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Reproductive Toxicology

Jordan R Nelson, Tonia S Schwartz, Julia M Gohlke
Selenium deficiency and toxicity increase the risk of adverse developmental and reproductive outcomes; however, few multi-stressor studies have evaluated the influence of maternal age on organic selenium dose-response and additional stressors over the life course. While multi-stressor research in mammalian models is time-consuming and expensive, use of alternative models can efficiently produce screening data for prioritizing research in mammalian systems. As a well-known eco-toxicological model, Daphnia pulex, may offer advantages in screening for impacts of multi-stressor exposures...
November 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Rachel W Winter, Michael Due Larsen, Bjarne Magnussen, Sonia Friedman, Heidi Kammerlander, Bente Mertz Nørgård
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is often prescribed for moderate to severe inflammatory related diseases. The safety of paternal MTX use prior to conception is unknown. This study, using the National Danish Registries, aimed to examine the association between paternal MTX use three months before conception and adverse birth outcomes. RESULTS: Children fathered by men treated with MTX within three months before conception constituted the exposed cohort (N=193), and children fathered by men not treated with MTX constituted the unexposed cohort (N=1,013,801)...
October 30, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Alexander Suvorov, Alex Shershebnev, Haotian Wu, Yulia Medvedeva, Oleg Sergeyev, J Richard Pilsner
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of ubiquitous reproductive toxins. Given that spermatogenesis requires extensive epigenetic changes, we hypothesize that PBDEs impact sperm DNA methylation. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed perinatally to 0.2mg/kg 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and caudal epididymal sperm were collected from offspring on postnatal days (PNDs) 65 and 120. Libraries were prepared from sperm DNA and sequenced with an average of 18.0 million unique reads per sample...
October 28, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Sonia Friedman, Bente Mertz Nørgård
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Melek Simsek, Nanne K H de Boer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Yujing Huang, Jose M Garcia, Weiqun Shu, Honghui Rong, Lin Zhang, Yanzhou Wang, Yao Tan, Hui Lin, Hui Zeng, Ji-An Chen
Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARG) in placenta play an important role in pregnancy. Our previous study showed that it mediated the effects of phthalates on placental mRNA expression of estrogen synthetases in rats. To assess the effects of phthalate exposure on PPARG placental expression, and the contribution of PPARG to the effects of phthalates in human. 207 healthy pregnant women were recruited and their cord blood and placenta were collected upon delivery. Three phthalates, estrogens in cord blood and protein expression of PPARG in placenta were measured...
October 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Han-Xiao Liu, Li-Fang Hou, Ting Chen, Wen Qu, Sha Liu, Hui-Yi Yan, Xiao Wen, Jie Ping
This study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal caffeine ingestion (PCI) and risk of postnatal pulmonary inflammation. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered 60mg/kg/d caffeine intragastrically from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD 20. The results showed that PCI obviously increased intrauterine growth retardation rate to 39.2% and suppressed weight growth of the offspring. PCI also enhanced the expression of transforming growth factor β, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-8 in lungs and caused pulmonary interstitial thickening in the offspring...
October 18, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
J Martinez-Pinto, B Piquer, M Tiszavari, H E Lara
To understand the impact of exposure to steroids in the early step of ovary development (a stage occurring in uterus in humans), we studied neonatal exposure to estradiol valerate (EV) in rats regarding polycystic ovary (PCO) development as well as expression of androgen receptor (Ar) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian follicular development. Rats exposed to one dose of EV (10mg/kg, sc) during their first 12h of life were euthanized at 2, 30 and 60days of age. Gene array and real-time PCR studies showed Ar and AMH up regulation in the ovary at 2days of age and persisted at 60days of age, when a PCO phenotype was evident with increased levels of Ar and AMH proteins...
October 18, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Adriana Sampayo-Reyes, Reyes S Taméz-Guerra, Mario Bermúdez de León, Javier Vargas-Villarreal, Héctor Gerardo Lozano-Garza, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, Constanza Cortés, Ricard Marcos, Alba Hernández
Human studies suggest that in utero exposure to arsenic results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of dietary supplements, such as sodium selenite (SS) or α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS), is a reasonable approach to ameliorate such health effects. Sodium arsenite at 100ppm was administered via drinking water to female hamsters from gestational days 1 or 8 to the time of delivery. Viable fetuses, fetal resorptions and non-viable fetuses were recorded during and after pregnancy and total arsenic and its metabolites were characterized in pregnant animals, placentas and fetuses...
October 18, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
N Moreira, T M Sandini, T M Reis-Silva, P Navas-Suáresz, A V V Auada, I Lebrun, J C Flório, M M Bernardi, H S Spinosa
Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used for the treatment of parasitic infections and widely used in veterinary medicine as endectocide. In mammals, evidence indicates that IVM interacts with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. GABAergic system is involved in the manifestation of sexual behavior. We previously found that IVM at therapeutic doses did not alter sexual behavior in male rats, but at a higher dose, the appetitive phase of sexual behavior was impaired. Thus, we investigated whether the reduction of sexual behavior that was previously observed was a consequence of motor or motivational deficits that are induced by IVM...
October 18, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Yan Li, Kai Wang, Qing-Yun Zou, Yi-Zhou Jiang, Chi Zhou, Jing Zheng
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor is involved in regulation of many essential biological processes including vascular development and angiogenesis. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an AhR ligand, which regulates immune responses and cancer cell growth. However, the roles of the ITE/AhR pathway in mediating placental angiogenesis remains elusive. Here, we determined if ITE affected placental angiogenic responses via AhR in human umbilical vein (HUVECs) and artery endothelial (HUAECs) cells in vitro...
