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Schizophrenia Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343741/time-as-context-the-influence-of-hierarchical-patterning-on-sensory-inference
#1
Juanita Todd, Anne Petherbridge, Bronte Speirs, Alexander Provost, Bryan Paton
Time, or more specifically temporal structure, is a critical variable in understanding how the auditory system uses acoustic patterns to predict input, and to filter events based on their relevance. A key index of this filtering process is the auditory evoked potential component known as mismatch negativity or MMN. In this paper we review findings of smaller MMN in schizophrenia through the lens of time as an influential contextual variable. More specifically, we review studies that show how MMN to a locally rare pattern-deviation is modulated by the longer-term context in which it occurs...
March 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342578/efficacy-and-safety-of-aripiprazole-lauroxil-in-schizophrenic-patients-presenting-with-severe-psychotic-symptoms-during-an-acute-exacerbation
#2
Steven G Potkin, Robert Risinger, Yangchun Du, Jacqueline Zummo, Anjana Bose, Bernard Silverman, Srdjan Stankovic, Elliot Ehrich
Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL), a new long-acting injectable antipsychotic, demonstrated safety and efficacy in treating acute exacerbation symptoms of schizophrenia in a 12-week placebo-controlled trial of two doses of AL (441mg and 882mg) administered every 4weeks. We performed a post hoc analysis of this trial to evaluate the efficacy of AL in the subgroup of patients with severe psychotic symptoms, defined as those with baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Total score above the median score of 92 (n=309)...
March 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341002/seroprevalence-survey-of-selective-anti-neuronal-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-and-chronic-schizophrenia
#3
Chia-Hsiang Chen, Min-Chih Cheng, Chih-Min Liu, Chen-Chung Liu, Ko-Huan Lin, Hai-Gwo Hwu
Autoimmune encephalopathy caused by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins in the brain is a newly discovered disease category associated with psychiatric disorders. Correct diagnosis of this condition relies on the detection of specific autoantibodies in the blood or cerebral spinal fluid in addition to the clinical presentations. The study aimed to understand the seroprevalence of selective anti-neuronal autoantibodies in our patients with schizophrenia. First, we screened for six anti-neuronal autoantibodies in an archived blood sample collected from patients with the first-episode schizophrenia...
March 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336195/cognitive-correlates-of-visual-neural-plasticity-in-schizophrenia
#4
Carol Jahshan, Jonathan K Wynn, Daniel H Mathalon, Michael F Green
Neuroplasticity may be an important treatment target to improve the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Yet, it is poorly understood and difficult to assess. Recently, a visual high-frequency stimulation (HFS) paradigm that potentiates electroencephalography (EEG)-based visual evoked potentials (VEP) has been developed to assess neural plasticity in the visual cortex. Using this paradigm, we examined visual plasticity in SZ patients (N=64) and its correlations with clinical symptoms, neurocognition, functional capacity, and community functioning...
March 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325573/brain-network-characteristics-separating-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-into-normality-or-psychosis
#5
Soo-Hee Choi, Sunghyon Kyeong, Kang Ik K Cho, Je-Yeon Yun, Tae Young Lee, Hye Yoon Park, Sung Nyun Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
We aimed to separate individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) state into subgroups according to neurobiological characteristics using structural and functional network constructs and examine their clinical characteristics. Structural diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed in 61 healthy controls (HC), 57 individuals at CHR and 29 patients with schizophrenia (SZ). The main outcome was a likelihood ratio calculated from measures of structural and functional network efficiencies, coupling strength of structural and functional networks, and a disease-specific data analysis, resulting in the most probable classification of CHR into HC or SZ...
March 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325572/lipid-profile-disturbances-in-antipsychotic-naive-patients-with-first-episode-non-affective-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Bartłomiej Stańczykiewicz, Łukasz Łaczmański, Dorota Frydecka
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidaemia is one of the most prevalent metabolic disturbances observed in schizophrenia patients and has been largely attributed to the effects of poor lifestyle habits and adverse effects of antipsychotic treatment. However, less is known whether patients with first-episode non-affective psychosis (FENP) present subthreshold indices of dyslipidaemia. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether subclinical lipid profile alterations occur already in antipsychotic-naïve FENP patients...
