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Reproductive Toxicology

Won-Hee Song, Elsayed A Mohamed, Won-Ki Pang, Kyu-Ho Kang, Do-Yeal Ryu, Saidur Rahman Md, Myung-Geol Pang
Although equal numbers of X and Y spermatozoa are produced during spermatogenesis, the sex chromosome ratio in ejaculated spermatozoa can be altered by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can be reflected by altered sex ratios at birth. Here, we hypothesized EDCs affect sperm functions and viability of X and Y chromosome-bearing human spermatozoa. After exposure to genistein (Gen), bisphenol A (BPA), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), dibromochloropropane (DBCP), and diazinon (Diaz), we evaluated motility, viability, capacitation, and differential viability of X and Y spermatozoa...
September 13, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ruth J Geller, Rebecca M Brotman, Katie M O'Brien, Derek M Fine, Ami R Zota
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as phthalates, are an unexamined potential risk factor for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and warrant investigation because hormones affect BV. We examined the association between phthalate exposure and BV in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2004. BV outcomes were defined as intermediate (Nugent score of 4-6) and positive (7-10). Phthalate metabolites, including monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, were measured in urine...
September 9, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
N C Kleinstreuer, P Browne, X Chang, R Judson, W Casey, P Ceger, C Deisenroth, N Baker, K Markey, R S Thomas
A set of 39 reference chemicals with reproducible androgen pathway effects in vivo, identified in the companion manuscript [1], were used to interrogate the performance of the ToxCast/Tox 21 androgen receptor (AR) model based on 11 high throughput assays. Cytotoxicity data and specificity confirmation assays were used to distinguish assay loss-of-function from true antagonistic signaling suppression. Overall agreement was 66% (19/29), with ten additional inconclusive chemicals. Most discrepancies were explained using in vitro to in vivo extrapolation to estimate equivalent administered doses...
September 8, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
P Browne, N C Kleinstreuer, P Ceger, C Deisenroth, N Baker, K Markey, R S Thomas, R J Judson, W Casey
A systematic literature review was conducted to identify Hershberger bioassays for ~3200 chemicals including those used to validate the OECD/US EPA guideline assay, US EPA's chemicals screened for endocrine activity, and the library of chemicals run in US EPA 's ToxCast in vitro assays. For 134 chemicals that met pre-defined criteria, experimental results were extracted into a database used to characterize uncertainty in results and evaluate the concordance of the Hershberger assay with other in vivo rodent studies that measure androgen-responsive endpoints...
September 8, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Yoel Shufaro, Ann Saada, Monica Simeonov, Ben-Zion Tsuberi, Corinne Alban, Aviram Kogot-Levin, Tzippy Shochat, Benjamin Fisch, Ronit Abir
AIM: To determine the effect of nonylphenol-ethoxylate-10 (NP-10) on the ovarian reserve in a mouse model. DESIGN: Female mice were maintained on purified water or exposed to NP-10 from 3-7-weeks of age. At 7-weeks they were stimulated, mated and the zygotes were cultured in-vitro. Three and 7-weeks old mice were untreated controls. Identical groups were sacrificed without stimulation. Ovaries were analysed for follicular composition. Respiratory-chain (RC) activity and reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) production were measured in brains and livers...
August 31, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Daniel G Cyr, Mary Gregory
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Bai-Ping Mao, Linxi Li, Ming Yan, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, C Yan Cheng
During spermatogenesis, head-tail cell polarity, apico-basal cell polarity and planar cell polarity (PCP) are remarkably noted in the seminiferous epithelium in which the heads of developing haploid spermatids are pointed to the basement membrane, and with their tails to the tubule lumen. Furthermore, these polarized spermatids are laid unidirectionally across the plane of the seminiferous epithelium, mimicking PCP noted in hair cells of the inner ear. Treatment of rodents with environmental toxicants that lead to germ cell exfoliation, however, are associated with notable changes in spermatid polarity, and defects in spermatid polarity always precede spermatid loss from the epithelium...
