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Schizophrenia Research

Shannon Delaney, Brian Fallon, Armin Alaedini, Robert Yolken, Alyssa Indart, Tianshu Feng, Yuanjia Wang, Daniel Javitt
BACKGROUND: Immunological, nutritional, and microbial factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but the interrelationship among measures is understudied. In particular, an increase in the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with all phases of the illness, and may be associated with other inflammatory markers. Vitamin D is a modulator of the immune system, and LPS antibodies are an indirect measure of gut barrier function...
November 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Maude Schneider, Marco Armando, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Martin Debbané, Stephan Eliez
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia and recent findings have highlighted the clinical relevance of ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria in this population. However, studies in other at-risk populations have shown that the presence of negative symptoms (NS) is also of clinical relevance in predicting transition to psychosis. The present study examined in detail the presence and course of NS in 22q11DS, as well as their value in predicting transition to psychosis...
November 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Jun Hua, Nicholas I S Blair, Adrian Paez, Ann Choe, Anita D Barber, Allison Brandt, Issel Anne L Lim, Feng Xu, Vidyulata Kamath, James J Pekar, Peter C M van Zijl, Christopher A Ross, Russell L Margolis
The thalamus is a small brain structure that relays neuronal signals between subcortical and cortical regions. Abnormal thalamocortical connectivity in schizophrenia has been reported in previous studies using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) performed at 3T. However, anatomically the thalamus is not a single entity, but is subdivided into multiple distinct nuclei with different connections to various cortical regions. We sought to determine the potential benefit of using the enhanced sensitivity of BOLD fMRI at ultra-high magnetic field (7T) in exploring thalamo-cortical connectivity in schizophrenia based on subregions in the thalamus...
November 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Milind Vijay Thanki, Jaya Padmanabhan, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Matcheri S Keshavan
BACKGROUND: Several lines of investigations converge upon aberrant synaptic plasticity as a potential pathophysiological characteristic of schizophrenia. In vivo experiments using neuromodulatory perturbation techniques like Transcranial Magnetic and Direct Current Stimulation (TMS & tDCS) have been increasingly used to measure 'motor cortical plasticity' in schizophrenia. A systematic quantification of cortical plasticity and its moderators in schizophrenia is however lacking. METHOD: The PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for studies up to December 31st, 2017 that examined case-control experiments comparing neuromodulation following single-session of TMS or tDCS...
November 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Christin Schifani, Sina Hafizi, Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Cory Gerritsen, Miran Kenk, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Prolonged stress can cause neuronal loss in the hippocampus resulting in disinhibition of glutamatergic neurons proposed to enhance dopaminergic firing in subcortical regions including striatal areas. Supporting this, imaging studies show increased striatal dopamine release in response to psychosocial stress in healthy individuals with low childhood maternal care, individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and patients with schizophrenia. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is connected to the hippocampus and a key region to control neurochemical responses to stressful stimuli...
November 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Lebogang Phahladira, Laila Asmal, Sanja Kilian, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Frederika Scheffler, Hilmar K Luckhoff, Stefan du Plessis, Robin Emsley
BACKGROUND: While insight in schizophrenia improves with treatment, significant impairments often persist. The degree of persistence is not well characterised. AIMS: We assessed patient and clinician-rated changes in insight in acutely ill, minimally treated first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients over 24 months of standardised treatment with a depot antipsychotic. METHOD: This single arm open label longitudinal cohort study included 105 participants with first-episode schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder...
October 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Rachel E Kaskie, Kathryn M Gill, Fabio Ferrarelli
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in psychotic patients and often contribute to the manifestation and severity of their symptoms. Slow waves characterize the deepest stage of NREM sleep, and their occurrence is critical for restorative sleep. Slow wave abnormalities have been reported in patient with schizophrenia, especially when experiencing an exacerbation of psychosis. However, their presence and delineation, with an emphasis on topography, in first-episode psychosis patients (FEP) have not yet been characterized...
October 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Tao Chen, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Ying Li, Xiao-Jing Qin, Shu-Li Tao, David L Neumann, David H K Shum, Eric F C Cheung, Ya Wang, Raymond C K Chan
The beneficial effect of implementation intentions (II) on prospective memory (PM) deficits in patients with schizophrenia has been reported. However, these studies were limited to brief interventions such that the transfer and long-term effects of II training remains unclear. This study examined whether a 10-session II programme could improve PM performance, social functioning and functional capacity in patients with schizophrenia immediately after training and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 42) recruited from the community were randomly assigned to II training (n = 21) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 21)...
