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Virus Genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634751/herpesviral-vectors-and-their-application-in-oncolytic-therapy-vaccination-and-gene-transfer
#1
REVIEW
Susanne M Bailer, Christina Funk, André Riedl, Zsolt Ruzsics
Herpesviruses are enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrate cells. Their high potential cloning capacity and the lifelong persistence of their genomes in various host cells make them attractive platforms for vector-based therapy. In this review, we would like to highlight recent advances of three major areas of herpesvirus vector development and application: (i) oncolytic therapy, (ii) recombinant vaccines, and (iii) large capacity gene transfer vehicles.
June 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634750/t135i-substitution-in-the-nonstructural-protein-2c-enhances-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-replication
#2
Tiangang Yuan, Haiwei Wang, Chen Li, Decheng Yang, Guohui Zhou, Li Yu
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3A plays an important role in viral replication, virulence, and host range. It has been shown that deletions of 10 or 19-20 amino acids in the C-terminal half of 3A attenuate serotype O and C FMDVs, which replicate poorly in bovine cells but normally in porcine-derived cells, and the C-terminal half of 3A is not essential for serotype Asia1 FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells. In this study, we constructed a 3A deletion FMDV mutant based on a serotype O FMDV, the wild-type virus O/YS/CHA/05, with a 60-amino acid deletion in the 3A protein sequence, between residues 84 and 143...
June 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612275/the-recent-importation-of-grapevine-pinot-gris-virus-into-australia
#3
Qi Wu, Nuredin Habili
A total of 575 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) samples from Australia have been tested for a newly emerging virus, Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, Betaflexiviridae) during 2015-2017. Nine samples from two states tested positive. Six of these were from New South Wales and 3 from South Australia in a total of eight varieties. All these varieties were imported from Europe within the last 4-19 years. A fragment of 431 nucleotides on the coat protein gene of Grapevine Pinot gris virus was targeted for virus identification by RT-PCR...
June 13, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600724/phylogenetic-and-evolutionary-analyses-of-dengue-viruses-isolated-in-jakarta-indonesia
#4
C S Whinie Lestari, Benediktus Yohan, Anisa Yunita, Febrina Meutiawati, Rahma Fitri Hayati, Hidayat Trimarsanto, R Tedjo Sasmono
Dengue has affected Indonesia for the last five decades and become a major health problem in many cities in the country. Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, reports dengue cases annually, with several outbreaks documented. To gain information on the dynamic and evolutionary history of dengue virus (DENV) in Jakarta, we conducted phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of DENV isolated in 2009. Three hundred thirty-three dengue-suspected patients were recruited. Our data revealed that dengue predominantly affected young adults, and the majority of cases were due to secondary infection...
June 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600723/the-3d-protein-of-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-type-1-binds-to-a-viral-genomic-3-utr-and-shows-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-activity
#5
Yu Zhang, Qianda Cao, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Shun Chen, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xinxin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
To explore the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) function of the 3D protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1), the gene was cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector for prokaryotic expression. The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of DHAV-1 together with a T7 promoter was cloned into the pMD19-T vector for in vitro transcription of 3' UTR RNA, which was further used as a template in RNA-dependent RNA polymerization. In this study, three methods were applied to analyze the RdRP function of the 3D protein: (1) ammonium molybdate spectrophotometry to detect pyrophosphate produced during polymerization; (2) quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) to investigate the changes in RNA quantity during polymerization; and (3) electrophoresis mobility shift assay to examine the interaction between the 3D protein and 3' UTR...
June 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597195/identification-of-epitopes-on-nonstructural-protein-7-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-recognized-by-monoclonal-antibodies-using-phage-display-technology
#6
Heng Wang, Rongchang Liu, Weidong Zhang, Lingshuang Sun, Zhangyong Ning, Fangxiao Ji, Jin Cui, Guihong Zhang
Nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered to be a suitable reagent for the development of serological diagnostic assays. It can be expressed as a soluble recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, and its antibody response may continue up to 202 days post-infection. Furthermore, the region encoded by nsp7 is highly homologous among various strains within the genotype, and the results of nsp7-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed high agreement with previous Idexx ELISA results...
June 8, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593513/gene-therapy-with-helper-dependent-adenoviral-vectors-lessons-from-studies-in-large-animal-models
#7
REVIEW
Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Philip Ng
Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAd) are deleted of all viral genes and they can efficiently transduce a wide variety of dividing and non-dividing cells to mediate high transgene expression levels. Unlike early generation adenoviral vectors, the absence of viral genes in HDAd results in long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity and permits a large cloning capacity of 36 kb. Moreover, HDAd genomes exist extra-chromosomally thus minimizing the risks of germline transmission and insertional mutagenesis...
