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Virus Genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434065/alternative-reverse-genetics-system-for-influenza-viruses-based-on-a-synthesized-swine-45s-rrna-promoter
#1
Kai Wang, Qi Huang, Zhiwei Yang, Kezong Qi, Hongmei Liu, Hongjun Chen
We generated an alternative reverse genetics (RG) system based on a synthesized swine 45S rRNA promoter to rescue the H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus. All eight flanking segment cassettes of A/swine/Henan/7/2010 (H3N2) were amplified with ambisense expression elements from RG plasmids. All segments were then recombined with the pHC2014 vector, which contained the synthesized swine 45S rRNA promoter (spol1) and its terminal sequence (t1) in a pcDNA3 backbone. As a result, we obtained a set of RG plasmids carrying the corresponding eight-segment cassettes...
April 22, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425034/the-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-death-effector-domain-containing-protein-mc160-rxdl-motifs-are-not-required-for-its-known-viral-immune-evasion-functions
#2
Michael Beaury, Uday Kiran Velagapudi, Sarah Weber, Cassandra Soto, Tanaji T Talele, Daniel Brian Nichols
The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) uses a variety of immune evasion strategies to antagonize host immune responses. Two MCV proteins, MC159 and MC160, contain tandem death effector domains (DEDs). They are reported to inhibit innate immune signaling events such as NF-κB and IRF3 activation, and apoptosis. The RxDL motif of MC159 is required for inhibition of both apoptosis and NF-κB activation. However, the role of the conserved RxDL motif in the MC160 DEDs remained unknown. To answer this question, we performed alanine mutations to neutralize the arginine and aspartate residues present in the MC160 RxDL in both DED1 and DED2...
April 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417300/a-live-gi-ge-deleted-pseudorabies-virus-prv-protects-weaned-piglets-against-lethal-variant-prv-challenge
#3
Yue Yin, Zhiwen Xu, Xiaowan Liu, Ping Li, Fan Yang, Jun Zhao, Yi Fan, Xiangang Sun, Ling Zhu
Emerging pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has led to frequent outbreaks of PRV infection among Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine population in Chinese swine farms and caused high mortality in pigs of all age since late 2011. Here, we generated a gE/gI-deleted PRV (rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP) based on PRV variant strain (PRV-XJ) through homologous DNA recombination. Compared to parental strain, rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP showed similar growth kinetics in vitro. Its safety and immunogenicity were evaluated in weaned piglets. Our results showed that piglets immunized with rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP did not exhibit any clinical symptoms, and a high level of gB-specific antibody was detected...
April 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401407/molecular-analysis-of-amantadine-resistant-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-virus-isolated-from-slum-dwellers-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#4
Mozibur Rahman, Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Mohammad Ariful Islam, Sabita Rezwana Rahman
Influenza is a highly contagious viral infection associated with excessive hospitalizations and deaths throughout the world. Continuous antigenic shift and drift is not only responsible for this devastating effect of influenza but also causes ineffectiveness of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of ribavirin, oseltamivir, and amantadine drugs in vitro against nine influenza A isolates collected during June 2012-August 2013 from different slums in Dhaka city. The effectiveness of these drugs was determined by measuring the inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect on MDCK cells through MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)...
April 11, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391502/genomic-analysis-of-chimeric-human-cytomegalovirus-vaccine-candidates-derived-from-strains-towne-and-toledo
#5
Nicolás M Suárez, Betty Lau, George M Kemble, Ronzo Lee, Edward S Mocarski, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Stuart P Adler, Michael A McVoy, Andrew J Davison
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients and a major cause of congenital birth defects when acquired in utero. In the 1990s, four chimeric viruses were constructed by replacing genome segments of the high passage Towne strain with segments of the low passage Toledo strain, with the goal of obtaining live attenuated vaccine candidates that remained safe but were more immunogenic than the overly attenuated Towne vaccine. The chimeras were found to be safe when administered to HCMV-seronegative human volunteers, but to differ significantly in their ability to induce seroconversion...
April 8, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386784/genetic-analysis-of-a-novel-reassortant-h11n9-isolated-from-waterfowl-in-south-korea-in-2016
#6
Tran Bac Le, In Hong Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Seung Kyoo Oh, Sang Heui Seo
Aquatic birds are known to harbor all the known influenza A viruses. In the winter of January 2016, we surveyed influenza A virus in the feces of migratory birds in South Korea. The novel re-assorted H11N9 avian influenza virus, which contains genes from avian influenza viruses of poultry and wild birds, was isolated. The polymerase basic 2 (PB2), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes were most closely related to those of domestic duck-origin avian influenza viruses, while the non-structural (NS) gene was closely related to that of domestic goose-origin avian influenza virus...
