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Virus Genes

Vahid Hasanvand, Mehdi Kamali, Jahangir Heydarnejad, Hossain Massumi, Anders Kvarnheden, Arvind Varsani
Turncurtoviruses (family: Geminiviridae; genus: Turncurtovirus) appear to have a high degree of genetic variation in Iran. Leafhoppers of the species Circulifer haematoceps (Mulsant and Rey, 1855) (family: Cicadellidae) were collected in 2014 from three geographical regions in south-eastern Iran (Orzoeyeh, Jiroft and Sirjan; Kerman province) and screened for the presence of turncurtoviruses using a combination of PCR and rolling circle amplification (RCA) methods. Eleven genomes of turncurtovirus were recovered and sequenced...
October 11, 2018: Virus Genes
Mariyam Masood, Rob W Briddon
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) has been a major constraint to cotton production across Pakistan and northwestern India since the early 1990s. The disease is caused by a number of begomoviruses, including Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV), which associate with a specific host range and symptom determining betasatellite known as Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). Bemisia tabaci is a complex of cryptic species that consists of numerous (> 44) morphologically indistinguishable and, at least partially, reproductively isolated species...
October 8, 2018: Virus Genes
Laura Elisa Argüello-Sánchez, Alejandro Espinosa de Los Monteros, Diego Santiago-Alarcon, Christian Alberto García-Sepúlveda
Adenoviruses are important pathogens known to infect vertebrate hosts, including a wide range of primates. Despite its importance, data on the diversity of these viruses in non-human primates living in their natural habitat remain scarce. In this study, we conducted a surveillance of adenoviral infection in wild black howler monkeys from two protected natural areas in Mexico. This was achieved by analyzing 67 fecal samples using a nested PCR that targets the adenovirus DNA polymerase gene. Adenoviral DNA was detected in 12 samples from both study sites, with an overall prevalence of 17...
September 20, 2018: Virus Genes
Hitoshi Takemae, Chaerul Basri, Ni Luh Putu Ika Mayasari, Ronald Tarigan, Hiroshi Shimoda, Tsutomu Omatsu, Supratikno, Didik Pramono, Danang Dwi Cahyadi, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Keisuke Iida, Tetsuya Mizutani, Ken Maeda, Srihadi Agungpriyono, Eiichi Hondo
Flying foxes belonging to the genus Pteropus are known to be reservoirs of zoonotic viruses. In this study, we describe the isolation of Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) from rectal swab samples of Pteropus vampyrus in Indonesia. PRV is an emerging zoonotic respiratory virus that can be transmitted from bats to humans. Rectal swabs (n = 91) were screened by PCR for PRV and 10 (11%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences indicated that the S2, S3, S4, M3, L2, and L3 segments of one isolate (Garut-69) were closely related to previously isolated strains in Indonesia...
September 19, 2018: Virus Genes
Lei Yuan, Xiaojuan Feng, Xuelian Gao, Yu Luo, Chaoyue Liu, Peng Liu, Guolin Yang, Hong Ren, Rong Huang, Yalan Feng, Jian Yang
Japanese encephalitis is a zoonotic, mosquito-borne, infectious disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is prevalent in China. At present, there are no specific drugs or therapies for JEV infection, which can only be treated symptomatically. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly efficient method to silence target genes. In this study, two lentiviral shRNA, LV-C and LV-NS5, targeting the conserved viral gene sequences were used to inhibit different JEV genotypes strains in BHK21 cells and mice...
September 18, 2018: Virus Genes
Jessica M Jacob, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Shin-Lin Tu, Ole Nielsen, Pamela A Tuomi, Chris Upton, Thomas B Waltzek
Members of the Poxviridae family are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of their host cells. The subfamily Chordopoxvirinae contains viruses that infect a wide range of vertebrates including marine mammals within the Balaenidae, Delphinidae, Mustelidae, Odobenidae, Otariidae, Phocidae, and Phocoenidae families. Recently, a novel poxvirus was found in a northern sea otter pup (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) that stranded in Alaska in 2009. The phylogenetic relationships of marine mammal poxviruses are not well established because of the lack of complete genome sequences...
September 17, 2018: Virus Genes
Matheus N Weber, Samuel P Cibulski, Simone Silveira, Franciele M Siqueira, Ana Cristina S Mósena, Mariana S da Silva, Juliana C Olegário, Ana Paula M Varela, Thaís F Teixeira, Matheus V Bianchi, David Driemeier, Saulo P Pavarini, Fabiana Q Mayer, Paulo M Roehe, Cláudio W Canal
Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, reclassified as Pestivirus A, causes an economically important cattle disease that is distributed worldwide. Pestivirus A may cause persistent infection in that calves excrete the virus throughout their lives, spreading the infection in the herd. Many persistently infected (PI) calves die in the first 2 years of life from mucosal disease (MD) or secondary infections, probably as a consequence of virus-induced immune depression. Here, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was applied for evaluation of the total virome in sera of (i) PI calves displaying clinically apparent MD (n = 8); (ii) PI calves with no signs of MD (n = 8); and (iii) control, Pestivirus A-free calves (n = 8)...