August 29, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
B Danielsson, William S Webster, Helen E Ritchie
The potent hERG channel blocking drug ondansetron is used off-label for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Some human epidemiological studies have associated ondansetron with fetal cardiovascular defects and orofacial clefts. This study investigated the effects of ondanestron on embryonic heart rhythm of gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryos in vitro and then integrated the results with published animal teratology, and animal and human pharmacokinetic studies to perform a risk evaluation. Ondansetron caused concentration dependent bradycardia and arrhythmia...
August 24, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Daniel G Cyr, Julie Dufresne, Mary Gregory
Epididymal sperm maturation is a critical aspect of male reproduction in which sperm acquire motility and the ability to fertilize an ovum. Sperm maturation is dependent on the creation of a specific environment that changes along the epididymis and which enables the maturation process. The blood-epididymis barrier creates a unique luminal micro-environment, different from blood, by limiting paracellular transport and forcing receptor-mediated transport of macromolecules across the epididymal epithelium. Direct cellular communication between cells allows coordinated function of the epithelium...
August 18, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Fenju Qin, Honglong Cao, Hongxia Yuan, Weiqiang Guo, Hailong Pei, Yi Cao, Jian Tong
Exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF) has been reported to induce adverse effects on testosterone production and its daily rhythm. However, the mechanisms underneath this effect remain unknown. In this study, male mice were exposed to 1800 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF, 40 μW/cm2 power intensity and 0.0553 W/Kg SAR) 2 h per day for 32 days. The data suggested that RF exposure: (i) significantly reduced testosterone levels, (ii) altered the expression of genes involved in its synthesis (Star, P450scc, P450c17 and 3β-Hsd) in testicular tissue, (iii) significantly reduced regulatory protein CaMKI/RORα...
August 17, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Melek Simsek, Roza C M Opperman, Chris J J Mulder, Cornelis B Lambalk, Nanne K H de Boer
Allopurinol is widely used in the management of multiple disorders including gout, kidney stones and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite of long-term experience, its safety in pregnancy has been debated due to reports on possible teratogenicity. We aimed to review the literature on the safety of allopurinol in pregnancy and offspring. In animals, allopurinol induced species-specific reproductive toxicity. In humans, a total of 53 allopurinol exposed infants were reported in the literature. Major congenital malformations were reported in two cases with a comparable pattern of multiple abnormalities...
August 17, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ellinor Spörndly-Nees, Julie Boberg, Elisabeth Ekstedt, Lena Holm, Azadeh Fakhrzadeh, Linda Dunder, Mark M Kushnir, Margareta H Lejonklou, P Monica Lind
Low doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) during development may affect reproduction. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.5 or 50 μg BPA/kg bw/day via drinking water from gestational day 3.5 to postnatal day 22. Anogenital distance, organ weight, histopathology of reproductive organs, hormone analysis and sperm morphology were evaluated in male offspring. In this study no major effects of BPA on male reproduction in midpubertal (postnatal day 35) or adult (12-month-old) rats were revealed, apart from a higher prevalence of mild inflammatory cell infiltrate in cauda epididymis in adult rats exposed to 50 μg BPA/kg bw/day...
August 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ana Carolina Negrin, Mariana Marcielo de Jesus, Caroline Maria Christante, Danilo Grünig Humberto da Silva, Sebastião Roberto Taboga, Maria Etelvina Pinto-Fochi, Rejane Maira Góes
This study evaluated the consequences of gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters of the adult gerbil and the interference of corn oil (co), a vehicle widely used for administration of liposoluble agents, on DBP effects. Pregnant gerbils received no treatment or were treated from gestational day 8 to 23 via gavage with 0.1 mL/day of co only or containing DBP (100 mg/kg/day). Maternal co intake enhanced serum estradiol levels and testicular content of ERα, and reduced sperm reserve of adult offspring...
