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Reproductive Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705580/relationship-between-serum-dioxin-like-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-post-testicular-maturation-in-human-sperm
#1
Raiza Paul, Julia Moltó, Nuria Ortuño, Alejandro Romero, Carlos Bezos, Jon Aizpurúa, Mª José Gómez-Torres
The relationship between dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) levels in serum and semen parameters were investigated. Our case-control included two groups of patients. Total concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in the low semen quality (n=24) than in the normal semen quality (n=26) group. A significant negative correlation was found between PCB 126 and viability in men with low semen quality, while PCBs 77 and 81 were positively correlated with morphology, and PCB 118, mono-ortho and total DL-PCBs were positively correlated with volume...
July 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697965/beyond-organoids-in-vitro-vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-using-cells-from-mammals-and-zebrafish
#2
REVIEW
Muhammad Ibrahim, Michael K Richardson
The ability to culture complex organs is currently an important goal in biomedical research. It is possible to grow organoids (3D organ-like structures) in vitro; however, a major limitation of organoids, and other 3D culture systems, is the lack of a vascular network. Protocols developed for establishing in vitro vascular networks typically use human or rodent cells. A major technical challenge is the culture of functional (perfused) networks. In this rapidly advancing field, some microfluidic devices are now getting close to the goal of an artificially perfused vascular network...
July 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689806/cigarette-smoke-impaired-maturation-of-ovarian-follicles-and-normal-growth-of-uterus-inner-wall-of-female-wild-type-and-hypertensive-rats
#3
Hae-Miru Lee, Cho-Won Kim, Kyung-A Hwang, Jae-Hyuck Sung, Jin-Kyu Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi
Cigarette smoke (CS) is well known to be very harmful to human body functions such as fertility, reproduction, and development. CS is considered to more affect patients with hypertension (HT). To estimate the effect of CS associated with female rat's fertility, we examined the histopathological characteristics of the uterus and ovary which were obtained from the female rats exposed to smoke of the standard cigarette (3R4F) for 4 weeks (10h a week) according to the OECD guidelines. The female wild-type Wistar Kyoto (WK) rats (WTR) and spontaneously hypertensive WK rats (SHR) were used to compare the effect of CS on healthy and hypertensive rats...
July 6, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689805/the-importance-of-folate-vitamins-b6-and-b12-for-the-lowering-of-homocysteine-concentrations-for-patients-with-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-and-mthfr-mutations
#4
Danielius Serapinas, Evelina Boreikaite, Agne Bartkeviciute, Rita Bandzeviciene, Mindaugas Silkunas, Daiva Bartkeviciene
In patients with MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) mutations and hyperhomocysteinemia, recurrent pregnancy loss is a frequent feature. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 supplementation for the lowering of total homocysteine concentrations and pregnancy. 16 patients who had had 3 or more miscarriages and MTHFR mutations were used in the study. They received methylfolate (5mg/day), vitamin B6 (50mg/day) and vitamin B12 (1mg/week). Supplementation induced a decrease in homocysteine from 19...
July 6, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684319/ovotoxicity-of-cigarette-smoke-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Maria Cristina Budani, Gian Mario Tiboni
This study reviews the scientific literature on the noxious effects of cigarette smoke on the ovarian follicle, and the cumulative data on the impact of smoking on in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcome. There is a close association between tobacco smoke and accelerated follicle loss, abnormal follicle growth and impairment of oocyte morphology and maturation. There is an increasing amount of evidence indicating that smoke can directly derange folliculogenesis. Increased cellular apoptosis or autophagy, DNA damage and abnormal crosstalk between oocyte and granulosa cells have been implicated in the demise of ovarian follicles...
July 3, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684318/the-juvenile-toxicity-study-as-a-tool-for-a-science-based-risk-assessment-in-the-children-population-group
#6
REVIEW
Laura Narciso, Tiziana Catone, Gabriele Aquilina, Leonello Attias, Isabella De Angelis, Maria Grazia Iuliano, Roberta Tassinari, Alberto Mantovani, Francesca Maranghi
Children show unique features concerning chemical hazards and risks, due to different exposure scenarios, age-related metabolic capacity and biological susceptibility linked to post-natal development. Chemical Regulatory frameworks state the need of children risk characterization. Current testing guidelines covering post-natal development are not routinely required by regulatory applications other than pesticides and biocides. Juvenile toxicity studies are foreseen for paediatric drugs: the toxicological repeated-dose tests don't allow accurate evaluations of effects upon direct exposure of immature organism...
