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Virus Genes

Jing Zhou, Ioannis E Tzanetakis
Few diseases have emerged in such a short period of time as soybean vein necrosis. The disease is present in all major producing areas in North America, affecting one of the major row field instead of row crops for the United States. Because of the significance of soybean in the agricultural economy and the widespread presence of the disease, the causal agent, soybean vein necrosis virus has been studied by several research groups. Research in the past 10 years has focused on virus epidemiology, management, and effects on yield and seed quality...
December 12, 2018: Virus Genes
Nan Cheng, Yongkun Zhao, Qiuxue Han, Weijiao Zhang, Ji Xi, Yongle Yu, Hualei Wang, Guohua Li, Yuwei Gao, Songtao Yang, Weiquan Liu, Xianzhu Xia
Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infects cats and can be fatal to kittens. There is evidence that canine parvovirus originated from FPV, which makes FPV important in studies of the family Parvoviridae. In the present study, the entire genome of FPV strain HH-1/86 was converted into a full-length infectious clone (pFPV). The FPV strain HH-1/86 has a 5123-nt single stranded DNA genome with a Y-shaped inverted 3' terminal repeat (ITR) and a U-shaped inverted 5' ITR. Feline kidney cells (F81) were transfected with the pFPV clone which contained a genetic marker, and a rescued virus was obtained (rFPV)...
December 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh, Steven G Widen, Divya Mirchandani, Peter J Walker
Viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae are ecologically very diverse, infecting mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, plants and a wide range of other terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. The genus Sripuvirus currently comprises five viruses that appear to circulate in transmission cycles involving reptiles and sandflies. Here, we report an analysis of the complete coding sequences of Cuiaba virus (CUIV), isolated from an amphibian (Bufo marinus) collected in Brazil, and Charleville virus (CHVV), isolated from sandflies (Phlebotomus sp...
December 3, 2018: Virus Genes
Mohammad Yunus Ansari, Piyush Kumar Singh, Deepa Rajagopalan, Purnima Shanmugam, Asutosh Bellur, Melkote Subbarao Shaila
Peste-des-petits-ruminants is a highly contagious and fatal disease of goats and sheep caused by non-segmented, negative strand RNA virus belonging to the Morbillivirus genus-Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) which is evolutionarily closely related to Rinderpest virus (RPV). The large protein 'L' of the members of this genus is a multifunctional catalytic protein, which transcribes and replicates the viral genomic RNA as well as possesses mRNA capping, methylation and polyadenylation activities; however, the detailed mechanism of mRNA capping by PPRV L protein has not been studied...
December 3, 2018: Virus Genes
Chao Ye, Jing Chen, Xuefei Cheng, Shasha Zhou, Shan Jiang, Jingjing Xu, Hao Zheng, Wu Tong, Guoxin Li, Guangzhi Tong
The UL24 homologous genes are conserved in alphaherpesviruses. However, the proximity of the UL24 gene and the UL23 gene encoding for thymidine kinase (TK) in the genome of suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1) makes it difficult to mutate UL24 without affecting the expression of the TK gene, and thus functional studies of the UL24 gene have lagged behind. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 and homologous recombination were adopted to generate UL24 and TK mutant viruses. Deletion of either the UL24 or the TK gene resulted in significantly reduced SuHV-1 replication and spread capacity in Vero cells...
November 26, 2018: Virus Genes
Kishore K Dey, Jaylinn Sugikawa, Christopher Kerr, Michael J Melzer
Air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) plants being grown at the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry Biological Control Laboratory II in Alachua County, Florida were observed exhibiting foliar mosaic symptoms characteristic of virus infection. A double-stranded RNA library generated from a symptomatic plant underwent high-throughput sequencing to determine if viral pathogens were present. Sequence data revealed the presence of two viral genomes, one with properties congruent with members of the genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae), and the other with members of the genus Ampelovirus (family Closteroviridae)...
November 20, 2018: Virus Genes
Bina Mishra, Piyali Mondal, C L Patel, Insha Zafir, Rachna Gangwar, Neha Singh, Joyshikh Sonowal, Deepanker Bisht, Amit Ranjan Sahu, Mumtaz Baig, Basavaraj Sajjanar, R K Singh, Ravi Kumar Gandham
Sheeppox disease is associated with significant losses in sheep production world over. The sheep pox virus, the goatpox virus, and the lumpy skin disease virus cannot be distinguished by conventional serological tests. Identification of these pathogens needs molecular methods. In this study, seven genes viz. EEV maturation protein-F12L, Virion protein-D3R, RNA polymerase subunit-A5R, Virion core protein-A10L, EEV glycoprotein-A33R, VARV B22R homologue, and Kelch like protein-A55R that cover the start, middle, and end of the genome were selected...
