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Virus Genes

Hongfei Shi, Chaoliang Leng, Qian Xu, Hongling Shi, Shiyu Sun, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao
Natural Pestivirus H infections in cattle have been reported worldwide; however, only a few cases of Pestivirus H have been described in non-bovine ruminants such as goats. A new Pestivirus H HN1507 strain was isolated from an infected goat in 2015 and the genome sequence was determined. The full-length genome sequence was 12,556 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the complete genome and Npro fragments, revealed that the isolate belonged to Pestivirus H and was closely related to strains from Italy...
June 16, 2018: Virus Genes
Ju-Chun Chang, Zih-Ting Chang, Yu-Feng Huang, Se Jin Lee, Jae Su Kim, Yu-Shin Nai
The baculoviral anti-apoptotic genes, p35 and iap (inhibitor of apoptosis), play important roles in the initiation of viral infection. Recently, a new anti-apoptotic gene (apoptosis suppressor, apsup) was identified in Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV). An apsup homolog gene, Lyxy105 (ly-apsup), was also predicted in the Lymantria xylina multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LyxyMNPV) genome. In this study, we attempt to perform a gene expression analysis and a functional assay of ly-apsup to demonstrate its anti-apoptotic activity and identify the functional domain of this protein...
June 6, 2018: Virus Genes
Deepti Parashar, Mandar S Paingankar, Ashwini More, Poonam Patil, Sarika Amdekar
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection can cause severe arthralgia and chronic arthritis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have demonstrated their potential use as biomarker in variety of human pathologies and infections. This study was conducted to understand the miRNA signature in early CHIKV infection stages. In the current study, we used TaqMan-based quantitative PCR method to identify the miRNA signature of host response upon CHIKV infection in human and mouse fibroblast cells. The GO enrichment analysis suggests that the putative target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs are to be involved in RIG-I pathway, TGF-beta-signaling pathway, JAK-STAT-signaling pathway, MAPK-signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis...
June 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Ming Li, Jing Yang, Tian-Fei Yu
To evaluate the status of parvovirus infection in free-range cows in a region of northeast China, nine serum samples were collected and analysed by sequencing and polymerase chain reaction. A new bovine parvovirus-2 (BPV2) was identified and named QQHE16. The genome of the virus is 5759 nucleotides long and retains two ORFs that are typical of the Parvovirinae family. Compared with reference BPV2 strains, BPV2 QQHE16 appeared to have a close relationship with strain BSRI isolated in the USA in 2013. A putative recombination breakpoint located at nucleotide position 2121 and in the interval between the non-structural gene and the VP gene was identified...
May 31, 2018: Virus Genes
Wenhu Cao, Anke Heit, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Martin Löchelt
Foamy viruses are unconventional and complex retroviruses distinct from the other members of the Retroviridae family. Currently, no disease has been firmly linked to persistent foamy virus infection of their cognate host including simians, bovines, felines, and equines or upon zoonotic transmission of different simian foamy viruses to humans. Bovine and simian foamy viruses have been recently shown to encode a RNA polymerase-III-driven micro RNA cluster which likely modulates and regulates host-virus interactions at different levels...
May 31, 2018: Virus Genes
Tomoya Kobayashi, Shin Murakami, Terumasa Yamamoto, Ko Mineshita, Muneki Sakuyama, Reiko Sasaki, Ken Maeda, Taisuke Horimoto
Several recent studies have reported that various bat species harbor bat hepatitis E viruses (BatHEV) belonging to the family Hepeviridae, which also contains human hepatitis E virus (HEV). The distribution and ecology of BatHEV are not well known. Here, we collected and screened 81 bat fecal samples from nine bat species in Japan to detect BatHEV RNA by RT-PCR using HEV-specific primers, and detected three positive samples. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these three viruses were BatHEVs belonging to genus Orthohepevirus D like other BatHEV strains reported earlier in various countries...
May 29, 2018: Virus Genes
Marek Kowalczyk, Andrzej Jakubczak, Beata Horecka, Krzysztof Kostro
The Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is one of the most serious threats to modern mink breeding. The disease can have various courses, from progressive to subclinical infections. The objective of the study was to provide a comparative molecular characterization of isolates of AMDV from farms with a clinical and subclinical course of the disease. The qPCR analysis showed a difference of two orders of magnitude between the number of copies of the viral DNA on the farm with the clinical course of the disease (105 ) and the farm with the subclinical course (103 )...
