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Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

Peter W Schreiber, Hugo Sax, Aline Wolfensberger, Lauren Clack, Stefan P Kuster
OBJECTIVE: The preventable proportion of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) may decrease over time as standards of care improve. We aimed to assess the proportion of HAIs prevented by multifaceted infection control interventions in different economic settings. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched OVID Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and The Cochrane Library for studies published between 2005 and 2016 assessing multifaceted interventions to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), surgical site infections (SSIs), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and hospital-acquired pneumonia not associated with mechanical ventilation (HAP) in acute-care or long-term care settings...
September 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sean T H Liu, Mark J Bailey, Allen Zheng, Patricia Saunders-Hao, Adel Bassily-Marcus, Maureen Harding, Meenakshi Rana, Roopa Kohli-Seth, Gopi Patel, Shirish Huprikar, Talia H Swartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Gregory R Madden, Brenda E Heon, Costi D Sifri
Copper-impregnated surfaces and linens have been shown to reduce infections and multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) acquisition in healthcare settings. However, retrospective analyses of copper linen deployment at a 40-bed long-term acute-care hospital demonstrated no significant reduction in incidences of healthcare facility-onset Clostridium difficile infection or MDRO acquisition.
September 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Reiko C Okada, Pennan M Barry, Jacek Skarbinski, Amit S Chitnis
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We reviewed the epidemiology of TB and ESRD, investigations of TB exposures in US dialysis facilities, and published guidelines to inform screening and treatment practices among US ESRD patients. Compared to TB in the general population, ESRD patients have 6-25-fold higher TB incidence rates, and mortality during treatment is 2-3-fold higher. Most TB cases among ESRD patients (~90%) occur among non-US-born persons, and an analysis of genotyping data suggests that 80% of all cases result from latent TB infection (LTBI) reactivation...
September 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Susan E Kline, Erinn C Sanstead, James R Johnson, Shalini L Kulasingam
OBJECTIVE: We developed a decision analytic model to evaluate the impact of a preoperative Staphylococcus aureus decolonization bundle on surgical site infections (SSIs), health-care-associated costs (HCACs), and deaths due to SSI. METHODS: Our model population comprised US adults undergoing elective surgery. We evaluated 3 self-administered preoperative strategies: (1) the standard of care (SOC) consisting of 2 disinfectant soap showers; (2) the "test-and-treat" strategy consisting of the decolonization bundle including chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) soap, CHG mouth rinse, and mupirocin nasal ointment for 5 days) if S...
September 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Suresh Kumar, Le Thi Anh Thu, Ban Hock Tan, Zhiyong Zong, Yin Ching Chuang, Anis Karuniawati, Maria Fe Tayzon, Thomas Man-Kit So, Lance R Peterson
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to a serious antimicrobial resistance problem in Asian hospitals. Despite resource constraints in the region, all Asian hospitals should implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs to optimize antibiotic treatment, improve patient outcomes, and minimize antimicrobial resistance. This document describes a consensus statement from a panel of regional experts to help multidisciplinary AMS teams design programs that suit the needs and resources of their hospitals...
September 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Erik R Dubberke, Kimberly A Reske, Tiffany Hink, Jennie H Kwon, Candice Cass, Jahnavi Bongu, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Jeffrey P Henderson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile colonization among patients who meet the 2017 IDSA/SHEA C. difficile infection (CDI) Clinical Guideline Update criteria for the preferred patient population for C. difficile testing. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital in St. Louis, Missouri.PatientsPatients whose diarrheal stool samples were submitted to the hospital's clinical microbiology laboratory for C...
September 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jennifer Brite, Tracy McMillen, Elizabeth Robilotti, Janet Sun, Hoi Yan Chow, Frederic Stell, Susan K Seo, Donna McKenna, Janet Eagan, Marisa Montecalvo, Donald Chen, Kent Sepkowitz, Mini Kamboj
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) environmental disinfection system on rates of hospital-acquired vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) and Clostridium difficile. DESIGN: Using active surveillance and an interrupted time-series design, hospital-acquired acquisition of VRE and C. difficile on a bone marrow transplant (BMT) unit were examined before and after implementation of terminal disinfection with UV on all rooms regardless of isolation status of patients...
