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European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

S Kennedy, E L Davies, L Ryan, M E Clegg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
H-L Che, M S Kanthimathi, R Loganathan, K H Yuen, A T B Tan, K R Selvaduray, K Nesaretnam, K-T Teng
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence shows that tocotrienols potentially reverse various chronic disease progressions caused by the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single-dose supplementation of gamma and delta tocotrienols (γδ-T3, 1:4 ratio) compared with those in placebo on the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty metabolic syndrome subjects (15 men and 15 women) were recruited to a randomized, double-blinded and crossover study...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M K Shea, C H Gilhooly, B Dawson-Hughes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Acid-producing diets have been associated with adverse health conditions. Dietary acid load can be estimated from dietary intake data, but the available methods require a full dietary assessment. We sought to identify a simpler means to estimate 24-h urinary net acid excretion (NAE), a robust measure of net endogenous acid production, using self-reported intakes of fruits, vegetables (acid-neutralizing foods), grain and/or protein (acid-producing foods) acquired by two different methods in community-dwelling older adults...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
I O Oliveira, L P Silva, M C Borges, O M Cruz, J W Tessmann, J V S Motta, F K Seixas, B L Horta, D P Gigante
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a key intermediate in methionine metabolism. A high plasma concentration of Hcy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among other determinants. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interactions between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity) on Hcy concentrations in a young Brazilian population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population comprised 3803 individuals from the Pelotas Birth Cohort, aged 22-23 years...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
C Cortes-Oliveira, C F Nicoletti, M A de Souza Pinhel, B A P de Oliveira, D C G Quinhoneiro, N Y Noronha, J S Marchini, W A da Silva Júnior, W S Júnior, C B Nonino
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although energy restriction contributes to weight loss, it may also reduce energy expenditure, limiting the success of weight loss in the long term. Studies have described how genetics contributes to the development of obesity, and uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 (UCP1 and UCP2) and beta-3-adrenoceptor (ADRB3) have been implicated in the metabolic pathways that culminate in this condition. This study aimed to evaluate how the UCP1, UCP2 and ADRB3 genes influence weight loss in severely obese women submitted to hypocaloric dietary intervention...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M J E Lamb, S J Griffin, S J Sharp, A J M Cooper
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The cardiovascular benefit of increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake following diagnosis of diabetes remains unknown. We aimed to describe how quantity and variety of F&V intake, and plasma vitamin C, change after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and examine whether these changes are associated with improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 401 individuals with screen-detected diabetes from the ADDITION-Cambridge study were followed up over 5 years...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M L D Araújo, P C Cabral, I K G de Arruda, L de Souza Holanda, A S Diniz, R Maio, P B P Coelho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of excessive gain in body mass index-for-age Z-score (BMI/AZ) and its associated factors in adolescent girls. METHODOLOGY: This is a cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2012 with 382 girls between 10 and 18 years of age attending public schools in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Excessive gain in BMI/AZ (EGBMI/AZ) at follow-up was considered if the adolescent had a BMI/AZ >0.63 between follow-up and baseline. RESULTS: In 2007, 33...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
N Sawada, M Inoue, M Iwasaki, T Yamaji, T Shimazu, S Sasazuki, S Tsugane
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although vitamin D has been experimentally reported to inhibit tumorigenesis, cell growth and prostate cancer invasion, epidemiologic data regarding prostate cancer risk are inconsistent, and some studies have suggested positive but nonsignificant associations. Further, the impact of vitamin D on prostate cancer between Western and Japanese populations may differ due to different plasma vitamin D levels. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective (JPHC) Study in 14,203 men (40-69 years) who answered a self-administered questionnaire at baseline (1990-1994) and gave blood samples, and were followed until 2005...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M Pourhassan, C-C Glüer, P Pick, W Tigges, M J Müller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of weight loss-associated changes in detailed body composition on plasma insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index to calculate the magnitude of reduction in different adipose tissue depots required to improve insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 50 subjects aged 20-69 years were studied. The participants were compiled from low-calorie diet interventions and bariatric surgery and differed in their baseline body mass index (BMI; range 21...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
H Fukasawa, M Kaneko, H Niwa, T Matsuyama, H Yasuda, H Kumagai, R Furuya