July 3, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676390/effects-of-bisphenol-a-analogues-on-reproductive-functions-in-mice
#7
Mingxin Shi, Nikola Sekulovski, James A MacLean, Kanako Hayashi
This study was performed to examine whether bisphenol (BP) A analogues, BPE and BPS, negatively impacts reproductive functions using mice as a model. CD-1 mice were exposed to control treatment (corn oil), BPA, BPE and BPS (50μg/kg or 10mg/kg) from birth to postnatal day (PND) 60 by s.c. injection every three days. Sperm counts or motility was significantly reduced by BPA, BPE or BPS exposure on PND 60 or PND 90. Exposure of BPA, BPE and BPS disrupted the progression of germ cell development, as morphometric analyses exhibited an abnormal distribution of the stages of spermatogenesis...
July 1, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673813/advanced-developmental-toxicity-test-method-based-on-embryoid-body-s-area
#8
Hee Young Kang, Young-Kwon Choi, Na Rae Jo, Jae-Hwan Lee, Changhwan Ahn, Il Young Ahn, Tae Sung Kim, Ki-Suk Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi, Jong Kwon Lee, Sung Duk Lee, Eui-Bae Jeung
Embryonic stem cell test (EST) evaluates the embryotoxic potential of substances and measures the half inhibition in viability of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), fibroblasts (3T3 cells) and in cardiac differentiation of ESC. In this study, we suggest the developmental toxicity test method (termed EBT) applying area of embryoid bodies (EBs) instead of cardiac differentiation of EST. In the assessment of 21 substances, EB area was logarithmically decreased in dose-dependent manner. Decline in EB area resulted in decrease of beating ratio during differentiation of ESCs...
June 30, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668617/atorvastatin-mitigates-testicular-injuries-induced-by-ionizing-radiation-in-mice
#9
Ramezan Ali Naeimi, Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Ali Reza Khalatbary, Arash Ghasemi, Mehryar Zargari, Maryam Ghesemi, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy in patients with pelvis malignancy causes testes irradiation and resulted in testicular damages. Atorvastatin (ATV) in the low-dose is considered as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: This experimental study was investigated protective effects of ATV on irradiation-induced testicular injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty male balb/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: 1: control, 2: irradiated (IR), 3, 4 and 5: IR plus ATV (10, 20 and 50mg/kg), 6: only ATV (50mg/kg)...
June 28, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663077/antioxidants-reduce-reactive-oxygen-species-but-not-embryotoxicity-in-the-metabolic-danio-rerio-test-mdart
#10
Casper Pype, Evy Verbueken, Moayad A Saad, Chloé Bars, Chris J Van Ginneken, Dries Knapen, Steven J Van Cruchten
Mammalian liver microsomes are occasionally used as a metabolic activation system (MAS) to compensate for the low CYP-mediated bioactivation of drugs in zebrafish embryos, in the so-called mDarT. However, this MAS is embryotoxic and consequently zebrafish embryos are only exposed during a very limited developmental window. The main aim of this study was to try to reduce the embryotoxic properties of MAS in order to extend the exposure window in the mDarT. Removing the microsomes from the incubation medium prior to exposure of the zebrafish embryos did not reduce embryotoxicity...
June 27, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655647/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-%C3%AE-cypermethrin-on-fetal-rat-testicular-steroidogenesis
#11
Anne-Marie Saillenfait, Jean-Philippe Sabaté, Flavien Denis, Guillaume Antoine, Alain Robert, Alain-Claude Roudot, Dieynaba Ndiaye, Ethel Eljarrat
Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the insecticide α-cypermethrin at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, or 10mg/kg/day, or di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) at 250mg/kg/day, by gavage, from gestation day (GD) 13 to 19. Testicular testosterone production and the expression of several key genes related to cholesterol and androgen synthesis and transport were assessed in GD 19 male fetuses. Dams treated with 10mg/kg/day of α-cypermethrin showed clinical signs of neurotoxicity and reduced body weight gain. α-Cypermethrin had no significant effect on post-implantation loss, fetal weight, incidence of male fetuses per litter, or anogenital distance of the male fetuses...
June 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655646/vitamin-d-deficiency-impairs-testicular-development-and-spermatogenesis-in-mice
#12
Lin Fu, Yuan-Hua Chen, Shen Xu, Yan-Li Ji, Cheng Zhang, Hua Wang, De-Xin Yu, De-Xiang Xu
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent especially in men. Nevertheless, whether vitamin D deficiency impairs male reproduction remains under debate. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency has an impact on testicular development and spermatogenesis in mice. In the control group and vitamin D deficient (VDD) diet group, dams and their pups were fed with standard-chow diet and VDD diet, respectively. Interestingly, testicular weight and sperm quality are reduced, testicular germ cell proliferation is suppressed, and the percentage of mature seminiferous tubules is decreased in VDD diet-fed mice...
