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Schizophrenia Research

Susanna Konsztowicz, Norbert Schmitz, Martin Lepage
OBJECTIVE: Insight in schizophrenia is regarded as a multidimensional construct that comprises aspects such as awareness of the disorder and recognition of the need for treatment. The proposed number of underlying dimensions of insight is variable in the literature. In an effort to identify a range of existing dimensions of insight, we conducted a factor analysis on combined items from multiple measures of insight. METHOD: We recruited 165 participants with enduring schizophrenia (treated for >3years)...
March 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
N L O'Brien, A Fiorentino, D Curtis, C Rayner, C Petrosellini, M Al Eissa, N J Bass, A McQuillin, S I Sharp
Recent results imply that rare variants contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. Exome sequence data from the UK10K project was used to identify three rare, amino acid changing variants in the ITGB4 gene which segregated with schizophrenia in two families: rs750367954, rs147480547 and rs145976111. Association analysis was carried out in the exome-sequenced Swedish schizophrenia study and in UCL schizophrenia and bipolar cases and controls genotyped for these variants. A gene-wise weighted burden test was performed on a trio sample of schizophrenia cases and their parents...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
L Felice Reddy, Eric A Reavis, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
Effort-based decision making paradigms are increasingly utilized to gain insight into the nature of motivation deficits. Although these tasks are being used to assess effort and motivation in schizophrenia, little work has been done to confirm that effort-based decision making tasks validly manipulate effort. In the current study, we adapted the effort component a cognitive effort-based decision making task (the Deck Choice Effort Task) for use with pupillometric assessment. We sought to confirm with psychophysiology that cognitive effort is manipulated...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Fang Liu, Bingkui Zhang, Liqin Xie, Ye Ruan, XiuFeng Xu, Yong Zeng, Louis Messina, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of adjunctive minocycline on psychopathology and possibly relevant biomarkers in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: In a 16-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects received either minocycline (200mg per day) or placebo. Psychopathology was assessed using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and week 16. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) and nitric oxide metabolites were assessed at both time points...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Cristian Mena, Alfonso Gonzalez-Valderrama, Barbara Iruretagoyena, Juan Undurraga, Nicolas A Crossley
BACKGROUND: Failure to respond to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia is a common clinical scenario with significant morbidity. Recent studies have highlighted that many patients present treatment-resistance from disease onset. We here present an analysis of clozapine prescription patterns, used as a real-world proxy marker for treatment-resistance, in a cohort of 1195 patients with schizophrenia from a Latin-American cohort, to explore the timing of emergence of treatment resistance and possible subgroup differences...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Brian Villumsen Broberg, Iris E Sommer, Michael Eriksen Benros, Birte Yding Glenthøj, Christiane Gasse, Ole Köhler-Forsberg
Glucocorticoids can have psychosis as a potential side effect, but have also been suggested to yield protective effects due to anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, knowledge is sparse on the association between glucocorticoid treatment and development of psychosis, which we aimed to study in this first large-scale longitudinal study. Among all individuals born in Denmark 1995-2003 (n=597,257), we compared individuals who had redeemed ≥1 prescription for glucocorticoids to an active comparator group and a non-exposed group concerning subsequent development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders until 2013...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Marco Herbsleb, Andy Schumann, Berend Malchow, Christian Puta, P Christian Schulze, Holger W Gabriel, Karl-Jürgen Bär
The elevated cardiovascular risk of patients with schizophrenia contributes to a reduced life expectancy of 15-20years. This study investigated whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CADF) in schizophrenia is related to chronotropic incompetence, an established cardiovascular risk marker. We investigated thirty-two patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and thirty-two control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index and fat free mass. A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was performed to study heart rate responses to exercise as well as submaximal (ventilatory threshold 1, VT1 ) and maximal endurance capacities (peak oxygen consumption, VO2peak ; peak power output, Ppeak )...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Nicole D Andorko, Zachary B Millman, Elizabeth Klingaman, Deborah Medoff, Emily Kline, Jordan DeVylder, Gloria Reeves, Jason Schiffman
Psychosis-like experiences (PLEs), or attenuated positive symptoms of psychosis, present along a severity continuum and have been associated with distressing thoughts and impairments in functioning. Although knowledge of the clinical importance of PLEs is expanding, risk factors for their expression are still poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are one known factor that exacerbate PLEs expression and distress, and trauma exposure is associated with occurrence of PLEs, as well as increased risk of later sleep difficulties...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Nicholas Taylor, Jeffrey P Hollis, Sarah Corcoran, Robin Gross, Bruce Cuthbert, Lisette W Swails, Erica Duncan
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients report largely intact pleasure in consuming rewards, but have impairments in generating motivated behavior to pursue rewards, and show reduced fMRI activation of the reward pathway during presentation of rewarded stimuli. A computer based task measuring the development of a response bias in favor of rewarded stimuli permits assessment of reward-induced motivation. We hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would be impaired on this task...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Kristen Thien, Meghan Bowtell, Scott Eaton, Melissa Bardell-Williams, Linglee Downey, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Brian O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: The superior efficacy of clozapine in treatment resistant schizophrenia has been clearly demonstrated, yet there are often delays in the commencement of clozapine. In this study, we aimed to determine; the proportion of young people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) who would be considered eligible for clozapine treatment, the theoretical delay in commencing clozapine and to compare the outcomes of those treated with clozapine to those who were eligible but not treated with clozapine...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Jason Schiffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Hyun-Jin Jun, Boyoung Nam, Lisa Fedina, Melissa Edmondson Smith, Jason Schiffman, Bruce Link, Jordan E DeVylder
BACKGROUND: The anticipation of threat or victimization is a core feature of paranoia. Cognitive theories of paranoia suggest that paranoid thoughts may arise as a psychological response to trauma exposure, which likewise may lead to greater anticipation of subsequent victimization. Little is known, however, about the relation between paranoid beliefs and anticipated victimization when accounting for past victimization experience. The present study aimed to address whether the experiences of past victimization contribute to the link between paranoid beliefs and the anticipation of threat or victimization, with a particular focus on exposure to police violence...
