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Virus Genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315991/construction-of-an-agroinfectious-clone-of-bean-rugose-mosaic-virus-using-gibson-assembly
#1
Taise Bijora, Rosana Blawid, Danielle K T Costa, Francisco J L Aragão, Eliezer R Souto, Tatsuya Nagata
Construction of agroinfectious viral clones usually requires many steps of cloning and sub-cloning and also a binary vector, which makes the process laborious, time-consuming, and frequently susceptible to some degree of plasmid instability. Nowadays, novel methods have been applied to the assembly of infectious viral clones, and here we have applied isothermal, single-step Gibson Assembly (GA) to construct an agroinfectious clone of Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) using a small binary vector. The procedure has drastically reduced the cloning steps, and BRMV could be recovered from agroinfiltrated common bean twenty days after inoculation, indicating that the infectious clone could spread in the plant tissues and efficiently generate a systemic infection...
March 18, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299517/characterization-and-complete-genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-novel-virulent-siphoviridae-phage-against-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-in-xinjiang-china
#2
Qian Zhang, Shaozhen Xing, Qiang Sun, Guangqian Pei, Shi Cheng, Yannan Liu, Xiaoping An, Xianglilan Zhang, Yonggang Qu, Yigang Tong
Bovine mastitis is one of the most costly diseases in dairy cows worldwide. It can be caused by over 150 different microorganisms, where Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated and a major pathogen responsible for heavy economic losses in dairy industry. Although antibiotic therapy is most widely used, alternative treatments are necessary due to the increasing antibiotic resistance. Using phage for pathogen control is a promising tool in the fight against antibiotic resistance. Mainly using high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics and our proposed phage termini identification method, we have isolated and characterized a novel virulent phage, designated as vB_SauS_IMEP5, from manure collected from dairy farms in Shihezi, Xinjiang, China, for use as a biocontrol agent against Staphylococcus aureus infections...
March 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289928/human-rotavirus-strain-wa-downregulates-nhe1-and-nhe6-expressions-in-rotavirus-infected-caco-2-cells
#3
Honglang Chen, Lijun Song, Guixian Li, Wenfeng Chen, Shumin Zhao, Ruoxia Zhou, Xiaoying Shi, Zhenying Peng, Wenchang Zhao
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis and fatal dehydration in human infants and neonates of different species. However, the pathogenesis of rotavirus-induced diarrhea is poorly understood. Secretory diarrhea caused by rotavirus may lead to a combination of excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. Fluid absorption in the small intestine is driven by Na(+)-coupled transport mechanisms at the luminal membrane, including Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Here, we performed qRT-PCR to detect the transcription of NHEs...
March 13, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260187/genetic-and-virulence-characterization-of-classical-swine-fever-viruses-isolated-in-mongolia-from-2007-to-2015
#4
Bazarragchaa Enkhbold, Munkhduuren Shatar, Shiho Wakamori, Tomokazu Tamura, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Takashi Umemura, Batchuluun Damdinjav, Yoshihiro Sakoda
Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease affecting domestic and wild pigs in many developing countries, is now considered endemic in Mongolia, with 14 recent outbreaks in 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015. For the first time, CSF viruses isolated from these 14 outbreaks were analyzed to assess their molecular epidemiology and pathogenicity in pigs. Based on the nucleotide sequences of their 5'-untranslated region, isolates were phylogenetically classified as either sub-genotypes 2...
March 4, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258391/underlying-mechanisms-of-hiv-1-latency
#5
REVIEW
Bizhan Romani, Elham Allahbakhshi
Similarly to other retroviruses, HIV-1 integrates its genome into the cellular chromosome. Expression of viral genes from the integrated viral DNA could then be regulated by the host genome. If the infected cell suppresses viral gene expression, the virus will undergo latency. The latently infected cells cannot be detected or cleared by the immune system since they do not express viral antigens. These cells remain undetected for several years, even under antiretroviral treatments. The silenced HIV-1 DNA could be reactivated under certain conditions...
March 3, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255929/rotavirus-i-in-feces-of-a-cat-with-diarrhea
#6
Tung G Phan, Christian M Leutenegger, Roxanne Chan, Eric Delwart
A divergent rotavirus I was detected using viral metagenomics in the feces of a cat with diarrhea. The eleven segments of rotavirus I strain Felis catus encoded non-structural and structural proteins with amino acid identities ranging from 25 to 79% to the only two currently sequenced members of that viral species both derived from canine feces. No other eukaryotic viral sequences nor bacterial and protozoan pathogens were detected in this fecal sample suggesting the involvement of rotavirus I in feline diarrhea...
March 2, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243843/dynamic-gene-expression-analysis-in-a-h1n1-influenza-virus-mouse-pneumonia-model
#7
Yanyan Bao, Yingjie Gao, Yujing Shi, Xiaolan Cui
H1N1, a major pathogenic subtype of influenza A virus, causes a respiratory infection in humans and livestock that can range from a mild infection to more severe pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Understanding the dynamic changes in the genome and the related functional changes induced by H1N1 influenza virus infection is essential to elucidating the pathogenesis of this virus and thereby determining strategies to prevent future outbreaks. In this study, we filtered the significantly expressed genes in mouse pneumonia using mRNA microarray analysis...
