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Virus Genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527099/molecular-diversity-among-viroids-infecting-chrysanthemum-in-india
#1
C R Adkar-Purushothama, G Chennappa, K Poornachandra Rao, M Y Sreenivasa, P K Maheshwar, M N Nagendra Prasad, T Sano
Association of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) with the Chrysanthemum plants exhibiting severe stunting, distinct yellow leaf mottling, and chlorosis was detected in the main chrysanthemum-growing regions of India. Sequence analysis of 90 cDNA clones obtained for CSVd and CChMVd, representing the chrysanthemum-growing regions of India, revealed the high degree of sequence variation throughout the genome under natural conditions. Additionally, all the analyzed CChMVd clones revealed the presence of UUUC in the tetraloop, a signature of symptomatic variants in susceptible cultivars...
May 19, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493152/inhibition-of-mir-274-3p-increases-bmcpv-replication-by-regulating-the-expression-of-bmcpv-ns5-gene-in-bombyx-mori
#2
Ping Wu, Xiaoxu Jiang, Qi Sang, Enoch Annan, Tao Cheng, Xijie Guo
Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the major pathogens that pose a big challenge to the sericulture industry. Growing evidences have shown that microRNAs play key roles in the regulations of host-pathogen interactions in insects. MicroRNAs have been found in silkworms, whether and how they affect the silkworm-BmCPV interactions are still unknown. Here we investigate the effect of miR-274-3p on the BmCPV replication in the BmCPV-infected silkworm larvae. In our study, BmCPV Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) was identified to be the target of miR-274-3p based on bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay...
May 10, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484931/complete-genome-analysis-of-porcine-kobuviruses-from-the-feces-of-pigs-in-japan
#3
Masataka Akagami, Mika Ito, Kazutaka Niira, Moegi Kuroda, Tsuneyuki Masuda, Kei Haga, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Yuki Naoi, Mai Kishimoto, Kaori Sano, Tsutomu Omatsu, Hiroshi Aoki, Yukie Katayama, Mami Oba, Tomoichiro Oka, Toru Ichimaru, Hiroshi Yamasato, Yoshinao Ouchi, Junsuke Shirai, Kazuhiko Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
Porcine kobuviruses (PoKoVs) are ubiquitously distributed in pig populations worldwide and are thought to be enteric viruses in swine. Although PoKoVs have been detected in pigs in Japan, no complete genome data for Japanese PoKoVs are available. In the present study, 24 nearly complete or complete sequences of the PoKoV genome obtained from 10 diarrheic feces and 14 non-diarrheic feces of Japanese pigs were analyzed using a metagenomics approach. Japanese PoKoVs shared 85.2-100% identity with the complete coding nucleotide (nt) sequences and the closest relationship of 85...
May 8, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477233/deletion-of-the-us7-and-us8-genes-of-pseudorabies-virus-exerts-a-differential-effect-on-the-expression-of-early-and-late-viral-genes
#4
Nándor Póka, Zsolt Csabai, Emese Pásti, Dóra Tombácz, Zsolt Boldogkői
The pseudorabies virus (PRV; also known as Suid herpesvirus-1) is a neurotropic herpesvirus of swine. The us7 and us8 genes of this virus encode the glycoprotein I and E membrane proteins that form a heterodimer that is known to control cell-to-cell spread in tissue culture and in animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of the deletion of the PRV us7 and us8 genes on the genome-wide transcription and DNA replication using a multi-time-point quantitative reverse transcriptase-based real-time PCR technique...
May 5, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456924/genomic-recombination-in-primate-bocavirus-inconsistency-and-alternative-interpretations
#5
REVIEW
Yee Ling Chong, Kar Hon Ng
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a single-stranded DNA virus in Parvoviridae family, causing respiratory diseases in human. The recent identifications of genomic recombination among the four human bocavirus genotypes and related non-human primate bocaviruses have shed lights into the evolutionary processes underpinning the diversity of primate bocavirus. Among these reports, however, we found inconsistency and possible alternative interpretations of the recombination events. In this study, these recombination events were reviewed, and the related genome sequences were re-analysed, aiming to inform the research community of bocavirus with more consistent knowledge and comprehensive interpretations on the recombination history of primate bocavirus...
April 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455573/filaggrin-gene-polymorphism-associated-with-epstein-barr-virus-associated-tumors-in-china
#6
Yang Yang, Wen Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Hua Xiao, Bing Luo
Mutations of filaggrin gene (FLG) have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris, while recently FLG mutations were found to be associated with gastric cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association of filaggrin polymorphism with Epstein-Barr virus-associated tumors in China. A total of 200 patients with three types of tumors and 117 normal control samples were genotyped at three common FLG mutation loci (rs3126085, K4671X, R501X) by using Sequenom MassARRAY technique. The χ (2) test was used to evaluate the relationship between the mutation and the three kinds of tumors...