November 16, 2018: Virus Genes
Robert L Harrison, Joseph D Mowery, Gary R Bauchan, David A Theilmann, Martin A Erlandson
The Mythimna unipuncta nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate KY310 (MyunNPV-KY310) is an alphabaculovirus isolated from a true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta) population in Kentucky, USA. Occlusion bodies of this virus were examined by electron microscopy and the genome sequence was determined by 454 pyrosequencing. MyunNPV-KY310 occlusion bodies consisted of irregular polyhedra measuring 0.8-1.8 µm in diameter and containing multiple virions, with one to six nucleocapsids per virion. The genome sequence was determined to be 156,647 bp with a nucleotide distribution of 43...
November 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Jiangtao Zhao, Ruo Feng
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, which is a pathogen affecting humans in Africa, Asia, and America. It is necessary to detect ZIKV with a rapid and sensitive molecular method to guide timely treatment. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was described, which is an attractive option as a fast, sensitive, and specific method for ZIKV detection using the NS5 protein coding region and the envelope protein (EP) coding region as target sequences. Two different techniques, a calcein/Mn2+ complex chromogenic method and real-time turbidity monitoring, were employed...
November 13, 2018: Virus Genes
Roberta Lecis, Mauro Mucedda, Ermanno Pidinchedda, Marco Pittau, Alberto Alberti
Bats may be natural reservoirs for a large variety of emerging viruses, including mammalian coronaviruses (CoV). The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans, with evidence that these viruses may have their ancestry in bats, highlights the importance of virus surveillance in bat populations. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a bat β-Coronavirus, detected during a viral survey carried out on different bat species in the island of Sardinia (Italy)...
November 13, 2018: Virus Genes
Natasha N Gaudreault, Sabarish V Indran, Velmurugan Balaraman, William C Wilson, Juergen A Richt
Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. RVFV is a threat to both animal and human health and has costly economic consequences mainly related to livestock production and trade. Competent hosts and vectors for RVFV are widespread, existing outside of endemic countries including the USA. Thus, the possibility of RVFV spreading to the USA or other countries worldwide is of significant concern. RVFV (genus Phlebovirus) is comprised of an enveloped virion containing a three-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genome that is able to undergo genetic reassortment...
November 13, 2018: Virus Genes
Behrokh Farahmand, Najmeh Taheri, Hadiseh Shokouhi, Hoorieh Soleimanjahi, Fatemeh Fotouhi
The 23-amino acid ectodomain of influenza virus M2 protein (M2e) is highly conserved among human influenza virus variants and represents an attractive target for developing a universal vaccine. Although this peptide has limited potency and low immunogenicity, the degree of M2e density has been shown to be a critical factor influencing the magnitude of epitope-specific responses. The aim of this study was to design a chimer protein consisting of three tandem repeats of M2e peptide sequence fused to the Leishmania major HSP70 gene and evaluate its characteristics and immunogenicity...
October 31, 2018: Virus Genes
Wonderful T Choga, Motswedi Anderson, Edward Zumbika, Sikhulile Moyo, Tshepiso Mbangiwa, Bonolo B Phinius, Pinkie Melamu, Mukendi K Kayembe, Ishmael Kasvosve, Theresa K Sebunya, Jason T Blackard, Max Essex, Rosemary M Musonda, Simani Gaseitsiwe
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a significant threat to blood transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where allogeneic blood donations are screened serologically, and more sensitive nucleic acid tests (NATs) are utilized infrequently. HBV strains circulating among blood donors in Botswana are not yet characterized. We designed a cross-sectional study to determine the HBV sub-genotypes and prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among blood donors between November 2014 and October 2015. A total of 12,575 blood donations were screened for HBsAg and 50 consecutive plasma samples were selected for genotyping from confirmed HBsAg+ donations...