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Neal R Swerdlow, Gregory A Light
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Ania Justo, Alicia Risso, Andrew Moskowitz, Anabel Gonzalez
This article describes the conclusions of an investigation done with 120 Spanish patients: the finding of a new psychopathological profile within a subgroup of patients suffering from schizophrenia. The patients were evaluated through different questionnaires about sociodemographic data, traumatic events, the severity index (both clinical and psychopathological), self-esteem and consciousness of the illness. From the scores obtained on a scale of dissociative experiences, they were classified into two groups: high dissociative symptomatology or HD, and low dissociative symptomatology or LD...
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
F Scheffler, S Kilian, B Chiliza, L Asmal, L Phahladira, S du Plessis, M Kidd, R M Murray, M Di Forti, S Seedat, R Emsley
While acute cannabis use stimulates appetite, general population studies suggest that chronic use is associated with reduced risk of obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. In this study we investigated changes in body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose and lipids, and rates of metabolic syndrome risk factors in cannabis users vs. non-users in 109 minimally treated patients with first-episode schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizo-affective disorder who were treated according to a standardized treatment regime with depot antipsychotic medication over 12 months...
March 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Yoshinori Moriyama, Tomomi Kotani, Takafumi Ushida, Kenji Imai, Tomoko Nakano, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Fumitaka Kikkawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Marialuisa Cavelti, Tilo Kircher, Arne Nagels, Werner Strik, Philipp Homan
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a core feature of schizophrenia, a marker of illness severity and a predictor of outcome. The underlying neural mechanisms are still a matter of debate. This study aimed at 1) reviewing the literature on the neural correlates of FTD in schizophrenia, and 2) testing the hypothesis that FTD correlates with structural and functional aberrations in the language network. Medline, PsychInfo, and Embase were searched for neuroimaging studies, which applied a clinical measure to assess FTD in adults with schizophrenia and were published in English or German in peer-reviewed journals until December 2016...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Melanie A Blair, George Nitzburg, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
Psychotic like experiences (PLE's) are common in the general population, particularly during adolescence, which has generated interest in how PLE's emerge, and the extent to which they reflect either risk for, or resilience to, psychosis. The "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) model is one effort to model the effect of risk factors on PLEs. The ADC model proposes attachment insecurity as an early environmental insult that can contribute to altered neurodevelopment, increasing the likelihood of PLE's and psychosis...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Rachel Meyen, Elia E Acevedo-Diaz, Sparsha S Reddy
BACKGROUND: Untangling catatonia and delirium can be challenging. Furthermore, treatment of one syndrome can potentially worsen another. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 71-year-old patient with a history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype, who developed catatonia and delirium with prominent psychotic symptoms, during a single hospitalization. Treatment of this patient's catatonia with benzodiazepines exacerbated delirium, while treatment of psychotic symptoms precipitated by delirium with antipsychotics led to catatonia...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Wan-Ju Cheng, Chun-Hsin Chen, Chih-Ken Chen, Ming-Chyi Huang, Robert H Pietrzak, John H Krystal, Ke Xu
BACKGROUND: Ketamine has been used to probe the biology of psychosis and cognitive dysfunction in humans. High levels of ketamine abuse are associated with persisting psychosis (KPP) in a minority of users. However, relatively little is known about cognitive function among KPP patients and whether the cognitive impairments associated with KPP resemble those of schizophrenia (SZ). METHODS: We recruited 149 treatment-seeking patients, including nonpsychotic ketamine users (KNP, n=51), KPP (n=23), and SZ (n=75) patients...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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