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Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

Thriveen S C Mana, Myreen E Tomas, Jennifer L Cadnum, Annette L Jencson, Christina T Piedrahita, Curtis J Donskey
In a randomized trial, a gown designed to allow easy removal at the neck and with increased skin coverage and snugness of fit at the wrist significantly reduced contamination of personnel during personal protective equipment (PPE) removal. Our results suggest that simple modifications of PPE can reduce contamination of personnel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-4.
November 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Mireille Dekker, Martine G Caris, Anne M van Gunsteren, Rosa van Mansfeld, Cees Lucas, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
BACKGROUND The VU University Medical Center, a tertiary-care hospital in the Netherlands, has adopted a dress code based on national guidelines. It includes uniforms provided by the hospital and a 'bare-below-the-elbow' policy for all healthcare workers (HCWs) in direct patient care. Because compliance was poor, we sought to improve adherence by interventions targeted at the main causes of noncompliance. OBJECTIVE To measure compliance with the dress code, to assess causes of noncompliance and to assess whether a behavioral approach (combing a nominal group technique with participatory action) is effective in improving compliance METHODS Between March 2014 and June 2016, a total of 1,920 HCWs were observed in hospital hallways for adherence to the policy, at baseline, and at follow-up measurements...
November 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Manoochehr Karami, Zeinab Berangi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jennifer L Cadnum, Aaron A Shaikh, Christina T Piedrahita, Annette L Jencson, Emily L Larkin, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Curtis J Donskey
Mobile ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light room decontamination devices are frequently used as an adjunct to standard cleaning in healthcare facilities, but their efficacy in killing Candida species is not clear. In laboratory testing, the emerging multidrug-resistant Candida auris and 2 other Candida species were significantly less susceptible to killing by UV-C than methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Charlesnika T Evans, Margaret A Fitzpatrick, Makoto M Jones, Stephen P Burns, Linda Poggensee, Swetha Ramanathan, Sherri L LaVela, Nasia Safdar, Katie J Suda
OBJECTIVE Infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGNOs) have been increasing every year. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of MDRGNOs and factors associated with MDRGNOs in patients with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D). DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. METHODS Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record data from 142 VA facilities were evaluated for 19,642 patients with SCI/D. Multivariable cluster-adjusted models were fit to identify factors associated with MDRGNO...
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
R Logan Jones, Harlan R Sayles, Paul D Fey, Mark E Rupp
OBJECTIVE To identify clinical variables that influence blood culture volume recovery DESIGN Retrospective chart review and linear model analysis SETTING A 621-bed Academic Medical Center with a Clinical Laboratory that processes 20,000+ blood cultures annually and dedicated phlebotomy staff for venipuncture PATIENTS Consecutive patients requiring blood culture METHODS Over a 6-day period, blood volume was determined in 568 culture bottles from 128 unique adult patients, and clinical data from the time of phlebotomy were extracted from hospital electronic medical records...
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Matthew C Washam, Andrea Ankrum, Beth E Haberman, Mary Allen Staat, David B Haslam
OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors independent of length of stay (LOS) for Staphylococcus aureus acquisition in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). DESIGN Retrospective matched case-case-control study. SETTING Quaternary-care referral NICU at a large academic children's hospital. METHODS Infants admitted between January 2014 and March 2016 at a level IV NICU who acquired methicillin resistant (MRSA) or susceptible (MSSA) S. aureus were matched with controls by duration of exposure to determine risk factors for acquisition...
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Joseph M Mylotte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Samuel Yui, Shanom Ali, Monika Muzslay, Annette Jeanes, A Peter R Wilson
OBJECTIVE To identify, using a novel enhanced method of recovery, environmental sites where spores of Clostridium difficile persist despite cleaning and hydrogen peroxide aerial decontamination. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Tertiary referral center teaching hospital. METHODS In total, 16 sites representing high-frequency contact or difficult-to-clean surfaces in a single-isolation room or bed area in patient bed bays were sampled before and after terminal or hydrogen peroxide disinfection using a sponge swab...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Nalini Singh, Arno Muller, Gabriel Levy Hara, Jose Luis Castro, Pilar Ramon-Pardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Theodore R Pak, Kieran I Chacko, Timothy O'Donnell, Shirish S Huprikar, Harm van Bakel, Andrew Kasarskis, Erick R Scott
BACKGROUND Reported per-patient costs of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) vary by 2 orders of magnitude among different hospitals, implying that infection control officers need precise, local analyses to guide rational decision making between interventions. OBJECTIVE We sought to comprehensively estimate changes in length of stay (LOS) attributable to CDI at a single urban tertiary-care facility using only data automatically extractable from the electronic medical record (EMR). METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study of 171,938 visits spanning a 7-year period...
