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Virus Genes

Yu Liu, Deyu Zhou, Di Qi, Jiabin Feng, Zhou Liu, Yue Hu, Wenyuan Shen, Chang Liu, Xiaohong Kong
Despite the notable success of combination antiretroviral therapy, how to eradicate latent HIV-1 from reservoirs poses a challenge. The Tat protein plays an indispensable role in HIV reactivation and histone demethylase LSD1 promotes Tat-mediated long terminal repeats (LTR) activation. However, the role of LSD1 in remodeling chromatin and the role of its component BHC80 in activation of latent HIV-1 in T cells are unknown. Our findings indicate that LSD1 could decrease the level of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) at the HIV-1 promoter by recruiting histone lysine demethylase 5A (KDM5A) and preventing histone methyltransferase Set1A and WD-40 repeat protein 5 (WDR5) from binding to LTR...
August 13, 2018: Virus Genes
Junchao Shi, Kui Zhao, Huijun Lu, Zi Li, Xiaoling Lv, Yungang Lan, Jiyu Guan, Wenqi He, Feng Gao
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a member of the genus betacoronavirus within the family coronaviridae, which invades the central nervous system (CNS) via peripheral nervous system and causes encephalomyelitis or vomiting and wasting disease (VWD) in sucking piglets. Up to now, although few complete nucleotide sequences of PHEV have been reported, they are not annotated. This study aimed to illuminate genome characterization, phylogenesis and pathogenicity of the PHEV/2008 strain. The full length of the PHEV/2008 strain genome was 30,684 bp, with a G + C content of 37...
August 4, 2018: Virus Genes
Tomoko Kato, Maki Aizawa, Katsunori Takayoshi, Tohru Yanase, Shogo Tanaka, Hiroaki Shirafuji, Makoto Yamakawa
Two virus strains, tentatively designated as ON-6/P/05 and ON-7/E/05, were isolated from blood samples of healthy cattle in the Yaeyama Islands, located in the southwestern-most region of Japan, in 2005. Ultrastructural observations of infected baby hamster (BHK-21) cells revealed that the viruses had features consistent with those of orbivirus. As with other orbiviruses, the viral genome consists of 10 double-stranded RNA segments. The full genome sequence of ON-6/P/05 was determined and shared high nucleotide and amino acid identities (90...
August 1, 2018: Virus Genes
Boris Klempa
Hantaviruses (order Bunyavirales, family Hantaviridae), known as important zoonotic human pathogens, possess the capacity to exchange genome segments via genetic reassortment due to their tri-segmented genome. Although not as frequent as in the arthropod-borne bunyaviruses, reports indicating reassortment events in the evolution of hantaviruses have been recently accumulating. The intra- and inter-lineage reassortment between closely related variants has been repeatedly reported for several hantaviruses including the rodent-borne human pathogens such as Sin Nombre virus, Puumala virus, Dobrava-Belgrade virus, or Hantaan virus as well as for the more recently recognized shrew-borne hantaviruses, Imjin and Seewis...
July 25, 2018: Virus Genes
Uma Sharma, Sunil Gupta, S Venkatesh, Arvind Rai, A C Dhariwal, Mohammad Husain
It is important to study the molecular properties of vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy to understand disease progression. P24 having an important role in virus assembly and maturation was selected to explore the genotypic characteristics. Blood samples, obtained from 82 HIV-1 positive infants, were categorized into acute (≤ 6 months) and early (> 6-18 months) age groups. Of the 82 samples, 79 gave amplification results for p24, which were then sequenced and analysed. Amino acid heterogeneity analysis showed that substitutions were more frequent...
July 18, 2018: Virus Genes
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Plant virus-based nanoparticles (PVNs) are self-assembled capsid proteins of plant viruses, and can be virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) or virus nanoparticles (VNPs). Plant viruses showing helical capsid symmetry are used as a versatile platform for the presentation of multiple copies of well-arrayed immunogenic antigens of various disease pathogens. Helical PVNs are non-infectious, biocompatible, and naturally immunogenic, and thus, they are suitable antigen carriers for vaccine production and can trigger humoral and/or cellular immune responses...
July 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Miroslav Glasa, Lukáš Predajňa, Nina Sihelská, Katarína Šoltys, Ana Belén Ruiz-García, Antonio Olmos, Thierry Wetzel, Sead Sabanadzovic
A recently described putative foveavirus, grapevine virus T (GVT), was detected in a Slovak grapevine accession (SK704) using high-throughput sequencing, prompting further studies. Full-length genome sequence of isolate GVT-SK704 was determined. Analyses revealed 86.1% nucleotide identity with the Italian GVT isolate, currently the only available nearly complete sequence of GVT in GenBank. A virus-specific RT-PCR assay was developed, which enabled a survey of GVT incidence in grapevine samples from Slovakia and Czech Republic...
