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Virus Genes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725978/strategies-and-methods-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-viral-vectors
#1
REVIEW
Thorsten Stellberger, Nina Koehler, Anna Dinkelmeier, Johannes Draxler, Maren Haase, Jessica Hellinckx, Melanie Pavlovic, Ulrich Busch, Armin Baiker
The production and application of viral vectors are frequently performed genetic engineering operations. HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors, AAV2-based, and adenoviral vectors are amongst the most abundant viral vectors utilized for gene delivery. They are generally classified into risk group 1 or 2 (according to EU directive 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work).
July 19, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721488/further-changes-in-the-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-complex-an-indication-of-things-to-come
#2
LETTER
Ishtiaq Hassan, Imran Amin, Shahid Mansoor, Rob W Briddon
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) has been a problem for cotton production in Pakistan and India since the early 1990s. The disease is caused by begomoviruses associated with a specific satellite, the cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). In 2001, resistance introduced into cotton was broken by a recombinant begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus strain Burewala (CLCuKoV-Bur). Unusually, in resistant cotton, this virus lacked an intact transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) gene, with the capacity to encode only 35 of the usual ~134 amino acids...
July 18, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718047/antigenic-variability-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-serotype-o-during-serial-cytolytic-passage
#3
Saravanan Subramaniam, Biswajit Das, Jitendra K Biswal, Rajeev Ranjan, Bramhadev Pattnaik
The emergence and disappearance of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during a field outbreak occurs periodically due to the volatile nature of its genome. In the present analysis, change in antigenic behavior of serotype O FMDV during the serial cytolytic passage in the absence of immune pressure was observed. Initially, the isolate showed a poor antigenic match (relationship value <0.3) with the serotype O vaccine strain and upon serial passage increase in relationship value was observed...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718046/complete-genome-sequencing-and-characterization-revealed-a-recombinant-subgroup-b-isolate-of-avian-leukosis-virus-with-a-subgroup-j-like-u3-region
#4
Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Lulu Lin, Haijuan Li, Ping Wei
One natural recombinant subgroup B avian leukosis virus (ALV) with a subgroup J-like U3 region was isolated from commercial native chickens that experienced disease in 2014 and named GX14FF03. GX14FF03 was isolated by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of avian leukosis virus p27 group-specific antigen, the detection of subtype specific PCR, and indirect immunofluorescence assay with ALV-B-specific monoclonal antibody. Its complete proviral genome was sequenced and compared with the reference strains of ALVs and found that the gag and pol were relatively conservative...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718045/full-length-genome-sequence-analysis-of-four-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-strains-isolated-from-chickens-with-clinical-hemangioma
#5
Lulu Lin, Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Haijuan Li, Teng Huang, Ping Wei
Since 2014, cases of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have been emerging in commercial chickens in Guangxi. In this study, four strains of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), named GX14HG01, GX14HG04, GX14LT07, and GX14ZS14, were isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma in 2014 by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of ALV group specific antigen p27, the detection of subtype specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711987/getting-genetic-access-to-natural-adenovirus-genomes-to-explore-vector-diversity
#6
REVIEW
Wenli Zhang, Anja Ehrhardt
Recombinant vectors based on the human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) have been developed and extensively used in preclinical and clinical studies for over 30 years. However, certain restrictions of HAdV5-based vectors have limited their clinical applications because they are rather inefficient in specifically transducing cells of therapeutic interest that lack the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Moreover, enhanced vector-associated toxicity and widespread preexisting immunity have been shown to significantly hamper the effectiveness of HAdV-5-mediated gene transfer...
July 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710608/vaccine-platform-recombinant-measles-virus
#7
REVIEW
Michael D Mühlebach
The classic development of vaccines is lengthy, tedious, and may not necessarily be successful as demonstrated by the case of HIV. This is especially a problem for emerging pathogens that are newly introduced into the human population and carry the inherent risk of pandemic spread in a naïve population. For such situations, a considerable number of different platform technologies are under development. These are also under development for pathogens, where directly derived vaccines are regarded as too complicated or even dangerous due to the induction of inefficient or unwanted immune responses causing considerable side-effects as for dengue virus...
July 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702840/oncolytic-viruses-adenoviruses
#8
REVIEW
Julia Niemann, Florian Kühnel
Tumor-selectively replicating (oncolytic) viruses are promising tools for therapy of solid cancers and have been initially developed to achieve potent tumor lysis with acceptable side effects on healthy tissue. However, in recent years, oncolytic viruses have been recognized as therapeutic vehicles exhibiting multipronged anti-tumoral activity. Apart from direct cytolysis, stimulation of both innate and adaptive tumor-directed immune responses have been recognized as important mechanisms of oncolytic virotherapy, which were probably decisive in achieving the long-term tumor remissions that oncolytic viruses have shown in clinical trials in advanced melanoma...
