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Virus Genes

O V Morozova, T A Sashina, N V Epifanova, V V Zverev, A U Kashnikov, N A Novikova
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The introduction of universal mass vaccination around the world has contributed to a reduction in hospitalizations and outpatient visits associated with rotavirus infection. Continued surveillance of RVA strains is needed to determine long-term effects of vaccine introduction. In the present work, we carried out the analysis of the genotypic diversity of RVA strains isolated in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia) during the 2015-2016 epidemic season...
December 13, 2017: Virus Genes
Vandana Thukral, Bhavna Varshney, Rimatulhana B Ramly, Sanket S Ponia, Sumona Karjee Mishra, Christel M Olsen, Akhil C Banerjea, Sunil K Mukherjee, Rana Zaidi, Espen Rimstad, Sunil K Lal
The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a piscine virus, a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. It encodes at least 10 proteins from eight negative-strand RNA segments. Since ISAV belongs to the same virus family as Influenza A virus, with similarities in protein functions, they may hence be characterised by analogy. Like NS1 protein of Influenza A virus, s8ORF2 of ISAV is implicated in interferon antagonism and RNA-binding functions. In this study, we investigated the role of s8ORF2 in RNAi suppression in a well-established Agrobacterium transient suppression assay in stably silenced transgenic Nicotiana xanthi...
December 7, 2017: Virus Genes
Robert L Harrison, Joseph D Mowery, Daniel L Rowley, Gary R Bauchan, David A Theilmann, George F Rohrmann, Martin A Erlandson
A baculovirus isolate from a USDA Forest Service collection was characterized by electron microscopy and analysis of its genome sequence. The isolate, formerly referred to as Pseudoletia (Mythimna) sp. nucleopolyhedrovirus #7 (MyspNPV#7), was determined by barcoding PCR to derive from the host species Mythimna unipuncta (true armyworm) and was renamed Mythimna unipuncta nucleopolyhedrovirus #7 (MyunNPV#7). The occlusion bodies (OBs) and virions exhibited a size and morphology typical for OBs produced by the species of genus Alphabaculovirus, with occlusion-derived virions consisting of 2-5 nucleocapsids within a single envelope...
December 4, 2017: Virus Genes
Benjawan Thoka, Thitigun Jaimipak, Supachoke Onnome, Sutee Yoksan, Sukathida Ubol, Rojjanaporn Pulmanausahakul
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, is the etiological agent of chikungunya fever. CHIKV re-emerged from 2004 onwards, and subsequently caused major outbreaks in many parts of the world including the Indian Ocean islands, Asia, and the Americas. In this study, a large plaque variant of CHIKV isolated from patient in Thailand was subjected to repeated cycles of plaque-purification in Vero cells. The resulting virus produced homogenous large plaques and showed a more pathogenic phenotype than the parental wild-type CHIKV...
November 28, 2017: Virus Genes
Jianfei Chen, Manman Lu, Tianxin Ma, Liyan Cao, Xiangdong Zhu, Xin Zhang, Da Shi, Hongyan Shi, Jianbo Liu, Li Feng
Porcine stool-associated RNA virus 1 (Posavirus 1) is a novel member of picornaviruses and first identified from fecal samples of 30-day-old pigs with diarrhea in USA in 2011. To evaluate the existence of Posavirus 1 in swine herds, 118 clinical samples from diarrheal pigs and 31 fecal swabs from healthy pigs were collected and detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using Posavirus 1-specific primers. Only five fecal samples from diarrheal pigs on two swine farms were positive for Posavirus 1...
November 27, 2017: Virus Genes
Monika Reuter, Detlev H Krüger
The nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantaviruses represents an impressive example of a viral multifunctional protein. It encompasses properties as diverse as genome packaging, RNA chaperoning, intracellular protein transport, DNA degradation, intervention in host translation, and restricting host immune responses. These functions all rely on the capability of N to interact with RNA and other viral and cellular proteins. We have compiled data on the N protein of different hantavirus species together with information of the recently published three-dimensional structural data of the protein...
November 20, 2017: Virus Genes
Ana M Lopes, Jose Blanco-Aguiar, Aaron Martín-Alonso, Manuel Leitão, Pilar Foronda, Marco Mendes, David Gonçalves, Joana Abrantes, Pedro J Esteves
A recent publication by Carvalho et al. in "Virus Genes" (June 2017) reported the presence of the new variant of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) in the two larger islands of the archipelago of Madeira. Based on the capsid protein sequence, the authors suggested that the high sequence identity, along with the short time spanning between outbreaks, points to dissemination from Porto Santo to Madeira. By including information of the full RHDV2 genome of strains from Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands, we confirm the results obtained by Carvalho et al...
