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Reproductive Toxicology

Katrina Kezios, Yiwei Gu, Xinhua Liu, Piera Cirillo, Darcy Tarrant, Myrto Petreas, Jun-Soo Park, Barbara Cohn, Pam Factor-Litvak
In a sample of 442 births from the Child Health and Development Studies cohort, we examined associations between maternal prenatal exposure to hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) and pregnancy outcomes, and whether associations were mediated by maternal thyroid hormone levels and/or modified by maternal smoking. Compared to nonsmokers, smokers had twice the mean concentration of 4-OH-CB107 (p<0.001) and lower levels of its parent compound, PCB118 (p=0.001). Among mothers who smoked, the birth weight of newborns with maternal concentrations of 4-OH-CB107 in the upper quartile was 316g lighter (95% confidence interval (CI) 566, 65) compared to those with maternal concentrations in the lowest quartile, after control for PCB118 and other potential confounders...
March 14, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Mariana F Fernandez, Jose Pumarega, Miquel Porta, Jose Manuel Molina-Molina, Juan P Arrebola, Nicolas Olea
We aimed to assess changes in the total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB) -a biomarker of combined effect of mixtures of xenoestrogens- in breast cancer patients at surgery (breast adipose tissue) and at different time points during an 18-month follow-up (abdominal adipose tissue), and to analyze the potential influence of socio-demographic, reproductive, tumor, and treatment characteristics on TEXB levels. TEXB-alpha (due to persistent organohalogenated chemicals) and TEXB-beta (due mainly to endogenous estrogens) were quantified in 44 women...
March 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Omar J Mohammed, Muhammad Liaque Latif, Margaret K Pratten
Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is a considerable medical challenge, since it is related to ‎augmented morbidity and mortality concerns for both the fetus ‎and the pregnant woman. Records show that the etiology of diabetic ‎embryopathy is complicated, as many teratological factors might be involved ‎in the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced congenital malformation. ‎In this study, the potential cardiotoxic effect of hyperglycemia with hyperketonemia was investigated by using two in vitro models; primary chick embryonic cardiomyocytes and stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, where adverse effects were recorded in both systems...
March 9, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Hiwa Karimi, Pooya Mahdavi, Shohreh Fakhari, Mohammad Reza Faryabi, Parisa Esmaeili, Omid Banafshi, Ebrahim Mohammadi, Fardin Fathi, Aram Mokarizadeh
A study using a mouse IVF model was conducted to examine the hypothesis that in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment may lead to immune system alteration in the offspring. Phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogen, alloantigen, and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium bovis were investigated in the splenocytes of BCG-treated male mice conceived by IVF or natural conception. Intracellular expression of T-bet and GATA3 in helper T-cell population were examined in both groups...
March 9, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Agnieszka Rak, Karolina Zajda, Ewa Łucja Gregoraszczuk
We determined the effect of dioxin-like polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCN) (Halowax 1051) (100pg/ml), benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] (2.5ng/ml), hexachlorobenzene (HCBz) (0.2ng/ml) and non-dioxin like polybrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) (25ng/ml) and bisphenol A (BPA) (20ng/ml) on ovarian adiponectin secretion (ELISA) and its receptors expression (Western blot). Ovarian cells co-culture was used to examine action of endocrine disruptors (EDCs) on adiponectin (10μg/ml) stimulated steroidogenesis. B(a)P, HCBz, testosterone (T) decreased adiponectin secretion and receptors expression, BPA, BDE-47, estradiol (E2) had the opposite effect, while PCN had inhibitory effect only on adiponectin secretion...
March 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
J Richard Pilsner, Mikhail Parker, Oleg Sergeyev, Alexander Suvorov
Dioxins are a group of highly persistent chemicals that are generated as by-products of industrial and natural processes. Reduction in sperm counts are among the most sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity. The exact mechanism by which dioxins reduce sperm counts is not known. Recent data implicate the role of epididymal factors rather than disruption of spermatogenesis. Studies reviewed here demonstrate that dioxins induce the transfer of environmental conditions to the next generation via male germline following exposures during the window of epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells...