June 7, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589385/quantitative-analysis-of-rice-stripe-virus-in-a-transovarial-transmission-cycle-during-the-development-and-reproduction-of-its-vector-laodelphax-striatellus
#8
Mitsuru Okuda, Takuya Shiba, Masahiro Hirae
The amount of Rice stripe virus (RSV) maintained through transovarial transmission was analyzed during the development and reproduction of its vector, Laodelphax striatellus. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis was used to quantify RNA expressed from the RSV coat protein (CP) gene as an estimate of RSV content in nymphs and adults of L. striatellus at various developmental stages. The 18S ribosome RNA gene of L. striatellus was chosen as the reference for calculating RSV CP expression using the comparative Ct method...
June 6, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578531/discovery-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-enamovirus-grapevine-enamovirus-1
#9
João Marcos Fagundes Silva, Maher Al Rwahnih, Rosana Blawid, Tatsuya Nagata, Thor Vinícius Martins Fajardo
In this study, we describe a novel putative Enamovirus member, Grapevine enamovirus-1 (GEV-1), discovered by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). A limited survey using HTS of 17 grapevines (Vitis spp.) from the south, southeast, and northeast regions of Brazil led to the detection of GEV-1 exclusively on southern plants, infecting four grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Semillon, CG 90450, and Cabernet franc) with a remarkable identity of around 99% at the nucleotide level. This novel virus was only detected in multiple-virus infected plants exhibiting viral-like symptoms...
June 3, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567562/identification-and-comparative-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-d-e-recombinants-in-africa
#10
Ceejay L Boyce, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Timothy N A Archampong, Margaret Lartey, Kwamena W Sagoe, Adjoa Obo-Akwa, Ernest Kenu, Awewura Kwara, Jason T Blackard
Globally, there are approximately 240 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Ten different HBV genotypes (A-J) have been identified with distinct geographic distributions. Novel variants generated by recombination between different HBV genotypes have been documented worldwide and represent an important element of genetic variability with possible clinical implications. Here, the complete genome sequence of an HBV genotype D/E recombinant from Ghana is reported...
May 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550501/grass-carp-reovirus-gd108-fiber-protein-is-involved-in-cell-attachment
#11
Yuanyuan Tian, Zhenzhen Jiao, Junjian Dong, Chengfei Sun, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xing Ye
Viral attachment to specific host receptors is the first step in viral infection and serves an essential function in the selection of target cells. In this study, structure analysis, neutralization assays, and cell attachment assays were carried out to evaluate the cell attachment functions of the outer capsid fiber protein of grass carp reovirus GD108 strain (GCRV-GD108). The GCRV-GD108 fiber protein contained 512 amino acids encoded by S7 segment and shared sequence similarities with mammalian reovirus cell attachment protein σ1 and adenovirus fiber...
May 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527099/molecular-diversity-among-viroids-infecting-chrysanthemum-in-india
#12
C R Adkar-Purushothama, G Chennappa, K Poornachandra Rao, M Y Sreenivasa, P K Maheshwar, M N Nagendra Prasad, T Sano
Association of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) with the Chrysanthemum plants exhibiting severe stunting, distinct yellow leaf mottling, and chlorosis was detected in the main chrysanthemum-growing regions of India. Sequence analysis of 90 cDNA clones obtained for CSVd and CChMVd, representing the chrysanthemum-growing regions of India, revealed the high degree of sequence variation throughout the genome under natural conditions. Additionally, all the analyzed CChMVd clones revealed the presence of UUUC in the tetraloop, a signature of symptomatic variants in susceptible cultivars...
May 19, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493152/inhibition-of-mir-274-3p-increases-bmcpv-replication-by-regulating-the-expression-of-bmcpv-ns5-gene-in-bombyx-mori
#13
Ping Wu, Xiaoxu Jiang, Qi Sang, Enoch Annan, Tao Cheng, Xijie Guo
Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the major pathogens that pose a big challenge to the sericulture industry. Growing evidences have shown that microRNAs play key roles in the regulations of host-pathogen interactions in insects. MicroRNAs have been found in silkworms, whether and how they affect the silkworm-BmCPV interactions are still unknown. Here we investigate the effect of miR-274-3p on the BmCPV replication in the BmCPV-infected silkworm larvae. In our study, BmCPV Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) was identified to be the target of miR-274-3p based on bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay...