November 18, 2017: Virus Genes
C K Onzere, A D Bastos, E A Okoth, J K Lichoti, E N Bochere, M G Owido, G Ndambuki, M Bronsvoort, R P Bishop
The central variable region (CVR) within the B602L gene of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is highly polymorphic within the 23 ASFV genotypes defined by sequencing of the C-terminal end of the p72 locus. Sequencing the p54 gene further discriminates ASFV genotypes that are conserved at the p72 locus. Variation in the thymidine kinase locus is a novel additional tool for ASFV genotyping whose application for this purpose is described for the first time herein. We evaluated genetic variation at these four polymorphic loci in 39 ASFV isolates obtained from outbreaks in Kenya and a region of Eastern Uganda between 2011 and 2013...
November 15, 2017: Virus Genes
Kara Waits, Marten J Edwards, Ilaria N Cobb, Rafaela S Fontenele, Arvind Varsani
Ticks are blood-feeding arachnids that are vectors of several important human and animal pathogens. Little is known about single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that are associated with these ectoparasites. As part of a pilot study to identify ssDNA viruses present in ticks, female American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) and blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) were collected in eastern Pennsylvania (USA), and the extracted viral DNA was analyzed using viral metagenomics approaches. Three genomoviruses were recovered from pooled samples of D...
November 15, 2017: Virus Genes
Long Zhou, Runmin Kang, Gaosheng Ji, Yiming Tian, Mengyun Ge, Bo Xie, Xin Yang, Hongning Wang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important swine pathogen causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry. To investigate the prevalence of PRRSV of genotype 2 (North American type, NA-type) in southwestern China, the Nsp2 hypervariable region (Nsp2 HV) and ORF5 of 61 PRRS viruses collected during 2012-2016 were sequenced and analyzed. All the virus detected clustered into the JXA1-like (52/61), VR-2332-like (7/61), and NADC30-like (2/61) sub-genotypes. Five deletions in Nsp2 HV were detected in addition to the typical 30aa discontinuous deletion in HP-PRRSV, and two of these five were not reported previously...
November 14, 2017: Virus Genes
Giuliana Loreto Saraiva, Marcus Rebouças Santos, Claiton Gonçalves Pereira, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Tiago Antonio de Oliveira Mendes, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Jamária A P Soares-Martins, Márcia Rogéria de Almeida, Abelardo Silva-Júnior
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is currently one of the most important pathogens in the poultry industry. The H120 and Ma5 are the only viral strains approved by the Brazilian government as the constituent of vaccines. Despite the systematic vaccination in Brazil, IBV has not yet been controlled and diseases associated with this virus have been reported in vaccinated chickens. Here, we investigated the genetic variability of H120 and Ma5 strains present in the IBV vaccines from different Brazilian manufacturers...
November 11, 2017: Virus Genes
Hong-Yu Zhang, Long-Gen Liu, Chun-Yan Ye, Chun-Hua Chen, Shuang-Xiong Hang, Zhen Zhu, Hong-Yu Shen, Ze-Yu Huang, Wen-Yi Chen, Yuan Xue
The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of drug-resistant HBV mutants in patients with treatment failure during the past seven years (2010-2016). 4055 HBV-infected patients who underwent HBV polymerase gene mutation test from 2010 to 2016 were enrolled. The nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) resistance mutation positions, including rtL180, rtA181, rtT184, rtS202, rtM204, rtI233, rtN236, rtI169, rtV173, and rtM250 were analyzed. Genotypic resistance mutations were detected in 30.8% (1248/4055) of the patients with treatment failure...
November 8, 2017: Virus Genes
Taruna Anand, Bidhan Ch Bera, Nitin Virmani, Rajesh Kumar Vaid, Medhavi Vashisth, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi
A virulent Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and the corresponding novel, lytic bacteriophage (VTCCBPA5) were isolated from village pond water. The phage was found to belong to family Podoviridae. PCR analysis of major capsid protein gene confirmed its classification to T7-like genus. The protein profiling by SDS-PAGE indicated the major structural protein to be ~ 45 kDa. The phage (VTCCBPA5) is host specific and is stable over a range of pH (6-10) and temperatures (4-45 °C). On the basis of restriction endonuclease analysis combined with prediction mapping, it was observed to vary significantly from previously reported podophages of Aeromonas sp...