July 11, 2018: Virus Genes
Juliana de Oliveira Navarro, Marcelo Candido, Sabrina Ribeiro de Almeida-Queiroz, Maria da Glória Buzinaro, Márcia Cristina Livonesi, Andrezza Maria Fernandes, Ricardo Luiz Moro de Sousa
Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are emerging and opportunistic viruses with possible zoonotic potential. In this study, we present the detection, molecular characterization, and genotypic differentiation of PBVs from genogroup I in bovine stool samples from different Brazilian regions. A high proportion of PCR-positive samples (23.4%) was detected in a total of 77 analyzed. Nucleotide identity, alignment, and phylogenetic analyses revealed high diversity among the studied sequences. The results obtained indicate, for the first time, the circulation of bovine PBVs belonging to genogroup I in different Brazilian states, with heterogeneous phylogenetic-clustering profiles...
July 9, 2018: Virus Genes
Adele Crane, Michael E Goebel, Simona Kraberger, Anne C Stone, Arvind Varsani
Viral diversity associated with Antarctic wildlife remains poorly studied. Nonetheless, over the past 5 years, there has been a concerted effort using viral metagenomics approaches to identify and characterize viruses associated with Antarctic pinniped and avian species. Here we used a viral metagenomics approach to identify circular DNA viruses in buccal swab samples from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) breeding on Livingston Island, Antarctica during the 2016/2017 field season. We identified two new lineages of anelloviruses, torque teno Arctocephalus gazella virus (TTAgV)-1 (2083 nts) and -2 (2127-2143 nts), which are most closely related to and cluster with a previously identified anellovirus associated with California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) sharing ~ 60% genome-wide pairwise identity...
July 3, 2018: Virus Genes
Haoran Wang, Cong Li, Lina Cai, Shouguo Fang, Limin Zheng, Fei Yan, Songbai Zhang, Yong Liu
Bipolaris maydis is the causal agent of corn southern leaf blight. Here, we report a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus designated Bipolaris maydis botybirnavirus 1 (BmBRV1) from B. maydis strain JZ11 in Jingzhou, Hubei province of China. BmBRV1 has a genome consisting of two dsRNAs (dsRNA1 and dsRNA2) with a size of 6435 and 5987 bp, respectively, each of which contains a single open reading frame (ORF). The two polyproteins encoded by dsRNA1 and dsRNA2 share the highest amino acid identities of 81...
July 2, 2018: Virus Genes
Hongfei Shi, Chaoliang Leng, Qian Xu, Hongling Shi, Shiyu Sun, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao
Natural Pestivirus H infections in cattle have been reported worldwide; however, only a few cases of Pestivirus H have been described in non-bovine ruminants such as goats. A new Pestivirus H HN1507 strain was isolated from an infected goat in 2015 and the genome sequence was determined. The full-length genome sequence was 12,556 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the complete genome and Npro fragments, revealed that the isolate belonged to Pestivirus H and was closely related to strains from Italy...
June 16, 2018: Virus Genes
Ju-Chun Chang, Zih-Ting Chang, Yu-Feng Huang, Se Jin Lee, Jae Su Kim, Yu-Shin Nai
The baculoviral anti-apoptotic genes, p35 and iap (inhibitor of apoptosis), play important roles in the initiation of viral infection. Recently, a new anti-apoptotic gene (apoptosis suppressor, apsup) was identified in Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV). An apsup homolog gene, Lyxy105 (ly-apsup), was also predicted in the Lymantria xylina multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LyxyMNPV) genome. In this study, we attempt to perform a gene expression analysis and a functional assay of ly-apsup to demonstrate its anti-apoptotic activity and identify the functional domain of this protein...
June 6, 2018: Virus Genes
Deepti Parashar, Mandar S Paingankar, Ashwini More, Poonam Patil, Sarika Amdekar
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection can cause severe arthralgia and chronic arthritis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have demonstrated their potential use as biomarker in variety of human pathologies and infections. This study was conducted to understand the miRNA signature in early CHIKV infection stages. In the current study, we used TaqMan-based quantitative PCR method to identify the miRNA signature of host response upon CHIKV infection in human and mouse fibroblast cells. The GO enrichment analysis suggests that the putative target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs are to be involved in RIG-I pathway, TGF-beta-signaling pathway, JAK-STAT-signaling pathway, MAPK-signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis...