August 11, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ghada Ali Omran, Hisham Diab Gaber, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamad Mostafa, Reham Maher Abdel-Gaber, Emadeldeen Ali Salah
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that is widely produced as a by-product in the plastics industry. The aim of the current study was to identify any association between urinary BPA levels and infertility related factors in patients who presented to the andrology clinic of a university hospital in Upper Egypt. In this case-control study, urinary BPA levels in 50 infertile patients and 50 matched controls were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Semen quality (sperm concentration, morphology, and motility) and oxidative stress (total antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels) were determined along with sperm DNA damage via alkaline comet assays...
August 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Javier Conde-Vancells, Mercedes Vazquez-Chantada, Catherine W McCollum, Maria Bondesson, Sharanya Maanasi Kalasekar, Bogdan J Wlodarczyk, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Robert M Cabrera, Richard H Finnell
The assays in this study utilize mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and zebrafish embryos to evaluate the potential developmental toxicity of industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals. A set of eleven chemicals of known mammalian in vivo teratogenicity were tested in the assays and correlations to mammalian data. Using mESCs, proliferation, differentiation, and cytotoxicity of the chemicals were measured. In zebrafish embryos, lethality and the lowest effect level concentrations for morphological malformations were determined...
August 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Enrique Gamero-Estevez, Amanda I Baumholtz, Aimee K Ryan
The cause and effect relationship between environmental factors, including toxins (naturally occuring) and toxicants (man-made environmental contaminants), and neural tube defects is well-established. More recent evidence has demonstrated a requirement for the claudin family of tight junction proteins in regulating epithelial remodelling events that transform the plate neural plate into a closed tube. At the molecular level, toxicants are known to disrupt claudin expression and tight junction barrier function...
August 4, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Wellerson R Scarano, Cristiane F Pinho, Lorenzo Pissinatti, Bianca F Gonçalves, Leonardo O Mendes, Silvana G P Campos
Throughout the last decades, increasing exposure to environmental Endocrine Disruptors Chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with the occurrence of male reproductive disorders, such as impairment of prostate development and function, increase of susceptibility to oncogenesis, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and the metastatic invasive potential. Nevertheless, few studies address the mechanisms involved in these alterations, especially those related to cell junctions, which are hormonally regulated and, therefore, possible EDCs targets...
August 4, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Mariana Bartos, Fernanda Gumilar, Cristina E Gallegos, Cristina Bras, Sergio Dominguez, Nina Mónaco, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Liliana M Cancela, Alejandra Minetti
Daily exposure to fluoride (F) depends mainly on the intake of this element with drinking water. When administered during gestation and lactation, F has been associated with cognitive deficits in the offspring. However, the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of F remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the effects of oral exposure to low levels of F during the gestational and lactation periods, on the memory of adult female rat offspring. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism...
July 28, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Kendra L Clark, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F Keating
Ovarian gap junctions function to provide intercellular communication between ovarian cell types and are critical for proper ovarian function. Connexons are communication channels that are comprised of connexin (CX) proteins. Connexins can be regulated through endocrine signals, thus have dynamic expression throughout the estrous cycle. Not surprisingly, ovarian function is negatively affected in mouse models deficient in Cx genes; loss of Gja4 impairs folliculogenesis while ovaries devoid of Gja1 have reductions in oocyte growth...
July 26, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Payel Kundu, Shreya Patel, Daryl D Meling, Kassie Deal, Liying Gao, William G Helferich, Jodi A Flaws
Genistein is a phytoestrogen found in soy. We previously found that adult exposure to dietary levels of genistein affected gestation time, parturition time, litter size, pup weight, and pup mortality in CD-1 mice. The present study investigated the effects of adult genistein exposure on follicle number and gene expression in the ovaries of CD-1 mice. We found that exposure to genistein had no effect on follicle number, but it did affect the expression of apoptotic regulatory genes (Bax, Bcl-2, Bid, and Dffa) in the ovary...
July 26, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
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