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Schizophrenia Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527982/structural-connectivity-and-rich-club-organization-in-recent-onset-psychosis
#1
LETTER
Giulia Forcellini, Stefani O'Donoghue, Joanne Kenney, Shane McInerney, Cathy Scanlon, Leila Nabulsi, Genevieve McPhilemy, Liam Kilmartin, Denis O'Hora, Brian Hallahan, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526281/effects-of-maternal-immune-activation-on-brain-arginine-metabolism-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#2
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
l-Arginine is a versatile semi-essential amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, and altered arginine metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Earlier research has demonstrated that maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) alters arginine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of the adult offspring. The present study investigated how MIA affected the levels of l-arginine and its downstream metabolites in the whole forebrain, frontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of male and female rat offspring at the age of postnatal day 2...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526280/an-overview-of-medical-risk-factors-for-childhood-psychosis-implications-for-research-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Marianna Giannitelli, Angèle Consoli, Marie Raffin, Renaud Jardri, Douglas F Levinson, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent-Levinson
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders in childhood and early adolescence often progress to chronic schizophrenia, but in many cases there are diagnosable medical and genetic causes or risk factors. We reviewed our clinical experience and the relevant literature to identify these factors and to define their clinical features, appropriate work-up and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the results of comprehensive medical evaluations of 160 psychotic children and adolescents in our center...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526279/an-emerging-role-for-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Abnormal brain development has long been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Impaired dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis, and long term potentiation and memory have been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. In addition to aberrant nervous system development, altered brain metabolism and mitochondrial function has long been observed in schizophrenic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial genome as well as impaired mitochondrial function have both been associated with increased risk for developing schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506707/complex-mismatch-negativity-to-tone-pair-deviants-in-long-term-schizophrenia-and-in-the-first-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum
#5
Dean F Salisbury, Alexis G McCathern, Brian A Coffman, Timothy K Murphy, Sarah M Haigh
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential to stimulus change. MMN to infrequent deviant tones that differs in a simple physical parameter from repetitive standard tones is reduced in patients with long-term schizophrenia (Sz; d=~1). However, this simple MMN is not uniformly reduced at the first-episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis (FESz; d<0.1 for pitch; <0.4 for duration). Deviant stimuli that violate pattern rules also evoke MMN. This complex MMN is evoked by deviations in the relation of sounds to each other...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506706/cognitive-and-functional-deficits-in-people-with-schizophrenia-evidence-for-accelerated-or-exaggerated-aging
#6
Philip D Harvey, Jennifer B Rosenthal
Cognitive and functional deficits are commonly seen in people with schizophrenia. The profile of these impairments has a resemblance to the cognitive changes seen in healthy aging. In specific, many of the cognitive ability domains that change the most with aging in healthy people are the most salient of these deficits seen in people with schizophrenia, including prominent deficits in processing speed, working memory, and episodic memory. Functional deficits seen in schizophrenia are also similar to those seen in healthy aging...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506705/the-interaction-of-gender-and-cannabis-in-early-phase-psychosis
#7
Candice E Crocker, Philip G Tibbo
Cannabis is the third most common recreational drug used world-wide after tobacco and alcohol. Globally, cannabis legalization is becoming more common. In light of its known link to psychosis development, it is imperative that we are well-informed regarding the impact of cannabis on the course of psychosis, in both males and females. However, the majority of the work to date on the role of cannabis in psychosis outcomes has not had a gender focus, important when considering patient specific treatments. This review examines what is currently known, from gender focused studies, about the interaction of gender, cannabis use and psychotic disorders...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506704/a-method-to-achieve-extended-cannabis-abstinence-in-cannabis-dependent-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-non-psychiatric-controls