September 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Guangyuan Zhao, Decai Tuo, Pu Yan, Xiaoying Li, Peng Zhou, Wentao Shen
We used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV-GFP) to track PLDMV infection by fluorescence. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of PLDMV-GFP were characterized from papaya plants by next-generation sequencing. The foreign GFP gene inserted into the PLDMV genome was also processed as a viral gene into siRNAs by components involved in RNA silencing. The siRNAs derived from PLDMV-GFP accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) lengths, and most of the 5'-terminal ends were biased towards uridine (U) and adenosine (A)...
September 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Luping Zheng, Liping Wu, Joseph Postman, Huawei Liu, Ruhui Li
Two large contigs with high sequence similarities to several closteroviruses were identified by high-throughput sequencing from a blackcurrant plant. The complete genome of this new virus was determined to be 17,320 nucleotides. Its genome contains ten open reading frames (ORF) that include, in the 5'-3' direction, a large ORF encoding a putative viral polyprotein (ORF 1a) and nine ORFs that encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, ORF 1b), p6 (ORF 2), heat shock protein 70-like protein (Hsp70h, ORF 3), Hsp-90-like protein (p61, ORF 4), CP minor (ORF 5), CP (ORF 6), p17 (ORF 7), p11 (ORF 8), and p26 (ORF 9), respectively...
September 11, 2018: Virus Genes
Luca De Sabato, Gabriele Vaccari, Philippe Lemey, Maria Grazia Amoroso, Giovanna Fusco, Giovanni Ianiro, Ilaria Di Bartolo
The complete and near-complete genome sequences (7206 nt and 7229 nt) of two wild boar HEV strains detected in Southern Italy were obtained by the next generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis and p distance comparisons of one of the strains with HEV-3 reference subtype strains confirmed the detection of a subtype 3i (p distance = 0.110) strain in wild boar, never detected in Italy either in wild boar or pigs. The sequence of the second strain was not classifiable in any of the subtypes defined to date, showing a p distance > 0...
September 10, 2018: Virus Genes
Jing Zhang, Yangchao Lu, Shaowen Li, Xugang Ku, Xiaoli Liu, Atta Muhammad Memon, Qigai He, Dingren Bi, Xianrong Meng
Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased swine around the world. It was recently reported that PBoV and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-which contribute to porcine diarrheal disease-have a high rate of co-infection. To clarify the pathogenesis of PBoV, we examined the co-infection rate and effects of these two pathogens in IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal enterocytes. Both single and co-infection had cytopathic effects in IPEC-J2 cells. The apoptosis and proliferation rates of cells infected with both viruses did not differ significantly from those of cells infected with either one alone...
October 2018: Virus Genes
Donus Gencer, Remziye Nalcacioglu, Zihni Demirbag, Ismail Demir
The lackey moth, Malacosoma neustria (Linnaeus, 1758), a worldwide pest, causes extensive economic losses particularly on hazelnut, plum, oak, poplar, and willow trees. A baculovirus, Malacosoma neustria nucleopolyhedrovirus (ManeNPV-T2), has been isolated from the larvae collected in Turkey and appears to have a potential as a microbial control agent. In this study, we describe the complete genome sequence of ManeNPV-T2 and compare it to other sequenced baculovirus genomes. The ManeNPV-T2 genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 130,202 bp, has 38...
October 2018: Virus Genes
N Haddad, L Horth, B Al-Shagour, N Adjlane, W Loucif-Ayad
RNA viruses are associated with honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony losses in many parts of the world. Their consequences may be exacerbated when the ectoparasite mite Varroa destructor is present in hives. While evidence of pathogenic, viral-induced disease is abundant in western honey bees (Apis mellifera mellifera) from many parts of the world, less information exists regarding the pathogen load of Apis mellifera syriaca and Apis mellifera intermissa, honey bees from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) that play substantial roles in regional beekeeping...
