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Virus Genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815417/cellular-interactome-analysis-of-vaccinia-virus-k7-protein-identifies-three-transport-machineries-as-binding-partners-for-k7
#1
Ye Li, Youyang Ke, Leiliang Zhang
Identification of viral-host interacting proteins will contribute to understanding of how poxvirus exploits the host cellular machinery. The vaccinia virus gene K7R encodes a conserved protein K7 in most orthopoxviruses. To gain insight into the biology of K7, we investigated the cellular interactome of K7 by GST pulldown coupled with mass spectrometry. The top categories of identified proteins contained components of trafficking machineries. We selected key components of three transport machineries including coatomer, retromer, and CHEVI to further confirm their binding abilities to K7...
August 16, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808849/a-rapid-method-for-establishment-of-a-reverse-genetics-system-for-canine-parvovirus
#2
Yongle Yu, Jun Su, Jigui Wang, Ji Xi, Yaping Mao, Qiang Hou, Xiaomei Zhang, Weiquan Liu
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important and highly prevalent pathogen of dogs that causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis disease. Here, we describe a rapid method for the construction and characterization of a full-length infectious clone (rCPV) of CPV. Feline kidney (F81) cells were transfected with rCPV incorporating an engineered EcoR I site that served as a genetic marker. The rescued virus was indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus in its biological properties.
August 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795266/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-zika-virus-amplified-from-urine-of-traveler-from-the-philippines
#3
Se Hun Gu, Dong Hyun Song, Daesang Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Min Young Kim, Jaehun Jung, Koung In Woo, Mirang Kim, Woong Seog, Hong Sang Oh, Byung Seop Choi, Jong-Seong Ahn, Quehn Park, Seong Tae Jeong
Zika virus (ZIKV) (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The rapid spread of ZIKV disease in over 60 countries and the large numbers of travel-associated cases have caused worldwide concern. Thus, intensified surveillance of cases among immigrants and tourists from ZIKV-endemic areas is important for disease control and prevention. In this study, using Next Generation Sequencing, we reported the first whole-genome sequence of ZIKV strain AFMC-U, amplified from the urine of a traveler returning to Korea from the Philippines...
August 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762208/two-novel-poxviruses-with-unusual-genome-rearrangements-ny_014-and-murmansk
#4
Chad Smithson, Hermann Meyer, Crystal M Gigante, Jinxin Gao, Hui Zhao, Dhwani Batra, Inger Damon, Chris Upton, Yu Li
The genome sequence and annotation of two novel poxviruses, NY_014 and Murmansk, are presented. Despite being isolated on different continents and from different hosts, the viruses are relatively similar, albeit distinct species. The closest known relative of the novel viruses is Yoka poxvirus. Five novel genes were found in these genomes, two of which were MHC class I homologs. Although the core of these genomes was well conserved, the terminal regions showed significant variability with large deletions and surprising evidence of recombination with orthopoxviruses...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762207/the-efficacy-of-antisense-based-construct-for-inducing-resistance-against-croton-yellow-vein-mosaic-virus-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#5
V Sinha, N B Sarin, D Bhatnagar
Begomoviruses have increased pathogenicity because of their adaptation to a wide host range; consequently, these viruses cause a major loss to agroeconomic crops worldwide. In this study, we designed a gene construct representing an antisense coat protein gene. We also analyzed the efficacy of the induced resistance against Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CrYVMV) affecting papaya in Nicotiana tabacum plants. Positive control plants developed typical leaf curl symptoms, whereas transgenic plants were symptomless...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762206/the-retroviral-vector-family-something-for-everyone
#6
REVIEW
Carina Elsner, Jens Bohne
After 30 years of retroviral vector research it became clear that the parental viruses can be both friend and foe. Especially human immunodeficiency virus sparked a global pandemic, but could be converted into a versatile tool for cell therapy. For all retroviral genera, the way from virus to vector was similar resulting in split-vector systems based on the separation of the genes needed for vector particle formation and transgene expression. The first gene therapy trials, although clinically effective, revealed the genotoxicity of retroviral vectors caused by insertional mutagenesis...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762205/next-generation-aav-vectors-for-clinical-use-an-ever-accelerating-race
#7
REVIEW
Jonas Weinmann, Dirk Grimm
During the past five decades, it has become evident that Adeno-associated virus (AAV) represents one of the most potent, most versatile, and thus most auspicious platforms available for gene delivery into cells, animals and, ultimately, humans. Particularly attractive is the ease with which the viral capsid-the major determinant of virus-host interaction including cell specificity and antibody recognition-can be modified and optimized at will. This has motivated countless researchers to develop high-throughput technologies in which genetically engineered AAV capsid libraries are subjected to a vastly hastened emulation of natural evolution, with the aim to enrich novel synthetic AAV capsids displaying superior features for clinical application...