May 29, 2018: Virus Genes
Zu-Jyun Wang, Yuto Kikutani, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Scott Krauss, Richard Webby, Youn-Jeong Lee, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
Among 16 haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), H13 AIVs have rarely been isolated in wild waterfowl. H13 AIVs cause asymptomatic infection and are maintained mainly in gull and tern populations; however, the recorded antigenic information relating to the viruses has been limited. In this study, 2 H13 AIVs, A/duck/Hokkaido/W345/2012 (H13N2) and A/duck/Hokkaido/WZ68/2012 (H13N2), isolated from the same area in the same year in our surveillance, were genetically and antigenically analyzed with 10 representative H13 strains including a prototype strain, A/gull/Maryland/704/1977 (H13N6)...
May 23, 2018: Virus Genes
Kai Zuo, Li Kong, Dong Xue, Yanyan Yang, Linlin Xie
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of most important risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be involved in the etiology of HBV-related HCC. AX800134 is one recently identified lncRNA associated with HCC. In this study, we validated the upregulated expression of AX800134 in HBV-positive HCC compared with HBV-negative HCC. Furthermore, we found that HBV X protein (HBx) directly triggered AX800134 expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells...
May 22, 2018: Virus Genes
Rossana Scutari, Monica Faieta, Roberta D'Arrigo, Lavinia Fabeni, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Cossarizza, Claudio Casoli, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Claudia Alteri, Stefano Aquaro
The aim of this study is to evaluate the amino acid variability of HIV-1 Gp41, C2-V3, and Nef in a group of patients characterized by different disease progression rates. HIV-1 sequences were collected from 19 Long term non progressor patients (LTNPs), 9 slow progressors (SPs), and 11 rapid progressors (RPs). Phylogenetic trees were estimated by MEGA 6. Differences in amino acid variability among sequences belonging to the 3 groups have been evaluated by amino acid divergence, Shannon entropy analysis, and the number of amino acid mutations (defined as amino acid variations compared with HxB2)...
May 17, 2018: Virus Genes
Minglei Pan, Shuai Gao, Zhenwei Zhou, Keke Zhang, Sihua Liu, Zhiyun Wang, Tao Wang
Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a highly contagious virus, which causes respiratory tract infections. However, no effective vaccines are currently available for controlling EV-D68 infection. Here, we developed a reverse genetics system to recover EV-D68 minireplicons and infectious EV-D68 from transfected plasmids using the RNA polymerase I (Pol I) promoter. The EV-D68 minireplicons contained the luciferase reporter gene, which flanked by the non-coding regions of the EV-D68 RNA. The luciferase signals could be detected in cells after transfection and Pol I promoter-mediated luciferase signal was significantly stronger than that mediated by the T7 promoter...
May 17, 2018: Virus Genes
Marcelo Takahiro Mitui, Gulendam Bozdayi, Buket Dalgic, Ilknur Bostanci, Akira Nishizono, Kamruddin Ahmed
This article was unintentionally published twice in this journal, by the same authors. Following should be considered the version of record and used for citation purposes: "Mitui, M.T., Bozdayi, G., Dalgic, B. et al. Molecular characterization of a human group C rotavirus detected first in Turkey, Virus Genes (2009) 39, 2, 157-164, ". The duplicate "Mitui, M.T., Bozdayi, G., Dalgic, B. et al. Molecular characterization of a human group C rotavirus detected first in Turkey, Virus Genes (2009), https://doi...
May 17, 2018: Virus Genes
Fang Wang, Xia Zhao, Qing Dong, Benguo Zhou, Zhengliang Gao
Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV2 (MYDV-RMV2) causes dwarfing and yellowing symptoms on leaves in field-grown maize plants in Anhui province in China. Herein, we evaluated the RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity of the P0 protein from MYDV-RMV2 by co-infiltration assays using wild-type and GFP-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (line 16C). The P0 of MYDV-RMV2 exhibited RSS activity and inhibited RNA silencing both locally and systemically. MYDV-RMV2 P0 acts as an F-box-like motif, and mutations to Ala at positions 67, 68, and 81 in the F-box-like motif (67LPxx81P) abolished the RSS activity of P0...
