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Virus Genes

Cihan Inan, Hacer Muratoglu, Basil M Arif, Zihni Demirbag
Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) infects certain lepidopteran and orthopteran insects and is the most studied member of the genus Betaentomopoxvirus. It has been considered as a potential vector for gene therapy, a vector to express exogenous proteins and a biological control agent. One of its open reading frames, amv248, encodes a putative glycosyltransferase and is the only known attachment protein conserved in AMEV and chordopoxviruses. The ORF was successfully expressed and the protein was shown to bind soluble heparin, both in silico and in vitro...
April 17, 2018: Virus Genes
Benediktus Yohan, Puspa Wardhani, Hidayat Trimarsanto, A Aryati, R Tedjo Sasmono
Dengue has caused a significant public health impact globally. With the diverse genetic of the causative viruses, analysis of dengue virus (DENV) genomes is important to supplement epidemiological data with information that can be used to reconstruct the history of epidemics in time and space. We have reported the clinical and virological characteristics of dengue in Surabaya, Indonesia and revealed the presence of all four DENV serotypes and the predominance of DENV-1. The further classification of Surabaya DENV-1 into two different genotypes warrants in-depth genomic analysis to study the dynamics of both genotypes and their contribution to virus evolution, virus transmission, and disease...
April 3, 2018: Virus Genes
Yuyong Zhou, Rui Wu, Yao Feng, Qin Zhao, Xintian Wen, Xiaobo Huang, Yiping Wen, Qigui Yan, Yong Huang, Xiaoping Ma, Xinfeng Han, Sanjie Cao
Genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain SCYA201201 was previously isolated from brain tissues of aborted piglets. In this study, we obtained an attenuated SCYA201201-0901 strain by serial passage of strain SCYA201201-1 in Syrian baby hamster kidney cells, combined with multiple plaque purifications and selection for virulence in mice. We investigated the genetic changes associated with attenuation by comparing the entire genomes of SCYA201201-0901 and SCYA201201-1. Sequence comparisons identified 14 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with two nucleotide point mutations in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and another three in the 3'-UTR, which differed between the attenuated and virulent strains...
March 31, 2018: Virus Genes
Adriana Luchs, Elcio Leal, Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis, Flavio Augusto de Pádua Milagres, Rafael Brustulin, Maria da Aparecida Rodrigues Teles, Danielle Elise Gill, Xutao Deng, Eric Delwart, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Antonio Charlys da Costa
We report here the complete genome sequence of a bipartite virus, herein denoted WLPRV/human/BRA/TO-34/201, from a sample collected in 2015 from a two-year-old child in Brazil presenting acute gastroenteritis. The virus has 98-99% identity (segments 2 and 1, respectively) with the Wuhan large pig roundworm virus (unclassified RNA virus) that was recently discovered in the stomachs of pigs from China. This is the first report of a Wuhan large pig roundworm virus detected in human specimens, and the second genome described worldwide...
March 28, 2018: Virus Genes
Kwang-Hyun Oh, Jong-Suk Mo, Yeon-Ji Bae, Seung-Baek Lee, Van Dam Lai, Seung-Jun Wang, In-Pil Mo
Wild birds are natural hosts and reservoirs for influenza A viruses. However, many species, such as many waterfowl, are asymptomatic when infected and so facilitate the generation of viral genetic diversity. Mutations of key genes affect the replicability, pathogenicity, transmissibility, and antiviral resistance of influenza A viruses. In this study, we isolated avian influenza (AI) viruses from wild bird fecal samples and analyzed changes in amino acids over time and geographic region to monitor the biological change of the AI virus...
March 26, 2018: Virus Genes
Milind M Thube, Pratip Shil, Rewati Kasbe, Avinash A Patil, Shailesh D Pawar, Jayati Mullick
Influenza A virus infection induces type I interferons (IFNs α/β) which activate host antiviral responses through a cascade of IFN signaling events. Herein, we compared highly pathogenic H5N1 and low pathogenic H11N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from India, for their replication kinetics and ability to induce IFN-β and interferon-stimulating genes (ISGs). The H5N1 virus showed a higher replication rate and induced less IFN-β and ISGs compared to the H11N1 virus when grown in the human lung epithelial A549 cells, reflecting the generation of differential innate immune responses during infection by these viruses...