June 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Tian Chen, Dandan Wang, Tao Xie, Liang-Guo Xu
Viral infection triggers the innate antiviral immune response that rapidly produces type I interferons in most cell types to combat viruses invading. Upon viral infection, the cytoplasmic RNA sensors RIG-I/MDA5 recognize viral RNA, and then RIG-I/MDA5 is transported to mitochondria interacting with VISA through the CARD domain. From there, VISA recruits downstream antiviral signaling pathways molecules, such as TRAFs and TBK1. Eventually, IRF3 is phosphorylated and type I IFNs are induced to fight as the first line of defense against viruses...
August 2018: Virus Genes
Anton G Yuzhakov, Sergei A Raev, Konstantin P Alekseev, Tatiana V Grebennikova, Oleg A Verkhovsky, Alexei D Zaberezhny, Taras I Aliper
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was firstly detected in 2016 in USA. Later PCV3 was discovered in Asia, Europe, and South America. The present investigation demonstrates for the first time the circulation of PCV3 among pigs in Russia. The viruses were detected at two geographically distant unrelated commercial farms with records of reproductive failure (abortions, stillbirth), porcine dermatitis, and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). The two farms were located in the region of Smolensk (western part of Russia) and the region of Tyumen (West Siberia, Russia)...
August 2018: Virus Genes
Ming Li, Jing Yang, Tian-Fei Yu
To evaluate the status of parvovirus infection in free-range cows in a region of northeast China, nine serum samples were collected and analysed by sequencing and polymerase chain reaction. A new bovine parvovirus-2 (BPV2) was identified and named QQHE16. The genome of the virus is 5759 nucleotides long and retains two ORFs that are typical of the Parvovirinae family. Compared with reference BPV2 strains, BPV2 QQHE16 appeared to have a close relationship with strain BSRI isolated in the USA in 2013. A putative recombination breakpoint located at nucleotide position 2121 and in the interval between the non-structural gene and the VP gene was identified...
August 2018: Virus Genes
Wenhu Cao, Anke Heit, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Martin Löchelt
Foamy viruses are unconventional and complex retroviruses distinct from the other members of the Retroviridae family. Currently, no disease has been firmly linked to persistent foamy virus infection of their cognate host including simians, bovines, felines, and equines or upon zoonotic transmission of different simian foamy viruses to humans. Bovine and simian foamy viruses have been recently shown to encode a RNA polymerase-III-driven micro RNA cluster which likely modulates and regulates host-virus interactions at different levels...
August 2018: Virus Genes
Tomoya Kobayashi, Shin Murakami, Terumasa Yamamoto, Ko Mineshita, Muneki Sakuyama, Reiko Sasaki, Ken Maeda, Taisuke Horimoto
Several recent studies have reported that various bat species harbor bat hepatitis E viruses (BatHEV) belonging to the family Hepeviridae, which also contains human hepatitis E virus (HEV). The distribution and ecology of BatHEV are not well known. Here, we collected and screened 81 bat fecal samples from nine bat species in Japan to detect BatHEV RNA by RT-PCR using HEV-specific primers, and detected three positive samples. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these three viruses were BatHEVs belonging to genus Orthohepevirus D like other BatHEV strains reported earlier in various countries...
August 2018: Virus Genes
Marek Kowalczyk, Andrzej Jakubczak, Beata Horecka, Krzysztof Kostro
The Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is one of the most serious threats to modern mink breeding. The disease can have various courses, from progressive to subclinical infections. The objective of the study was to provide a comparative molecular characterization of isolates of AMDV from farms with a clinical and subclinical course of the disease. The qPCR analysis showed a difference of two orders of magnitude between the number of copies of the viral DNA on the farm with the clinical course of the disease (105 ) and the farm with the subclinical course (103 )...
August 2018: Virus Genes
Zu-Jyun Wang, Yuto Kikutani, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Scott Krauss, Richard Webby, Youn-Jeong Lee, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
Among 16 haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H13 AIVs have rarely been isolated in wild waterfowl. H13 AIVs cause asymptomatic infection and are maintained mainly in gull and tern populations; however, the recorded antigenic information relating to the viruses has been limited. In this study, 2 H13 AIVs, A/duck/Hokkaido/W345/2012 (H13N2) and A/duck/Hokkaido/WZ68/2012 (H13N2), isolated from the same area in the same year in our surveillance, were genetically and antigenically analyzed with 10 representative H13 strains including a prototype strain, A/gull/Maryland/704/1977 (H13N6)...
August 2018: Virus Genes
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