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Schizophrenia Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352708/a-systematic-review-and-discussion-of-symptom-specific-cognitive-behavioural-approaches-to-delusions-and-hallucinations
#1
Tania M Lincoln, Emmanuelle Peters
Studies on cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) have developed from evaluating generic approaches to focusing on specific symptoms. The evidence for targeted studies on delusions and hallucinations was reviewed. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of individualized CBT-based interventions focusing either on delusions or on hallucinations. Twelve suitable RCTs were identified. Four RCTs focused on delusions, of which three took a focused approach targeting mechanisms assumed causal to persecutory delusions...
January 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352709/analysis-of-gut-microbiota-diversity-and-auxiliary-diagnosis-as-a-biomarker-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Yang Shen, Jintian Xu, Zhiyong Li, Yichen Huang, Ye Yuan, Jixiang Wang, Meng Zhang, Songnian Hu, Ying Liang
With the advent of sequencing technology, characterization of schizophrenia with underlying probing of gut microbiome can provide abundant clues for diagnosis and prognosis of schizophrenia. In this study, we first compared the difference of gut microbiota between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls by 16S rRNA sequencing. We further explored whether gut microbiota can be used as a biomarker to assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We restricted inclusion criteria strictly to control confounding bias...
January 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338959/a-new-window-into-psychosis-the-rise-digital-phenotyping-smartphone-assessment-and-mobile-monitoring
#3
John Torous, Matcheri Keshavan
This commentary piece discusses recent advances in the use of mobile technologies like smartphone and wearable sensors for schizophrenia research. By framing both the opportunities as well as challenges for the field, this piece aims to frame the both current and future research efforts.
January 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336872/abundance-of-ribosomal-rna-gene-copies-in-the-genomes-of-schizophrenia-patients
#4
I V Chestkov, E M Jestkova, E S Ershova, V E Golimbet, T V Lezheiko, N Y Kolesina, L N Porokhovnik, N A Lyapunova, V L Izhevskaya, S I Kutsev, N N Veiko, S V Kostyuk
OBJECTIVE: The ribosome is a critical component of the translation machinery. The key component of ribosomes is ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Dysregulation of rRNA biogenesis has been implicated in some human diseases. One of the factors affecting rRNA biogenesis is the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) copy number in the genome. The aim of this study was to examine the rDNA copy number (CN) variation in the genomes of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: We evaluated rDNA CN in leukocytes of 179 subjects with SZ (108 male/71 female) in comparison with 122 HC (60 male/62 female) using two techniques: qPCR and nonradioactive quantitative hybridization (NQH), which is based on the use of biotinylated rDNA probes...
January 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331218/knowing-when-to-stop-aberrant-precision-and-evidence-accumulation-in-schizophrenia
#5
Roberto Limongi, Bartosz Bohaterewicz, Magdalena Nowicka, Aleksandra Plewka, Karl J Friston
Predictive coding and active inference formulations of the dysconnection hypothesis suggest that subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) hold unduly precise prior beliefs to compensate for a failure of sensory attenuation. This implies that SZ subjects should both initiate responses prematurely during evidence-accumulation tasks and fail to inhibit their responses at long stop-signal delays. SZ and healthy control subjects were asked to report the timing of billiards-ball collisions and were occasionally required to withhold their responses...
January 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329822/lymphoma-following-clozapine-exposure-more-information-needed
#6
LETTER
Jonathan G Leung, Jason N Barreto, Carrie A Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329821/diminished-activation-of-the-right-inferior-parietal-lobule-as-a-neural-substrate-of-impaired-cartoon-jokes-comprehension-in-schizophrenia-outpatients
#7
LETTER
Przemysław Adamczyk, Miroslaw Wyczesany, Aleksandra Domagalik, Kamil Cepuch, Artur Daren, Tadeusz Marek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325726/quality-of-life-disparities-between-persons-with-schizophrenia-and-their-professional-caregivers-network-analysis-in-a-national-cohort
#8
Anat Rotstein, David Roe, Marc Gelkopf, Efrat Shadmi, Stephen Z Levine
BACKGROUND: Disparities between mental health patients and their professional caregivers in quality of life appraisals have been identified, however, the structure that such disparities assume is unknown. AIMS: To examine the network structure of quality of life appraisals and disparities using network analysis. METHODS: Participants were 1639 persons with schizophrenia using psychiatric rehabilitation services and their primary professional caregivers (N=582)...