March 24, 2018: Virus Genes
Kunyuan Tie, Yuyu Yuan, Shiqing Yan, Xi Yu, Qiuyang Zhang, Huihui Xu, Yang Zhang, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Xin Feng
Salmonella pullorum is the major pathogen that is harmful to the poultry industry in developing countries, and the treatment of chicken diarrhea caused by S. pullorum has become increasingly difficult. In this study, a virulent bacteriophage YSP2, which was able to specifically infect Salmonella, was isolated and characterized. Phage YSP2 was classified in the Siphoviridae family and had a short latent period of 10 min. No bacterial virulence- or lysogenesis-related ORF is present in the YSP2 genome, making it eligible for use in phage therapy...
March 21, 2018: Virus Genes
Xingyu Ye, Mikael Berg, Caroline Fossum, Per Wallgren, Anne-Lie Blomström
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a newly detected circovirus belonging to the family Circoviridae with a circular ssDNA genome of 2000 bp that encodes two proteins-the replicase protein and the capsid protein. PCV3 was discovered for the first time in the US in 2016. After this initial discovery, PCV3 was detected in other parts of the world such as in China, South Korea, Italy and Poland. In this study, 49 tissue samples from Swedish pig herds were screened for PCV3 using PCR and 10 samples were positive and one was uncertain...
March 21, 2018: Virus Genes
Kombo F N'Guessan, Ceejay Boyce, Awewura Kwara, Timothy N A Archampong, Margaret Lartey, Kwamena W Sagoe, Ernest Kenu, Adjoa Obo-Akwa, Jason T Blackard
Human pegivirus (HPgV) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of multiple HPgV genotypes with distinct geographic locations. HPgV is of interest because of its potential beneficial impact on HIV disease progression. Despite this, the effects of HPgV in the context of other viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), are poorly understood, and data from resource-limited settings are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HPgV in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Ghana...
March 17, 2018: Virus Genes
Ana Carla Peixoto Guissoni, Célia Maria Almeida Soares, Kareem R Badr, Fabiola Sousa Ficcadori, Ana Flávia Alves Parente, Juliana Alves Parente, Lilian Cristina Baeza, Menira Souza, Divina das Dores de Paula Cardoso
Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are etiological agents of different syndromes such as gastroenteritis, cystitis, ocular, and respiratory diseases, and infection by these viruses may cause alterations in cellular homeostasis. The objective of the study was the proteomic analysis of A-549 cells infected with HAdV-40 using LC-MS. At 30 h of infection, the quantitative analysis revealed 336 differentially expressed proteins. From them, 206 were induced (up-regulated) and 130 were suppressed (down-regulated). The majority of up-regulated proteins were related to energy, cellular organization, stress response, and apoptosis pathways...
March 15, 2018: Virus Genes
Kai Zheng, Qiuying Liu, Shaoxiang Wang, Zhe Ren, Kaio Kitazato, Depo Yang, Yifei Wang
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encodes various microRNAs (miRNAs), whose targets are largely unknown. miR-H1 is the first discovered HSV-1 miRNA and is expressed predominantly in productive infection. Here we show that ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 1 (Ubr1) is a cellular target of miR-H1. Ubr1 is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, which causes the degradation of proteins bearing "destabilizing" N-terminal residues, such as neurodegeneration-associated protein fragment β-amyloid...
March 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Chuang Lyu, Shuwen Wang, Mingxia Sun, Yandong Tang, Jinmei Peng, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic virus with the ability to infect peripheral sensory ganglia. The transport of PRV from the peripheral to the central nervous system can cause lethal encephalitis in young piglets. However, the pathogenicity of PRV in the cerebral cortex remains poorly understood. In the present study, we developed a porcine cerebral cortex primary culture system (PCCS) using cerebral cortex tissue dissected from a 3-day-old piglet to investigate the pathogenicity of wild-type (WT) and US2 deleted (ΔUS2) PRV in the CNS in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Jingjing Jiang, Hongling Wen, Miaomiao Chi, Ying Liu, Jingxue Liu, Zhankui Cao, Li Zhao, Yanyan Song, Na Liu, Lianli Chi, Zhiyu Wang
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) is an important respiratory pathogen that causes the majority of viral pneumonia of infants and young children. hPIV3 can infect host cells through the synergistic action of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and the homotypic fusion (F) protein on the viral surface. HN protein plays a variety of roles during the virus invasion process, such as promoting viral particles to bind to receptors, cleaving sialic acid, and activating the F protein. Crystal structure research shows that HN tetramer adopted a "heads-down" conformation, at least two heads dimmer on flank of the four-helix bundle stalk, which forms a symmetrical interaction interface...