April 28, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451945/herpesviral-capture-of-immunomodulatory-host-genes
#7
REVIEW
Günther Schönrich, Mohammed O Abdelaziz, Martin J Raftery
Herpesviruses have acquired numerous genes from their hosts. Although these homologs are not essential for viral replication, they often have important immunomodulatory functions that ensure viral persistence in the host. Some of these viral molecules are called virokines as they mimic cellular cytokines of their host such as interleukin-10 (cIL-10). In recent years, many viral homologs of IL-10 (vIL-10s) have been discovered in the genome of members of the order Herpesvirales. For some, gene and protein structure as well as biological activity and potential use in the clinical context have been explored...
April 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451944/characterization-of-colombian-serotype-1-avian-paramyxoviruses-2008-2010
#8
Y Berhane, T Hisanaga, W Xu, N A Mosos Campos, H Kehler, C P Calderón Parra, J Pasick
Newcastle disease (ND) still remains one of the most important diseases affecting domestic poultry in Colombia. Here, for the first time, we report on the molecular characterization of 12 virulent and 12 avirulent or lentogenic avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains that were isolated from commercial, backyard, and game poultry in Colombia from 2008 to 2010. The 12 virulent isolates had a fusion (F) protein cleavage site with basic amino acids at positions 113, 115, and 116 and a phenylalanine at position 117 ((112)RRQKR*F(117)), characteristic of virulent strains...
April 27, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447193/ebola-and-marburg-virus-vaccines
#9
REVIEW
Pierce Reynolds, Andrea Marzi
The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV), and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most pathogenic viruses known to man and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Africa with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Nearly 30,000 infections were observed in the latest EBOV epidemic in West Africa; previous outbreaks were much smaller, typically only affecting less than a few hundred people. Compared to other diseases such as AIDS or Malaria with millions of cases annually, filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is one of the neglected infectious diseases...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447192/rescue-of-a-wild-type-rabies-virus-from-cloned-cdna-and-assessment-of-the-proliferative-capacity-of-recombinant-viruses
#10
Qin Tian, Yifei Wang, Qiong Zhang, Jun Luo, Mingzhu Mei, Yongwen Luo, Xiaofeng Guo
Reverse genetic systems (RGS) have been widely used for fixed rabies virus (RABV) strains. However, RGS, for wild-type (wt) strains, have been seldom reported despite the value of this approach in defining the biological characteristics of these strains. In this work, we developed a wt RGS using a swine-origin RABV strain (GD-SH-01) for the first time. In order to have a better understanding of the contribution and function of individual gene on viral proliferation for wt RABV isolates, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone of GD-SH-01 and exchanged the single genes encoding RABV protein of a highly attenuated RABV strain HEP-Flury with those of the virulent strain...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447191/the-human-cytomegalovirus-chemokine-receptor-homolog-encoded-by-us27
#11
REVIEW
James R Stegman, Barry J Margulies
The genome of human cytomegalovirus contains four genes that encode chemokine receptor homologs. Of these, the protein encoded by US27 is of particular interest today because it is currently one of the viral G-protein coupled receptors that remain classified as an orphan receptor. This review explains what is presently understood about this glycoprotein: its biochemistry, its location in infected cells, and its apparent function. While there are still many questions that remain about these topics and more, we also discuss the utility of the US27-encoded glycoprotein as a new target for antiviral intervention...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434065/alternative-reverse-genetics-system-for-influenza-viruses-based-on-a-synthesized-swine-45s-rrna-promoter
#12
Kai Wang, Qi Huang, Zhiwei Yang, Kezong Qi, Hongmei Liu, Hongjun Chen
We generated an alternative reverse genetics (RG) system based on a synthesized swine 45S rRNA promoter to rescue the H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus. All eight flanking segment cassettes of A/swine/Henan/7/2010 (H3N2) were amplified with ambisense expression elements from RG plasmids. All segments were then recombined with the pHC2014 vector, which contained the synthesized swine 45S rRNA promoter (spol1) and its terminal sequence (t1) in a pcDNA3 backbone. As a result, we obtained a set of RG plasmids carrying the corresponding eight-segment cassettes...
April 22, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425034/the-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-death-effector-domain-containing-protein-mc160-rxdl-motifs-are-not-required-for-its-known-viral-immune-evasion-functions
#13
Michael Beaury, Uday Kiran Velagapudi, Sarah Weber, Cassandra Soto, Tanaji T Talele, Daniel Brian Nichols
The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) uses a variety of immune evasion strategies to antagonize host immune responses. Two MCV proteins, MC159 and MC160, contain tandem death effector domains (DEDs). They are reported to inhibit innate immune signaling events such as NF-κB and IRF3 activation, and apoptosis. The RxDL motif of MC159 is required for inhibition of both apoptosis and NF-κB activation. However, the role of the conserved RxDL motif in the MC160 DEDs remained unknown. To answer this question, we performed alanine mutations to neutralize the arginine and aspartate residues present in the MC160 RxDL in both DED1 and DED2...