March 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320578/specific-cerebral-perfusion-patterns-in-three-schizophrenia-symptom-dimensions
#7
Katharina Stegmayer, Werner Strik, Andrea Federspiel, Roland Wiest, Stephan Bohlhalter, Sebastian Walther
Dimensional concepts such as the Research Domain Criteria initiative have been proposed to disentangle the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. One model introduced three neurobiologically informed behavioral dimensions: language, affectivity and motor behavior. To study the brain-behavior associations of these three dimensions, we investigated whether current behavioral alterations were linked to resting state perfusion in distinct brain circuits in schizophrenia. In total, 47 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 44 healthy controls were included...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318838/do-paranoid-delusions-exist-on-a-continuum-with-subclinical-paranoia-a-multi-method-taxometric-study
#8
A Elahi, G Perez Algorta, F Varese, J C McIntyre, R P Bentall
BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in whether psychosis exists on a continuum with healthy functioning. Previous research has implied that paranoia, a common symptom of psychosis, exists on a continuum but this has not been investigated using samples including both patients and non-patients and up-to-date taxometric methods. AIM: To assess the latent structure of paranoia in a diverse sample using taxometric methods. METHOD: We obtained data from 2836 participants, including the general population as well as at-risk mental state and psychotic patients using the P-scale of the Paranoia and Deservedness Scale...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318837/innovations-in-first-episode-psychosis-interventions-the-case-for-a-raise-plus-approach
#9
Emily Kline, Matcheri Keshavan
Several papers in the current issue of Schizophrenia Research show evidence supporting interventions that are not yet grouped with standard care practices in FEP. Taken together, these studies make the case for a more inclusive approach for early psychosis care than what is embodied in RAISE. Although providing all interventions to all patients, however, will be impractical and expensive, a personalized approach to such interventions, whereby the appropriate interventions are implemented in a phase specific and individually tailored manner after a careful assessment of each person's core deficits within a coordinated specialty care model, is likely to improve lives and be cost-effective...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318835/improvement-in-mismatch-negativity-generation-during-d-serine-treatment-in-schizophrenia-correlation-with-symptoms
#10
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Migyung Lee, Nayla Lehrfeld, Karen A Nolan, Constance Shope, Eva Petkova, Gail Silipo, Daniel C Javitt
BACKGROUND: Deficits in N-methyl-d-aspartate-type (NMDAR) function contribute to symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The efficacy of NMDAR agonists in the treatment of persistent symptoms of schizophrenia has been variable, potentially reflecting limitations in functional target engagement. We recently demonstrated significant improvement in auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) with once-weekly treatment with d-serine, a naturally occurring NMDAR glycine-site agonist. This study investigates effects of continuous (daily) NMDAR agonists in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318841/acquisition-of-nicotine-self-administration-in-amphetamine-and-phencyclidine-models-of-schizophrenia-a-role-for-stress
#11
Paul J Fletcher, Zhaoxia Li, Kathleen M Coen, Anh D Lê
Nicotine use and dependence is very high in patients with schizophrenia. One possible reason is that altered dopamine or glutamate activity in schizophrenia enhances the reinforcing effectiveness of nicotine. We used animal models to test the hypothesis that a hyperdopaminergic state (induced by repeated intermittent injections of amphetamine) or altered glutamate function (subchronic injection of phencyclidine, PCP) facilitates spontaneous acquisition of nicotine self-administration in rats. In Experiment 1 animals in an amphetamine-induced sensitized state (AISS) did not differ from saline-injected controls in their acquisition and maintenance of nicotine self-administration...
March 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318840/self-reported-sleep-disturbances-associated-with-procedural-learning-impairment-in-adolescents-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#12
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Derek J Dean, Vijay A Mittal
Sleep disturbance contributes to impaired procedural learning in schizophrenia, yet little is known about this relationship prior to psychosis onset. Adolescents at ultra high-risk (UHR; N=62) for psychosis completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a procedural learning task (Pursuit Rotor). Increased self-reported problems with sleep latency, efficiency, and quality were associated with impaired procedural learning rate. Further, within-sample comparisons revealed that UHR youth reporting better sleep displayed a steeper learning curve than those with poorer sleep...
March 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318839/linking-optic-radiation-volume-to-visual-perception-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#13
Eric A Reavis, Junghee Lee, Jonathan K Wynn, Katherine L Narr, Stephanie N Njau, Stephen A Engel, Michael F Green
People with schizophrenia typically show visual processing deficits on masking tasks and other performance-based measures, while people with bipolar disorder may have related deficits. The etiology of these deficits is not well understood. Most neuroscientific studies of perception in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have focused on visual processing areas in the cerebral cortex, but perception also depends on earlier components of the visual system that few studies have examined in these disorders. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), we investigated the structure of the primary sensory input pathway to the cortical visual system: the optic radiations...