October 31, 2018: Virus Genes
Xiao-Tao Zeng, Xiao-Chan Gao, Qi-Ya Zhang
Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae, is a viral pathogen infecting aquatic animal. RGV 43R has homologues only in Ranavirus and contains a transmembrane (TM) domain, but its role in RGV infection is unknown. In this study, 43R was determined to be associated with virion membrane. The transcripts encoding 43R and the protein itself appeared late in RGV-infected EPC cells and its expression was blocked by viral DNA replication inhibitor, indicating that 43R is a late expressed protein...
December 2018: Virus Genes
Ronghuan Wang, Shaozhen Xing, Feiyang Zhao, Ping Li, Zhiqiang Mi, Taoxing Shi, Hui Liu, Yigang Tong
Enterococcus faecalis is one of the main bacteria in the human and animal intestine but is also classed as an opportunistic pathogen. During normal growth, E. faecalis produces natural antibiotics and is conducive to human health. As ectopic parasites, E. faecalis is capable of causing infective endocarditis, neonatal sepsis, bloodstream infections, bacteremia, and intraabdominal infections. With the incidence of antibiotic resistance reaching crisis point, it is imperative to find alternative treatments for multidrug-resistant infections...
December 2018: Virus Genes
Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Aleksandra Antos, Jerzy Rola, Magdalena Larska
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is the member of Peribunyaviridae family, which comprises pathogens of importance for human and veterinary medicine. The virus is transmitted only between animals and mainly by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. This study was performed in order to determine SBV genetic diversity and elucidate the host-vector adaptation. All three viral segments were analysed for sequence variability and phylogenetic relations. The Polish SBV strains obtained from acute infections of cattle, congenital cases in sheep, and from Culicoides midges were sequenced using Sanger and next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods...
December 2018: Virus Genes
Vahid Hasanvand, Mehdi Kamali, Jahangir Heydarnejad, Hossain Massumi, Anders Kvarnheden, Arvind Varsani
Turncurtoviruses (family: Geminiviridae; genus: Turncurtovirus) appear to have a high degree of genetic variation in Iran. Leafhoppers of the species Circulifer haematoceps (Mulsant and Rey, 1855) (family: Cicadellidae) were collected in 2014 from three geographical regions in south-eastern Iran (Orzoeyeh, Jiroft and Sirjan; Kerman province) and screened for the presence of turncurtoviruses using a combination of PCR and rolling circle amplification (RCA) methods. Eleven genomes of turncurtovirus were recovered and sequenced...
December 2018: Virus Genes
Mariyam Masood, Rob W Briddon
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) has been a major constraint to cotton production across Pakistan and northwestern India since the early 1990s. The disease is caused by a number of begomoviruses, including Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV), which associate with a specific host range and symptom determining betasatellite known as Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). Bemisia tabaci is a complex of cryptic species that consists of numerous (> 44) morphologically indistinguishable and, at least partially, reproductively isolated species...
December 2018: Virus Genes
Laura Elisa Argüello-Sánchez, Alejandro Espinosa de Los Monteros, Diego Santiago-Alarcon, Christian Alberto García-Sepúlveda
Adenoviruses are important pathogens known to infect vertebrate hosts, including a wide range of primates. Despite its importance, data on the diversity of these viruses in non-human primates living in their natural habitat remain scarce. In this study, we conducted a surveillance of adenoviral infection in wild black howler monkeys from two protected natural areas in Mexico. This was achieved by analyzing 67 fecal samples using a nested PCR that targets the adenovirus DNA polymerase gene. Adenoviral DNA was detected in 12 samples from both study sites, with an overall prevalence of 17...
December 2018: Virus Genes
Hitoshi Takemae, Chaerul Basri, Ni Luh Putu Ika Mayasari, Ronald Tarigan, Hiroshi Shimoda, Tsutomu Omatsu, Supratikno, Didik Pramono, Danang Dwi Cahyadi, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Keisuke Iida, Tetsuya Mizutani, Ken Maeda, Srihadi Agungpriyono, Eiichi Hondo
Flying foxes belonging to the genus Pteropus are known to be reservoirs of zoonotic viruses. In this study, we describe the isolation of Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) from rectal swab samples of Pteropus vampyrus in Indonesia. PRV is an emerging zoonotic respiratory virus that can be transmitted from bats to humans. Rectal swabs (n = 91) were screened by PCR for PRV and 10 (11%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences indicated that the S2, S3, S4, M3, L2, and L3 segments of one isolate (Garut-69) were closely related to previously isolated strains in Indonesia...
December 2018: Virus Genes
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