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Virus Genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052126/genetic-characterization-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-poultry-in-poland-during-2013-2014
#1
Edyta Świętoń, Michał Jóźwiak, Zenon Minta, Krzysztof Śmietanka
The study presents molecular characterization of H9N2 avian influenza (AI) isolates from field outbreaks in turkeys that occurred in Poland in 2013-2014. Sequences of all gene segments of one isolate from 2013 (A/turkey/Poland/14/2013(H9N2)) and two isolates from 2014 (A/turkey/Poland/08/2014(H9N2), A/turkey/Poland/09/2014(H9N2)) were obtained and analyzed in search of the phylogenetic relationship and molecular markers of zoonotic potential or increased pathogenicity. All gene segments were shown to originate from the wild bird reservoir and the close relationship of the analyzed isolates proved the link between the outbreaks in 2013 and 2014...
October 19, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043660/sera-of-peruvians-with-fever-of-unknown-origins-include-viral-nucleic-acids-from-non-vertebrate-hosts
#2
Tung Gia Phan, Juana Del Valle Mendoza, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Eda Altan, Xutao Deng, Eric Delwart
Serum samples collected from 88 Peruvians with unexplained fever were analyzed for viral sequences using metagenomics. Nucleic acids of anelloviruses, pegivirus A (GBV-C), HIV, Dengue virus, and Oropouche virus were detected. We also characterized from two sera the RNA genomes of new species of partitivirus and dicistrovirus belonging to viral families known to infect fungi or arthropod, respectively. Genomic DNA of a putative fungal cellular host could be PCR amplified from the partitivirus-containing serum sample...
October 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986679/a-novel-alphapartitivirus-detected-in-japanese-pear
#3
Hideki Osaki, Atsuko Sasaki
Pyrus pyrifolia cryptic virus (PpCV) had been previously reported from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). In analyses of Japanese pear, two other double-stranded (ds) RNA molecules (dsRNA4 and 5) were observed along with the three dsRNA segments from PpCV on an electrophoretic profile of isolated dsRNA. When the purified dsRNA sample was deep sequenced by a next-generation sequencer, two de novo assembled contigs corresponding to dsRNA4 and 5, with predicted amino acid sequences showing homologies to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the capsid protein of Rose partitivirus, respectively, were found by BLAST analysis...
October 6, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983774/first-molecular-detection-of-porcine-circovirus-type-3-in-dogs-in-china
#4
Jiaxin Zhang, Zhenguo Liu, Yawen Zou, Nanxiangzi Zhang, Dongliang Wang, Di Tu, Linchen Yang, Zhibang Deng, Yi Yang, Ping Jiang, Naidong Wang
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) has recently been isolated from diseased pigs within the USA. The objective was to detect the presence of PCV3 in dogs. Nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) with PCV3-specific primers for the capsid gene were used to detect PCV3 genomic DNA in serum samples from dogs (n = 44) in China. There was PCV3 DNA detected in 4 of 44 dogs [all were negative for PCV2 and canine circovirus (CanineCV)]. Based on sequence analysis, positive sequences were grouped into PCV3 genotypes...
October 5, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948470/a-synthetic-peptide-derived-from-domain-iii-envelope-glycoprotein-of-dengue-virus-induces-neutralizing-antibody
#5
J Asnet Mary, Akanitt Jittmittraphap, Siriporn Chattanadee, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, R Shenbagarathai
Dengue virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne human pathogen that represents a severe public health threat in both endemic and non-endemic regions. So far, there is no licensed vaccine or specific drugs available for dengue fever. A fifteen-amino-acid-long peptide that includes the NGR motif was chemically synthesized and conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. A standard immunization protocol was followed for the production of polyclonal antibodies by immunizing rabbits against the synthetic peptide. The immune response elicited high-titer polyclonal antibodies with the reactivity of the anti-peptide antibody against both synthetic peptide and four serotypes of DENV confirmed by DOT-ELISA...
September 25, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942579/distribution-of-tomato-planta-macho-viroid-in-germinating-pollen-and-transmitting-tract
#6
Yosuke Matsushita, Hironobu Yanagisawa
Vertical and horizontal pollen transmission is important for efficient infection by viroids. Vertical pollen transmission of viroids is attributed to the infection by viroid in the embryo sac through infected pollen. To identify the viroid infection in pollen and pollen tubes elongating through the transmitting tract, we used in situ hybridization to histochemically analyze the distribution of Tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) in pollen grains, the stigma, and style of petunia plants. TPMVd was present in the generative nucleus and vegetative nucleus of mature infected pollen grains and germinating pollen grains...