March 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Ulrike Luderer, Meagan B Myers, Malathi Banda, Karen L McKim, Laura Ortiz, Barbara L Parsons
Females deficient in the glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm) of the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione synthesis are more sensitive to ovarian follicle depletion and tumorigenesisby prenatal benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure than Gclm+/+ mice. We investigated effects of prenatal exposure to BaP on reproductive development and ovarian mutations in Kras, a commonly mutated gene in epithelial ovarian tumors. Pregnantmice were dosed from gestational day 6.5 through 15.5 with 2mg/kg/day BaP or vehicle...
March 6, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Maxwell C K Leung, Andrew C Procter, Jared V Goldstone, Jonathan Foox, Robert DeSalle, Carolyn J Mattingly, Mark E Siddall, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models...
March 4, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Selvaraj Vimalraj, Venil N Sumantran, Suvro Chatterjee
Certain metals have been known for their toxic effects on embryos and fetal development. The vasculature in early pregnancy is extremely dynamic and plays an important role in organogenesis. Nascent blood vessels in early embryonic life are considered to be a primary and delicate target for many teratogens since the nascent blood islands follow a tightly controlled programme to form vascular plexus around and inside the embryo for resourcing optimal ingredients for its development. The state of the distribution of toxic metals, their transport mechanisms and the molecular events by which they notch extra-embryonic and embryonic vasculatures are illustrated...
February 26, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Karoline Kobus-Bianchini, Gilian Fernando Bourckhardt, Dib Ammar, Evelise Maria Nazari, Yara Maria Rauh Müller
Maternal hyperhomocysteinemia during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of NTD in the offspring. Our study investigated the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) on proliferation and neuronal differentiation of the spinal cord cells in a chick embryo model. Embryos were treated with 20μmol D-L Hcy/50μL saline solution at embryonic day 2 (E2) and analyzed at embryonic days 4 (E4) and 6 (E6). Control embryos received exclusively 50μL saline solution. We performed immunolocalization and flow cytometry analyses using antibodies anti-phosphohistone H3 (pH3), anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), anti-β-tubulin III and anti-p53...
February 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Angela R Stermer, Caitlin J Murphy, Rashin Ghaffari, Kristin R Di Bona, Jorine J Voss, John H Richburg
Exposure of rodents to the Sertoli cell (SC) toxicant mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) has been reported to trigger an infiltration of macrophages into the testis in an age- and species-dependent manner. Here we challenge the hypothesis that the peripubertal rat-specific infiltration of macrophages after MEHP exposure is due, in part, to an increase in SC-specific inflammatory cytokine expression. To rule out that germ cell(GC) apoptosis itself is responsible for macrophage recruitment, rats were exposed to a direct GC toxicant, methoxyacetic acid (MAA), but no infiltration of macrophages was observed...
February 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Debra Kennedy, William S Webster, Majella Hill, Helen E Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Tranylcypromine is a non-selective inhibitor of monamine oxidase which also inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Spontaneous hypertensive reactions to the drug have been reported. In sheep tranylcypromine has been shown to cause a dose-dependent reduction in uterine blood flow. A similar effect in a pregnant woman might induce constriction of the uterine arteries and temporary fetal hypoxia. CASES: MotherSafe is a state-based Teratogen Information service and currently provides counselling to around 22,000 consumers and healthcare professionals annually regarding exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding We report on the outcome of 2 pregnancies in a patient treated with high dose tranylcypromine as well as pimozide, diazepam and alprazolam...
February 22, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Yilu Chen, Ling Zhou, Jingjie Xu, Lu Zhang, Mo Li, Xingxing Xie, Yajuan Xie, Dan Luo, Dalei Zhang, Xiaochun Yu, Bei Yang, Haibin Kuang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound, which has been reported to exert adverse effect on the pregnancy. However, whether it is associated with alteration of luteal function remains unknown. Mice were administered PFOA by gavage from gestational days (GD) 1-7 or 13. PFOA treatment did not significantly affect numbers of embryo implantation. Nevertheless, on GD 13, 10mg/kg PFOA treatment significantly increased numbers of resorbed embryo. Furthermore, PFOA exposure markedly reduced serum progesterone levels but did not affect estradiol levels...