November 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Paula D Strassle, Felicia N Williams, David J Weber, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, Anne M Lachiewicz, Sonia Napravnik, Samuel W Jones, Bruce A Cairns, David van Duin
OBJECTIVE Burn patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and an estimated half of all burn deaths are due to infections. This study explored risk factors for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in adult burn patients. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Tertiary-care burn center. PATIENTS Adults (≥18 years old) admitted with burn injury for at least 2 days between 2004 and 2013. METHODS HAIs were determined in real-time by infection preventionists using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria...
October 30, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Axel Kramer, Didier Pittet, Romana Klasinc, Stefan Krebs, Torsten Koburger, Christoph Fusch, Ojan Assadian
BACKGROUND For alcohol-based hand rubs, the currently recommended application time of 30 seconds is longer than the actual time spent in clinical practice. We investigated whether a shorter application time of 15 seconds is microbiologically safe in neonatal intensive care and may positively influence compliance with the frequency of hand antisepsis actions. METHODS We conducted in vitro experiments to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of hand rubs within 15 seconds, followed by clinical observations to assess the effect of a shortened hand antisepsis procedure under clinical conditions in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
October 30, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Kyle Rizzo, Melissa Kealey, Erin Epson
We analyzed California hospitals' National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Surveys to describe antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) implementation progress following new state ASP legislation. The proportion of hospitals with all 7 Core Elements of Hospital ASP rose from 59.3% in 2014 to 69.2% in 2015 (P<.001). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.
October 30, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Annie Wang, Nick Daneman, Charlie Tan, John S Brownstein, Derek R MacFadden
OBJECTIVE The relationship between hospital antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance is poorly understood. We evaluated the association between antibiotic utilization and resistance in academic and community hospitals in Ontario, Canada. METHODS We conducted a multicenter observational ecological study of 37 hospitals in 2014. Hospital antibiotic purchasing data were used as an indicator of antibiotic use, whereas antibiotic resistance data were extracted from hospital indexes of resistance. Multivariate regression was performed, with antibiotic susceptibility as the primary outcome, antibiotic consumption as the main predictor, and additional covariates of interest (ie, hospital type, laboratory standards, and patient days)...
October 26, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jacqueline T Bork, Daniel J Morgan, Emily L Heil, Lisa Pineles, Michael Kleinberg
Peer comparison has potential as an effective antimicrobial stewardship intervention in the inpatient setting. We report a new metric, days of therapy per 100 service days, for comparing antibiotic utilization. Among 14 prescribers on the primary infectious diseases service during a 6-month period, we identified 1 outlier for each anti-MRSA agent. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017:1-3.
October 25, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Parham Sendi, Adrian Egli, Marc Dangel, Reno Frei, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES To evaluate host characteristics, mode of infection acquisition, and infection control procedures in patients with a positive respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) test result after the introduction of the GenXpert Influenza/RSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS Adults with a positive PCR test result for RSV who were hospitalized in a tertiary academic medical center between January 2015 and December 2016 were included in this study. Our infection control policy applies contact isolation precautions only for immunocompromised patients...
October 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, Donald Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
OBJECTIVE Biofilm has been implicated in bacterial persistence and survival after endoscope reprocessing. In this study, we assessed the impact of different methods of reprocessing on organic residues and viable bacteria after repeated rounds of biofilm formation when each was followed by full reprocessing. METHODS ATS-2015, an artificial test soil containing 5-8 Log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to form biofilm in polytetrafluroethylene channels overnight on 5 successive days...
October 17, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Lauren P Knelson, Gemila K Ramadanovic, Luke F Chen, Rebekah W Moehring, Sarah S Lewis, William A Rutala, David J Weber, Daniel J Sexton, Deverick J Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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