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Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

John Frederick, Alexandria C Brown, Derek A Cummings, Charlotte A Gaydos, Cynthia L Gibert, Geoffrey J Gorse, Jenna G Los, Ann-Christine Nyquist, Trish M Perl, Connie S Price, Lewis J Radonovich, Nicholas G Reich, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Mary T Bessesen, Michael S Simberkoff
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of mandatory and nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies on vaccination rates and symptomatic absenteeism among healthcare personnel (HCP). DESIGN Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING This study took place at 3 university medical centers with mandatory influenza vaccination policies and 4 Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare systems with nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies. PARTICIPANTS The study included 2,304 outpatient HCP at mandatory vaccination sites and 1,759 outpatient HCP at nonmandatory vaccination sites...
March 8, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Gregory B Tallman, Rowena A Vilches-Tran, Miriam R Elman, David T Bearden, Jerusha E Taylor, Paul N Gorman, Jessina C McGregor
OBJECTIVE To assess general medical residents' familiarity with antibiograms using a self-administered survey DESIGN Cross-sectional, single-center survey PARTICIPANTS Residents in internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics at an academic medical center METHODS Participants were administered an anonymous survey at our institution during regularly scheduled educational conferences between January and May 2012. Questions collected data regarding demographics, professional training; further open-ended questions assessed knowledge and use of antibiograms regarding possible pathogens, antibiotic regimens, and prescribing resources for 2 clinical vignettes; a series of directed, closed-ended questions followed...
March 1, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Yiu-Hong Leung, Shui-Wah Yau, Chau-Kuen Lam, Shuk-Kwan Chuang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Yoona Rhee, Louisa J Palmer, Koh Okamoto, Sean Gemunden, Khaled Hammouda, Sarah K Kemble, Michael Y Lin, Karen Lolans, Louis Fogg, Derek Guanaga, Deborah S Yokoe, Robert A Weinstein, Gyorgy Frendl, Mary K Hayden
BACKGROUND Bathing intensive care unit (ICU) patients with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-impregnated cloths decreases the risk of healthcare-associated bacteremia and multidrug-resistant organism transmission. Hospitals employ different methods of CHG bathing, and few studies have evaluated whether those methods yield comparable results. OBJECTIVE To determine whether 3 different CHG skin cleansing methods yield similar residual CHG concentrations and bacterial densities on skin. DESIGN Prospective, randomized 2-center study with blinded assessment...
March 1, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Dominik Mertz, Jennifer Macri, Susy Hota, Kanchana Amaratunga, Ian Davis, Lynn Johnston, Bonita Lee, Linda Pelude, Michelle Science, Stephanie Smith, Alice Wong
Canadian hospitals were made aware of the risk of Mycobacterium chimaera infection associated with heater-cooler units (HCUs) through alerts issued by the US food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In response, most hospitals conducted retrospective reviews for infections, informed exposed patients, and initiated a requirement for informed consent with HCU use. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
February 28, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Shannon L Andrews, Lilian M Abbo, James R Johnson, Michael A Kuskowski, Bhavarth S Shukla, Dimitri M Drekonja
We surveyed resident physicians at 2 academic medical centers regarding urinary testing and treatment as they progressed through training. Demographics and self-reported confidence were compared to overall knowledge using clinical vignette-based questions. Overall knowledge was 40% in 2011 and increased to 48%, 55%, and 63% in subsequent years (P<.001). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
February 28, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Bevin Cohen, Jianfang Liu, Adam Ross Cohen, Elaine Larson
OBJECTIVE To quantify the association between having a prior bed occupant or roommate with a positive blood, respiratory, urine, or wound culture and subsequent infection with the same organism. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING The study included 4 hospitals within an academically affiliated network in New York City, including a community hospital (221 beds), a pediatric acute-care hospital (283 beds), an adult tertiary-/quaternary-care hospital (647 beds), and a pediatric and adult tertiary-/quaternary-care hospital (914 beds)...
February 28, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Vincent C C Cheng, Hong Chen, Shuk-Ching Wong, Jonathan H K Chen, Wing-Chun Ng, Simon Y C So, Tuen-Ching Chan, Sally C Y Wong, Pak-Leung Ho, Lona Mody, Felix H W Chan, Andrew T Y Wong, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVE Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are increasingly reported in residential care homes for the elderly (RCHEs). We assessed whether implementation of directly observed hand hygiene (DOHH) by hand hygiene ambassadors can reduce environmental contamination with MDROs. METHODS From July to August 2017, a cluster-randomized controlled study was conducted at 10 RCHEs (5 intervention versus 5 nonintervention controls), where DOHH was performed at two-hourly intervals during daytime, before meals and medication rounds by a one trained nurse in each intervention RCHE...