July 12, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685222/characterization-of-eptesipoxvirus-a-novel-poxvirus-from-a-microchiropteran-bat
#9
Shin-Lin Tu, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Jinxin Gao, Kimberly Wilkins, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Yu Li, Ginny L Emerson, Darin S Carroll, Chris Upton
The genome of Eptesipoxvirus (EPTV) is the first poxvirus genome isolated from a microbat. The 176,688 nt sequence, which is believed to encompass the complete coding region of the virus, is 67% A+T and is predicted to encode 191 genes. 11 of these genes have no counterpart in GenBank and are therefore unique to EPTV. The presence of a distantly related ortholog of Vaccinia virus F5L in EPTV uncovered a link with fragmented F5L orthologs in Molluscum contagiosum virus/squirrelpox and clade II viruses. Consistent with the unique position of EPTV approximately mid-point between the orthopoxviruses and the clade II viruses, EPTV has 11 genes that are specific to the orthopoxviruses and 13 genes that are typical, if not exclusive, to the clade II poxviruses...
July 6, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664467/phylogenetic-analysis-of-puumala-virus-strains-from-central-europe-highlights-the-need-for-a-full-genome-perspective-on-hantavirus-evolution
#10
Róbert Szabó, Lukáš Radosa, Martina Ličková, Monika Sláviková, Marta Heroldová, Michal Stanko, Milan Pejčoch, Anja Osterberg, Lies Laenen, Susanne Schex, Rainer G Ulrich, Sandra Essbauer, Piet Maes, Boris Klempa
Puumala virus (PUUV), carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), is the medically most important hantavirus in Central and Western Europe. In this study, a total of 523 bank voles (408 from Germany, 72 from Slovakia, and 43 from Czech Republic) collected between the years 2007-2012 were analyzed for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Partial PUUV genome segment sequences were obtained from 51 voles. Phylogenetic analyses of all three genome segments showed that the newfound strains cluster with other Central and Western European PUUV strains...
June 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643180/first-complete-genome-sequences-of-genogroup-v-genotype-3-porcine-sapoviruses-common-5-terminal-genomic-feature-of-sapoviruses
#11
Tomoichiro Oka, Yen Hai Doan, Takashi Shimoike, Kei Haga, Takenori Takizawa
Sapoviruses (SaVs) are enteric viruses and have been detected in various mammals. They are divided into multiple genogroups and genotypes based on the entire major capsid protein (VP1) encoding region sequences. In this study, we determined the first complete genome sequences of two genogroup V, genotype 3 (GV.3) SaV strains detected from swine fecal samples, in combination with Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the libraries prepared from viral RNA and PCR products. The lengths of the viral genome (7494 nucleotides [nt] excluding polyA tail) and short 5'-untranslated region (14 nt) as well as two predicted open reading frames are similar to those of other SaVs...
June 22, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639220/emergence-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-in-the-archipelago-of-madeira-portugal-2016-2017
#12
Carina Luísa Carvalho, Sara Silva, Paz Gouveia, Margarida Costa, Elsa Leclerc Duarte, Ana Margarida Henriques, Sílvia Santos Barros, Tiago Luís, Fernanda Ramos, Teresa Fagulha, Miguel Fevereiro, Margarida Dias Duarte
We report the detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) in the Madeira archipelago, Portugal. Viral circulation was confirmed by RT-qPCR and vp60 sequencing. Epidemiological data revealed the outbreak initiated in October 2016 in Porto Santo affecting wild and domestic rabbits. It was then detected three months later on the island of Madeira. Five haplotypes were identified and a genetic overall similarity of 99.54 to 99.89% was observed between the two viral populations. Unique single nucleotide polymorphisms were recognised in the Madeira archipelago strains, two of which resulting in amino acid substitutions at positions 480 and 570 in the VP60 protein...
June 21, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639219/signature-pattern-analysis-for-the-full-length-env-gene-of-the-earliest-korean-subclade-b-of-hiv-1-outbreak-among-korean-hemophiliacs
#13
Young-Keol Cho, Jung-Eun Kim, Daeun Jeong, Brian T Foley
The epidemiological link in the hypervariable env gene between viruses infecting HIV-positive hemophiliacs (HPs) and plasma donors was not studied. We determined full-length env gene sequences in 20 HPs, 3 plasma donors whose plasma was used for domestic clotting factor (DCF) production, and 54 local controls (LCs). Env genes from viruses in frozen stored sera obtained 1-3 years after diagnosis and from samples collected several years after infection were amplified via RT-PCR and subjected to direct sequencing...