#8
Rachel A Rabin, Karolina Kozak, Konstantine K Zakzanis, Gary Remington, Cristiana Stefan, Alan J Budney, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are common in schizophrenia (~25%) compared to the general population (~3%). Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component in cannabis is fat-soluble, resulting in an extended period for cannabinoid elimination. While detection of cannabinoids in urine is indicative of prior cannabis exposure, time of last use is difficult to verify sustained abstinence for extended periods (e.g., 28-days) in chronic cannabis users. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of a sustained cannabis abstinence paradigm in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506703/abnormal-asymmetry-of-white-matter-tracts-between-ventral-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-middle-temporal-gyrus-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia
#9
Sung Woo Joo, Myong-Wuk Chon, Yogesh Rathi, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Jungsun Lee
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported abnormalities in the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in schizophrenia patients. However, it remains unclear whether the white matter tracts connecting these structures are impaired in schizophrenia. Our study investigated the integrity of these white matter tracts (vPCC-MTG tract) and their asymmetry (left versus right side) in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. METHOD: Forty-seven patients and 24 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499768/mortality-in-people-with-psychotic-disorders-in-finland-a-population-based-13-year-follow-up-study
#10
Jaakko Keinänen, Outi Mantere, Niina Markkula, Krista Partti, Jonna Perälä, Samuli I Saarni, Tommi Härkänen, Jaana Suvisaari
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a population based study aiming at finding predictors of mortality in psychotic disorders and evaluating the extent to which sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related factors explain the excess mortality. METHODS: In a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30-70years (n=5642), psychotic disorders were diagnosed using structured interviews and medical records in 2000-2001. Information on mortality and causes of death was obtained of those who died by the end of year 2013...
May 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499767/routine-patient-reported-outcomes-as-predictors-of-psychiatric-rehospitalization
#11
Efrat Shadmi, Marc Gelkopf, Paula Garber-Epstein, Vered Baloush-Kleinman, Ronit Doudai, David Roe
OBJECTIVE: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to measure psychiatric service consumers' progress and to provide feedback to consumers and providers. We tested whether PROMs can predict and be used to identify groups at high risk for future hospitalization. METHODS: A total of 2842 Israeli users of psychiatric rehabilitation services reported on their quality of life (QoL) and the effect of symptoms on their daily functioning. Survey data were linked with information on psychiatric hospitalization 6 and 12months after survey completion...
May 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499766/comparing-early-signs-and-basic-symptoms-as-methods-for-predicting-psychotic-relapse-in-clinical-practice
#12
Emily Eisner, Richard Drake, Fiona Lobban, Sandra Bucci, Richard Emsley, Christine Barrowclough
BACKGROUND: Early signs interventions show promise but could be further developed. A recent review suggested that 'basic symptoms' should be added to conventional early signs to improve relapse prediction. This study builds on preliminary evidence that basic symptoms predict relapse and aimed to: 1. examine which phenomena participants report prior to relapse and how they describe them; 2. determine the best way of identifying pre-relapse basic symptoms; 3. assess current practice by comparing self- and casenote-reported pre-relapse experiences...
May 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495493/the-value-of-novelty-in-schizophrenia
#13
Cristina Martinelli, Francesco Rigoli, Bruno Averbeck, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Influential models of schizophrenia suggest that patients experience incoming stimuli as excessively novel and motivating, with important consequences for hallucinatory experience and delusional belief. However, whether schizophrenia patients exhibit excessive novelty value and whether this interferes with adaptive behaviour has not yet been formally tested. Here, we employed a three-armed bandit task to investigate this hypothesis. Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls were first familiarised with a group of images and then asked to repeatedly choose between familiar and unfamiliar images associated with different monetary reward probabilities...