September 23, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866831/detection-of-a-new-species-of-torque-teno-mini-virus-from-the-gingival-epithelium-of-patients-with-periodontitis
#7
Yu Zhang, Fei Li, Xi Chen, Tong-Ling Shan, Xu-Tao Deng, Eric Delwart, Xi-Ping Feng
We describe a novel species of torque teno mini virus called TTMV-204, which was isolated from the gingival epithelium of patients with periodontitis and characterized using viral metagenomics. The sequence of the full genome is 2824 nt in length. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic analyses show classic Betatorquevirus species organization with less than 40% amino acid similarity in ORF1. The prevalence of TTMV-204 in the periodontitis patient population was 18.75% (15/80), which was higher than in periodontally healthy individuals (10...
September 2, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852930/role-of-sh3b-binding-domain-in-a-natural-deletion-mutant-of-kayvirus-endolysin-lysf1-with-a-broad-range-of-lytic-activity
#8
Martin Benešík, Jiří Nováček, Lubomír Janda, Radka Dopitová, Markéta Pernisová, Kateřina Melková, Lenka Tišáková, Jiří Doškař, Lukáš Žídek, Jan Hejátko, Roman Pantůček
The spontaneous host-range mutants 812F1 and K1/420 are derived from polyvalent phage 812 that is almost identical to phage K, belonging to family Myoviridae and genus Kayvirus. Phage K1/420 is used for the phage therapy of staphylococcal infections. Endolysin of these mutants designated LysF1, consisting of an N-terminal cysteine-histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain and C-terminal SH3b cell wall-binding domain, has deleted middle amidase domain compared to wild-type endolysin. In this work, LysF1 and both its domains were prepared as recombinant proteins and their function was analyzed...
August 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852929/n-pro-his49-and-e-rns-lys412-mutations-in-pig-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-2-synergistically-enhance-the-cellular-antiviral-response
#9
Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Jinghua Chen, Chunling Zhang, Yufei Ma, Guoqiang Zhu, Huili Liu
Type I interferons are major components of the innate immune response of hosts, and accordingly, many viruses have evolved mechanisms to modulate the host response during infection. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) nonstructural protein N(pro) and structural protein E(rns) play important roles in inhibiting type I interferon. The aim of this study was to explore the epistatic effects of amino acid mutations in N(pro) and E(rns) in porcine ST cells to characterize the immune response induced by BVDV-2. Plasmids with mutant amino acids His49 (H49), Glu22 (E22) in N(pro), and His300 (H300), Lys412 (K412) in E(rns) which had been changed to Alanine (A) had similar effects on type I interferon production in MDBK and ST cells, but resulted in much greater ISG15, OAS, and Mx production in ST cells...
August 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815417/cellular-interactome-analysis-of-vaccinia-virus-k7-protein-identifies-three-transport-machineries-as-binding-partners-for-k7
#10
Ye Li, Leiliang Zhang, Youyang Ke
Identification of viral-host interacting proteins will contribute to understanding of how poxvirus exploits the host cellular machinery. The vaccinia virus gene K7R encodes a conserved protein K7 in most orthopoxviruses. To gain insight into the biology of K7, we investigated the cellular interactome of K7 by GST pulldown coupled with mass spectrometry. The top categories of identified proteins contained components of trafficking machineries. We selected key components of three transport machineries including coatomer, retromer, and CHEVI to further confirm their binding abilities to K7...
August 16, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808849/a-rapid-method-for-establishment-of-a-reverse-genetics-system-for-canine-parvovirus
#11
Yongle Yu, Jun Su, Jigui Wang, Ji Xi, Yaping Mao, Qiang Hou, Xiaomei Zhang, Weiquan Liu
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important and highly prevalent pathogen of dogs that causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis disease. Here, we describe a rapid method for the construction and characterization of a full-length infectious clone (rCPV) of CPV. Feline kidney (F81) cells were transfected with rCPV incorporating an engineered EcoR I site that served as a genetic marker. The rescued virus was indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus in its biological properties.
August 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921483/from-virus-to-vector-to-medicine-foreword-by-guest-editors
#12
EDITORIAL
Florian Kreppel, Anja Ehrhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795266/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-zika-virus-amplified-from-urine-of-traveler-from-the-philippines
#13
Se Hun Gu, Dong Hyun Song, Daesang Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Min Young Kim, Jaehun Jung, Koung In Woo, Mirang Kim, Woong Seog, Hong Sang Oh, Byung Seop Choi, Jong-Seong Ahn, Quehn Park, Seong Tae Jeong
Zika virus (ZIKV) (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The rapid spread of ZIKV disease in over 60 countries and the large numbers of travel-associated cases have caused worldwide concern. Thus, intensified surveillance of cases among immigrants and tourists from ZIKV-endemic areas is important for disease control and prevention. In this study, using Next Generation Sequencing, we reported the first whole-genome sequence of ZIKV strain AFMC-U, amplified from the urine of a traveler returning to Korea from the Philippines...