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Higher body mass index appears protective in hemodialysis patients, although it remains to be determined which component of muscle or fat mass is primarily associated with this survival advantage. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty-one hemodialysis patients in our institution were prospectively followed from July 2011 to August 2015. Muscle and fat mass were evaluated by measuring the cross-sectional areas of the thigh and abdomen using computed tomography...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M Brnić, R F Hurrell, L T Songré-Ouattara, B Diawara, A Kalmogho-Zan, C Tapsoba, C Zeder, R Wegmüller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fortifying cereal staples with zinc is a strategy for increasing zinc intake in young children in developing countries. However, phytic acid (PA) naturally present in cereals strongly decreases zinc absorption. A stable-isotope zinc absorption study was conducted in young children to investigate the ability of the PA-degrading enzyme phytase to improve zinc absorption, when added to a cereal porridge immediately before consumption. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was estimated in 35 young healthy Burkinabe children using the double-isotopic tracer ratio method with (67)Zn as oral tracer and (70)Zn as intravenous tracer, in a crossover design...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
N Mohammadifard, M Talaei, M Sadeghi, S Oveisegharan, J Golshahi, A Esmaillzadeh, N Sarrafzadegan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence about the relation between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is scarce in Middle Eastern countries. This study was performed to examine the association between major dietary patterns and CVD mortality in Iranian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort study was conducted among 4834 randomly selected participants aged ⩾35 years from urban and rural areas of central Iran (2001-2009) (the Isfahan Cohort Study)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
E Colt, M Akram, F X Pi Sunyer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with the measurement of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by high-resolution peripheral computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) in subjects with a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). SUBJECTS/METHODS: We scanned the arms and legs of 49 premenopausal women, aged 21-45 years, with BMI from 18.5 to 46.5, by HR-pQCT and found that there was a nonsignificant change in vBMD associated with increased BMI, whereas aBMD (DXA) was associated with a positive significant increase...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
L Dioni, S Sucato, V Motta, S Iodice, L Angelici, C Favero, T Cavalleri, L Vigna, B Albetti, S Fustinoni, P Bertazzi, A Pesatori, V Bollati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies suggest a link between chromium (Cr) status and cardiovascular disease. Increased urinary excretion of Cr was reported in subjects with diabetes compared with non-diabetic controls and those with non-diabetic insulin resistance. Epigenetic alterations have been linked to the presence of Cr, and microRNA (miRNA) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated the association between Cr excretion and miRNA expression in leukocytes from obese subjects...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
K R Patel, A Sobczyńska-Malefora
Folate is a vital component of a healthy diet, being essential for numerous bodily functions. Deficiency of folate is common, with studies suggesting prevalence of deficiencyas high as 85.5% as was shown in women between the ages of 16 and 49, living in the UK. Causes of folate deficiency range from diet and lifestyle, to pathological and pharmacological processes. Because of the well-known role of folate in prevention of neural tube defects, numerous countries have implemented strategies to increase folate intake, with programs such as mandatory grain fortification...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
S Nishioka, H Wakabayashi, T Yoshida
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although malnutrition commonly affects stroke patients, there are no validated screening tools. We verified the usefulness of non-paralytic anthropometric measurements for the nutritional screening of stroke. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in consecutive stroke patients with hemiplegia aged ⩾65 years, with Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form score ⩽11. Diagnostic malnutrition criteria from the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism were the reference standards: body mass index (BMI) <18...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Y Wang, L Wang, W Qu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
L Håglin, I Johansson, L Forsgren, L Bäckman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether vitamin-B density in the diet 2-8 years before diagnosis is associated with olfactory function at the time of diagnosis. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This prospective nested case-control study included patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear paralysis identified between 2004 and 2009 in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. The case database (NYPUM study; Newly Diagnosed Parkinson in Umeå; n=147) was cross-linked to the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS)...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A Kaur, P Scarborough, S Hieke, A Kusar, I Pravst, M Raats, M Rayner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
C M R Gonçalves de Carvalho, S M L Ribeiro
We conducted a mini-review of the literature, focusing on aging-related systemic inflammation and its association with vitamin D (VitD). As main findings, data indicate that inflammation in aging seems to have multiple origins, including immunosenescence, and from intestinal and adipose tissue, where VitD may modulate these three factors, through mechanisms not totally known. From the selected studies, three randomized clinical trials of VitD supplementation showed improvements in inflammatory status, whereas two studies did not...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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