March 7, 2018: Virus Genes
Naoya Shinohara, Chieko Matsumoto, Keiji Matsubayashi, Tadashi Nagai, Masahiro Satake
There are few reports on HIV-1 intra-host evolutionary rate in asymptomatic treatment-naïve patients. Here, the HIV-1 intra-host evolutionary rate was estimated based on HIV-1 RNA sequences from plasma samples of blood donors in Japan. Blood donors were assumed to have received no treatment for and have no symptoms of HIV-1 infection because they were healthy, and declared no risky behaviors of HIV-1 infection on a self-reported questionnaire or interview followed by donation. HIV-1 RNA was obtained from 85 plasma samples from 36 blood donors who donated blood multiple times and were HIV-1-positive...
March 7, 2018: Virus Genes
Yinghao Xin, Dang Wang, Meijin Huang, Jinjin Yu, Liurong Fang, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an acute infectious disease agent in swine, causes enormous economic losses to the global swine industry. PRRSV nonstructural protein 1β (nsp1β) plays a critical role in viral subgenomic mRNA synthesis and host immune regulation. However, the global changes of cellular gene expression in natural target cells regulated by the nsp1β have not yet been identified. Here, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantitatively identify cellular proteins in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) 3D4/21 cells transduced with recombinant lentivirus expressing PRRSV nsp1β that are differentially expressed compared with PAM 3D4/21 cells transduced with recombinant lentivirus expressing GFP...
March 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Giuliana Loreto Saraiva, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Abelardo Silva Júnior, Márcia Rogéria de Almeida
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is an emerging virus that was identified in the United States in 2016. Since its first identification, PCV3 has been identified in Brazil, China, United States, Poland, and Republic of Korea. In this study, we used molecular phylogenetic analysis of available sequences to address questions surrounding the emergence of PCV3 in porcine world industry. Our data indicate that PCV3 did not emerge through recombination events among currently known circoviruses and that its speciation is not a recent evolutionary event...
March 3, 2018: Virus Genes
Ru Yu, Xiuli Jing, Wenjing Li, Jie Xu, Yang Xu, Liwei Geng, Changxiang Zhu, Hongmei Liu
Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus is a multifunctional dimeric protein that contains a conserved N-terminal RNA binding domain. Studies have shown that NS1 suppresses RNA silencing and the NS1 proteins encoded by different influenza A virus strains exhibit differential RNA silencing suppression activities. In this study, we showed that the NS1 protein from avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 suppressed systemic RNA silencing induced by sense RNA or dsRNA. It resulted in more severe Potato virus X symptom, but could not reverse established systemic green fluorescent protein silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana...
February 26, 2018: Virus Genes
K S Sritha, Sarita G Bhat
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella causing Salmonellosis is a food-borne pathogen and hence a public health hazard. Alternatives to antibiotics, such as phages, are possible solutions to this increasing drug resistance. In this context, several Salmonella phages were isolated and characterized. This paper describes the physiochemical and whole genome characterization of one such bacteriophage, ΦStp1, which efficiently infects serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Morphological observations by transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis using terminase gene classified ΦStp1 to family Siphoviridae, closely resembling 'T5 like phage' morpho-types...
February 24, 2018: Virus Genes
Raja Duraisamy, Jean Akiana, Bernard Davoust, Oleg Mediannikov, Caroline Michelle, Catherine Robert, Henri-Joseph Parra, Didier Raoult, Philippe Biagini, Christelle Desnues
Most of the emerging infectious diseases reported so far originated in wildlife. Therefore, virological surveillance of animals and particularly great apes is of great interest to establish the repertory of viruses associated with healthy hosts. This will further help to identify the emergence of new viruses and predict the possibility of interspecies transmission. In this study, we performed shotgun viral metagenomics on stool samples collected from seventeen free-living wild gorillas from the Republic of the Congo...
February 23, 2018: Virus Genes
Jianqiang Zhang, Wannarat Yim-Im, Qi Chen, Ying Zheng, Loni Schumacher, Haiyan Huang, Phillip Gauger, Karen Harmon, Ganwu Li
Two genetically different porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains have been identified in the USA: US prototype (also called non-S INDEL) and S INDEL PEDVs. In February 2017, a PEDV variant (USA/OK10240-8/2017) was identified in a rectal swab from a sow farm in Oklahoma, USA. Complete genome sequence analyses indicated this PEDV variant was genetically similar to US non-S INDEL strain but had a continuous 600-nt (200-aa) deletion in the N-terminal domain of the spike gene compared to non-S INDEL PEDVs...
February 21, 2018: Virus Genes
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