April 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417300/a-live-gi-ge-deleted-pseudorabies-virus-prv-protects-weaned-piglets-against-lethal-variant-prv-challenge
#14
Yue Yin, Zhiwen Xu, Xiaowan Liu, Ping Li, Fan Yang, Jun Zhao, Yi Fan, Xiangang Sun, Ling Zhu
Emerging pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has led to frequent outbreaks of PRV infection among Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine population in Chinese swine farms and caused high mortality in pigs of all age since late 2011. Here, we generated a gE/gI-deleted PRV (rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP) based on PRV variant strain (PRV-XJ) through homologous DNA recombination. Compared to parental strain, rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP showed similar growth kinetics in vitro. Its safety and immunogenicity were evaluated in weaned piglets. Our results showed that piglets immunized with rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP did not exhibit any clinical symptoms, and a high level of gB-specific antibody was detected...
April 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391502/genomic-analysis-of-chimeric-human-cytomegalovirus-vaccine-candidates-derived-from-strains-towne-and-toledo
#15
Nicolás M Suárez, Betty Lau, George M Kemble, Ronzo Lee, Edward S Mocarski, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Stuart P Adler, Michael A McVoy, Andrew J Davison
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients and a major cause of congenital birth defects when acquired in utero. In the 1990s, four chimeric viruses were constructed by replacing genome segments of the high passage Towne strain with segments of the low passage Toledo strain, with the goal of obtaining live attenuated vaccine candidates that remained safe but were more immunogenic than the overly attenuated Towne vaccine. The chimeras were found to be safe when administered to HCMV-seronegative human volunteers, but to differ significantly in their ability to induce seroconversion...
April 8, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386784/genetic-analysis-of-a-novel-reassortant-h11n9-isolated-from-waterfowl-in-south-korea-in-2016
#16
Tran Bac Le, In Hong Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Seung Kyoo Oh, Sang Heui Seo
Aquatic birds are known to harbor all the known influenza A viruses. In the winter of January 2016, we surveyed influenza A virus in the feces of migratory birds in South Korea. The novel re-assorted H11N9 avian influenza virus, which contains genes from avian influenza viruses of poultry and wild birds, was isolated. The polymerase basic 2 (PB2), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes were most closely related to those of domestic duck-origin avian influenza viruses, while the non-structural (NS) gene was closely related to that of domestic goose-origin avian influenza virus...
April 6, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365829/newcastle-disease-virus-like-particles-induce-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-enhance-viral-specific-immune-response
#17
Jing Qian, Jiaxin Ding, Renfu Yin, Yixue Sun, Cong Xue, Xiaohong Xu, Jianzhong Wang, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu, Xiufan Liu, Shunlin Hu, Yanlong Cong, Zhuang Ding
Circulating of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a great threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are increasingly being considered as potential viral vaccines due to their safety and efficacy. In this study, we analyzed in vitro the stimulatory effects of VLPs containing the matrix and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of genotype VII NDV on dendritic cells (DCs) and evaluated their immunogenicity in mice. The results showed that immature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) responded to stimulation with VLPs by up-regulating expressions of MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 molecules and by increasing the cytokine secretions of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-12p70...
April 1, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357676/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-virus-like-particles-produced-in-insect-cells-induce-specific-immune-responses-in-mice
#18
Cuiling Wang, Feihu Yan, Xuexing Zheng, Hualei Wang, Hongli Jin, Chong Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Yuwei Gao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which causes 80-100% mortality in neonatal piglets, is one of the most devastating viral diseases affecting swine worldwide. To date, the lack of effective vaccines and drugs is the main problem preventing control of the global spread of PEDV. In this study, we produced PEDV virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of S, M, and E proteins with a baculovirus expression system and tested them via indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA)and Western blot analysis. Electron microscopy showed that the morphological structure of the PEDV VLPs was similar to that of the protovirus...
March 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401407/molecular-analysis-of-amantadine-resistant-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-virus-isolated-from-slum-dwellers-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#19
Mozibur Rahman, Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Mohammad Ariful Islam, Sabita Rezwana Rahman
Influenza is a highly contagious viral infection associated with excessive hospitalizations and deaths throughout the world. Continuous antigenic shift and drift is not only responsible for this devastating effect of influenza but also causes ineffectiveness of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of ribavirin, oseltamivir, and amantadine drugs in vitro against nine influenza A isolates collected during June 2012-August 2013 from different slums in Dhaka city. The effectiveness of these drugs was determined by measuring the inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect on MDCK cells through MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)...
June 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364140/insights-into-jumonji-c-domain-containing-protein-6-jmjd6-a-multifactorial-role-in-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-replication-in-cells
#20
REVIEW
Paul Lawrence, Elizabeth Rieder
The Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) has had a convoluted history, and recent reports indicating a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection have further complicated the functionality of this protein. It was first identified as the phosphatidylserine receptor on the cell surface responsible for recognizing phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells resulting in their engulfment by phagocytic cells. Subsequent study revealed a nuclear subcellular localization, where JMJD6 participated in lysine hydroxylation and arginine demethylation of histone proteins and other non-histone proteins...
June 2017: Virus Genes
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