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Reproductive Toxicology

Tianyu Dong, Weiyue Hu, Xiajie Zhou, Hongqing Lin, Liwen Lan, Bo Hang, Wei Lv, Qiang Geng, Yankai Xia
Some large population-based cohort studies highlighted the risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) for children attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the causality of this association is still controversial. Here we performed a meta-analysis trying to clarify the association between prenatal exposure to MSDP and ADHD in offspring. After publication screening, 27 eligible original articles with a total of 3076173 subjects were included. The results showed that either prenatal exposure to MSDP or smoking cessation during first trimester was significantly associated with childhood ADHD after adjusting for parental psychiatric history and social socioeconomic status...
December 30, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Barbara Poniedziałek, Joanna Nowaczyk, Mariola Ropacka-Lesiak, Przemysław Niedzielski, Anna Komosa, Karolina Pańczak, Piotr Rzymski
Altered function of maternal platelets has been evidenced in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but intraplatelet burden of trace elements, factors known to affect platelet activity, remains unknown in IUGR pregnancy. This study assessed the intraplatelet status of Ca, Cu, Mg, Na, K, P, Zn and their ratios (Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Na/K, Cu/Zn) in IUGR pregnancy (n = 35), uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 25) and in non-pregnant females (n = 25). The IUGR group was characterized by the lowest content of Ca, Mg and Zn, and Ca/P ratio (<1...
December 22, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Louise Dalsager, Lisa Elmer Christensen, Malene Gjelstrup Kongsholm, Henriette Boye Kyhl, Flemming Nielsen, Greet Schoeters, Tina Kold Jensen, Helle Raun Andersen
In Odense Child Cohort (OCC), concentrations of the pesticide metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) were measured in urine samples collected in gestational week 28 in up to 858 women. Gestational length, birth weight, head and abdominal circumference were obtained from birth records and anogenital distance (AGD) was measured at age three month. We did not find consistent dose-related associations between pesticide metabolite concentrations and birth outcomes or AGD...
December 21, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Jingle Jiang, Lina Qi, Quanwei Wei, Fangxiong Shi
Saccharin sodium and rebaudioside A are widely used as non-caloric sweeteners in our daily life; however, the impacts and regulatory mechanisms of such sweeteners on reproduction remain unclear. In the present study, we used rats as animal models to evaluate the effects of daily exposure to saccharin sodium and rebaudioside A on ovarian biologic functions. Weanling rats were distributed into five experimental groups receiving normal water, 1.5 or 7.5 mM saccharin sodium solution, or 0.5 or 2.5 mM rebaudioside A solution for 48 days of exposure...
December 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Xiuwei Wang, Zhen Guan, Yanting Dong, Zhiqiang Zhu, Jianhua Wang, Bo Niu
Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP) from 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP). Our aim was to investigate the role of dTMP dysmetabolism via inhibition of TYMS by an inhibitor, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). We found that a high incidence of NTDs occurred after treatment with 5-FU at 12.5 mg/kg body weight. TYMS activity was significantly inhibited with decreased dTMP and accumulation of dUMP after 5-FU injection...
December 16, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Alessio Paffoni, Marta Castiglioni, Stefania Ferrari, Irene La Vecchia, Chiara Ferraris Fusarini, Nora Bettinardi, Stefania Noli, Fabio Parazzini, Edgardo Somigliana
A prospective study investigating whether levels of the homocysteine pathway are associated with pregnancy rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF). Prior to initiate treatments, women gave a blood sample to test serum and red blood cell (RBC) folates, homocysteine and vitamin B12. The main outcome was cumulative clinical pregnancy rate according to basal levels of serum and RBC folates, homocysteine and vitamin B12. Two-hundred-nine women were selected, of whom 56 achieved a clinical pregnancy (27%). Median [interquartile range] levels of RBC and serum folate in women who did and did not become pregnant were 328 and 263 ng/ml (p = 0...