February 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243842/a-new-putative-alphapartitivirus-recovered-from-the-powdery-mildew-fungus-erysiphe-palczewskii
#8
Guihong Xiong, Ping Qiu, Cong Li, Zhuo Chen, Saif Ul Islam, Shouguo Fang, Zujian Wu, Songbai Zhang, Zhenguo Du
Two double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) likely representing the genome of a novel alphapartitivirus which we provisionally named Erysiphe palczewskii alphapartitivirus 1 (EpV1) were recovered from the powdery mildew fungus E. palczewskii infecting Sophora japonica in Jingzhou, Hubei province of China. The two dsRNAs, 1955 (dsRNA1) and 1917 (dsRNA2) bp in size, respectively, each contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 585- and 528-aa protein, respectively. The 585-aa protein contains a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain and shows significant homology to RdRps of approved or putative partitiviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Alphapartitivirus...
February 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238159/analyses-of-pea-necrotic-yellow-dwarf-virus-encoded-proteins
#9
Björn Krenz, Ingrid Schießl, Eva Greiner, Susanna Krapp
Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further...
February 25, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213698/rice-grassy-stunt-virus-p5-interacts-with-two-protein-components-of-the-plant-specific-cbl-cipk-ca-2-signaling-network-of-rice
#10
Guihong Xiong, Xiaojuan Liu, Ping Qiu, Xiaoyong Wu, Zhenguo Du, Jie Zhang, Liang Yang, Zujian Wu
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a tenuivirus posing a threat to rice production in many South, Southeast, and East Asian countries. To date, no host factor interacting with RGSV has been reported. In this study, we screened a rice cDNA library with the GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system using RGSV p5 as the bait. One of the candidate host factors interacting with RGSV p5 was found to be CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 (OsCIPK25), a member of the plant-specific CBL-CIPK Ca(2+) signaling network. The interaction between RGSV p5 and OsCIPK25, as well as OsCIPK5, which is closely related to OsCIPK25, was confirmed by their cellular co-localization and by a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in Nicotiana benthamiana cells...
February 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205052/a-novel-subgenotype-3a-hepatitis-e-virus-isolated-from-pigs-in-china
#11
Yufeng Cao, Lisai Zhu, Dan Liu, Changming Guo, Yue Yuan, Chengbo Shi, Zhaohui Liu, Xinping Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging disease with zoonotic transmission that represents a serious public health concern, especially in developing countries. Here we characterize a novel HEV strain CCST-517, which possesses a complete genome sequence of 7284 bp with typical HEV genome organization including 5' and 3' non-coding regions and three open reading frames. The sequence identities of CCST-517 with known HEV genotype 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 73.4-73.7, 73.2, 80.4-90.4, and 75.1-75.7%, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194622/characterization-of-a-gallid-herpesvirus-2-strain-with-novel-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-long-terminal-repeat-inserts
#12
Yan-Ping Zhang, Ke-Yan Bao, Guo-Rong Sun, Hong-Chao Lv, Hong-Yu Cui, Yu-Long Gao, Xiao-Mei Wang, Chang-Jun Liu
A bacterial artificial chromosome clone, designated LCY, was constructed from a Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) isolate from a GaHV-2 and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infected clinical sample. The LCY GaHV-2 insert was sequenced and found to consist of 175,319 nucleotides. LCY GaHV-2 open reading frames (ORFs) had a high sequence identity to those of reference strains. The major difference was that two REV long terminal repeats (LTRs), in the same direction, were inserted at the internal repeat short (IRs)/unique short (Us) and Us/terminal repeat short (TRs) junctions...
February 13, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190135/identification-and-characterization-of-orf-virus-050-protein-proteolysis
#13
Han Wang, Junyi Jiang, Rui Ding, Xiaoping Wang, Meiying Liao, Jing Shao, Xiaohong Luo, Shuhong Luo, Chaohui Duan
The Orf virus 050 (ORFV050) gene is located in the core region of the ORFV genome. It is similar to Vaccinia virus (VV) Copenhagen L4R, and encodes the DNA-binding virion core protein VP8, which has structures similar to the VV P25K core protein and may undergo similar proteolytic processing during virus assembly. Three conserved Ala-Gly-X motifs at putative cleavage sites were identified in ORFV050. To investigate the proteolysis of ORFV050 and its participation in viral assembly, full-length and site-directed mutant ORFV050 recombinant proteins were constructed and expressed...
February 11, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188458/tanapoxvirus-lacking-the-15l-gene-inhibits-melanoma-cell-growth-in-vitro-by-inducing-interferon-%C3%AE-1-release
#14
Tiantian Zhang, Karim Essani
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have emerged as a promising approach for melanoma treatment by causing tumor lysis and inducing immuno-modulatory activities. Tanapoxvirus (TPV), which causes a mild self-limiting disease in humans and contains a large DNA genome, appears as a promising OV candidate. TPV recombinants were generated with the thymidine kinase/66R gene deletion (TPVΔ66R), the 15L gene deletion (TPVΔ15L), or with both the 15L and 66R gene ablation (TPVΔ15LΔ66R). Our previous studies have shown that treatment of TPVΔ15L resulted in significant tumor regression in xenotransplanted human melanoma in nude mice...
