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Reproductive Toxicology

Steven D Renaut, Michele Whiteley
Oral exposure of rodents to the plasticizer, Di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), elicits birth defects and effects upon the reproductive tract. There is currently limited published information regarding potential developmental effects in rodents of another phthalate ester, TEHTM.
September 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Simone M Nicholson, Gianluca Carlesso, Lily I Cheng, Halie Cook, Karma DaCosta, Joel Leininger, Kathleen McKeever, Stephen Weasel Scott, Devon Taylor, Katie Streicher, Steve Eck, Molly Reed, Raffaella Faggioni, Ronald Herbst, Rakesh Dixit, Patricia C Ryan
MEDI-570 is a fully human afucosylated monoclonal antibody (MAb) against Inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS), highly expressed on CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Effects of MEDI-570 were evaluated in an enhanced pre-postnatal development toxicity (ePPND) study in cynomolgus monkeys. Administration to pregnant monkeys did cause any abortifacient effects. Changes in hematology and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in maternal animals and infants and the attenuated infant IgG immune response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were attributed to MEDI-570 pharmacology...
September 12, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Hao Kou, Lang Shen, Han-Wen Luo, Liao-Bin Chen, Dong-Fang Wu, Hui Wang
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in the first generation (F1) rats. In this study, the HPA hormones and glucose/lipid phenotypes under basal state and stressed condition induced by a fortnight ice-water swimming were examined in F2 to verify the intergenerational effect. Under the basal state, serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose of some PEE groups were lowered while those of serum triglycerides (TG) were increased comparing with controls...
September 11, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
B B Høyer, C H Ramlau-Hansen, J P Bonde, S B Larsen, G Toft
We studied the association between intake of non-prescription analgesics and semen quality and male reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study among 1493 men. The men provided one semen (n=1493) and blood sample (n=1056) and filled in questionnaires on use of non-prescription analgesics (paracetamol, NSAIDs and combination drugs (yes/no)). Adjusting for age, study and other covariates, we observed no association between intake of non-prescription analgesics and markers of semen quality. Adjusting for age and time of day of blood sampling, users of non-prescription analgesics had a 10...
September 9, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Sumitaka Kobayashi, Fumihiro Sata, Seiko Sasaki, Titilola Serifat Braimoh, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Houman Goudarzi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Reiko Kishi
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the individual dose-response effects of eight maternal polymorphisms encoding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-metabolizing and DNA-repair genes on prenatal cotinine levels according to infant birth size. METHODS: In total, 3,263 Japanese pregnant women were assigned to five groups based on plasma cotinine levels during the 8th month of pregnancy, as measured using ELISA (cut-offs: 0.21, 0.55, 11.48, and 101.67ng/mL). Analyses were performed using multiple linear regression...
September 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Bin-Qiao Wang, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Xiao-Xiao Lan, Zhi-Yang Zhou, Xin-Xin Xu, Xue-Qing Wu
Immune challenge in early life has been observed to influence the long-term reproductive dysfunction. On PNDs 3 and 5, female offsprings were administered with LPS (50μg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Vaginal opening was recorded, and oestrous cyclicity was monitored immediately post puberty and again at 56-70 days. At 10 weeks of age, the ovaries were removed for immunostaining and RNA analysis. Neonatal exposure to LPS resulted in a significant delay puberty onset as well as destroyed expression of ovulation related genes...
September 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Guan-Lin Lai, Chih-Ching Yeh, Ching-Ying Yeh, Ruey-Yu Chen, Chiung-Lin Fu, Chi-Huang Chen, Chii-Ruey Tzeng
Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease associated with multiple pathogenic factors and studies regarding roles of trace metals in endometriosis have been inconsistent and limited. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the blood levels of miscellaneous trace metals measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in infertile women with and without endometriosis. Zinc level is associated with declining odds (adjusted OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.18-0.88) of endometriosis. By contrast, lead level is associated with increasing odds (adjusted OR=2...