December 15, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Yong-Jiang Zhou, Ji-Hong Wang, Li-Qing Wang, Sha Xiao, Xiao-Dan Wang, Hua-Ling Yan, Cheng-Feng Li, Hui-Quan Zhu
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of β-CP on embryo implantation in mice. Forty female mice were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 mice each: one control group and three β-CP treated groups. The control group was administered corn oil only, while the three β-CP-treated groups were given corn oil containing 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg bw d β-CP for 3 months through intragastric administration. The results indicated that the administration of β-CP decreased the rate of embryo implantation (all p < 0...
December 15, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Gessica Dutra Gonçalves, Simone Cristine Semprebon, Bruna Isabela Biazi, Mario Sergio Mantovani, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves Fernandes
Leydig cells are the major testosterone-producing cells of the male reproductive system, and damage to these cells can impair fertility of men. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the chemicals with the highest volume of production worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BPA on the growth, viability, and testosterone production of TM3 murine Leydig cells after exposure to BPA for 24 or 48 h. BPA reduced testosterone production, cell viability and cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner...
December 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Tao Lin, Reza K Oqani, Jae Eun Lee, Jeong Won Kang, So Yeon Kim, Eun Seok Cho, Yong Dae Jeong, Jun Jong Baek, Dong Il Jin
In this study, we used a pig model to investigate the effects of α-solanine (a natural toxin found mainly in potato sprouts) on oocyte maturation, quality and subsequent embryonic development. We found that α-solanine (10 μM) disturbed meiotic resumption and increased abnormal spindle formation and altered the cortical granule (CG) distribution compared with the untreated group. α-Solanine triggered autophagy and apoptosis by increasing the expressions of autophagy-related genes (LC3, ATG7, and LAMP2) and apoptotic related genes (BAX and CASP3)...
December 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
O Y Tkachenko, J U Scheerer-Bernhard, S Delimitreva, E Wedi, R R Valle, M Heistermann, P L Nayudu
Here we report a retrospective analysis of negative effects of routine enrofloxacin treatment of recurrent diarrhea on the ovary and the developing oocytes of the common marmoset, a small New World primate. The most deleterious effect on oocytes was observed about two months post treatment suggesting that the enrofloxacin effect is on early growing follicles. Manifestations of toxicity included decreased numbers of growing follicles and recovered culturable oocytes, as well as signs of early atresia of granulosa cells...
December 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Sathish Kumar Thangavelu, Sugantha Priya Elaiyapillai, Ilangovan Ramachandran, Ravi Sankar Bhaskaran, Arunakaran Jagadeesan
The present study was aimed to determine the effects of lactational exposure of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) on Leydig cellular steroidogenesis in F1 progeny rats. Lactating dams were orally treated by gavage with different doses of PCBs (1, 2 and 5mg/kg b.wt./day). Male progenies were sacrificed on PND60. Our results demonstrated that exposure to PCBs decreased the body weight, testis weight and anogenital distance (AGD) index in the F1 progeny rats. Importantly, PCBs exposure reduced the serum levels of LH, testosterone and estradiol...
December 2, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Karine Vandressa Pernoncini, Bruno Garcia Montagnini, Maria Luiza Marino de Góes, Patricia Carvalho Garcia, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto Gerardin
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent used in a variety of consumer products such as: soaps, deodorant, and toothpaste, among others. Some studies have reported the (anti)androgenic effects of TCS in the male reproductive system, raising concerns about its effects on the reproductive axis. In this study, the (anti)androgenicity of TCS was evaluated in the Hershberger assay in 52-day old male Wistar rats. Additionally, the sexual behavior, sperm motility, sperm viability, and testicular histomorphometry were evaluated in a second protocol to investigate the reproductive effects of TCS in 49-day old male Wistar rats...
November 29, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Marlena Fejzo, Kimber MacGibbon, Patrick Mullina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Barbara M A van Vugt-Lussenburg, Rosan B van der Lee, Hai-Yen Man, Irene Middelhof, Abraham Brouwer, Harrie Besselink, Bart van der Burg
Identification and monitoring of so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds has received ample attention; both the OECD and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have designed tiered testing approaches, involving in vitro bioassays to prioritize and partly replace traditional animal experiments. Since the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor are frequent targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals, bioassays detecting interaction with these receptors have a high potential to be of use in risk assessment of endocrine active compounds...