February 27, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Michael J Durkin, S Reza Jafarzadeh, Kevin Hsueh, Ya Haddy Sallah, Kiraat D Munshi, Rochelle R Henderson, Victoria J Fraser
OBJECTIVE To characterize trends in outpatient antibiotic prescriptions in the United States DESIGN Retrospective ecological and temporal trend study evaluating outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from 2013 to 2015 SETTING National administrative claims data from a pharmacy benefits manager PARTICIPANTS. Prescription pharmacy beneficiaries from Express Scripts Holding Company MEASUREMENTS Annual and seasonal percent change in antibiotic prescriptions RESULTS Approximately 98 million outpatient antibiotic prescriptions were filled by 39 million insurance beneficiaries during the 3-year study period...
February 27, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Shankar Kumar, Irina Chis Ster, Richard Pollok, Ivan Muscat, Timothy D Planche
We studied healthcare-associated and community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Jersey, Channel Islands (2008-2012). The Island's stable population has reliable denominator data, a clearly defined at-risk population, and healthcare contact that is easily followed. The vast majority of CDI cases had had recent healthcare contact, and true community-associated disease is extremely rare. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-5.
February 27, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Elizabeth Salsgiver, Daniel Bernstein, Matthew S Simon, William Greendyke, Haomiao Jia, Amy Robertson, Selma Salter, Audrey N Schuetz, Lisa Saiman, E Yoko Furuya, David P Calfee
The correlation between ATP concentration and bacterial burden in the patient care environment was assessed. These findings suggest that a correlation exists between ATP concentration and bacterial burden, and they generally support ATP technology manufacturer-recommended cutoff values. Despite relatively modest discriminative ability, this technology may serve as a useful proxy for cleanliness. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
February 27, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Phuc Le, Van T Nghiem, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Abhishek Deshpande
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) presents a substantial economic burden and is associated with significant morbidity. While multiple treatment strategies have been evaluated, a cost-effective management strategy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review to assess cost-effectiveness analyses of CDI treatment and to summarize key issues for clinicians and policy makers to consider. METHODS We searched PubMed and 5 other databases from inception to August 2016. These searches were not limited by study design or language of publication...
February 21, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Rupal M Patel, Larry K Kociolek, Emily Merrick, Caroline Reuter, Kenny Kronforst, Xiaotian Zheng, Sameer J Patel
Transitioning from administration of monthly palivizumab to a single dose at discharge was associated with substantial pharmacy cost savings. With the concurrent adoption of private hospital rooms and visitor restriction policies, hospital-wide and neonatal intensive care unit healthcare-associated respiratory syncytial virus infections decreased following these changes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
February 21, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Claudia Stein, Jörg Tittelbach, Stefan Monecke, Sebastian Weis, Oliwia Makarewicz, Ralf Ehricht, Mathias Pletz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Michael J Ray, William E Trick, Michael Y Lin
OBJECTIVE Because antibacterial history is difficult to obtain, especially when the exposure occurred at an outside hospital, we assessed whether infection-related diagnostic billing codes, which are more readily available through hospital discharge databases, could infer prior antibacterial receipt. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS This study included 121,916 hospitalizations representing 78,094 patients across the 3 hospitals. METHODS We obtained hospital inpatient data from 3 Chicago-area hospitals...
February 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Donna M Schora, Lance R Peterson, Elena A Usacheva
OBJECTIVE The impact of storage on stability and detection of Clostridium difficile toxins in feces is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the immunological stability of C. difficile toxins in clinical stool specimens under different storage conditions by evaluating this stability using toxin detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). METHODS Stool specimens positive for C. difficile infection (CDI) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used for EIA testing with the C...
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Catherine Crawford Cohen, Jianfang Liu, Bevin Cohen, Elaine L Larson, Sherry Glied
OBJECTIVE The financial incentives for hospitals to improve care may be weaker if higher insurer payments for adverse conditions offset a portion of hospital costs. The purpose of this study was to simulate incentives for reducing hospital-acquired infections under various payment configurations by Medicare, Medicaid, and private payers. DESIGN Matched case-control study. SETTING A large, urban hospital system with 1 community hospital and 2 tertiary-care hospitals. PATIENTS All patients discharged in 2013 and 2014...
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Heather L Young, Bryan C Knepper, Whitney Daum, Tara Janosz, Larissa M Pisney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Pierre H Boyer, Stéphanie Deboscker, Céline Hernandez, Morgane Ramsheyi, Pauline Schneider, Jacinthe Foeglé, Thierry Lavigne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Joshua T Freeman, Matthew R Blakiston, Deverick J Anderson
The correlations between census-derived sociodemographic variables and hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (HO-MRSAB) rates were examined at the US state level. On multivariable analysis, only percent African American remained statistically significant. This finding highlights an important disparity and suggests that risk adjustment is needed when comparing HO-MRSAB rates among US states. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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