February 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Annia A Martínez-Peña, Jorge Rivera-Baños, Laura L Méndez-Carrillo, Marcos I Ramírez-Solano, Aarón Galindo-Bustamante, J Carlos Páez-Franco, Sumiko Morimoto, Lorenza González-Mariscal, M Esther Cruz, C Adriana Mendoza-Rodríguez
We studied the effect of bisphenol-A (BPA) administration to rats, during the perinatal period, on the fertility of F1 generation and on the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the uterus during early pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar dams (F0) received: BPA-L (0.05mg/kg/day), BPA-H (20mg/kg/day) or vehicle, from gestational day (GD) 6 to lactation day 21. F1 female pups were mated at 3 months of age and sacrificed at GD 1, 3, 6, and 7. Serum hormonal levels, ovulation rate, number of implantation sites and expression of TJ proteins in the uterus of F1 females were evaluated...
February 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Wen-Lin Xiao, Xiao-Ya Liu, Yan-Shan Liu, Dai-Zun Zhang, Ling-Fa Xue
The aim was to evaluate the relationship between maternal corticosteroid use during first trimester of pregnancy and risk of orofacial clefts (OC). The overall findings showed a certain association between maternal corticosteroid use and occurrence of OC, compared with non-users (OR=1.16 [95% CI: 1.01-1.33]). When study type was considered this association was significant only for case-control studies (OR=1.22 [95% CI: 1.02-1.47]), and not for cohort studies (OR=1.09 [95% CI: 0.88-1.34]) when there are many confounders (dose, route of application, disease etc...
February 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Lynae M Brayboy, Nathalie Oulhen, Sokunvichet Long, Niesha Voigt, Christina Raker, Gary M Wessel
Ovarian protection from chemotoxicity is essential for reproductive health. Our objective is to determine the role of ATP-dependent, Multidrug Resistance Transporters (MDRs) in this protection. Previously we identified MDR-dependent cytoprotection from cyclophosphamide in mouse and human oocytes by use of MDR inhibitors. Here we use genetic deletions in MDR1a/b/BCRP of mice to test MDR function in ovarian somatic cells and find that mdr1a/b/bcrp-/- mice had significantly increased sensitivity to cyclophosphamide...
February 12, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Kathiresh M Kumar, Mariajoseph Michael Aruldhas, Sheerin L Banu, Balaji Sadasivam, Ganapathy Vengatesh, Karthik M Ganesh, Shobana Navaneethabalakrishnan, Ajith Kumar Navin, Felicia Mary Michael, Sankar Venkatachalam, Jone A Stanley, Ilangovan Ramachandran, Sakhila K Banu, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha
The effect of gestational exposure to CrVI (occupational/environmental pollutant and target to Sertoli cells(SC)) was tested in a rat model during the testicular differentiation from the bipotential gonad may interrupt spermatogenesis by disrupting SC tight junctions(TJ) and it's proteins and hormone receptors. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 50/100/200ppm CrVI through drinking water during embryonic days 9-14. On Postnatal day 120, testes were subjected to ion exchange chromatographic analysis and revealed increased level of CrIII in SCs and germ cells, serum and testicular interstitial fluid(TIF)...
February 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Muhammad Ibrahim, Michael K Richardson
A major limitation to culturing tissues and organs is the lack of a functional vascular network in vitro. The zebrafish possess many useful properties which makes it a promising model for such studies. Unfortunately, methods of culturing endothelial cells from this species are not well characterised. Here, we tried two methods (embryoid body culture and organ explants from transgenic zebrafish kdrl:GFP embryos) to develop in vitro vascular networks. In the kdrl:GFP line, endothelial cells expresses green fluorescent protein, which allows to track the vascular development in live cultures...
February 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Xinrong Chen, Tao Han, J Edward Fisher, Wafa Harrouk, Melissa S Tassinari, Gwenn E Merry, Daniel Sloper, James C Fuscoe, Deborah K Hansen, Amy L Inselman
The mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST) is a promising in vitro assay for predicting developmental toxicity. In the current study, early differentiation of D3 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) under osteoblast culture conditions and embryotoxicity of cadmium sulfate were examined. D3 mESCs were exposed to cadmium sulfate for 24, 48 or 72h, and whole genome transcriptional profiles were determined. The results indicate a track of differentiation was identified as mESCs differentiate. Biological processes that were associated with differentiation related genes included embryonic development and, specifically, skeletal system development...
February 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Ryan C Lewis, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, John D Meeker, Paige L Williams, Gabor Mezei, Jennifer B Ford, Russ Hauser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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