April 6, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365829/newcastle-disease-virus-like-particles-induce-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-enhance-viral-specific-immune-response
#7
Jing Qian, Jiaxin Ding, Renfu Yin, Yixue Sun, Cong Xue, Xiaohong Xu, Jianzhong Wang, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu, Xiufan Liu, Shunlin Hu, Yanlong Cong, Zhuang Ding
Circulating of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a great threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are increasingly being considered as potential viral vaccines due to their safety and efficacy. In this study, we analyzed in vitro the stimulatory effects of VLPs containing the matrix and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of genotype VII NDV on dendritic cells (DCs) and evaluated their immunogenicity in mice. The results showed that immature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) responded to stimulation with VLPs by up-regulating expressions of MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 molecules and by increasing the cytokine secretions of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-12p70...
April 1, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364140/insights-into-jumonji-c-domain-containing-protein-6-jmjd6-a-multifactorial-role-in-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-replication-in-cells
#8
REVIEW
Paul Lawrence, Elizabeth Rieder
The Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) has had a convoluted history, and recent reports indicating a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection have further complicated the functionality of this protein. It was first identified as the phosphatidylserine receptor on the cell surface responsible for recognizing phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells resulting in their engulfment by phagocytic cells. Subsequent study revealed a nuclear subcellular localization, where JMJD6 participated in lysine hydroxylation and arginine demethylation of histone proteins and other non-histone proteins...
March 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357676/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-virus-like-particles-produced-in-insect-cells-induce-specific-immune-responses-in-mice
#9
Cuiling Wang, Feihu Yan, Xuexing Zheng, Hualei Wang, Hongli Jin, Chong Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Yuwei Gao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which causes 80-100% mortality in neonatal piglets, is one of the most devastating viral diseases affecting swine worldwide. To date, the lack of effective vaccines and drugs is the main problem preventing control of the global spread of PEDV. In this study, we produced PEDV virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of S, M, and E proteins with a baculovirus expression system and tested them via indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA)and Western blot analysis. Electron microscopy showed that the morphological structure of the PEDV VLPs was similar to that of the protovirus...
March 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341934/molecular-chaperone-jiv-promotes-the-rna-replication-of-classical-swine-fever-virus
#10
Kangkang Guo, Haimin Li, Xuechao Tan, Mengmeng Wu, Qizhuang Lv, Wei Liu, Yanming Zhang
The nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a self-splicing ribozyme wherein the precursor protein NS2-3 is cleaved, and the cleavage efficiency of NS2-3 is crucial to the replication of viral RNA. However, the proteolytic activity of NS2 autoprotease may be achieved through a cellular chaperone called J-domain protein interacting with viral protein (Jiv) or its fragment Jiv90, as evidence suggests that Jiv is required for the proper functioning of the NS2 protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus...
March 24, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315991/construction-of-an-agroinfectious-clone-of-bean-rugose-mosaic-virus-using-gibson-assembly
#11
Taise Bijora, Rosana Blawid, Danielle K T Costa, Francisco J L Aragão, Eliezer R Souto, Tatsuya Nagata
Construction of agroinfectious viral clones usually requires many steps of cloning and sub-cloning and also a binary vector, which makes the process laborious, time-consuming, and frequently susceptible to some degree of plasmid instability. Nowadays, novel methods have been applied to the assembly of infectious viral clones, and here we have applied isothermal, single-step Gibson Assembly (GA) to construct an agroinfectious clone of Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) using a small binary vector. The procedure has drastically reduced the cloning steps, and BRMV could be recovered from agroinfiltrated common bean twenty days after inoculation, indicating that the infectious clone could spread in the plant tissues and efficiently generate a systemic infection...
March 18, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299517/characterization-and-complete-genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-novel-virulent-siphoviridae-phage-against-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-in-xinjiang-china
#12
Qian Zhang, Shaozhen Xing, Qiang Sun, Guangqian Pei, Shi Cheng, Yannan Liu, Xiaoping An, Xianglilan Zhang, Yonggang Qu, Yigang Tong
Bovine mastitis is one of the most costly diseases in dairy cows worldwide. It can be caused by over 150 different microorganisms, where Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated and a major pathogen responsible for heavy economic losses in dairy industry. Although antibiotic therapy is most widely used, alternative treatments are necessary due to the increasing antibiotic resistance. Using phage for pathogen control is a promising tool in the fight against antibiotic resistance. Mainly using high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics and our proposed phage termini identification method, we have isolated and characterized a novel virulent phage, designated as vB_SauS_IMEP5, from manure collected from dairy farms in Shihezi, Xinjiang, China, for use as a biocontrol agent against Staphylococcus aureus infections...
March 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289928/human-rotavirus-strain-wa-downregulates-nhe1-and-nhe6-expressions-in-rotavirus-infected-caco-2-cells
#13
Honglang Chen, Lijun Song, Guixian Li, Wenfeng Chen, Shumin Zhao, Ruoxia Zhou, Xiaoying Shi, Zhenying Peng, Wenchang Zhao
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis and fatal dehydration in human infants and neonates of different species. However, the pathogenesis of rotavirus-induced diarrhea is poorly understood. Secretory diarrhea caused by rotavirus may lead to a combination of excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. Fluid absorption in the small intestine is driven by Na(+)-coupled transport mechanisms at the luminal membrane, including Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Here, we performed qRT-PCR to detect the transcription of NHEs...
