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Behavioral Medicine

G Anita Heeren, John B Jemmott, C Show Marange, Arnold Rumosa Gwaze, Jesca Mercy Batidzirai, Zolani Ngwane, Andrew Mandeya, Joanne C Tyler
To evaluate the efficacy of a health-promotion intervention in increasing self-reported physical activity among university students in Sub-Saharan Africa. Randomly selected second-year students at a university in South Africa were randomized to an intervention based on social cognitive theory: health-promotion, targeting physical activity and fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption; or HIV risk-reduction, targeting sexual-risk behaviors. Participants completed assessments via audio computer-assisted self-interviewing pre-intervention and 6 and 12 months post-intervention...
July 6, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Sabine Ammann, André Berchtold, Yara Barrense-Dias, Christina Akre, Joan-Carles Surís
Disordered eating (DE) is known to predominate among girls, and historically studies have focused primarily on them. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the characteristics of adolescent and young adult males at risk of DE. Participants (N = 2269; 15-24 years) in a study assessing their lifestyle were divided into two groups based on the SCOFF five-question screening tool: a SCOFF[+] group for participants at risk of disordered eating, and a SCOFF[-] group for everyone else. SCOFF[+] participants were more likely to be overweight and obese; have a lower socio-economic status and non-Swiss parents; experience weight issues; and report a chronic condition, poorer emotional well-being and a less positive attitude towards life...
June 12, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Seong Chin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Jesús Roberto García Sandoval, José Carlos Caracuel, Armando Cocca, Michaela Cocca, Oswaldo Ceballos Gurrola
This article aims to study the relation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and body image in adolescents from two different social environments in Spain and Mexico, and to compare the construction of an appropriate body scheme in youth from these two countries. The majority of participants were found to be in the normal weight category of BMI. No significant differences were found in BMI or body image comparing Mexican and Spanish adolescents. Regardless of the country of origin, youth belonging to the weight deficit category of BMI overestimated their body shape, whereas those pertaining to overweight and obesity categories underestimated it...
May 23, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Rebecca C Kamody, Kristoffer S Berlin, Tiffany M Rybak, Kimberly L Klages, Gabrielle G Banks, Jeanelle S Ali, Ramin Alemzadeh, Robert J Ferry, Alicia M Diaz Thomas
Psychological flexibility, a complex concept encompassing both acceptance and action related factors, has been identified as a target for intervention for diabetes management. Research suggests acceptance, self-management, and stress, all factors that influence psychological flexibility, have an impact on adaptation to type 1 diabetes (T1D) by youth independently. However, yet to be explored is individually varying patterns of these variables and how they may relate to diabetes adaptation outcomes. The present study aimed to establish individual variations of patterns of these factors to derive profiles of psychological flexibility, and examine their relations to the adaptation outcomes of glycemic control and health-related quality of life...
May 19, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Carlos Osório, Norman Jones, Edgar Jones, Ian Robbins, Simon Wessely, Neil Greenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Remington Lee Nevin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
William C Goedel, Paul Krebs, Richard E Greene, Dustin T Duncan
To date, various dimensions of body image and their associations with condom use have not been studied among men who have sex with men (MSM) who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications ("apps") to meet new sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate associations between weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification with sexual behaviors among a sample of MSM (N = 92) recruited from Grindr, an app popular among MSM, to complete an online survey. Obese participants scored significantly higher on measures of body dissatisfaction and lower on measures of sexual sensation seeking...
April 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Mary Catherine George, Arada Wongmek, Michelle Kaku, Alexandra Nmashie, Jessica Robinson-Papp
Treatment guidelines for chronic pain recommend nonpharmacologic modalities as part of a comprehensive management plan. Chronic pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS, but there is little data to guide the choice of nonpharmacologic therapies in this complex population. We performed a mixed-methods feasibility study of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) versus health education control with 32 inner city, HIV-infected participants. Outcome measures included: the Brief Pain Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, HIV Symptoms Index, autonomic function testing, and audiotaped focus groups...
April 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Michael A Trujillo, Rubin Khoddam, Jodie B Greenberg, Stephanie R Dyal, Katherine J Ameringer, Michael J Zvolensky, Adam M Leventhal
Distress tolerance-the capacity to withstand distressing states-is implicated in the etiology of regular smoking. The present study extends past research by examining whether relations between perceived distress tolerance and smoking-related factors: (1) differ across subdimensions of distress tolerance (Tolerance, Appraisal, Regulation, Absorption); (2) extend across measures of dependence, negative reinforcement smoking, and craving; and (3) are incremental to depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results showed that global distress tolerance was associated with measures of dependence, negative reinforcement, and craving even after controlling for affective symptomatology...