November 7, 2017: Virus Genes
Lin-Jian Wang, Bo Wan, Zhenhua Guo, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Gaiping Zhang
Recently, NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs), which are genetically similar to the NADC30 strain isolated in the United States of America in 2008, have become prevalent in China. Here, a novel variant PRRSV strain named HNhx was successfully isolated on porcine alveolar macrophages from Henan province and the full-length genome sequence was determined. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that HNhx strain was classified into the NADC30-like PRRSV subgroup, in which all the strains had the unique discontinuous 131-amino acid deletion relative to that of the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) of the VR2332 strain...
November 1, 2017: Virus Genes
Edyta Świętoń, Michał Jóźwiak, Zenon Minta, Krzysztof Śmietanka
The study presents molecular characterization of H9N2 avian influenza (AI) isolates from field outbreaks in turkeys that occurred in Poland in 2013-2014. Sequences of all gene segments of one isolate from 2013 (A/turkey/Poland/14/2013(H9N2)) and two isolates from 2014 (A/turkey/Poland/08/2014(H9N2), A/turkey/Poland/09/2014(H9N2)) were obtained and analyzed in search of the phylogenetic relationship and molecular markers of zoonotic potential or increased pathogenicity. All gene segments were shown to originate from the wild bird reservoir and the close relationship of the analyzed isolates proved the link between the outbreaks in 2013 and 2014...
October 19, 2017: Virus Genes
Tung Gia Phan, Juana Del Valle Mendoza, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Eda Altan, Xutao Deng, Eric Delwart
Serum samples collected from 88 Peruvians with unexplained fever were analyzed for viral sequences using metagenomics. Nucleic acids of anelloviruses, pegivirus A (GBV-C), HIV, Dengue virus, and Oropouche virus were detected. We also characterized from two sera the RNA genomes of new species of partitivirus and dicistrovirus belonging to viral families known to infect fungi or arthropod, respectively. Genomic DNA of a putative fungal cellular host could be PCR amplified from the partitivirus-containing serum sample...
October 17, 2017: Virus Genes
Hideki Osaki, Atsuko Sasaki
Pyrus pyrifolia cryptic virus (PpCV) had been previously reported from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). In analyses of Japanese pear, two other double-stranded (ds) RNA molecules (dsRNA4 and 5) were observed along with the three dsRNA segments from PpCV on an electrophoretic profile of isolated dsRNA. When the purified dsRNA sample was deep sequenced by a next-generation sequencer, two de novo assembled contigs corresponding to dsRNA4 and 5, with predicted amino acid sequences showing homologies to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the capsid protein of Rose partitivirus, respectively, were found by BLAST analysis...
October 6, 2017: Virus Genes
Jiaxin Zhang, Zhenguo Liu, Yawen Zou, Nanxiangzi Zhang, Dongliang Wang, Di Tu, Linchen Yang, Zhibang Deng, Yi Yang, Ping Jiang, Naidong Wang
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) has recently been isolated from diseased pigs within the USA. The objective was to detect the presence of PCV3 in dogs. Nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) with PCV3-specific primers for the capsid gene were used to detect PCV3 genomic DNA in serum samples from dogs (n = 44) in China. There was PCV3 DNA detected in 4 of 44 dogs [all were negative for PCV2 and canine circovirus (CanineCV)]. Based on sequence analysis, positive sequences were grouped into PCV3 genotypes...
October 5, 2017: Virus Genes
J Asnet Mary, Akanitt Jittmittraphap, Siriporn Chattanadee, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, R Shenbagarathai
Dengue virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne human pathogen that represents a severe public health threat in both endemic and non-endemic regions. So far, there is no licensed vaccine or specific drugs available for dengue fever. A fifteen-amino-acid-long peptide that includes the NGR motif was chemically synthesized and conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. A standard immunization protocol was followed for the production of polyclonal antibodies by immunizing rabbits against the synthetic peptide. The immune response elicited high-titer polyclonal antibodies with the reactivity of the anti-peptide antibody against both synthetic peptide and four serotypes of DENV confirmed by DOT-ELISA...
September 25, 2017: Virus Genes
Yosuke Matsushita, Hironobu Yanagisawa
Vertical and horizontal pollen transmission is important for efficient infection by viroids. Vertical pollen transmission of viroids is attributed to the infection by viroid in the embryo sac through infected pollen. To identify the viroid infection in pollen and pollen tubes elongating through the transmitting tract, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) in pollen grains, the stigma, and style of petunia plants. TPMVd was present in the generative nucleus and vegetative nucleus of mature infected pollen grains and germinating pollen grains...
September 23, 2017: Virus Genes
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