September 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ibukunoluwa C Akinboyo, Annie Voskertchian, Gezahegn Gorfu, Joshua F Betz, Tracy L Ross, Karen C Carroll, Aaron M Milstone
OBJECTIVES: To examine neonatal risk factors associated with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus colonization and to determine the genetic relatedness of S. aureus strains cultured from neonates before and after decolonization.Study designSingle-center retrospective cohort study of neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from April 2013 to December 2015, during which weekly nasal cultures from hospitalized NICU patients were routinely obtained for S. aureus surveillance...
September 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Valeria Fabre, Aaron M Milstone, Sara C Keller, Karen C Carroll, Sara E Cosgrove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Joan Guzik, Gopi Patel, Pooja Kothari, Misha Sharp, Belinda Ostrowsky
OBJECTIVE: To assess the status of antibiotic prescribing in the ambulatory setting for adult patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and to identify opportunities and barriers for outpatient antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs). DESIGN: Mixed methods including point prevalence using chart reviews, surveys, and collaborative learning. SETTING: Hospital-owned clinics in the New York City area.Participants/PatientsIn total, 31 hospital-owned clinics from 9 hospitals and health systems participated in the study to assess ARI prescribing practices for patients >18 years old...
September 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Leonard A Mermel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
I-Chen Hung, Hao-Yuan Chang, Aristine Cheng, An-Chi Chen, Ling Ting, Mei-Wen Chen, Yeur-Hur Lai, Wang-Huei Sheng
BACKGROUND: Improvement of environmental cleaning in hospitals has been shown to decrease in-hospital cross transmission of pathogens. Several objective methods, including aerobic colony counts (ACCs), the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay, and the fluorescent marker method have been developed to assess cleanliness. However, the standard interpretation of cleanliness using the fluorescent marker method remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the fluorescent marker method as a tool for determining the effectiveness of hospital cleaning...
September 17, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Elissa D Rennert-May, John Conly, Stephanie Smith, Shannon Puloski, Elizabeth Henderson, Flora Au, Braden Manns
OBJECTIVE: Nearly 800,000 primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures are performed annually in North America. Approximately 1% of these are complicated by a complex surgical site infection (SSI), leading to very high healthcare costs. However, population-based studies to properly estimate the economic burden are lacking. We aimed to address this knowledge gap. DESIGN: Economic burden study. METHODS: Using administrative health and clinical databases, we created a cohort of all patients in Alberta, Canada, who received a primary hip or knee arthroplasty between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2015...
September 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Peter J Carr, James C R Rippey, Marie L Cooke, Niall S Higgins, Michelle Trevenen, Aileen Foale, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Most patients admitted to the hospital via the emergency department (ED) do so with a peripheral intravenous catheter/cannula (PIVC). Many PIVCs develop postinsertion failure (PIF). OBJECTIVE: To determine the independent factors predicting PIF after PIVC insertion in the ED. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective clinical cohort study of ED-inserted PIVCs admitted to the hospital wards. Independent predictors of PIF were identified using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling...
September 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Emília Carolina Oliveira de Souza, Sebastião Pires Ferreira Filho, Kasys Meira Gervatauskas, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Joseph K Franz, Alexander R Coltoff, Amir S Steinberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Lauren D Stevenson, Richard E Banks, Krysttel C Stryczek, Christopher J Crnich, Emma M Ide, Brigid M Wilson, Roberto A Viau, Sherry L Ball, Robin L P Jump
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of using telehealth to support antimicrobial stewardship at Veterans Affairs medical centers (VAMCs) that have limited access to infectious disease-trained specialists. DESIGN: A prospective quasi-experimental pilot study. SETTING: Two rural VAMCs with acute-care and long-term care units.InterventionAt each intervention site, medical providers, pharmacists, infection preventionists, staff nurses, and off-site infectious disease physicians formed a videoconference antimicrobial stewardship team (VAST) that met weekly to discuss cases and antimicrobial stewardship-related education...
September 6, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Rebecca Y Linfield, Shelley Campeau, Patil Injean, Aric Gregson, Fady Kaldas, Zachary Rubin, Tae Kim, Danielle Kunz, Alfred Chan, Delphine J Lee, Romney M Humphries, James A McKinnell
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the utility of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) surveillance by varying 2 parameters: admission versus weekly surveillance and perirectal swabbing versus stool sampling. DESIGN: Prospective, patient-level surveillance program of incident VRE colonization. SETTING: Liver transplant surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a tertiary-care referral medical center with a high prevalence of VRE.PatientsAll patients admitted to the SICU from June to August 2015...
September 4, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Julie A Keating, Nicole Brys, Mary Jo Knobloch, Nasia Safdar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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