January 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310911/attenuated-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-childhood-and-adult-onset-schizophrenia
#9
Rebecca E Watsky, Stephen J Gotts, Rebecca A Berman, Harrison M McAdams, Xueping Zhou, Dede Greenstein, Francois M Lalonde, Peter Gochman, Liv S Clasen, Lorie Shora, Anna E Ordóñez, Nitin Gogtay, Alex Martin, Deanna M Barch, Judith L Rapoport, Siyuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare, severe form of the adult-onset disorder (AOS). Our previous resting-state fMRI study identified attenuated functional connectivity in COS compared with controls. Here, we ask whether COS and AOS patients and their siblings exhibit similar abnormalities of functional connectivity. METHODS: A whole-brain, data-driven approach was used to assess resting-state functional connectivity differences in COS (patients/siblings/controls, n: 26/28/33) and AOS (n: 19/28/30)...
January 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310912/monocyte-activation-detected-prior-to-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia-in-the-us-military-new-onset-psychosis-project-mnopp
#10
Natalya S Weber, Kristin L Gressitt, David N Cowan, David W Niebuhr, Robert H Yolken, Emily G Severance
Low-grade inflammation is present in some cases of schizophrenia, particularly in the early stages of this disorder. The inflammation source is not known but may be the result of dysbiotic processes occurring in the gut. We examined peripheral biomarkers of bacterial translocation, soluble CD14 (sCD14) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and of general inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), in a unique, pre-onset study of schizophrenia. This sample was composed of 80 case-control matched pairs of US military service members from whom blood samples were obtained at time of entry to service, before a psychiatric diagnosis was made...
January 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287626/a-comparison-of-conversion-rates-clinical-profiles-and-predictors-of-outcomes-in-two-independent-samples-of-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-in-china
#11
Huijun Li, TianHong Zhang, LiHua Xu, YingYing Tang, HuiRu Cui, YanYan Wei, XiaoChen Tang, Kristen A Woodberry, Daniel I Shapiro, ChunBo Li, Larry J Seidman, JiJun Wang
OBJECTIVE: In a previous epidemiological study, we reported on the ascertainment and outcomes of "clinical high risk" (CHR) individuals at the Shanghai Mental Health Center (SMHC, "2011 cohort"). The current study compares demographic and clinical characteristics, including conversion rates, of this sample with a subsequently recruited, independent CHR sample and with published data from western samples. METHOD: A new sample of 100 CHR subjects ("2013 cohort") was selected based on screening and semi-structured interviews...
December 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287625/meta-analysis-on-the-association-between-genetic-polymorphisms-and-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-acoustic-startle-response
#12
Boris B Quednow, Kenechi Ejebe, Michael Wagner, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Bitsios, Veena Kumari, Panos Roussos
Sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR) has been proposed as one of the most promising electrophysiological endophenotypes of schizophrenia. During the past decade, a number of publications have reported significant associations between genetic polymorphisms and PPI in samples of schizophrenia patients and healthy volunteers. However, an overall evaluation of the robustness of these results has not been published so far. Therefore, we performed the first meta-analysis of published and unpublished associations between gene polymorphisms and PPI of ASR...
December 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279247/latent-class-cluster-analysis-of-symptom-ratings-identifies-distinct-subgroups-within-the-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-syndrome
#13
Arthur T Ryan, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin S Cadenhead, Barbara A Cornblatt, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon, Elaine F Walker
The clinical-high-risk for psychosis (CHR-P) syndrome is heterogeneous in terms of clinical presentation and outcomes. Identifying more homogenous subtypes of the syndrome may help clarify its etiology and improve the prediction of psychotic illness. This study applied latent class cluster analysis (LCCA) to symptom ratings from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Studies 1 and 2 (NAPLS 1 and 2). These analyses produced evidence for three to five subgroups within the CHR-P syndrome. Differences in negative and disorganized symptoms distinguished among the subgroups...