October 23, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Wei Han, Tianxiao Zhang, Tong Ni, Li Zhu, Dan Liu, Gang Chen, Huali Lin, Teng Chen, Fanglin Guan
Altered cholinergic neural transmission is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to cognitive deficits in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ). The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α5 subunit gene (CHRNA5) is reported to be associated with cognitive function in nicotine-dependent populations and SCZ in non-smoking SCZ patients. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether the CHRNA5 gene contributes to susceptibility to the cognitive deficits of SCZ without smoking. To further clarify the role of CHRNA5, we designed a two-stage, case-control study to examine the association between CHRNA5 and SCZ and its clinical features adjusted for smoking status in early-onset SCZ patients...
October 23, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Simon M Rice, Patrick D McGorry, G Paul Amminger, Barnaby Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Maximus Berger, Suzie Lavoie, Patrick D McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, Connie Markulev, Hok-Pan Yuen, Miriam Schaefer, Zoltán Sarnyai, G Paul Amminger
Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis have an elevated risk of developing psychosis and other psychiatric outcomes. Risk biomarkers can assist in delineating individual risk and allow better prediction of longer-term outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine if allostatic load (AL), a multisystem index of neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, immune and metabolic dysregulation, is associated with clinical outcomes in youth at UHR for psychosis. AL was measured in 106 participants of the NEURAPRO study (n = 70 female, n = 36 male; mean age 17...
October 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Ju Gao, Xiaowei Tang, Ju Kang, Chunming Xie, Miao Yu, Weiwei Sha, Xiang Wang, Xiaobin Zhang, Hongwei Yi, Xiangrong Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Marc J Weintraub, Amy Weisman de Mamani, William J Villano, Travis C Evans, Zachary B Millman, Jill M Hooley, Kiara R Timpano
BACKGROUND: Individuals with schizophrenia are at increased risk of relapse when they live in highly critical (i.e., high expressed emotion; EE) family environments. It remains less clear, however, how individuals at elevated risk for a psychotic disorder react to the social stress of EE. Here we examined whether individuals at elevated risk for developing schizophrenia report greater subjective changes in affect and have increased physiological reactivity after hearing critical, praising and neutral comments...
October 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Devi Treen, George Savulich, Gisela Mezquida, Maria Paz García-Portilla, Alba Toll, Clemente García-Rizo, Leticia García-Álvarez, Daniel Bergé, Julio Bobes, Miguel Bernardo, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Anna Mané
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Takahiro Satake, Hiroaki Ohtachi, Masashi Itakura, Takehiko Yamanashi, Akihiko Miura, Katsutoshi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Matsumura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia share many phenotypic characteristics, but their association with prefrontal function have not been directly compared. The aim of this study is to compare cognitive profiles and their association with the prefrontal function between the two groups. We explored prefrontal dysfunction among adult individuals with ASD (n = 32), schizophrenia (n = 87), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 50). We assessed cognitive function in all participants using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS)...
October 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Annemarie P M Stiekema, Md Atiqul Islam, Edith J Liemburg, Stynke Castelein, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Jaap van Weeghel, André Aleman, Richard Bruggeman, Lisette van der Meer, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Agna A Bartels-Velthuis, Nico J van Beveren, Richard Bruggeman, Wiepke Cahn, Lieuwe de Haan, Philippe Delespaul, Carin J Meijer, Inez Myin-Germeys, Rene S Kahn, Frederike Schirmbeck, Claudia J P Simons, Neeltje E M van Haren, Jim van Os, Ruud van Winkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Zanjbeel Mahmood, Jillian M R Clark, Elizabeth W Twamley
Research identifying the effects of cognitive training on negative symptoms of psychosis is limited. We examined the effects of Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT) on expressive deficits and social amotivation in a randomized controlled trial comparing CCT to standard pharmacotherapy alone in 43 individuals with psychosis. ANCOVA analyses demonstrated significant CCT-associated effects on both expressive deficits and social amotivation. Moreover, improvements in both sub-domains were associated with improvements in global life satisfaction, with improvements in social amotivation also related to increased social contact...
October 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Gordon Shymko, Vaughan Clark, Liana Shymko, Flavie Waters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Helena Storchak, Justin Hudak, Florian B Haeussinger, David Rosenbaum, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Zhifang Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Qiumei Zhang, Wan Zhao, Xiongying Chen, Jinguo Zhai, Min Chen, Boqi Du, Xiaoxiang Deng, Feng Ji, Chuanyue Wang, Yutao Xiang, Dawei Li, Hongjie Wu, Qi Dong, Chuansheng Chen, Jun Li
CACNA1C gene polymorphism rs2007044 has been reported to be associated with schizophrenia, but its underlying brain mechanism is not clear. First, we conducted an exploratory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using an N-BACK task and a Stroop task in 194 subjects (55 schizophrenia patients and 139 healthy controls). Our whole brain analysis found that the risk allele was associated with reduced activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the Stroop task (cluster size = 390 voxels, P < 0...
September 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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