March 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318842/ethnic-density-urbanicity-and-psychosis-risk-for-migrant-groups-a-population-cohort-study
#14
Peter Schofield, Malene Thygesen, Jay Das-Munshi, Laia Becares, Elizabeth Cantor-Graae, Carsten Pedersen, Esben Agerbo
BACKGROUND: Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. METHOD: Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years)...
March 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318836/early-onset-of-cardiometabolic-risk-factor-profiles-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#15
Desheng Zhai, Yan Lang, Yihang Feng, Yijun Liu, Gaopan Dong, Xin Wang, Ying Cao, Taizhen Cui, Chenyang Ni, Yonggan Ji, Xiaodan Zhang, Ying Zhao, Ruiling Zhang
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We performed a case-control study, which included antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) of adolescents and young adults and general population controls, to investigate the early-onset cardiometabolic risk factors in FES. RESULTS: FES had more frequent lower HDL-C when compared to controls. However, the distribution of BMI and the frequency of hypercholesterolemia, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia in FES were not significantly different to controls...
March 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314681/duration-and-frequency-mismatch-negativity-shows-no-progressive-reduction-in-early-stages-of-psychosis
#16
Daisuke Koshiyama, Kenji Kirihara, Mariko Tada, Tatsuya Nagai, Shinsuke Koike, Motomu Suga, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kiyoto Kasai
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of event-related potentials, which is being increasingly recognized as a candidate biomarker for early stages of psychosis. Although previous cross-sectional studies have demonstrated small MMN amplitude in early stages of psychosis, it remains unknown whether small MMN amplitude is due to progressive reduction during the early course. In this study, we investigated longitudinal changes of MMN in early stages of psychosis. Participant included 14 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 16 individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR), and 16 healthy control subjects (HC)...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314680/a-novel-approach-to-measuring-response-and-remission-in-schizophrenia-in-clinical-trials
#17
Ahmed Aboraya, Stefan Leucht, Henry H Nasrallah, Myrto Samara, Josep Maria Haro, Ahmed Elshazly, Masood Zangeneh
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical companies conduct clinical trials to show the efficacy and safety of new medications for the treatment of schizophrenia. After the new medications are marketed, clinicians treating patients with schizophrenia discover that a considerable number of patients do not respond to these new medications. The goals of the review are to examine the methodology and design of recent antipsychotic clinical trials, identify common flaws, and propose guidelines to fix the flaws and improve the quality of future clinical trials of antipsychotic medications...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314679/an-analysis-of-the-rewarding-and-aversive-associative-properties-of-nicotine-in-the-neonatal-quinpirole-model-effects-on-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf
#18
Russell W Brown, Seth L Kirby, Adam R Denton, John M Dose, Elizabeth D Cummins, Wesley Drew Gill, Katherine C Burgess
This study analyzed the associative properties of nicotine in a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in adolescent rats neonatally treated with quinpirole (NQ) or saline (NS). NQ produces dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity that persists throughout the animal's lifetime, and therefore has relevance towards schizophrenia. In two experiments, rats were ip administered quinpirole (1mg/kg) or saline from postnatal day (P)1-21. After an initial preference test at P42-43, animals were conditioned for eight consecutive days with saline or nicotine (0...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302395/social-cognition-psychometric-evaluation-scope-in-people-with-early-psychosis-a-preliminary-study
#19
Kelsey A Ludwig, Amy E Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, Skylar Kelsven, David L Penn
Social cognition is an important outcome in schizophrenia research. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of consensus regarding which measures of social cognition best capture this domain of functioning. The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study was developed to address the need for a battery of measures that have sound psychometric properties and can be implemented in clinical trials for individuals with chronic schizophrenia. The current study expands upon the SCOPE study by examining the psychometric properties of the eight candidate measures administered to individuals early in the course of psychosis...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302394/the-relationship-between-level-of-cognitive-impairments-and-functional-outcome-trajectories-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#20
Susie Fu, Nikolai Czajkowski, Bjørn Rishovd Rund, Anne-Kari Torgalsbøen
Although cognitive impairments are consistently linked to functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia, the relationship remains unclear for patients with first-episode schizophrenia. The objective of this present study was to determine whether there are distinct developmental trajectories for functional outcome in patients with different levels of baseline cognition. The present study has a multi-follow-up design, and includes data from six follow-ups over four years. Assessments were conducted yearly, apart from the first year where assessments were conducted every six months...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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