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Reproductive Toxicology

Jerrold J Heindel, Bruce Blumberg, Mathew Cave, Ronit Machtinger, Alberto Mantovani, Michelle A Mendez, Angel Nadal, Paola Palanza, Giancarlo Panzica, Robert Sargis, Laura N Vandenberg, Frederick Vom Saal
The recent epidemics of metabolic diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes(T2D), liver lipid disorders and metabolic syndrome have largely been attributed to genetic background and changes in diet, exercise and aging. However, there is now considerable evidence that other environmental factors may contribute to the rapid increase in the incidence of these metabolic diseases. This review will examine changes to the incidence of obesity, T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the contribution of genetics to these disorders and describe the role of the endocrine system in these metabolic disorders...
October 16, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna, Thayne Woycinck Kowalski, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Bibiane Armiliato Godoy, Lucas Rosa Fraga, Maria Teresa Vieira Sanseverino, Mara Helena Hutz, Lavínia Schuler-Faccini
Thalidomide causes Thalidomide Embryopathy (TE), but is largely used to treat several conditions. Investigations with Cereblon, a thalidomide target protein encoded by CRBN gene, have helped to understand thalidomide therapeutic and teratogenic properties. We sequenced CRBN-thalidomide binding region in 38 TE individuals and 136 Brazilians without congenital anomalies, and performed in silico analyses. Eight variants were identified, seven intronic and one in 3'UTR. TE individuals had rare variants in higher frequency than the non-affected group(p=0...
October 14, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Kelly K Ferguson, David E Cantonwine, Thomas F McElrath, Bhramar Mukherjee, John D Meeker
Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure occurs commonly and may adversely impact pregnancy. Endocrine disruption is posited as the primary mechanism of action, but oxidative stress and inflammation pathways may also be important. We investigated associations between BPA exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation in 482 pregnant women. Participants were recruited early in pregnancy and provided urine and plasma at up to four visits. We measured total BPA and two biomarkers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane) in urine from each visit...
October 14, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Marlena Fejzo, Kimber MacGibbon, Patrick Mullin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Gian Mario Tiboni, Adalisa Ponzano
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that act by blocking the production of estrogens from androgens. The current review concentrates on the prenatal developmental toxicity of AIs in experimental models. Available data indicate that AIs may affect pregnancy at human therapeutic or lower doses. The window of vulnerability to AIs is not limited to organogenesis, but also includes the preimplantation stage and fetal periods. Decreased embryo/fetal survival was the prominent treatment-related effect...
September 30, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Aileen S W Li, Yusuke Marikawa
Valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, is a teratogen that causes neural tube and axial skeletal defects, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. We previously established a gastrulation model using mouse P19C5 stem cell embryoid bodies (EBs), which exhibits axial patterning and elongation morphogenesis in vitro. Here, we investigated the effects of VPA on the EB axial morphogenesis to gain insights into its teratogenic mechanisms. Axial elongation and patterning of EBs were inhibited by VPA at therapeutic concentrations...
September 29, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
James P Reichmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Arcangelo Barbonetti, Chiara Castellini, Noemi Di Giammarco, Gaetano Santilli, Sandro Francavilla, Felice Francavilla
As bisphenol A (BPA) exerts oxidative/pro-apoptotic effects in several cell types, we explored whether the in vitro exposure to BPA could affect human sperm integrity through the induction of pro-oxidative/apoptotic mitochondrial dysfunction. The exposure of motile sperm suspensions to scalar BPA concentrations for 4h produced a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, starting from 300μM. It was associated with an increased mitochondrial generation of superoxide anion, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation and motility decrement...
September 26, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Florence Pagé-Larivière, Amélie Tremblay, Céline Campagna, Manuel J Rodriguez, Marc-André Sirard
Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) is one of the trihalomethanes present in chlorinated water. Humans are thus daily exposed. Previous contradictory results failed to clearly establish the adverse effects of low concentrations of BDCM. By using the porcine preimplantation embryo as a sensitive model, we showed that exposure to low concentrations of BDCM (10 and 100ppb) during the first week of embryo development induced adverse effect on the blastocyst rate and alteration of the estradiol pathway. Our results also suggest that blastocysts exposed to BDCM present transcriptomic and epigenomic adaptive modifications compatible with the cardiac anomalies observed by previous studies of newborns exposed to BDCM during gestation...
September 23, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Yusuf C Kaplan, Elif Keskin-Arslan, Selin Acar, Kaan Sozmen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies would support the previously suggested associations regarding prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use and the risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Reprotox databases were searched; observational studies with an exposed and unexposed group were included...
