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Virus Genes

Tiantian Zhang, Yogesh R Suryawanshi, Dennis H Kordish, Helene M Woyczesczyk, David Jeng, Karim Essani
Neuregulin (NRG), an epidermal growth factor is known to promote the growth of various cell types, including human melanoma cells through ErbB family of tyrosine kinases receptors. Tanapoxvirus (TPV)-encoded protein TPV-15L, a functional mimic of NRG, also acts through ErbB receptors. Here, we show that the TPV-15L protein promotes melanoma proliferation. TPV recombinant generated by deleting the 15L gene (TPVΔ15L) showed replication ability similar to that of wild-type TPV (wtTPV) in owl monkey kidney cells, human lung fibroblast (WI-38) cells, and human melanoma (SK-MEL-3) cells...
October 13, 2016: Virus Genes
Tatsufumi Usui, Kosuke Soda, Yukiko Tomioka, Hiroshi Ito, Toshiyo Yabuta, Hiroki Takakuwa, Koichi Otsuki, Toshihiro Ito, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
Since 2014, clade H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been distributed worldwide. These viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus HPAI motif PLRERRRKR at the HA cleavage site. However, two-clade H5N8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in Japan possessed atypical HA cleavage sequences. A swan isolate, Tottori/C6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, PLGERRRKR, and another isolate from a dead mandarin duck, Gifu/01, had a heterogeneous mixture of consensus PLRERRRKR and variant PLRERRRRKR sequences...
October 13, 2016: Virus Genes
Lijiao Zhang, Qingshui Zhang, Jun Wang, Na An, Yanxin Cao, Guanghua Fu, Xueying Hu, Yu Huang, Jingliang Su
Batai virus (BATV) belongs to the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It has been isolated from mosquitos, pigs, cattle, and humans throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe, and causes clinical signs in domestic animals and humans. Here, we report the isolation of BATV from a domestic duck flock. Genome sequence analysis revealed clustering of this isolate in the Africa-Asia lineage. The virus replicated in mosquitos and vertebrate host cells, showing different phenotypic characteristics, and showed the potential to infect mice...
October 12, 2016: Virus Genes
Silvia L Carvalho, Tatsuya Nagata, Bruna R Junqueira, Larissa G Zanardo, Ana C S Paiva, Claudine M Carvalho
Infectious cDNA clones are an important tool to study the molecular and cellular process of RNA virus infection. In vitro and in vivo transcription systems are the two main strategies used in the generation of infectious cDNA clones for RNA viruses. This study describes the first generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), a Carlavirus. The full-length genome was synthesized by Overlap Extension PCR of two overlapping fragments and cloned in a pUC-based vector under control of the SP6 RNA polymerase promoter...
October 11, 2016: Virus Genes
Yanfeng Yao, Zhiyong Shao, Bin He, Wenhai Yang, Jianjun Chen, Tao Zhang, Xiabing Chen, Jie Chen
During the surveillance of avian influenza viruses in the Dongxi Lake wetland of Hubei in 2015-2016, an H11N9 avian influenza virus was isolated from a bean goose (Anser fabalis). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HA gene of this isolate belongs to the North American lineage; however, the NA and the internal genes of the isolate were generated from the Eurasian lineage. This strain had reduced pathogenicity in mice and was capable of replication in the mouse lung without prior adaptation. This is the first report detecting H11N9 subtype influenza virus from migratory birds in central China...
October 11, 2016: Virus Genes
Minhua Sun, Bin Xiang, Yaling Li, Peng Xie, Shimin Gao, Yinfeng Kang, Pei Gao, Yanling Li, Zhaoxiong Wang, Jianpeng Liang, Deshui Yu, Tao Ren
Despite intensive vaccination campaigns, outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) have been frequently reported in China, especially of genotype VII that first emerged in the late 1990s. Given the dire need for vaccines against the circulating genotype VII virus, we developed an alternative method to recover a highly virulent recombinant GM (rGM) virus that involves a T7 system with a hammerhead ribozyme sequence introduced downstream of the T7 promoter. By changing the F0 polybasic cleavage site RRQKR↓F to the monobasic GRQGR↓L, we generated a mutant virus (rGM-VIIm) that was found to be highly attenuated in chickens...