June 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648635/pro-oxidant-pro-inflammatory-alterations-in-the-offspring%C3%A2-s-heart-of-mild-diabetic-rats-are-regulated-by-maternal-treatments-with-a-mitochondrial-antioxidant
#13
Romina Higa, Sabrina L Roberti, Evangelina Capobianco, Daiana Fornes, Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum
Maternal diabetes programs metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in the offspring. Here, we demonstrated increased pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory markers in the heart of 2-day-old offspring of diabetic rats, previous to the induction of metabolic alterations. At a pre-pubertal stage, sex-dependent changes were evidenced in the diabetic group, as only males showed increased glycemia as well as increased concentrations of nitrated proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) in the heart...
June 23, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648634/impaired-ovarian-response-to-exogenous-gonadotropins-in-female-rat-offspring-born-to-mothers-perinatally-exposed-to-bisphenol-a
#14
C G Santamaría, H A Rodriguez, J E Abud, O E Rivera, M Muñoz-de-Toro, E H Luque
The ovary is sensitive to disruption by the environmental estrogen Bisphenol A (BPA). Our aim was to investigate whether perinatal exposure to BPA (50μg/kgday), orally administered, affects ovarian response to exogenous gonadotrophins (PMSG or PMSG+hCG) in prepubertal female offspring. An altered response to gonadotrophins was observed in BPA-exposed rats. Increased proportion of antral follicles, altered levels of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes, gonadotropin receptors, AR and ERβ were observed in PMSG group...
June 23, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648325/erratum-to-use-of-ondansetron-during-pregnancy-and-congenital-malformations-in-the-infant-reprod-toxicol-50c-2017-134-137
#15
Bengt Danielsson, Birgitta Norstedt Wikner, Bengt Källén
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645525/placenta-as-alternative-specimen-to-detect-in-utero-cannabis-exposure-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Daniela Marchetti, Gerardo Di Masi, Francesca Cittadini, Giuseppe La Monaca, Nadia De Giovanni
The use of cannabis during pregnancy and lactation is widely recognized as a health concern. The placenta is one of the several biological matrices that can be used to detect in utero drug exposure with the distinct advantage of easy and noninvasive collection. We conducted a PubMed search of selected literature published to June 30, 2016 to investigate the pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids, the active constituent of cannabis, in the placenta. The majority of the selected twelve papers was before 1990 and concerned animals at term gestation with great variability of experimental conditions...
June 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633984/herbal-medicinal-products-in-pregnancy-which-data-are-available
#17
REVIEW
Jacqueline Wiesner, Werner Knöss
This review aims to highlight recent approaches concerning usage of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in pregnancy and to discuss appropriate strategies to handle limited information. Therefore, published monographs of the Committee on Herbal Medicinal products (HMPC) and selected publicly funded webpages, medicinal handbooks, publications and industry and health care organisations webpages were evaluated. While within the monographs of the HMPC a rather conservative approach could be found (mainly because of lacking nonclinical and/or clinical studies), all other sources display a wide variety of information or assessments, thereby often giving contradictory recommendations...
June 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625926/prenatal-caffeine-exposure-induced-high-susceptibility-to-metabolic-syndrome-in-adult-female-offspring-rats-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#18
Lin-Guo Pei, Chao Yuan, Yi-Tian Guo, Hao Kou, Li-Ping Xia, Li Zhang, You-E Yan, Dan Xu, Hui Wang
Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induced an intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)-associated neuroendocrine metabolism in 3-month-old offspring rats. In this study, we aimed to confirm this programming disorder and high susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in 10-month-old female PCE offspring with postnatal catch-up growth. We found that PCE female offspring rats showed decreased bodyweight but a higher rate of weight gain after birth...
June 15, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624605/transplacental-exposure-to-environmental-carcinogens-association-with-childhood-cancer-risks-and-the-role-of-modulating-factors
#19
REVIEW
A Fucic, V Guszak, A Mantovani
Biological responses to carcinogens from environmental exposure during adulthood are modulated over years or decades. Conversely, during transplacental exposure, the effects on the human foetus change within weeks, intertwining with developmental mechanisms: even short periods of transplacental exposure may be imprinted in the organism for a lifetime. The pathways leading to childhood and juvenile cancers, such as leukaemias, neuroblastoma/brain tumours, hepatoblastoma, and Willm's tumor involve prenatally-induced genomic, epigenomic and/or non-genomic effects caused by xenobiotics...
June 14, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627392/the-great-barrier-belief-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-considerations-for-juvenile-toxicity-studies
#20
REVIEW
Georg Schmitt, Neil Parrott, Eric Prinssen, Paul Barrow
Juvenile animal studies can be warranted to support the development of pediatric medicines. Drugs acting on the CNS or those which penetrate into the brain merit particular attention. The blood-brain barrier is functionally mature at birth, but undergoes functional postnatal modulation to provide a suitable microenvironment for the developing brain. In the past, dosing in rat juvenile studies has often commenced at 4 or 7days of age. However, rodents are very neurologically immature at birth compared with humans...
June 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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