July 31, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755290/barriers-to-systemic-application-of-virus-based-vectors-in-gene-therapy-lessons-from-adenovirus-type-5
#8
REVIEW
Franziska Jönsson, Florian Kreppel
Currently, virus-based vectors, namely derivatives of the adenovirus, are frequently used in a wide variety of ex vivo or local gene therapeutic applications. However, the efficacy of virus-based vectors in systemic applications is presently still extremely limited. Complex interactions of the various vector types with the patient's organism hinder successful vector deployment. Exemplary, here we summarize barriers to systemic application of Adenovirus-based vectors leading either to acute toxic effects or rapid vector neutralization and discuss strategies to overcome these barriers aiming to develop more efficient vector types...
July 28, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744797/reconstructing-the-immune-system-with-lentiviral-vectors
#9
REVIEW
Henning Olbrich, Constanze Slabik, Renata Stripecke
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) developed in the past two decades for research and pre-clinical purposes have entered clinical trials with remarkable safety and efficacy performances. Development and clinical testing of LVs for improvement of human immunity showed major advantages in comparison to other viral vector systems. Robust and persisted transduction efficiency of blood cells with LVs, resulted into a broad range of target cells for immune therapeutic approaches: from hematopoietic stem cells and precursor cells for correction of immune deficiencies, up to effector lymphoid and myeloid cells...
July 25, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733876/human-papillomavirus-type-8-e7-protein-binds-nuclear-myosin-1c-and-downregulates-the-expression-of-pre-rrna
#10
Evelyn Oswald, Eileen Reinz, Renate Voit, François Aubin, Angel Alonso, Eeva Auvinen
Our aim was to search for new cellular binding partners for the E6 and E7 oncogenes of beta human papillomaviruses (HPV), whose direct role in skin carcinogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated. By employing glutathione S-transferase pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation, we identified nuclear myosin 1c as a binding partner of HPV 8 E7 protein. As nuclear myosin 1c is an essential component of the RNA polymerase I transcription complex, we studied the effects of HPV 8 E7 protein expression on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression...
July 21, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725978/strategies-and-methods-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-viral-vectors
#11
REVIEW
Thorsten Stellberger, Nina Koehler, Anna Dinkelmeier, Johannes Draxler, Maren Haase, Jessica Hellinckx, Melanie Pavlovic, Ulrich Busch, Armin Baiker
The production and application of viral vectors are frequently performed genetic engineering operations. HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors, AAV2-based, and adenoviral vectors are amongst the most abundant viral vectors utilized for gene delivery. They are generally classified into risk group 1 or 2 (according to EU directive 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work).
July 19, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721488/further-changes-in-the-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-complex-an-indication-of-things-to-come
#12
LETTER
Ishtiaq Hassan, Imran Amin, Shahid Mansoor, Rob W Briddon
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) has been a problem for cotton production in Pakistan and India since the early 1990s. The disease is caused by begomoviruses associated with a specific satellite, the cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). In 2001, resistance introduced into cotton was broken by a recombinant begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus strain Burewala (CLCuKoV-Bur). Unusually, in resistant cotton, this virus lacked an intact transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) gene, with the capacity to encode only 35 of the usual ~134 amino acids...