December 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279246/complement-system-biomarkers-in-first-episode-psychosis
#14
Maja Kopczynska, Wioleta Zelek, Samuel Touchard, Fiona Gaughran, Marta Di Forti, Valeria Mondelli, Robin Murray, Michael C O'Donovan, B Paul Morgan
Several lines of evidence implicate immunological/inflammatory factors in development of schizophrenia. Complement is a key driver of inflammation, and complement dysregulation causes pathology in many diseases. Here we explored whether complement dysregulation occurred in first episode psychosis (FEP) and whether this provides a source of biomarkers. Eleven complement analytes (C1q, C3, C4, C5, factor B [FB], terminal complement complex [TCC], factor H [FH], FH-related proteins [FHR125], Properdin, C1 inhibitor [C1inh], soluble complement receptor 1 [CR1]) plus C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in serum from 136 first episode psychosis (FEP) cases and 42 mentally healthy controls using established in-house or commercial ELISA...
December 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275857/is-the-prevalence-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibodies-in-schizophrenia-overestimated
#15
LETTER
Yukako Nakagami, Genichi Sugihara, Akio Ikeda, Toshiya Murai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275856/the-brief-negative-symptom-scale-bnss-sensitivity-to-treatment-effects
#16
Brian Kirkpatrick, Jay B Saoud, Gregory P Strauss, Anthony O Ahmed, Kazunori Tatsumi, Mark Opler, Remy Luthringer, Michael Davidson
The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) grew out of a recommendation by the NIMH-sponsored Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms that a scale based on contemporary concepts be developed. We assessed sensitivity to change of the BNSS in a trial of MIN-101, which showed efficacy for negative symptoms (PANSS pentagonal model) at daily doses of 32 and 64mg/day. Using mixed-effects model for repeated measures, we examined change in BNSS total score and in the BNSS factors of anhedonia/avolition/asociality (AAA), and expressivity (EXP)...
December 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275855/premorbid-iq-subgroups-in-first-episode-non-affective-psychosis-patients-long-term-sex-differences-in-function-and-neurocognition
#17
Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Esther Setién-Suero, Karl David Neergaard, Àuria Albacete Belzunces, Fernando Contreras, Neeltje E M van Haren, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). METHODS: The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain...
December 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274737/substantia-nigra-ultrastructural-pathology-in-schizophrenia
#18
Courtney K Walker, Joy K Roche, Vidushi Sinha, Rosalinda C Roberts
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness affecting approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Despite its prevalence, the cause remains unknown, and treatment is not effective in all patients. Dopamine is thought to play a role in schizophrenia pathology, yet the substantia nigra (SN), the origin of dopaminergic pathways, has not been studied extensively in schizophrenia. In this study, electron microscopy was used to examine neurons, oligodendrocytes, and myelinated axons in the SN of normal controls (NCs, n=9) and schizophrenia subjects with varying response to antipsychotic drugs [SZ, n=14; treatment resistant (TR)=6, treatment responsive (RESP)=6, unknown=2]...
December 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274736/can-we-accurately-classify-schizophrenia-patients-from-healthy-controls-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-machine-learning-a-multi-method-and-multi-dataset-study
#19
Julie L Winterburn, Aristotle N Voineskos, Gabriel A Devenyi, Eric Plitman, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Nikhil Bhagwat, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Jo Knight, M Mallar Chakravarty
Machine learning is a powerful tool that has previously been used to classify schizophrenia (SZ) patients from healthy controls (HC) using magnetic resonance images. Each study, however, uses different datasets, classification algorithms, and validation techniques. Here, we perform a critical appraisal of the accuracy of machine learning methodologies used in SZ/HC classifications studies by comparing three machine learning algorithms (logistic regression [LR], support vector machines [SVMs], and linear discriminant analysis [LDA]) on three independent datasets (435 subjects total) using two tissue density estimates and cortical thickness (CT)...
December 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274735/neuroanatomical-heterogeneity-of-schizophrenia-revealed-by-semi-supervised-machine-learning-methods
#20
Nicolas Honnorat, Aoyan Dong, Eva Meisenzahl-Lechner, Nikolaos Koutsouleris, Christos Davatzikos
Schizophrenia is associated with heterogeneous clinical symptoms and neuroanatomical alterations. In this work, we aim to disentangle the patterns of neuroanatomical alterations underlying a heterogeneous population of patients using a semi-supervised clustering method. We apply this strategy to a cohort of patients with schizophrenia of varying extends of disease duration, and we describe the neuroanatomical, demographic and clinical characteristics of the subtypes discovered. METHODS: We analyze the neuroanatomical heterogeneity of 157 patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia, relative to a control population of 169 subjects, using a machine learning method called CHIMERA...
December 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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