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Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

Erica S Shenoy, Eric S Rosenthal, Yu-Ping Shao, Siddharth Biswal, Manohar Ghanta, Erin E Ryan, Dolores Suslak, Nancy Swanson, Valdery Moura Junior, David C Hooper, M Brandon Westover
OBJECTIVETo validate a system to detect ventilator associated events (VAEs) autonomously and in real time.DESIGNRetrospective review of ventilated patients using a secure informatics platform to identify VAEs (ie, automated surveillance) compared to surveillance by infection control (IC) staff (ie, manual surveillance), including development and validation cohorts.SETTINGThe Massachusetts General Hospital, a tertiary-care academic health center, during January-March 2015 (development cohort) and January-March 2016 (validation cohort)...
May 17, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sarah L Krein, M Todd Greene, Beth King, Deborah Welsh, Karen E Fowler, Barbara W Trautner, David Ratz, Sanjay Saint, Gary Roselle, Marla Clifton, Stephen M Kralovic, Tina Martin, Lona Mody
OBJECTIVECollaborative programs have helped reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates in community-based nursing homes. We assessed whether collaborative participation produced similar benefits among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes, which are part of an integrated system.SETTINGThis study included 63 VHA nursing homes enrolled in the "AHRQ Safety Program for Long-Term Care," which focused on practices to reduce CAUTI.METHODSChanges in CAUTI rates, catheter utilization, and urine culture orders were assessed from June 2015 through May 2016...
May 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Elise M Martin, Brandy Bryant, Tristan R Grogan, Zachary A Rubin, Dana L Russell, David Elashoff, Daniel Z Uslan
OBJECTIVETo evaluate the impact of discontinuing routine contact precautions (CP) for endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) on hospital adverse events.DESIGNRetrospective, nonrandomized, observational, quasi-experimental study.SETTINGAcademic medical center with single-occupancy rooms.PARTICIPANTSInpatients.METHODSWe compared hospital reportable adverse events 1 year before and 1 year after discontinuation of routine CP for endemic MRSA and VRE (preintervention and postintervention periods, respectively)...
May 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Neha Nanda, Preciosa Marasigan, Stephanie Hall, Evan Mosier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Elizabeth Robilotti, Eleanor Powell, Shauna Usiak, Ying Taur, N Esther Babady, Mini Kamboj
Two distinct clusters of gastroenteritis due to Salmonellae and Entamoeba histolytica (EH) were identified using a multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) at a tertiary-care cancer center. Despite temporo-spatial overlap, our investigation did not corroborate transmission or true infection. In clinical practice, GPPs may render false-positive results.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
May 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sarah M Bergin, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Timothy Barkham, Hong Choon Chua, Yee Ming Mok, Daniel Shuen Sheng Fung, Alex Hsin Chuan Su, Yen Ling Lee, Ming Lai Ivan Chua, Poh Yong Ng, Wei Jia Wendy Soon, Collins Wenhan Chu, Siyun Lucinda Tan, Mary Meehan, Brenda Sze Peng Ang, Yee Sin Leo, Matthew T G Holden, Partha De, Li Yang Hsu, Swaine L Chen, Paola Florez de Sessions, Kalisvar Marimuthu
OBJECTIVEWe report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.SETTINGA 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.METHODSActive surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed...
May 9, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Caitlin W Elgarten, Staci D Arnold, Yimei Li, Yuan-Shung V Huang, Marcie L Riches, Jeffrey S Gerber, Richard Aplenc, Wael Saber, Brian T Fisher
OBJECTIVETo explore the prevalence and drivers of hospital-level variability in antibiotic utilization among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients to inform antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.DESIGNRetrospective cohort study using data merged from the Pediatric Health Information System and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.SETTINGThe study included 27 transplant centers in freestanding children's hospitals.METHODSThe primary outcome was days of broad-spectrum antibiotic use in the interval from day of HCT through neutrophil engraftment...
May 8, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Gwen L Robinson, Linda Otieno, J Kristie Johnson, Laura J Rose, Anthony D Harris, Judith Noble-Wang, Kerri A Thom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Soo Jin Na, Chi Ryang Chung, Hee Jung Choi, Yang Hyun Cho, Jeong Hoon Yang, Gee Young Suh, Kyeongman Jeon
Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurred in 21 of 121 patients (17%) receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the median time of 6 days after initiation (interquartile range, 4-19 days). Longer duration of arterial catheterization and more blood transfusions were independently associated with BSI, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
May 7, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Shik Luk, Alex Yat Man Ho, Eliza Hoi Ying Chan, Iris Hoi Ling Tsang, Tak Keung Ng, Wing Kin To, Kin Wing Choi, Andrew Tin Yau Wong
OBJECTIVETo determine the incidence and risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile colonization among residents of nursing homes and to identify the ribotypes of circulating C. difficile strains.DESIGNA prospective cohort study with a follow-up duration of 22 months.SETTINGNursing homes.PARTICIPANTSOf the 375 residents in 8 nursing homes, 300 residents (80.0%) participated in the study. A further prospective study of 4 nursing homes involving 141 residents with a minimum of 90 days of follow-up was also performed...