October 2018: Virus Genes
Yu Liu, Deyu Zhou, Di Qi, Jiabin Feng, Zhou Liu, Yue Hu, Wenyuan Shen, Chang Liu, Xiaohong Kong
Despite the notable success of combination antiretroviral therapy, how to eradicate latent HIV-1 from reservoirs poses a challenge. The Tat protein plays an indispensable role in HIV reactivation and histone demethylase LSD1 promotes Tat-mediated long terminal repeats (LTR) activation. However, the role of LSD1 in remodeling chromatin and the role of its component BHC80 in activation of latent HIV-1 in T cells are unknown. Our findings indicate that LSD1 could decrease the level of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) at the HIV-1 promoter by recruiting histone lysine demethylase 5A (KDM5A) and preventing histone methyltransferase Set1A and WD-40 repeat protein 5 (WDR5) from binding to LTR...
October 2018: Virus Genes
Junchao Shi, Kui Zhao, Huijun Lu, Zi Li, Xiaoling Lv, Yungang Lan, Jiyu Guan, Wenqi He, Feng Gao
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a member of the genus betacoronavirus within the family coronaviridae, which invades the central nervous system (CNS) via peripheral nervous system and causes encephalomyelitis or vomiting and wasting disease (VWD) in sucking piglets. Up to now, although few complete nucleotide sequences of PHEV have been reported, they are not annotated. This study aimed to illuminate genome characterization, phylogenesis and pathogenicity of the PHEV/2008 strain. The full length of the PHEV/2008 strain genome was 30,684 bp, with a G + C content of 37...
October 2018: Virus Genes
Tomoko Kato, Maki Aizawa, Katsunori Takayoshi, Tohru Yanase, Shogo Tanaka, Hiroaki Shirafuji, Makoto Yamakawa
Two virus strains, tentatively designated as ON-6/P/05 and ON-7/E/05, were isolated from blood samples of healthy cattle in the Yaeyama Islands, located in the southwestern-most region of Japan, in 2005. Ultrastructural observations of infected baby hamster (BHK-21) cells revealed that the viruses had features consistent with those of orbivirus. As with other orbiviruses, the viral genome consists of 10 double-stranded RNA segments. The full genome sequence of ON-6/P/05 was determined and shared high nucleotide and amino acid identities (90...
October 2018: Virus Genes
Boris Klempa
Hantaviruses (order Bunyavirales, family Hantaviridae), known as important zoonotic human pathogens, possess the capacity to exchange genome segments via genetic reassortment due to their tri-segmented genome. Although not as frequent as in the arthropod-borne bunyaviruses, reports indicating reassortment events in the evolution of hantaviruses have been recently accumulating. The intra- and inter-lineage reassortment between closely related variants has been repeatedly reported for several hantaviruses including the rodent-borne human pathogens such as Sin Nombre virus, Puumala virus, Dobrava-Belgrade virus, or Hantaan virus as well as for the more recently recognized shrew-borne hantaviruses, Imjin and Seewis...
October 2018: Virus Genes
Uma Sharma, Sunil Gupta, S Venkatesh, Arvind Rai, A C Dhariwal, Mohammad Husain
It is important to study the molecular properties of vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy to understand disease progression. P24 having an important role in virus assembly and maturation was selected to explore the genotypic characteristics. Blood samples, obtained from 82 HIV-1 positive infants, were categorized into acute (≤ 6 months) and early (> 6-18 months) age groups. Of the 82 samples, 79 gave amplification results for p24, which were then sequenced and analysed. Amino acid heterogeneity analysis showed that substitutions were more frequent...
October 2018: Virus Genes
Adele Crane, Michael E Goebel, Simona Kraberger, Anne C Stone, Arvind Varsani
Viral diversity associated with Antarctic wildlife remains poorly studied. Nonetheless, over the past 5 years, there has been a concerted effort using viral metagenomics approaches to identify and characterize viruses associated with Antarctic pinniped and avian species. Here we used a viral metagenomics approach to identify circular DNA viruses in buccal swab samples from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) breeding on Livingston Island, Antarctica during the 2016/2017 field season. We identified two new lineages of anelloviruses, torque teno Arctocephalus gazella virus (TTAgV)-1 (2083 nts) and -2 (2127-2143 nts), which are most closely related to and cluster with a previously identified anellovirus associated with California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) sharing ~ 60% genome-wide pairwise identity...
October 2018: Virus Genes
Haoran Wang, Cong Li, Lina Cai, Shouguo Fang, Limin Zheng, Fei Yan, Songbai Zhang, Yong Liu
Bipolaris maydis is the causal agent of corn southern leaf blight. Here, we report a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus designated Bipolaris maydis botybirnavirus 1 (BmBRV1) from B. maydis strain JZ11 in Jingzhou, Hubei province of China. BmBRV1 has a genome consisting of two dsRNAs (dsRNA1 and dsRNA2) with a size of 6435 and 5987 bp, respectively, each of which contains a single open reading frame (ORF). The two polyproteins encoded by dsRNA1 and dsRNA2 share the highest amino acid identities of 81...
October 2018: Virus Genes
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