkowski, Nicole Mareno
Maintaining weight-loss beyond 6-9 months within behavioral treatments has been problematic. However, a social cognitive theory-driven, community-based curriculum emphasizing the generalization of physical activity-related self-regulation, to eating-related self-regulation (phase 1 treatment; n = 55), demonstrated success at both inducing lost weight over its initial 6 months, and maintaining that loss through month 24. The present replication study contrasted those outcomes with a phase 2 version of the year-long treatment (n = 74) that added a follow-up component during year 2 consisting of 5 brief phone interactions to reinforce self-regulatory skills...
October 11, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Mathieu Gourlan, David Trouilloud, Julie Boiché
Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the motivational profiles toward Physical Activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes and the relationships between motivational profile, perceived competence and PA. Participants were 350 men and women (Mean age 62.77 years) who were interviewed on their motivations toward PA, perceived level of competence to practice, and PA practice. Cluster analyses reveal the existence of three distinct profiles: "High Combined" (ie, high scores on motivations ranging from intrinsic to external regulation, moderate level on amotivation), "Self-Determined" (ie, high scores on intrinsic, integrated, and identified regulations; low scores on other regulations), and "Moderate" (ie, moderate scores on all regulations)...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Mark Manning, Janice Burnett, Robert Chapman
Assessments of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates typically rely on self-reported screening data, which are often incongruent with medical records. We used multilevel models to examine health-related, socio-demographic and psychological predictors of incongruent self-reports for CRC screening among Medicare-insured African Americans (N = 3,740). Results indicated that living alone decreased, and income increased, the odds of congruently self-reporting endoscopic CRC screening. Being male and having greater number of comorbidities decreased, and having less than a high school education increased, the odds of congruently self-reported fecal occult blood tests...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Rosemary Pimm, Corneel Vandelanotte, Ryan E Rhodes, Camille Short, Mitch J Duncan, Amanda L Rebar
Physical activity is partly regulated by automatic processes such as habits (ie, well-learned responses to cues), but it remains unclear what cues trigger these processes. This study examined the relations of physical activity automaticity and behavior with the consistency of people, activity, routine, location, time, and mood cues present upon initiation of physical activity behavior. Australian adults (N = 1,244, 627 female, M age = 55 years) reported their physical activity automaticity, behavior, and the degree of consistency of these cues each time they start a physical activity behavior...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Yazhuo Deng, KaYiu Lee, Michael Huen Sum Lam, Paul H Lee
This study drew upon an ecological system framework to examine a model focusing on the interrelationship among depressive symptoms, sense of mastery, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), religiosity, and relations with parents and romantic partners among U.S. young adults aged 24 to 34. Cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,982), obtained in 2008 and 2009, were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. The associations of MVPA, relations with parents, and relations with romantic partner to depressive symptoms were mediated through mastery...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Samantha G Farris, Michael J Zvolensky, Peter J Norton, Julianna Hogan, Angela H Smith, Alexander M Talkovsky, Lorra Garey, Norman B Schmidt
Limited work has examined worry, or apprehensive anticipation about future negative events, in terms of smoking. One potential explanatory factor is the tendency to respond inflexibly and with avoidance in the presence of smoking-related distress (smoking-specific experiential avoidance). Participants (n = 465) were treatment-seeking daily smokers. Cross-sectional (pre-treatment) self-report data were utilized to assess trait worry, smoking-specific experiential avoidance, and four smoking criterion variables: nicotine dependence, motivational aspects of quitting, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms reported in past quit attempts...
October 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Margaret M Thorsen, John V Patena, Kate Morrow Guthrie, Anthony Spirito, Megan L Ranney
At-risk adolescents' comprehension of, and preferences for, the content of a text-message (SMS) delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based depression prevention intervention was investigated using two qualitative studies. Adolescents with depressive symptoms and a history of peer violence were recruited from an urban emergency department. Forty-one participants completed semi-structured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis using deductive and inductive codes were used to capture a priori and emerging themes...