October 7, 2016: Virus Genes
Akinobu Hibino, Hiroki Kondo, Hironori Masaki, Yoshinari Tanabe, Isamu Sato, Nobuhiro Takemae, Takehiko Saito, Hassan Zaraket, Reiko Saito
We report five cases of community- and hospital-acquired infections with oseltamivir- and peramivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses possessing the neuraminidase (NA) H275Y mutation during January-February 2016 in Japan. One case was hospitalized and was receiving oseltamivir for prophylaxis. The remaining four cases were not taking antiviral drugs at the time of sampling. These cases were geographically distant and epidemiologically unrelated. The five viruses showed ~300-fold rise in IC50 values against oseltamivir and peramivir, defined as highly reduced inhibition according to the WHO definition...
October 6, 2016: Virus Genes
Ryo Okada, Eri Kiyota, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Toshiyuki Fukuhara, Rodrigo A Valverde
A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of approximately 15 kbp was isolated from asymptomatic winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) plants. The size of the dsRNA, together with results of RT-PCR testing, suggested that it was the replicative form of a plant endornavirus. Cloning, sequencing, and sequence analyses confirmed the endornavirus nature of the dsRNA. Conserved motifs typical for endornaviruses were identified and their amino acid sequences compared with those of selected endornaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship with Bell pepper endornavirus, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, and Hot pepper endornavirus...
October 6, 2016: Virus Genes
Hong-Su Park, Il-Soo Lim, Sang-Kyu Kim, Toh-Kyung Kim, Choi-Kyu Park, Sang-Geon Yeo
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the causative agent of hydropericardium syndrome (HPS), a highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In the present study, hexon, penton base, and fiber-2 genes encoding major capsid proteins were analyzed in four FAdV-4 isolates from HPS-affected chickens in Korea. Nucleotide sequences of the entire hexon (2811 bases), penton base (1578 bases), and fiber-2 (1425 bases) genes from the Korean isolates were 97.5-99.3, 99.1-99.7, and 95.5-99.0 % identical, respectively, to those of foreign FAdV-4 isolates...
September 28, 2016: Virus Genes
Syed Ali Ghafouri, Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Hossein Maghsoudloo, Farshad Tehrani, Reza Khaltabadifarahani, Hamed Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossein Fallah
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n = 10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n = 10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes...
September 27, 2016: Virus Genes
Hao Zheng, Xuchen Zheng, Wu Tong, Fei Liu, Chao Liang, Tao Wang, Fei Gao, Liwei Li, Tongling Shan, Guoxin Li, Guangzhi Tong
Flavivirus cDNA clones frequently demonstrate genetic instability in transformed bacteria, which hampers the construction and manipulation of cDNAs for infectious flaviviruses. In this study, we developed a stable, full-length cDNA clone, pJEHEN, of a GI JEV strain HEN0701 using a medium-copy-number pBR322 vector and propagating cDNA clones at room temperature. The virus vJEHEN recovered from the infectious clone was indistinguishable from the parent virus HEN0701 with respect to plaque morphology, growth kinetics, and virulence characteristics...
September 24, 2016: Virus Genes
Andrea Hettmann, Gabriella Juhász, Ágnes Dencs, Bálint Tresó, Erzsébet Rusvai, Éva Barabás, Mária Takács
A transfusion-associated hepatitis A outbreak was found in the first time in Hungary. The outbreak involved five cases. Parenteral transmission of hepatitis A is rare, but may occur during viraemia. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products was performed, and all the examined samples were identical in the VP1/2A region of the hepatitis A virus genome. HAV sequences found in recent years were compared and phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain which caused these cases is the same as that had spread in Hungary recently causing several hepatitis A outbreaks throughout the country...
September 23, 2016: Virus Genes
Marcelo Candido, Maria Cryskely Agra Batinga, Anna Luiza Farias Alencar, Sabrina Ribeiro de Almeida-Queiroz, Maria da Glória Buzinaro, Márcia Cristina Livonesi, Andrezza Maria Fernandes, Ricardo Luiz Moro de Sousa
It is suggested that Bovine kobuvirus (BKV) is involved in the etiology of gastroenteric diseases especially among calves; however, this association remains unknown. This study evaluated 216 fecal samples from cattle with and without diarrhea symptoms obtained from different regions of Brazil. A 216 bp fragment of the BKV 3D gene was amplified by RT-PCR in 14.4 % (31/216) of the studied samples, and 17 samples were subjected to nucleotide sequencing. All positive samples were obtained from animals aged less than 5 months, and most of animals presented diarrhea (p < 0...