May 7, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Eric J Chow, Leonard A Mermel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Bradley A Ford, Loreen A Herwaldt, Abdullah R Algwizani, Daniel J Diekema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Laura L Bio, Jenna F Kruger, Betty P Lee, Matthew S Wood, Hayden T Schwenk
OBJECTIVETo identify predictors of disagreement with antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback recommendations (PAFR) at a free-standing children's hospital.DESIGNRetrospective cohort study of audits performed during the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) from March 30, 2015, to April 17, 2017.METHODSThe ASP included audits of antimicrobial use and communicated PAFR to the care team, with follow-up on adherence to recommendations. The primary outcome was disagreement with PAFR. Potential predictors for disagreement, including patient-level, antimicrobial, programmatic, and provider-level factors, were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models...
April 30, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Bradley C Johnston, Lyubov Lytvyn, Calvin Ka-Fung Lo, Stephen J Allen, Duolao Wang, Hania Szajewska, Mark Miller, Stephan Ehrhardt, John Sampalis, Deniz G Duman, Pietro Pozzoni, Agostino Colli, Elisabet Lönnermark, Christian P Selinger, Samford Wong, Susan Plummer, Mary Hickson, Ruzha Pancheva, Sandra Hirsch, Bengt Klarin, Joshua Z Goldenberg, Li Wang, Lawrence Mbuagbauw, Gary Foster, Anna Maw, Behnam Sadeghirad, Lehana Thabane, Dominik Mertz
OBJECTIVETo determine whether probiotic prophylaxes reduce the odds of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children.DESIGNIndividual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), adjusting for risk factors.METHODSWe searched 6 databases and 11 grey literature sources from inception to April 2016. We identified 32 RCTs (n=8,713); among them, 18 RCTs provided IPD (n=6,851 participants) comparing probiotic prophylaxis to placebo or no treatment (standard care). One reviewer prepared the IPD, and 2 reviewers extracted data, rated study quality, and graded evidence quality...
April 26, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
William E Trick, Stephen J Sokalski, Stuart Johnson, Kristen L Bunnell, Joseph Levato, Michael J Ray, Robert A Weinstein
OBJECTIVETo evaluate probiotics for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospital inpatients.DESIGNA before-and-after quality improvement intervention comparing 12-month baseline and intervention periods.SETTINGA 694-bed teaching hospital.INTERVENTIONWe administered a multispecies probiotic comprising L. acidophilus (CL1285), L. casei (LBC80R), and L. rhamnosus (CLR2) to eligible antibiotic recipients within 12 hours of initial antibiotic receipt through 5 days after final dose...
April 26, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Matthew Ziegler, Daniel Landsburg, David Pegues, Kevin Alby, Cheryl Gilmar, Kristen Bink, Theresa Gorman, Amy Moore, Brittaney Bonhomme, Jacqueline Omorogbe, Dana Tango, Pam Tolomeo, Jennifer H Han
In a cohort of inpatients with hematologic malignancy and positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Clostridium difficile tests, we found that clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar between these groups. The method of testing is unlikely to predict infection in this population, and PCR-positive results should be treated with concern.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
April 25, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Annie Voskertchian, Ibukunoluwa C Akinboyo, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Julia Johnson, Aaron M Milstone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Heather E Hsu, Alison Tse Kawai, Rui Wang, Maximilian S Jentzsch, Chanu Rhee, Kelly Horan, Robert Jin, Donald Goldmann, Grace M Lee
OBJECTIVEIn 2012, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services expanded a 2008 program that eliminated additional Medicare payment for mediastinitis following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) to include Medicaid. We aimed to evaluate the impact of this Medicaid program on mediastinitis rates reported by the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) compared with the rates of a condition not targeted by the program, deep-space surgical site infection (SSI) after knee replacement.DESIGNInterrupted time series with comparison group...
April 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sonali D Advani, Rachael A Lee, Martha Long, Mariann Schmitz, Bernard C Camins
The 2015 changes in the catheter-associated urinary tract infection definition led to an increase in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-related candidemia in some health systems due to the change in CLABSI attribution. However, our rates remained unchanged in 2015 and further declined in 2016 with the implementation of new vascular-access guidelines.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
April 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Curtis Croker, Susan Hathaway, Amy Marutani, Margilane Hernandez, Crystal Cadavid, Shobita Rajagopalan, Bessie Hwang, Moon Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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