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Behavioral Medicine

Anna A Rubtsova, María J Marquine, Colin Depp, Marcia Holstad, Ronald J Ellis, Scott Letendre, Dilip V Jeste, David J Moore
Frailty is a geriatric condition characterized by increased vulnerability to physical impairments and limitations that may lead to disabilities and mortality. Although studies in the general population suggest that psychosocial factors affect frailty, less is known about whether similar associations exist among people living with HIV (PLWH). The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial correlates of frailty among PLWH and HIV-uninfected adults. Our sample included 127 adults (51% PLWH) participating in the Multi-Dimensional Successful Aging among HIV-Infected Adults study at the University of California San Diego (average age 51 years, 80% male, 53% White)...
November 15, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Lynne B Klasko-Foster, Lina M Jandorf, Deborah O Erwin, Marc T Kiviniemi
African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer, which may be due to low adherence to screening recommendations. Previous studies have found relationships between decision-making factors and screening behavior, but few have looked at both cognitive and affective factors or within a specifically African American sample. To better understand determinants that drive screening behavior, this study examines affective, cognitive, and social variables as predictors of colonoscopy in an age-eligible African American population...
November 14, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Afton Kechter, Adam M Leventhal
The mechanism by which sleep problems adversely impacts adolescent health is poorly understood. Distress tolerance-a multifactorial trait indicative of one's ability to withstand negative emotions and persist toward long-term goals-is implicated in numerous emotional psychopathologies and an important target for research and practice. We hypothesized that the adverse psychobiological effects of sleep problems could disrupt the development of distress tolerance during adolescence. This longitudinal study examined whether sleep problems predicted changes in four facets of distress tolerance during adolescence: (1) absorption-feeling attention is captured by negative emotions, (2) appraisal-experiencing distress as unacceptable, (3) regulation-engaging in behaviors to terminate distress, and (4) tolerance-low perceived ability to tolerate distress...
October 25, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Mayara C S Santos, Selma M de Andrade, Alberto D González, Douglas Fernando Dias, Arthur Eumann Mesas
Chronic pain (CP) is a public health problem with harmful social and individual effects, and its relationships with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors are unclear. This study examined the relationship between CP and PA and time spent watching television as an indicator of leisure time sedentary behavior, and explored the effects of major confounding factors. The information was obtained between 2012 and 2013 from individual interviews with 943 teachers from public schools in Londrina, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed in 2014 using a logistic regression model adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, depression, and working conditions variables...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Niko Männikkö, Heidi Ruotsalainen, Zsolt Demetrovics, Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, Laura Myllymäki, Jouko Miettunen, Maria Kääriäinen
Multiplatform digital media use and gaming have been increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine associations between sociodemographics and digital gaming behavior characteristics (i.e., gaming time, medium, and genres) with problematic gaming behavior in adolescents. A convenience sample of Finnish junior high school students (n = 560; mean age 14 years, ranging from 12 to 16 years) participated in the cross-sectional survey, of which, 83% (n = 465) reported having played digital games regularly...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Alyssa E Rodemann, Danielle Arigo
Establishing healthy habits in college is important for long-term health. Despite existing health promotion efforts, many college students fail to meet recommendations for behaviors such as healthy eating and exercise, which may be due to low perceived risk for health problems. The goals of this study were to examine: (1) the accuracy of life expectancy predictions, (2) potential individual differences in accuracy (i.e., gender and conscientiousness), and (3) potential change in accuracy after inducing awareness of current health behaviors...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Susan L Kasser, Maria Kosma
Among those with multiple sclerosis (MS), mobility impairment is common and significantly affects independent functioning and quality of life. The purpose of the study was to examine the role of physical activity in mobility impairment in individuals with MS and explore the social cognitive factors of social support, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy that facilitate physical activity among those with the disease. A sample of 319 individuals with MS were assessed on the following: family and friend social support, self-efficacy, and physical and social outcome expectations...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
G Anita Heeren, John B Jemmott, C Show Marange, Arnold Rumosa Gwaze, Jesca Mercy Batidzirai, Zolani Ngwane, Andrew Mandeya, Joanne C Tyler
To evaluate the efficacy of a health-promotion intervention in increasing self-reported physical activity among university students in Sub-Saharan Africa. Randomly selected second-year students at a university in South Africa were randomized to an intervention based on social cognitive theory: health-promotion, targeting physical activity and fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption; or HIV risk-reduction, targeting sexual-risk behaviors. Participants completed assessments via audio computer-assisted self-interviewing pre-intervention and 6 and 12 months post-intervention...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Sabine Ammann, André Berchtold, Yara Barrense-Dias, Christina Akre, Joan-Carles Surís
Disordered eating (DE) is known to predominate among girls, and historically studies have focused primarily on them. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the characteristics of adolescent and young adult males at risk of DE. Participants (N = 2269; 15-24 years) in a study assessing their lifestyle were divided into two groups based on the SCOFF five-question screening tool: a SCOFF[+] group for participants at risk of disordered eating, and a SCOFF[-] group for everyone else. SCOFF[+] participants were more likely to be overweight and obese; have a lower socio-economic status and non-Swiss parents; experience weight issues; and report a chronic condition, poorer emotional well-being and a less positive attitude towards life...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Jesús Roberto García Sandoval, José Carlos Caracuel, Armando Cocca, Michaela Cocca, Oswaldo Ceballos Gurrola