September 13, 2016: Virus Genes
Jacques D Ibaba, Mark D Laing, Augustine Gubba
Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) has been proposed as a putative representative of a new species in the genus Polerovirus in the family Luteoviridae. The genomes of two South African (SA) isolates of cucurbit-infecting PABYV were described in this record. Total RNA, extracted from a pattypan (Cucurbita pepo L.) and a baby marrow (C. pepo L.) leaf samples, was subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the HiSeq Illumina platform. Sanger sequencing was subsequently used to authenticate the integrity of PABYV's genome generated from de novo assembly of the NGS data...
September 13, 2016: Virus Genes
Chad Smithson, Nick Tang, Scott Sammons, Mike Frace, Dhwani Batra, Yu Li, Ginny L Emerson, Darin S Carroll, Chris Upton
The complete genomes of a skunkpox, volepox, and raccoonpox virus were sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analysis of these genomes indicates that although these viruses are all orthopoxviruses, they form a distinct clade to the other known species. This supports the ancient divergence of the North American orthopoxviruses from other members of the orthopoxviruses. Only two open reading frames appear to be unique to this group of viruses, but a relatively small number of insertions/deletions contribute to the varied gene content of this clade...
September 9, 2016: Virus Genes
Zohreh Moradi, Mohsen Mehrvar, Ehsan Nazifi, Mohammad Zakiaghl
Iranian johnsongrass mosaic virus (IJMV) is one of the most prevalent viruses causing maize mosaic disease in Iran. An IJMV isolate, Maz-Bah, was obtained from the maize showing mosaic symptoms in Mazandaran, north of Iran. The complete genomic sequence of Maz-Bah is 9544 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail. It contains one single open reading frame of 9165 nucleotides and encodes a large polyprotein of 3054 amino acids, flanked by a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 143 nucleotides and a 3'-UTR of 236 nucleotides...
September 8, 2016: Virus Genes
Jin Cui, Jinghui Fan, Priscilla F Gerber, Kinga Biernacka, Tomasz Stadejek, Chao-Ting Xiao, Tanja Opriessnig
Porcine parvovirus type 1 is a major causative agent of swine reproductive failure. During the past decade, several new parvoviruses have been discovered in pigs. Porcine parvovirus type 6 (PPV6), recently identified, has been reported in pigs in China and in the USA while the PPV6 status in the European pig population remains undetermined. In the present study, PPV6 DNA was identified in serum samples collected from domestic pigs in Poland. In investigated herds, the prevalence of PPV6 was 14.9 % (15/101 samples)...
September 2, 2016: Virus Genes
Xiue Han, Ping Zhang, Wei Yu, Wenhua Xiang, Xiaodong Li
The Chinese EIAV vaccine is an attenuated live virus vaccine obtained by serial passage of a virulent horse isolate (EIAVL) in donkeys (EIAVD) and, subsequently, in donkey cells in vitro. In this study, we compare the env gene of the original horse virulent virus (EIAVL) with attenuated strains serially passaged in donkey MDM (EIAVDLV) and donkey dermal cells (EIAVFDDV). Genetic comparisons among parental and attenuated strains found that vaccine strains contained amino acid substitutions/deletions in gp90 that resulted in a loss of three potential N-linked glycosylation sites, designated g5, g9, and g10...
August 29, 2016: Virus Genes
Jie Liu, Xuliang Zhang, Chang Ma, Ping Jiang, Shifeng Yun
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is an important pathogen of swine, which causes porcine circovirus disease and porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVD/PCVAD). However, no effective countermeasures exist to combat this virus infection so far. Recently, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) was found to be an important host factor for the replication of multiple viruses and the inhibition of Hsp90 showed significant antiviral effects. Inhibition of Hsp90 by treatment of porcine monocytic line 3D4/31 with geldanamycin (GA), a specific inhibitor of Hsp90, caused a 70 % decrease in viral Cap protein expression...
August 24, 2016: Virus Genes
José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, Irma López-Martínez, Belem Torres-Longoria, Mauricio Vázquez-Pichardo, Edith Cruz-Ramírez, José Ernesto Ramírez-González, Cuitláhuac Ruiz-Matus, Pablo Kuri-Morales
To assess the possible circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) prior to the first documented case in Mexico, we reanalyzed the stored samples from the states of Veracruz and Yucatán, which were originally collected to test for dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) but were negative for these viruses despite the symptomatology. The samples were originally collected between the 30 and 46 epidemiological weeks (EW) when the ZIKV was not yet declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). From the total 4016 negative samples, a total of one hundred samples, 50 from Veracruz (CHIK(-) DENV(-)) and 50 from Yucatán (4 CHIK(-) DENV(-) and 46 CHIK(-) or DENV(-)), were tested for Zika virus by using RT-PCR...
August 24, 2016: Virus Genes
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