September 22, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Albert Stuart Reece, Mervyn Rees Thomas, Amanda Norman, Gary Kenneth Hulse
Whilst disturbances of female reproductive hormones and function are commonplace in opioid dependence, their pathophysiological interrelationships are not well understood. Hormonal levels in females were compared in 77 opioid dependent patients (ODP) and 148 medical controls (MC) including 205 and 364 repeat studies. Significant changes in FSH, LH, oestradiol, testosterone and SBG were noted including power functions with age. The FSH/LH was lower in ODP (P=0.0150) and the ratio inversion point occurred at 28...
September 20, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Pheruza Tarapore, Max Hennessy, Dan Song, Jun Ying, Bin Ouyang, Vinothini Govindarajah, Yuet-Kin Leung, Shuk-Mei Ho
Exposure to xenoestrogens is a probable cause of male infertility in humans. Consumption of high-fat diets and exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is pervasive in America. Here, we test the hypothesis that gestational exposure to high dietary fats and/or BPA disrupt spermatogenesis in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10 kcal% butter fat (AIN), 39 kcal% butter fat (HFB), or 39 kcal% olive oil (HFO), with or without BPA (25μg/kg body weight/day) during pregnancy. One group of male offspring received testosterone (T)- and estradiol-17β (E2)-filled implants or sham-implants from postnatal day (PND)70-210...
September 19, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Amos O Abolaji, Isaac A Adedara, Ayodeji O Abajingin, Ore J Fatunmibi, Emmanuel O Ladipo, Ebenezer O Farombi
4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is an occupational chemical widely reported to deplete ovarian follicles in rodents. Here, we investigated VCD-induced reproductive dysfunction in female Wistar rats. The rats were orally administered with VCD (100, 250 and 500mg/kg) for twenty-eight days. Thereafter, we evaluated selected biomarkers of oxidative damage, inflammation, endocrine disruption, and apoptosis. We observed that VCD increased ovarian and uterine malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in rats (p<0...
September 16, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Swati Kalra, Pooja Dewan, Prerna Batra, Tusha Sharma, Vipin Tyagi, Basu Dev Banerjee
We explored the association between maternal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. Blood was collected from 35 mothers and their offsprings with NTDs (case group) and from 35 mothers-neonate dyads without congenital anomalies (control group). The median blood levels of DDE, t-HCH and endosulphan in mothers in the case group and of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total hexachlorocyclohexane (t-HCH) and endosulfan in the neonates with NTDs were significantly higher...
September 16, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Elise M Philips, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Leonardo Trasande
Pregnant women are exposed to various chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that early life exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may contribute to cardiometabolic risks. The aim of this narrative review was to summarize current knowledge of the effects of fetal and childhood exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on child growth and child cardiometabolic outcomes and the effects on maternal outcomes. In total, 54 studies were identified and included...
September 3, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Paolo Bergamo, Maria Grazia Volpe, Stefano Lorenzetti, Alberto Mantovani, Tiziana Notari, Ennio Cocca, Stefano Cerullo, Michele Di Stasio, Pellegrino Cerino, Luigi Montano
The Campania region in Italy is facing an environmental crisis due to the illegal disposal of toxic waste. Herein, a pilot study (EcoFoodFertility initiative) was conducted to investigate the use of human semen as an early biomarker of pollution on 110 healthy males living in various areas of Campania with either high or low environmental impact. The semen from the "high impact" group showed higher zinc, copper, chromium and reduced iron levels, as well as reduced sperm motility and higher sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI)...
September 1, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Dorte Vesterholm Lind, Lærke Priskorn, Tina Harmer Lassen, Flemming Nielsen, Henriette Boye Kyhl, David Møbjerg Kristensen, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Jan Steener Jørgensen, Philippe Grandjean, Tina Kold Jensen
In the Odense child cohort, serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured in 638 pregnant women. Birth weight, head and abdominal circumferences and gestational age were determined. Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the anus to the genital organs, and penile width were measured 3 months after expected date of birth in 511 children. PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA were associated with a decreased AGD in girls (p-trend<0...
August 31, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
J Nicole Sweeting, Peter G Wells
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Tacey White, Amy Williams, John M DeSesso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Y Oulhote, Z Shamim, K Kielsen, P Weihe, P Grandjean, L P Ryder, C Heilmann
BACKGROUND: To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively examined 56 children to determine associations between exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants since birth and the comprehensive differential counts of white blood cells (WBC) at age 5 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extended differential count included: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes (includingT cells, NK cells, and B cells), and monocytes...
August 4, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
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