August 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762208/two-novel-poxviruses-with-unusual-genome-rearrangements-ny_014-and-murmansk
#14
Chad Smithson, Hermann Meyer, Crystal M Gigante, Jinxin Gao, Hui Zhao, Dhwani Batra, Inger Damon, Chris Upton, Yu Li
The genome sequence and annotation of two novel poxviruses, NY_014 and Murmansk, are presented. Despite being isolated on different continents and from different hosts, the viruses are relatively similar, albeit distinct species. The closest known relative of the novel viruses is Yoka poxvirus. Five novel genes were found in these genomes, two of which were MHC class I homologs. Although the core of these genomes was well conserved, the terminal regions showed significant variability with large deletions and surprising evidence of recombination with orthopoxviruses...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762207/the-efficacy-of-antisense-based-construct-for-inducing-resistance-against-croton-yellow-vein-mosaic-virus-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#15
V Sinha, N B Sarin, D Bhatnagar
Begomoviruses have increased pathogenicity because of their adaptation to a wide host range; consequently, these viruses cause a major loss to agroeconomic crops worldwide. In this study, we designed a gene construct representing an antisense coat protein gene. We also analyzed the efficacy of the induced resistance against Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CrYVMV) affecting papaya in Nicotiana tabacum plants. Positive control plants developed typical leaf curl symptoms, whereas transgenic plants were symptomless...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762206/the-retroviral-vector-family-something-for-everyone
#16
REVIEW
Carina Elsner, Jens Bohne
After 30 years of retroviral vector research it became clear that the parental viruses can be both friend and foe. Especially human immunodeficiency virus sparked a global pandemic, but could be converted into a versatile tool for cell therapy. For all retroviral genera, the way from virus to vector was similar resulting in split-vector systems based on the separation of the genes needed for vector particle formation and transgene expression. The first gene therapy trials, although clinically effective, revealed the genotoxicity of retroviral vectors caused by insertional mutagenesis...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762205/next-generation-aav-vectors-for-clinical-use-an-ever-accelerating-race
#17
REVIEW
Jonas Weinmann, Dirk Grimm
During the past five decades, it has become evident that Adeno-associated virus (AAV) represents one of the most potent, most versatile, and thus most auspicious platforms available for gene delivery into cells, animals and, ultimately, humans. Particularly attractive is the ease with which the viral capsid-the major determinant of virus-host interaction including cell specificity and antibody recognition-can be modified and optimized at will. This has motivated countless researchers to develop high-throughput technologies in which genetically engineered AAV capsid libraries are subjected to a vastly hastened emulation of natural evolution, with the aim to enrich novel synthetic AAV capsids displaying superior features for clinical application...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755290/barriers-to-systemic-application-of-virus-based-vectors-in-gene-therapy-lessons-from-adenovirus-type-5
#18
REVIEW
Franziska Jönsson, Florian Kreppel
Currently, virus-based vectors, namely derivatives of the adenovirus, are frequently used in a wide variety of ex vivo or local gene therapeutic applications. However, the efficacy of virus-based vectors in systemic applications is presently still extremely limited. Complex interactions of the various vector types with the patient's organism hinder successful vector deployment. Exemplary, here we summarize barriers to systemic application of Adenovirus-based vectors leading either to acute toxic effects or rapid vector neutralization and discuss strategies to overcome these barriers aiming to develop more efficient vector types...
July 28, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744797/reconstructing-the-immune-system-with-lentiviral-vectors
#19
REVIEW
Henning Olbrich, Constanze Slabik, Renata Stripecke
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) developed in the past two decades for research and pre-clinical purposes have entered clinical trials with remarkable safety and efficacy performances. Development and clinical testing of LVs for improvement of human immunity showed major advantages in comparison to other viral vector systems. Robust and persisted transduction efficiency of blood cells with LVs, resulted into a broad range of target cells for immune therapeutic approaches: from hematopoietic stem cells and precursor cells for correction of immune deficiencies, up to effector lymphoid and myeloid cells...
July 25, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597195/identification-of-epitopes-on-nonstructural-protein-7-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-recognized-by-monoclonal-antibodies-using-phage-display-technology
#20
Heng Wang, Rongchang Liu, Weidong Zhang, Lingshuang Sun, Zhangyong Ning, Fangxiao Ji, Jin Cui, Guihong Zhang
Nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered to be a suitable reagent for the development of serological diagnostic assays. It can be expressed as a soluble recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, and its antibody response may continue up to 202 days post-infection. Furthermore, the region encoded by nsp7 is highly homologous among various strains within the genotype, and the results of nsp7-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed high agreement with previous Idexx ELISA results...
August 2017: Virus Genes
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