May 10, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484931/complete-genome-analysis-of-porcine-kobuviruses-from-the-feces-of-pigs-in-japan
#14
Masataka Akagami, Mika Ito, Kazutaka Niira, Moegi Kuroda, Tsuneyuki Masuda, Kei Haga, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Yuki Naoi, Mai Kishimoto, Kaori Sano, Tsutomu Omatsu, Hiroshi Aoki, Yukie Katayama, Mami Oba, Tomoichiro Oka, Toru Ichimaru, Hiroshi Yamasato, Yoshinao Ouchi, Junsuke Shirai, Kazuhiko Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
Porcine kobuviruses (PoKoVs) are ubiquitously distributed in pig populations worldwide and are thought to be enteric viruses in swine. Although PoKoVs have been detected in pigs in Japan, no complete genome data for Japanese PoKoVs are available. In the present study, 24 nearly complete or complete sequences of the PoKoV genome obtained from 10 diarrheic feces and 14 non-diarrheic feces of Japanese pigs were analyzed using a metagenomics approach. Japanese PoKoVs shared 85.2-100% identity with the complete coding nucleotide (nt) sequences and the closest relationship of 85...
May 8, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477233/deletion-of-the-us7-and-us8-genes-of-pseudorabies-virus-exerts-a-differential-effect-on-the-expression-of-early-and-late-viral-genes
#15
Nándor Póka, Zsolt Csabai, Emese Pásti, Dóra Tombácz, Zsolt Boldogkői
The pseudorabies virus (PRV; also known as Suid herpesvirus-1) is a neurotropic herpesvirus of swine. The us7 and us8 genes of this virus encode the glycoprotein I and E membrane proteins that form a heterodimer that is known to control cell-to-cell spread in tissue culture and in animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of the deletion of the PRV us7 and us8 genes on the genome-wide transcription and DNA replication using a multi-time-point quantitative reverse transcriptase-based real-time PCR technique...
May 5, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456924/genomic-recombination-in-primate-bocavirus-inconsistency-and-alternative-interpretations
#16
REVIEW
Yee Ling Chong, Kar Hon Ng
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a single-stranded DNA virus in Parvoviridae family, causing respiratory diseases in human. The recent identifications of genomic recombination among the four human bocavirus genotypes and related non-human primate bocaviruses have shed lights into the evolutionary processes underpinning the diversity of primate bocavirus. Among these reports, however, we found inconsistency and possible alternative interpretations of the recombination events. In this study, these recombination events were reviewed, and the related genome sequences were re-analysed, aiming to inform the research community of bocavirus with more consistent knowledge and comprehensive interpretations on the recombination history of primate bocavirus...
April 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455573/filaggrin-gene-polymorphism-associated-with-epstein-barr-virus-associated-tumors-in-china
#17
Yang Yang, Wen Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Hua Xiao, Bing Luo
Mutations of filaggrin gene (FLG) have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris, while recently FLG mutations were found to be associated with gastric cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association of filaggrin polymorphism with Epstein-Barr virus-associated tumors in China. A total of 200 patients with three types of tumors and 117 normal control samples were genotyped at three common FLG mutation loci (rs3126085, K4671X, R501X) by using Sequenom MassARRAY technique. The χ (2) test was used to evaluate the relationship between the mutation and the three kinds of tumors...
April 28, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451945/herpesviral-capture-of-immunomodulatory-host-genes
#18
REVIEW
Günther Schönrich, Mohammed O Abdelaziz, Martin J Raftery
Herpesviruses have acquired numerous genes from their hosts. Although these homologs are not essential for viral replication, they often have important immunomodulatory functions that ensure viral persistence in the host. Some of these viral molecules are called virokines as they mimic cellular cytokines of their host such as interleukin-10 (cIL-10). In recent years, many viral homologs of IL-10 (vIL-10s) have been discovered in the genome of members of the order Herpesvirales. For some, gene and protein structure as well as biological activity and potential use in the clinical context have been explored...
April 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451944/characterization-of-colombian-serotype-1-avian-paramyxoviruses-2008-2010
#19
Y Berhane, T Hisanaga, W Xu, N A Mosos Campos, H Kehler, C P Calderón Parra, J Pasick
Newcastle disease (ND) still remains one of the most important diseases affecting domestic poultry in Colombia. Here, for the first time, we report on the molecular characterization of 12 virulent and 12 avirulent or lentogenic avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains that were isolated from commercial, backyard, and game poultry in Colombia from 2008 to 2010. The 12 virulent isolates had a fusion (F) protein cleavage site with basic amino acids at positions 113, 115, and 116 and a phenylalanine at position 117 ((112)RRQKR*F(117)), characteristic of virulent strains...
April 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447193/ebola-and-marburg-virus-vaccines
#20
REVIEW
Pierce Reynolds, Andrea Marzi
The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV), and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most pathogenic viruses known to man and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Africa with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Nearly 30,000 infections were observed in the latest EBOV epidemic in West Africa; previous outbreaks were much smaller, typically only affecting less than a few hundred people. Compared to other diseases such as AIDS or Malaria with millions of cases annually, filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is one of the neglected infectious diseases...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
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