November 21, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Malha Oudir, Henni Chader, Bachir Bouzid, Kheira Bendisari, Batoul Latreche, Sofiane Boudalia, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor in the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the low dose effects of DEHP on the male reproductive system of rats exposed during the pre-pubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal periods. Male Wistar rats were daily gavaged by DEHP from postnatal day (PND) 21 to PND 120 with 0.5, 50 and 5000μg/kgBW/d. A decrease in sperm count of 41%, 24% and 46% was observed at 0.5, 50 and 5000μg/kgBW/d respectively. A decrease of Sertoli cells number was observed at 50 and 5000μg/kgBW/d (22% and 42%, respectively)...
November 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Lirui Wang, Peifei Li, Yi Wen, Qiangzhen Yang, Linqing Zhen, Jieli Fu, Yuhua Li, Sisi Li, Chengxiao Han, Xinhong Li
Cadmium (Cd) has been reported to inhibit mouse sperm motility by inducing the tyrosine phosphorylation of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD). This study aimed to assess the potential effects of vitamin C (Vc) on ameliorating Cd-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of DLD and the specific underlying mechanism. Vc induced the dephosphorylation of DLD or inhibited the tyrosine phosphorylation of DLD. Accordingly, DLD activity, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) levels, ATP levels and motility parameters were all restored to normal levels by Vc...
November 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
A K Vidanapathirana, L C Thompson, M Herco, J Odom, S J Sumner, T R Fennell, J M Brown, C J Wingard
The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) raises safety concerns during susceptible life stages such as pregnancy. We hypothesized that acute intravenous exposure to AgNP during late stages of pregnancy will increase vascular tissue contractility, potentially contributing to alterations in fetal growth. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to a single dose of PVP or Citrate stabilized 20 or 110nm AgNP (700μg/kg). Differential vascular responses and EC50 values were observed in myographic studies in uterine, mesenteric arteries and thoracic aortic segments, 24h post-exposure...
November 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Osamu Udagawa, Akiko Furuyama, Koji Imai, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano
Particulate air pollution (PM 2.5) is a worldwide concern. Growing epidemiological evidence has shown pathophysiological effects of PM 2.5,not only on cardiovascular system but also on reproductive performance. The composition and physicochemical properties of PM 2.5 vary depending on the emission sources, climate conditions, and complex chemical reactions in the air. These factors make it difficult to understand the cause and mechanistic details of the adverse health effects of PM 2.5. Here, we show potential impacts of PM 2...
November 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Yuling Zhang, Xijin Xu, Aimin Chen, Chand Basha Davuljigari, Xiangbin Zheng, Stephani S Kim, Kim N Dietrich, Shuk-Mei Ho, Tiina Reponen, Xia Huo
This study was to investigate whether exposure to cadmium (Cd) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes in a sex-dependent manner. Cd concentrations in maternal urine (U-Cd) samples were measured in 237 subjects from Guiyu (e-waste area) and 212 subjects from Haojiang. A significance level of p <0.05 was used for all analyses. The maternal U-Cd levels in Guiyu residents were significantly higher than Haojiang. We found significant inverse associations between U-Cd concentrations and birth anthropometry (birth weight, birth length, Head Circumference and Apgar scores with 1min and 5 mins) in female neonates, but no significant associations were observed in male neonates except Apgar (1min...
November 14, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Jordan R Nelson, Tonia S Schwartz, Julia M Gohlke
Selenium deficiency and toxicity increase the risk of adverse developmental and reproductive outcomes; however, few multi-stressor studies have evaluated the influence of maternal age on organic selenium dose-response and additional stressors over the life course. While multi-stressor research in mammalian models is time-consuming and expensive, use of alternative models can efficiently produce screening data for prioritizing research in mammalian systems. As a well-known eco-toxicological model, Daphnia pulex, may offer advantages in screening for impacts of multi-stressor exposures...
November 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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