February 10, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185139/rescue-of-a-recombinant-newcastle-disease-virus-strain-r2b-expressing-green-fluorescent-protein
#15
Madhan Mohan Chellappa, Sohini Dey, Satish Gaikwad, Dinesh C Pathak, Vikram N Vakharia
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain R2B is a mesogenic vaccine strain used for booster vaccination in chickens against Newcastle disease in India and many south East Asian countries. A full-length cDNA clone of the virus was generated by ligating eight overlapping fragments generated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction having unique restriction enzyme sites within them. This full-length cDNA clone was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme and hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences. Defined genetic markers were introduced into the NDV genome to differentiate the rescued virus from the parent virus...
February 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176160/a-novel-enterovirus-96-circulating-in-china-causes-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#16
Yi Xu, Yisuo Sun, Jinmin Ma, Shuru Zhou, Wei Fang, Jiawei Ye, Limei Tan, Jingkai Ji, Dan Luo, Liqiang Li, Jiandong Li, Chunxiao Fang, Na Pei, Shuo Shi, Xin Liu, Hui Jiang, Sitang Gong, Xun Xu
Enterovirus 96 (EV-96) is a recently described member of the species Enterovirus C and is associated with paralysis and myelitis. In this study, using metagenomic sequencing, we identified a new enterovirus 96 strain (EV-96-SZ/GD/CHN/2014) as the sole pathogen causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A genomic comparison showed that EV-96-SZ/GD/CHN/2014 is most similar to the EV-96-05517 strain (85% identity), which has also been detected in Guangdong Province. This is the first time that metagenomic sequencing has been used to identify an EV-96 strain shown to be associated with HFMD...
February 7, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176159/new-korean-isolates-of-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-pmmov-differ-in-symptom-severity-and-subcellular-localization-of-the-126%C3%A2-kda-protein
#17
Sang-Hyuk Han, Jong-Seo Park, Jae-Yeong Han, Jun-Su Gong, Chan-Hwan Park, Jung-Kyu Kim, Eun-Young Seo, Leslie L Domier, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
Two isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were selected from a nationwide survey of pepper fields in South Korea in 2014 and 2015, in which Cucumber mosaic virus was also detected; the two PMMoV isolates, Sangcheong 47 (S-47, KX399390) and Jeongsong 76 (J-76, KX399389), share ~99% nucleotide and amino acid identity and are closely related to Japanese and Chinese isolates at the nucleotide level. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed 99.73, 99.81, 98.44, and 100% identity in the ORF1, ORF2, MP, and CP, respectively, between S-47 and J-76...
February 7, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130636/molecular-epidemiology-of-pseudorabies-virus-in-yunnan-and-the-sequence-analysis-of-its-gd-gene
#18
Chunlian Song, Libo Gao, Weibing Bai, Xingqin Zha, Gefen Yin, Xianghua Shu
Outbreaks of pseudorabies (PRs) have occurred in Yunnan, China, which caused significant economic loss. To determine the prevalence and origin of PR in Yunnan, especially among vaccinated pigs, overall 791 samples of blood, tissue, semen, and sera were analyzed by serological methods, PCR, and sequence analysis of gD gene. Detection with viral gI antibody or PCR showed that the yearly positive rates of PR virus (PRV) in Yunnan from 2010 to 2014 were 48.15, 21.26, 2.17, 5.22, and 0.35%, respectively, with an average of 15...
January 28, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233195/ultrastructural-and-biochemical-basis-for-hepatitis-c-virus-morphogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Viviana Falcón, Nelson Acosta-Rivero, Sirenia González, Santiago Dueñas-Carrera, Gillian Martinez-Donato, Ivon Menéndez, Rocio Garateix, José A Silva, Emilio Acosta, Juan Kourı
Chronic infection with HCV is a leading cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. One of the least understood steps in the HCV life cycle is the morphogenesis of new viral particles. HCV infection alters the lipid metabolism and generates a variety of microenvironments in the cell cytoplasm that protect viral proteins and RNA promoting viral replication and assembly. Lipid droplets (LDs) have been proposed to link viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly by physically associating these viral processes...
April 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220345/a-new-look-at-the-origins-of-gibbon-ape-leukemia-virus
#20
REVIEW
J McKee, N Clark, F Shapter, G Simmons
Is the origin of gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) human after all? When GALV was discovered and found to cause neoplastic disease in gibbons, it stimulated a great deal of research including investigations into the origins of this virus. A number of publications have suggested that the GALV progenitor was a retrovirus present in one of several species of South East Asian rodents that had close contact with captive gibbons. However, there are no published retroviral sequences from any South East Asian species to support this view...
April 2017: Virus Genes
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