April 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Heidi Siller, Walter Renner, Barbara Juen
The study focuses on psychosocial functioning of female Turkish immigrants in Austria with recurrent depressive disorder participating in self-help groups. Self-help groups guided by group leaders of Turkish descent should increase autonomy in participants, providing the opportunity to follow their ethnic health beliefs. Turkish immigrant women (n = 43) with recurrent depressive disorder participated in self-help groups over four months. Qualitative data of participants and group leaders, containing interviews, group protocols and supervision protocols of group leaders were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis for effects on psychosocial function, such as interaction with others, illness beliefs and benefit from self-help group...
April 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Simone Grassini, Steven Nordin
To approach the questions as to why migraine appears to be associated with functional somatic syndromes (FSSs) and whether central sensitization may be an underlying mechanism, the present study investigated (a) comorbidity with diagnoses of three FSSs, three psychiatric disorders, and three inflammatory diseases, (b) degree of mental health problems (stress, burnout, anxiety, depression and somatization), and (c) prevalence of ten cognitive/affective and nine airway symptoms in persons with migraine in the general population...
April 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Stefan Duschek, Casandra I Montoro, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
Sensitivity to signals arising within the body (interoceptive awareness) has been implicated in emotion processing; interindividual differences in interoceptive awareness modulate both subjective and physiological indicators of emotional experience and the regulation of emotion-related behaviors. This study investigated interoceptive awareness in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), a chronic pain condition accompanied by various affective symptoms. Interoceptive awareness was assessed in 45 FMS patients and 31 healthy individuals using a heartbeat perception task...
April 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Jeroen C M Barte, G C Wanda Wendel-Vos
The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives for individuals. Twelve studies with unconditional incentives (eg, free membership sport facility) and conditional incentives (ie, rewards for reaching physical-activity goals) related to physical activity were selected...
April 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Aaron A Lee, Jeanne M Gabriele
Posttraumatic stress is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and rates of obesity. Black adults are at greater risk for obesity, trauma exposure, development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid sleep problems compared to White adults. Accordingly, Black adults with a history of trauma exposure may be at greater risk for elevated BMI associated with posttraumatic stress and insomnia. Multiple linear regression was used to examine race as a moderator of the relationship between posttraumatic symptoms and insomnia with BMI in a sample of Black and White trauma-exposed Veterans (N = 171), controlling for age and sex...
March 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Anne M Koponen, Nina Simonsen, Sakari B Suominen
Based on self-determination theory (SDT), this study investigated whether the three central SDT variables-perceived autonomy support (from a physician), autonomous motivation and self-care competence-were associated with success in weight management (SWM) among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes when the effect of other important life-context factors was controlled for. Patients participated in a mail survey in 2011. Those who had tried to change their health behavior during the past two years in order to lose weight, either with or without success (n = 1433, mean age 63 years, 50% men), were included in this study...
March 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Carlos Osório, Norman Jones, Edgar Jones, Ian Robbins, Simon Wessely, Neil Greenberg
The association of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters with combat and other operational experiences among United Kingdom Armed Forces (UK AF) personnel who deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 were examined. Previous studies suggest that the risk of developing PTSD rises as combat exposure levels increase. To date, no UK research has investigated how specific classes of combat and operational experiences relate to PTSD symptom clusters. The current study was a secondary analysis of data derived from a two-arm cluster, randomized-controlled trial of a postdeployment operational stress-reduction intervention in deployed UK AF personnel...
March 10, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Elaine L Larson, Meghan T Murray, Bevin Cohen, Edwin Simpser, Marianne Pavia, Olivia Jackson, Haomiao Jia, R Gordon Hutcheon, Linda Mosiello, Natalie Neu, Lisa Saiman
Children in pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTCF) represent a highly vulnerable population and infectious outbreaks occur frequently, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality, and resource use. The purpose of this quasi-experimental trial using time series analysis was to assess the impact of a 4-year theoretically based behavioral intervention on infection prevention practices and clinical outcomes in three pLTCF (288 beds) in New York metropolitan area including 720 residents, ages 1 day to 26 years with mean lengths of stay: 7...
March 3, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
Farah Qadir, Aneela Maqsood, Najam Us-Sahar, Nadia Bukhtawer, Amna Khalid, Regina Pauli, Catherine Gilvarry, Girmay Medhin, Cecilia A Essau
Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is one of the most commonly used self-report questionnaires to measure symptoms of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Despite its common use, studies that examine the psychometric properties of SCAS in Pakistan is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Urdu translated version of the SCAS among adolescents in Pakistan. A total of 1277 students (708 boys and 569 girls), aged 13 to17 years, who had been recruited from 13 schools in Rawalpindi, Pakistan participated in the study...
March 3, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
José A Bauermeister, Emily J Youatt, Emily S Pingel, Jorge H Soler, Michelle M Johns
Sexual minority women (SMW; i.e., women who identify their sexuality as lesbian, bisexual, or something other than heterosexual) report greater smoking behaviors than their heterosexual counterparts across all ages. We conducted a multivariable regression to examine the correlates of prior smoking cessation attempts and smoking cessation intentions in a sample of young SMW who smoke (N = 338; aged 18-24 years). Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., race/ethnicity, sexual identity, age, urbanity), general (i...
February 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
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