May 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495492/the-complex-relationship-between-self-reported-personal-recovery-and-clinical-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#14
Alessandro Rossi, Mario Amore, Silvana Galderisi, Paola Rocca, Alessandro Bertolino, Eugenio Aguglia, Giovanni Amodeo, Antonello Bellomo, Paola Bucci, Antonino Buzzanca, Bernardo Carpiniello, Anna Comparelli, Liliana Dell'Osso, Massimo di Giannantonio, Marina Mancini, Carlo Marchesi, Palmiero Monteleone, Cristiana Montemagni, Lucio Oldani, Rita Roncone, Alberto Siracusano, Paolo Stratta, Elena Tenconi, Annarita Vignapiano, Antonio Vita, Patrizia Zeppegno, Mario Maj
Self-reported 'personal recovery' and clinical recovery in schizophrenia (SRPR and CR, respectively) reflect different perspectives in schizophrenia outcome, not necessarily concordant with each other and usually representing the consumer's or the therapist's point of view. By means of a cluster analysis on SRPR-related variables, we identified three clusters. The first and third cluster included subjects with the best and the poorest clinical outcome respectively. The second cluster was characterized by better insight, higher levels of depression and stigma, lowest self-esteem and personal strength, and highest emotional coping...
May 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495491/a-computational-algorithm-for-personalized-medicine-in-schizophrenia
#15
Beom S Lee, Roger S McIntyre, James E Gentle, Nan Sook Park, David A Chiriboga, Yena Lee, Sabrina Singh, Marie A McPherson
Despite advances in sequencing candidate genes and whole genomes, no method has accurately predicted who will or will not benefit from a specific antipsychotic medication among patients with schizophrenia. We propose a computational algorithm that utilizes a person-centered approach that directly identifies individual patients who will respond to a specific antipsychotic medication. The algorithm was applied to the data obtained from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study...
May 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495490/further-evidence-for-the-association-between-lrp8-and-schizophrenia
#16
Xiao Xiao, Hao Yu, Jun Li, Lu Wang, Lingyi Li, Hong Chang, Dai Zhang, Weihua Yue, Ming Li
Previous studies (including genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene studies) have revealed the important roles of genetic risk factors in schizophrenia, and RELN has been identified as a risk gene for this illness. We recently found that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8), a receptor of Reelin (the protein encoded by RELN), was significantly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in European populations. To further enhance our understanding of its role in the risk of psychiatric illnesses, we conducted meta-analyses of a higher density of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, N=173) in LRP8 to understand their associations with schizophrenia in much larger samples (39,400 cases and 50,357 controls) from populations of European, Chinese and African American ancestries...
May 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487077/the-role-of-lifestyle-interventions-to-address-sleep-as-a-modifiable-cardiometabolic-risk-factor-in-youth-with-at-risk-mental-states
#17
LETTER
Oscar Lederman, Rebekah Carney, Megan Kalucy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487076/evidence-for-differential-opioid-use-disorder-in-schizophrenia-in-an-addiction-treatment-population
#18
Joshua Chiappelli, Shuo Chen, Ann Hackman, L Elliot Hong
Although people diagnosed with schizophrenia are known to have elevated risks of abuse and dependence for nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and cannabis, it is less clear if schizophrenia is associated with higher rates of opioid use disorders compared to either the general population or individuals with other major psychiatric disorders. Here we examine a large publicly available database from substance abuse treatment centers to compare how frequently patients with schizophrenia report problems with heroin or other opioid drugs compared to other major drugs of abuse...
May 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478887/investigating-the-neurobiology-of-schizophrenia-and-other-major-psychiatric-disorders-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#19
REVIEW
Rachel E Kaskie, Fabio Ferrarelli
Characterizing the neurobiology of schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders is one of the main challenges of the current research in psychiatry. The availability of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) allows to directly probe virtually any cortical areas, thus providing a unique way to assess the neurophysiological properties of cortical neurons. This article presents a review of studies employing TMS in combination with Motor Evoked Potentials (TMS/MEPs) and high density Electroencephalogram (TMS/hd-EEG) in schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders...
May 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476338/corrigendum-to-self-reported-cannabis-use-is-inconsistent-with-the-results-from-drug-screening-in-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-in-colorado-schizophr-res-157-0-august-2014-317-318
#20
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