This article aims to study the relation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and body image in adolescents from two different social environments in Spain and Mexico, and to compare the construction of an appropriate body scheme in youth from these two countries. The majority of participants were found to be in the normal weight category of BMI. No significant differences were found in BMI or body image comparing Mexican and Spanish adolescents. Regardless of the country of origin, youth belonging to the weight deficit category of BMI overestimated their body shape, whereas those pertaining to overweight and obesity categories underestimated it...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Rebecca C Kamody, Kristoffer S Berlin, Tiffany M Rybak, Kimberly L Klages, Gabrielle G Banks, Jeanelle S Ali, Ramin Alemzadeh, Robert J Ferry, Alicia M Diaz Thomas
Psychological flexibility, a complex concept encompassing both acceptance and action related factors, has been identified as a target for intervention for diabetes management. Research suggests acceptance, self-management, and stress, all factors that influence psychological flexibility, have an impact on adaptation to type 1 diabetes (T1D) by youth independently. However, yet to be explored is individually varying patterns of these variables and how they may relate to diabetes adaptation outcomes. The present study aimed to establish individual variations of patterns of these factors to derive profiles of psychological flexibility, and examine their relations to the adaptation outcomes of glycemic control and health-related quality of life...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Aaron A Lee, Jeanne M Gabriele
Posttraumatic stress is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and rates of obesity. Black adults are at greater risk for obesity, trauma exposure, development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid sleep problems compared to White adults. Accordingly, Black adults with a history of trauma exposure may be at greater risk for elevated BMI associated with posttraumatic stress and insomnia. Multiple linear regression was used to examine race as a moderator of the relationship between posttraumatic symptoms and insomnia with BMI in a sample of Black and White trauma-exposed Veterans (N = 171), controlling for age and sex...
October 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Emily F Rothman, Amy Farrell, Katherine Bright, Jennifer Paruk
This article presents seven challenges of collecting primary (i.e., firsthand) data from commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC). We drew on our research team's experience collecting longitudinal data from 28 CSEC survivors with a 12-month follow-up period. We used both face-to-face and electronic group brainstorming methods to nominate a list of research-related challenges. The two main themes that were identified were challenges that can limit data quality and concerns about the impact of research on participants, researchers, and others...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
David Okech, Nathan Hansen, Waylon Howard, John K Anarfi, Abigail C Burns
Human trafficking exerts psychological effects on survivors that persist after intervention, and even after community reintegration. Effects include anxiety, depression, alienation, disorientation, aggression, suicidal ideation, attention deficit, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Community supports and coping mechanisms may mitigate these effects. The report presented here is part of a long-term program of research to develop and test evidence-informed mental health and human capacity-building intervention programs for women and girls who are victims of trafficking...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
PhuongThao D Le, Nessa Ryan, Yael Rosenstock, Emily Goldmann
This article reviews studies examining health issues associated with commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking (CSE/ST) of children in the United States. We searched five health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed articles published in English between January 1990 and April 2017. After independent screening of the records, we identified 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Descriptions of the included studies and their definitions of CSE/ST are provided. Most of the studies sampled children and youth in urban, metropolitan areas and employed cross-sectional surveys or reviewed case files and medical records of convenience samples...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
PhuongThao D Le
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Livia Ottisova, Patrick Smith, Sian Oram
Trafficked children are frequently exposed to multiple traumatic events, including during their recruitment, transit, and exploitation. It has been hypothesized that such exposures can lead to the development of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Complex PTSD includes (in addition to the core PTSD symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) disturbances in affect regulation, dissociation, self-concept, interpersonal relationships, somatization, and systems of meaning. This historical cohort study aimed to investigate Complex PTSD in trafficked children with a diagnosis of PTSD and compare these with nontrafficked controls exposed to single or multiple trauma...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
PhuongThao D Le, Perry N Halkitis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the United States. High rates of depression (71%) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Mekeila C Cook, Elizabeth Barnert, Roya Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Kayleen Ports, Eraka Bath
The study sought to: (1) describe the mental health and substance use profiles among participants of a specialty trafficking court program (the Succeed Though Achievement and Resilience Court); (2) describe youths' mental health and substance use treatment prior to participating in the program; and (3) examine whether abuse influences report of mental health problems and/or substance use. Retrospective case review of court files was performed on commercially sexually exploited youth who volunteered to participate in the court from 2012 to 2014 (N = 184)...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
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