July 18, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718047/antigenic-variability-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-serotype-o-during-serial-cytolytic-passage
#13
Saravanan Subramaniam, Biswajit Das, Jitendra K Biswal, Rajeev Ranjan, Bramhadev Pattnaik
The emergence and disappearance of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during a field outbreak occurs periodically due to the volatile nature of its genome. In the present analysis, change in antigenic behavior of serotype O FMDV during the serial cytolytic passage in the absence of immune pressure was observed. Initially, the isolate showed a poor antigenic match (relationship value <0.3) with the serotype O vaccine strain and upon serial passage increase in relationship value was observed...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718046/complete-genome-sequencing-and-characterization-revealed-a-recombinant-subgroup-b-isolate-of-avian-leukosis-virus-with-a-subgroup-j-like-u3-region
#14
Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Lulu Lin, Haijuan Li, Ping Wei
One natural recombinant subgroup B avian leukosis virus (ALV) with a subgroup J-like U3 region was isolated from commercial native chickens that experienced disease in 2014 and named GX14FF03. GX14FF03 was isolated by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of avian leukosis virus p27 group-specific antigen, the detection of subtype specific PCR, and indirect immunofluorescence assay with ALV-B-specific monoclonal antibody. Its complete proviral genome was sequenced and compared with the reference strains of ALVs and found that the gag and pol were relatively conservative...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718045/full-length-genome-sequence-analysis-of-four-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-strains-isolated-from-chickens-with-clinical-hemangioma
#15
Lulu Lin, Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Haijuan Li, Teng Huang, Ping Wei
Since 2014, cases of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have been emerging in commercial chickens in Guangxi. In this study, four strains of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), named GX14HG01, GX14HG04, GX14LT07, and GX14ZS14, were isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma in 2014 by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of ALV group specific antigen p27, the detection of subtype specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711987/getting-genetic-access-to-natural-adenovirus-genomes-to-explore-vector-diversity
#16
REVIEW
Wenli Zhang, Anja Ehrhardt
Recombinant vectors based on the human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) have been developed and extensively used in preclinical and clinical studies for over 30 years. However, certain restrictions of HAdV5-based vectors have limited their clinical applications because they are rather inefficient in specifically transducing cells of therapeutic interest that lack the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Moreover, enhanced vector-associated toxicity and widespread preexisting immunity have been shown to significantly hamper the effectiveness of HAdV-5-mediated gene transfer...
July 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710608/vaccine-platform-recombinant-measles-virus
#17
REVIEW
Michael D Mühlebach
The classic development of vaccines is lengthy, tedious, and may not necessarily be successful as demonstrated by the case of HIV. This is especially a problem for emerging pathogens that are newly introduced into the human population and carry the inherent risk of pandemic spread in a naïve population. For such situations, a considerable number of different platform technologies are under development. These are also under development for pathogens, where directly derived vaccines are regarded as too complicated or even dangerous due to the induction of inefficient or unwanted immune responses causing considerable side-effects as for dengue virus...
July 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702840/oncolytic-viruses-adenoviruses
#18
REVIEW
Julia Niemann, Florian Kühnel
Tumor-selectively replicating (oncolytic) viruses are promising tools for therapy of solid cancers and have been initially developed to achieve potent tumor lysis with acceptable side effects on healthy tissue. However, in recent years, oncolytic viruses have been recognized as therapeutic vehicles exhibiting multipronged anti-tumoral activity. Apart from direct cytolysis, stimulation of both innate and adaptive tumor-directed immune responses have been recognized as important mechanisms of oncolytic virotherapy, which were probably decisive in achieving the long-term tumor remissions that oncolytic viruses have shown in clinical trials in advanced melanoma...
July 12, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685222/characterization-of-eptesipoxvirus-a-novel-poxvirus-from-a-microchiropteran-bat
#19
Shin-Lin Tu, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Jinxin Gao, Kimberly Wilkins, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Yu Li, Ginny L Emerson, Darin S Carroll, Chris Upton
The genome of Eptesipoxvirus (EPTV) is the first poxvirus genome isolated from a microbat. The 176,688 nt sequence, which is believed to encompass the complete coding region of the virus, is 67% A+T and is predicted to encode 191 genes. 11 of these genes have no counterpart in GenBank and are therefore unique to EPTV. The presence of a distantly related ortholog of Vaccinia virus F5L in EPTV uncovered a link with fragmented F5L orthologs in Molluscum contagiosum virus/squirrelpox and clade II viruses. Consistent with the unique position of EPTV approximately mid-point between the orthopoxviruses and the clade II viruses, EPTV has 11 genes that are specific to the orthopoxviruses and 13 genes that are typical, if not exclusive, to the clade II poxviruses...
July 6, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664467/phylogenetic-analysis-of-puumala-virus-strains-from-central-europe-highlights-the-need-for-a-full-genome-perspective-on-hantavirus-evolution
#20
Róbert Szabó, Lukáš Radosa, Martina Ličková, Monika Sláviková, Marta Heroldová, Michal Stanko, Milan Pejčoch, Anja Osterberg, Lies Laenen, Susanne Schex, Rainer G Ulrich, Sandra Essbauer, Piet Maes, Boris Klempa
Puumala virus (PUUV), carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), is the medically most important hantavirus in Central and Western Europe. In this study, a total of 523 bank voles (408 from Germany, 72 from Slovakia, and 43 from Czech Republic) collected between the years 2007-2012 were analyzed for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Partial PUUV genome segment sequences were obtained from 51 voles. Phylogenetic analyses of all three genome segments showed that the newfound strains cluster with other Central and Western European PUUV strains...
June 29, 2017: Virus Genes
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