September 3, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Ryan Richard Ruff, Jeannie Ng, Girardin Jean-Louis, Brian Elbel, Basile Chaix, Dustin T Duncan
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neighborhood stigma and sleep in a sample of low-income housing residents in New York City. Data were derived from the NYC Low-Income Housing, Neighborhoods, and Health Study (N = 120). Adults living in low-income housing completed a survey consisting of measures of neighborhood stigma, sleep quality, and sleep duration. Neighborhood stigma and sleep were self-reported. Associations between neighborhood stigma and sleep health were analyzed using generalized linear models with cluster variance estimation...
August 5, 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Derek M Griffith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Lisa Grace-Leitch, Yuliya Shneyderman
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common and easily transmitted sexually transmitted infections in the United States; infected individuals are frequently unaware that they are carriers, and transmission occurs unknowingly. Infection can lead to genital warts or cervical, penile, anal, or oral cancer. The object of this study was to examine the link between HPV knowledge and self-efficacy for preventive behaviors among college students as well as HPV vaccine acceptability. A cross-sectional survey of students at a two-year college in New York City was conducted electronically...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
José Bauermeister, Lisa Eaton, Rob Stephenson
The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use)...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Ethan H Mereish, Hammad S N'cho, Carlton E Green, Maryam M Jernigan, Janet E Helms
Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Marino A Bruce, Bettina M Beech, Derek M Griffith, Roland J Thorpe
Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Rachel Dryer, Melissa Farr, Izumi Hiramatsu, Stephanie Quinton
This study examined the mediating role of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism in the relationship between sociocultural influences (i.e., media, peer, and teasing) and symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) and eating disorders (ED). A nonclinical sample of males (N = 158, Mage = 26.94, SD = 5.50) completed measures of perfectionism, MD, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia. Susceptibility to appearance-based messages from the media, their peers, and family was also measured. Analyses confirmed the partial mediating role of self-oriented perfectionism only for drive for thinness...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Stephanie H Cook, Benjamin J Calebs
Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Wizdom Powell, Leslie B Adams, Yasmin Cole-Lewis, Amma Agyemang, Rachel D Upton
Men's tendency to delay health help-seeking is largely attributed to masculinity, but findings scarcely focus on African American men who face additional race-related, help-seeking barriers. Building principally on reactance theory, we test a hypothesized model situating racial discrimination, masculinity norms salience (MNS), everyday racism (ERD), racial identity, sense of control (SOC), and depressive symptomatology as key barriers to African American men's health help-seeking. A total of 458 African American men were recruited primarily from US barbershops in the Western and Southern regions...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Grace L Reynolds, Dennis G Fisher, Melissa Dyo, Loucine M Huckabay
We examined the association between scores on the Bem Sex Roles Inventory (BSRI), Klein Sexual Orientation Grid, and utilization of hospital inpatient services, emergency departments, and outpatient clinic visits in the past 12 months among 53 men (mean age 39 years). The femininity subscale score on the BSRI, ever having had gonorrhea and age were the three variables identified in a multivariate linear regression significantly predicting use of total health services. This supports the hypothesis that sex roles can assist our understanding of men's use of health services...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Rachel Koelmeyer, Dianne Currier, Matthew J Spittal, Marisa Schlichthorst, Jane E Pirkis, Dallas R English
The importance of addressing health disparities experienced by boys and men reached tangible prominence in Australia with adoption of the 2010 National Male Health Policy and the establishment of a national longitudinal study on male health-Ten to Men. Ten to Men is based on a holistic model of health with a strong focus on social determinants and health and well-being over the life course. Given the life course focus, we set out to assess if health-related characteristics and the correlates of self-rated health differ across the life course among four sociologically defined generations of Australian males...
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
Roland J Thorpe, Perry N Halkitis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Behavioral Medicine
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