June 21, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639222/molecular-and-biological-characterization-of-a-new-tomato-mild-yellow-leaf-curl-aragua-virus-strain-producing-severe-symptoms-in-tomato
#14
Gustavo Romay, Dorys T Chirinos, Francis Geraud-Pouey, Annika Gillis, Jacques Mahillon, Cécile Desbiez, Claude Bragard
Tomato mild yellow leaf curl Aragua virus (ToMYLCV) is a begomovirus first reported infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla) in Venezuela. In this study, a ToMYLCV isolate (Zulia-219) was completely sequenced and its host range was evaluated. The DNA-A and DNA-B components of isolate Zulia-219 showed 93 and 85% nucleotide sequence identity with the respective counterparts of the ToMYLCV type strain. According to current demarcation criteria for begomovirus species, Zulia-219 is a new strain of ToMYLCV...
June 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639221/hbv-x-protein-induces-overexpression-of-herv-w-env-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-hepg2-cells
#15
Cong Liu, Lijuan Liu, Xiuling Wang, Youyi Liu, Miao Wang, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) at chromosome 7 is highly expressed in the placenta and possesses fusogenic activity in trophoblast development. HERV-W env has been found to be overexpressed in some cancers and immune diseases. Viral transactivators can induce the overexpression of HERV-W env in human cell lines. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is believed to be a multifunctional oncogenic protein. Here, we reported that HBx could increase the promoter activity of HERV-W env and upregulate the mRNA levels of non-spliced and spliced HERV-W env and also its protein in human hepatoma HepG2 cells...
June 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634751/herpesviral-vectors-and-their-application-in-oncolytic-therapy-vaccination-and-gene-transfer
#16
REVIEW
Susanne M Bailer, Christina Funk, André Riedl, Zsolt Ruzsics
Herpesviruses are enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrate cells. Their high potential cloning capacity and the lifelong persistence of their genomes in various host cells make them attractive platforms for vector-based therapy. In this review, we would like to highlight recent advances of three major areas of herpesvirus vector development and application: (i) oncolytic therapy, (ii) recombinant vaccines, and (iii) large capacity gene transfer vehicles.
June 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634750/t135i-substitution-in-the-nonstructural-protein-2c-enhances-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-replication
#17
Tiangang Yuan, Haiwei Wang, Chen Li, Decheng Yang, Guohui Zhou, Li Yu
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3A plays an important role in viral replication, virulence, and host range. It has been shown that deletions of 10 or 19-20 amino acids in the C-terminal half of 3A attenuate serotype O and C FMDVs, which replicate poorly in bovine cells but normally in porcine-derived cells, and the C-terminal half of 3A is not essential for serotype Asia1 FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells. In this study, we constructed a 3A deletion FMDV mutant based on a serotype O FMDV, the wild-type virus O/YS/CHA/05, with a 60-amino acid deletion in the 3A protein sequence, between residues 84 and 143...
June 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612275/the-recent-importation-of-grapevine-pinot-gris-virus-into-australia
#18
Qi Wu, Nuredin Habili
A total of 575 commercial grapevine (Vitis vinifera) samples from Australia have been tested for a newly emerging virus, Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, Betaflexiviridae) during 2015-2017. Nine samples from two states tested positive. Six of these were from New South Wales and 3 from South Australia in a total of eight varieties. All these varieties were imported from Europe within the last 4-19 years. A fragment of 431 nucleotides on the coat protein gene of Grapevine Pinot gris virus was targeted for virus identification by RT-PCR...
June 13, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600724/phylogenetic-and-evolutionary-analyses-of-dengue-viruses-isolated-in-jakarta-indonesia
#19
C S Whinie Lestari, Benediktus Yohan, Anisa Yunita, Febrina Meutiawati, Rahma Fitri Hayati, Hidayat Trimarsanto, R Tedjo Sasmono
Dengue has affected Indonesia for the last five decades and become a major health problem in many cities in the country. Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, reports dengue cases annually, with several outbreaks documented. To gain information on the dynamic and evolutionary history of dengue virus (DENV) in Jakarta, we conducted phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of DENV isolated in 2009. Three hundred thirty-three dengue-suspected patients were recruited. Our data revealed that dengue predominantly affected young adults, and the majority of cases were due to secondary infection...
June 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600723/the-3d-protein-of-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-type-1-binds-to-a-viral-genomic-3-utr-and-shows-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-activity
#20
Yu Zhang, Qianda Cao, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Shun Chen, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xinxin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
To explore the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) function of the 3D protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1), the gene was cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector for prokaryotic expression. The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of DHAV-1 together with a T7 promoter was cloned into the pMD19-T vector for in vitro transcription of 3' UTR RNA, which was further used as a template in RNA-dependent RNA polymerization. In this study, three methods were applied to analyze the RdRP function of the 3D protein: (1) ammonium molybdate spectrophotometry to detect pyrophosphate produced during polymerization; (2) quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) to investigate the changes in RNA quantity during polymerization; and (3) electrophoresis mobility shift assay to examine the interaction between the 3D protein and 3' UTR...
June 9, 2017: Virus Genes
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