October 3, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Rebecca A Fanning, Deirdre P Campion, Maeve O'Shea, Michael F Carey, John J O'Connor
Oxidative stress affects the contractile behavior of smooth muscle resulting in complications during labor. Toxicants such as lindane and ferric chloride (FeCl3)/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) cause oxidative stress and have previously been shown to inhibit smooth muscle contraction. In this study we examined the effects of the oxygen species scavengers, ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine on lindane and FeCl3/ADP's inhibition of spontaneous myometrial contractions in rat and human myometrium. Lindane and FeCl3/ADP gave rise to concentration-dependent reductions in rat (EC50 11...
September 29, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Shreya Patel, James A Hartman, William G Helferich, Jodi A Flaws
Genistein is a phytoestrogen found in soy and soy-based products. Previously, we found that genistein adversely affected estradiol levels and follicle growth in vitro. Proper hormone production and follicle growth are key regulators of normal fertility. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein adversely affects female fertility and pregnancy outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we dosed sexually mature female CD-1 mice (35days) with 0, 300, 500, or 1000ppm genistein for 30, 60, 150, and 240days. At the end of the dosing periods, we measured mating rate, pregnancy rate, fertility rate, gestation time, parturition time, pup mortality, litter size, average pup weight, and estradiol and progesterone levels...
September 29, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Sharada Mahalingam, Laura Ther, Liying Gao, Wei Wang, Ayelet Ziv-Gal, Jodi A Flaws
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used plasticizer. Previous studies show that in utero exposure to BPA affects reproductive outcomes in the F1-F3 generations of mice. However, its multigenerational effects on ovarian histology and steroidogenesis over the reproductive lifespan are unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that BPA has multigenerational effects on follicle numbers and steroidogenesis. Mice were exposed in utero to vehicle control or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50μg/kg/day). Ovaries were collected for histological and gene expression analyses and sera were collected for hormone assays...
September 29, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Mohamed S Yousef, Mitsuhiro Takagi, Anup K Talukder, Mohamed A Marey, Rasoul Kowsar, Abdel-Razek Kh Abdel-Razek, Takashi Shimizu, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Akio Miyamoto
Dietary contamination by Zearalenone (ZEN) has a detrimental effect on bovine fertility. Recently, we showed a novel anti-inflammatory response of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) to active sperm cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ZEN exposure of BOEC on the immune-related cytokine expression in response to bovine sperm. At concentrations of 100 and 1000ng/mL, ZEN induced the expression of TNF and IL1B (pro-inflammatory cytokines) as well as IL8 (chemokine) in BOEC in a dose-dependent manner...
September 28, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Zhiqin Fu, Fan Zhao, Kelie Chen, Jinming Xu, Peiwei Li, Dajing Xia, Yihua Wu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically assess the association between urinary phthalate metabolites and risk of breast cancer and uterine leiomyoma. METHODS: Standard meta-analysis and bioinformatics analysis were conducted based on electronic databases. RESULTS: No significant association was observed between total urinary phthalate metabolites and risk of breast cancer or uterine leiomyoma. However, MECPP was positively associated with breast cancer risk, and DEHP metabolites were associated with increased risk of breast cancer as well as uterine leiomyoma...
September 23, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Frédérique Delannois, Camille Planty, Giulia Giordano, Eric Destexhe, Dinesh Stanislaus, Fernanda Tavares Da Silva, Jens-Ulrich Stegmann, Karen Thacker, Lucie Reynaud, Nathalie Garçon, Lawrence Segal
The potential reproductive and developmental toxicity of the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) CpG 7909, a component of GSK's AS15 immunostimulant, was examined in rat and rabbit studies following intermittent intramuscular injections. Previous studies using subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injections in mice, rats and rabbits revealed that CpG ODNs induced developmental effects. To analyze the safety signal, GSK conducted additional animal studies using the intended clinical route of administration. CpG 7909 injections were administered intramuscularly to rats or rabbits 28 and 14days before pairing, on 4 or 5 occasions during gestation, and on lactation day 7...
September 23, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Catherine Racowsky, Catherine Mh Combelles, Natalie Landa, Ronit Machtinger
Bisphenol A (BPA) is detectable in follicular fluid. However, the effect of BPA exposure on human cumulus cells (CC) that surround the oocyte and are crucial for oocyte competence has been largely unexplored. We exposed primary cultures of CC to increasing concentrations of BPA [0,0.002, 0.02 and 20μg/mL] and tested the effects of BPA on the expression of genes associated with apoptosis using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR); we also assessed the effect of BPA on apoptosis by staining with anti-caspase 3...
September 22, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Hirokatsu Saito, Kenshiro Hara, Kentaro Tanemura
Permethrin, a pyrethroid chemical, is widely used as a pesticide because of its rapid insecticidal activity. Although permethrin is considered to exert very low toxicity on mammalian reproductive organs, the effects of early low-level and chronic exposure on adult spermatogenesis are unclear. We exposed mice to environmentally relevant concentrations of permethrin (0, 0.3, and 30ppm) in drinking water during prenatal and postnatal period and examined the effects on the testis in mice offspring when they reached maturity (12 weeks of age)...
September 21, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Catherine Ley, Lauren Pischel, Julie Parsonnet
Triclosan and triclocarban (TCs) are broad-spectrum microbicides found in household and personal wash products. We sought to determine whether TC exposure from wash products or urinary triclosan level modified thyroid function during pregnancy or anthropometric measurements at birth. A randomized intervention of wash products with or without TCs, including toothpaste, enrolled pregnant women from 20 weeks' gestation. Urinary triclosan, TSH, T4 and T3 were assessed at enrollment, 36weeks' gestation and/or post-delivery; anthropometric measures at birth were ascertained from medical records...
September 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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