March 13, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260187/genetic-and-virulence-characterization-of-classical-swine-fever-viruses-isolated-in-mongolia-from-2007-to-2015
#14
Bazarragchaa Enkhbold, Munkhduuren Shatar, Shiho Wakamori, Tomokazu Tamura, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Takashi Umemura, Batchuluun Damdinjav, Yoshihiro Sakoda
Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease affecting domestic and wild pigs in many developing countries, is now considered endemic in Mongolia, with 14 recent outbreaks in 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015. For the first time, CSF viruses isolated from these 14 outbreaks were analyzed to assess their molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity in pigs. Based on the nucleotide sequences of their 5'-untranslated region, isolates were phylogenetically classified as either sub-genotypes 2...
March 4, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258391/underlying-mechanisms-of-hiv-1-latency
#15
REVIEW
Bizhan Romani, Elham Allahbakhshi
Similarly to other retroviruses, HIV-1 integrates its genome into the cellular chromosome. Expression of viral genes from the integrated viral DNA could then be regulated by the host genome. If the infected cell suppresses viral gene expression, the virus will undergo latency. The latently infected cells cannot be detected or cleared by the immune system since they do not express viral antigens. These cells remain undetected for several years, even under antiretroviral treatments. The silenced HIV-1 DNA could be reactivated under certain conditions...
March 3, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255929/rotavirus-i-in-feces-of-a-cat-with-diarrhea
#16
Tung G Phan, Christian M Leutenegger, Roxanne Chan, Eric Delwart
A divergent rotavirus I was detected using viral metagenomics in the feces of a cat with diarrhea. The eleven segments of rotavirus I strain Felis catus encoded non-structural and structural proteins with amino acid identities ranging from 25 to 79% to the only two currently sequenced members of that viral species both derived from canine feces. No other eukaryotic viral sequences nor bacterial and protozoan pathogens were detected in this fecal sample suggesting the involvement of rotavirus I in feline diarrhea...
March 2, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243843/dynamic-gene-expression-analysis-in-a-h1n1-influenza-virus-mouse-pneumonia-model
#17
Yanyan Bao, Yingjie Gao, Yujing Shi, Xiaolan Cui
H1N1, a major pathogenic subtype of influenza A virus, causes a respiratory infection in humans and livestock that can range from a mild infection to more severe pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Understanding the dynamic changes in the genome and the related functional changes induced by H1N1 influenza virus infection is essential to elucidating the pathogenesis of this virus and thereby determining strategies to prevent future outbreaks. In this study, we filtered the significantly expressed genes in mouse pneumonia using mRNA microarray analysis...
February 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243842/a-new-putative-alphapartitivirus-recovered-from-the-powdery-mildew-fungus-erysiphe-palczewskii
#18
Guihong Xiong, Ping Qiu, Cong Li, Zhuo Chen, Saif Ul Islam, Shouguo Fang, Zujian Wu, Songbai Zhang, Zhenguo Du
Two double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) likely representing the genome of a novel alphapartitivirus which we provisionally named Erysiphe palczewskii alphapartitivirus 1 (EpV1) were recovered from the powdery mildew fungus E. palczewskii infecting Sophora japonica in Jingzhou, Hubei province of China. The two dsRNAs, 1955 (dsRNA1) and 1917 (dsRNA2) bp in size, respectively, each contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 585- and 528-aa protein, respectively. The 585-aa protein contains a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain and shows significant homology to RdRps of approved or putative partitiviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Alphapartitivirus...
February 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238159/analyses-of-pea-necrotic-yellow-dwarf-virus-encoded-proteins
#19
Björn Krenz, Ingrid Schießl, Eva Greiner, Susanna Krapp
Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further...
February 25, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213698/rice-grassy-stunt-virus-p5-interacts-with-two-protein-components-of-the-plant-specific-cbl-cipk-ca-2-signaling-network-of-rice
#20
Guihong Xiong, Xiaojuan Liu, Ping Qiu, Xiaoyong Wu, Zhenguo Du, Jie Zhang, Liang Yang, Zujian Wu
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a tenuivirus posing a threat to rice production in many South, Southeast, and East Asian countries. To date, no host factor interacting with RGSV has been reported. In this study, we screened a rice cDNA library with the GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system using RGSV p5 as the bait. One of the candidate host factors interacting with RGSV p5 was found to be CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 (OsCIPK25), a member of the plant-specific CBL-CIPK Ca(2+) signaling network. The interaction between RGSV p5 and OsCIPK25, as well as OsCIPK5, which is closely related to OsCIPK25, was confirmed by their cellular co-localization and by a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in Nicotiana benthamiana cells...
February 17, 2017: Virus Genes
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