May 11, 2018: Virus Genes
Sridhar Jarugula, Kristen Willie, Lucy R Stewart
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was the first reported and still widely used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector for monocotyledons including wheat and barley. Despite BSMV's reported infectivity on maize (Zea mays), the use of the virus as a vector in maize has not been optimized. Here, we assayed infectivity of BSMV in different maize cultivars by vascular puncture inoculation. Through knockdown of the endogenous host phytoene desaturase gene, we demonstrate for the first time that BSMV can be used as a VIGS vector in maize...
May 11, 2018: Virus Genes
Guiqian Chen, Yuan Qiu, Qingye Zhuang, Suchun Wang, Tong Wang, Jiming Chen, Kaicheng Wang
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool for the characterization, discovery, and molecular identification of RNA viruses. There were multiple NGS library preparation methods published for strand-specific RNA-seq, but some methods are not suitable for identifying and characterizing RNA viruses. In this study, we report a NGS library preparation method to identify RNA viruses using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. The NGS sequencing adapters were directly inserted into the sequencing library through reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, without fragmentation and ligation of nucleic acids...
May 9, 2018: Virus Genes
Emi Yamaguchi, Kei Fujii, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai
Serological surveys have shown that wild raccoons are exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs); however, no genetic evidence for this IAV infection has been found. In the present study, we first detected IAV genes in wild raccoons captured during periods other than the wintering season of migratory waterfowl and epidemic season of influenza in Japan. Viral matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes were detected by a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay from three suckling siblings and one juvenile without any noticeable clinical signs, although the NP gene could not be detected from one sibling...
May 8, 2018: Virus Genes
Mathilde L Schade-Weskott, Antoinette van Schalkwyk, J J O Koekemoer
The attenuated live virus vaccine that is used in South Africa to protect against African horse sickness infection was developed more than 50 years ago. With the selection of the vaccine strains by cell culture passage, a correlation between the size of plaques formed in monolayer Vero cultures and attenuation of virus virulence in horses was found. The large plaque phenotype was used as an indication of cell culture adaptation and strongly correlated with attenuation of virulence in horses. There was never any investigation into the genetic causes of either the variation in plaque size, or the loss of virulence...
May 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Samira Samarfard, Nicolas E Bejerman, Ralf G Dietzgen
In 2010, a novel cytorhabdovirus named alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV) was detected for the first time in lucerne crops in Argentina showing dwarfism, in mixed infections with several other viruses. ADV appears to be endemic to Argentina and has not been reported elsewhere. In this study, we have investigated the genetic variability of ADV based on the complete nucleoprotein (N) gene of 13 isolates from different lucerne-growing regions in Argentina. Phylogenetic and sequence identity analyses showed that all ADV isolates are closely related and have not diverged more than 1% in the N gene despite geographical separation...
May 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Sang-Hoon Han, Byung-Joo Park, Hee-Seop Ahn, Yong-Hyun Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Go, Dong-Hwi Kim, Joong-Bok Lee, Seung-Yong Park, Chang-Seon Song, Sang-Won Lee, In-Soo Choi
Rabbits are considered a new natural reservoir of hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, HEV infection was verified by the detection of partial genomic sequence of HEV and anti-HEV antibodies in specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits. HEV RNA was found in 6.4% serum and 13.5% fecal samples from 126 SPF rabbits. Anti-HEV antibodies were also detected in 4.0% of the SPF rabbits. HEV genetic sequences isolated from the rabbits were clustered into a rabbit HEV clade with other rabbit HEV isolates; they were found to be most closely related with a rabbit HEV sequence previously reported in Korea...
April 24, 2018: Virus Genes
Deogracious P Massawe, Lucy R Stewart, Jovia Kamatenesi, Theodore Asiimwe, Margaret G Redinbaugh
Since 2011-2012, Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged in East Africa, causing massive yield loss and propelling research to identify viruses and virus populations present in maize. As expected, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed diverse and abundant viruses from the family Potyviridae, primarily sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae), which are known to cause MLN by synergistic co-infection. In addition to these expected viruses, we identified a virus in the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae) in 104/172 samples selected for MLN or other potential virus symptoms from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania...
June 2018: Virus Genes
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