September 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Hirokatsu Saito, Kenshiro Hara, Kentaro Tanemura
Permethrin, a pyrethroid chemical, is widely used as a pesticide because of its rapid insecticidal activity. Although permethrin is considered to exert very low toxicity on mammalian reproductive organs, the effects of early low-level and chronic exposure on adult spermatogenesis are unclear. We exposed mice to environmentally relevant concentrations of permethrin (0, 0.3, and 30ppm) in drinking water during prenatal and postnatal period and examined the effects on the testis in mice offspring when they reached maturity (12 weeks of age)...
September 1, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Simone Forcato, Daniella Regina Barrionuevo da Silva Novi, Nathalia Orlandini Costa, Lorena Ireno Borges, Maria Luiza Marino de Góes, Graziela Scalianti Ceravolo, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto Gerardin
Metformin (MET) is prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes. Although MET crosses the placenta, it is considered safe throughout gestation. However, it has been shown in humans that maternal exposure to MET increases sex hormone binding globulin levels in newborns, and in rats it decreases the testosterone concentration at gestational day (GD) 16.5. Therefore, the present study evaluated if maternal exposure to MET could interfere with reproductive parameters of male offspring...
September 1, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Christina L Lamparter, Nicola A Philbrook, Louise M Winn
The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) family of transcription factors regulate gene expression in response to diverse stimuli. We previously demonstrated that valproic acid (VPA) exposure in utero decreases total cellular protein expression of the NF-κB subunit p65 in CD-1 mouse embryos with a neural tube defect but not in phenotypically normal littermates. This study evaluated p65 mRNA and protein expression in P19 cells and determined the impact on DNA binding ability and activity. Exposure to 5mM VPA decreased p65 mRNA and total cellular protein expression however, nuclear p65 protein expression was unchanged...
September 1, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Jürgen Rehm, Svetlana Popova
The objective was to obtain the first ever estimates of the prevalence of binge drinking (defined as four or more standard drinks per occasion) during pregnancy among the general population by country and World Health Organization region. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted, followed by country-specific random-effects meta-analyses for those countries with two or more empirical studies. For the remaining countries, the prevalence was predicted via a multilevel fractional response regression model, using country-specific indicators...
August 31, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
XueWei Qin, XiaoTian Ni, XiaoYuan Mao, Hao Ying, QiaoLing Du
OBJECTIVE: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific disease which is closely correlated with abnormal placental vascular formation and deficient vascular maturation. This study intends to explore the role of VCAM-1 in the vascular formation in the placenta of ICP. METHODS: Patients with ICP or healthy puerperant were respectively used as ICP group and control group. The umbilical vein endothelial cell Eahy926 was selected as in vitro cell model...
August 26, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Elisângela Martins-Santos, Cristiano Guimarães Pimenta, Pollyana Rabelo Nunes Campos, Mariana Brandão Franco, Dawidson Assis Gomes, Germán Arturo Bohórquez Mahecha, Cleida Aparecida Oliveira
Atrazine is an endocrine disruptor affecting testicular steroidogenesis, and promoting testicular atrophy and 3β-HSD reduction. However, it remains unknown whether these effects are reversible or permanent. To address this issue was the aim of this study. Exposition of rats to 200mg/kg of atrazine resulted in transient increase in testicular weight, seminiferous tubules dilation and atrophy, and reduction in Leydig cell 3β-HSD. Testicular atrophy and 3β-HSD reduction were more pronounced after the recovery period of 75days...
August 25, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
S Friedman, M D Larsen, B Magnussen, L R Jølving, P de Silva, B M Nørgård
PURPOSE: We examined the effect of preconception paternal use of azathioprine (AZA)/6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) or methotrexate (MTX) and the risk of adverse long-term outcomes in the offspring. METHODS: This study included all children born in Denmark from 1 January 1997 through 2013. Exposed cohort: children fathered by men who used AZA/6-MP (N=735) or MTX (N=209) within three months before conception; unexposed cohort: children fathered by men who did not use AZA/6-MP/MTX (N=1,056,524)...
August 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Marya Ghazipura, Richard McGowan, Alan Arslan, Tanzib Hossain
Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, also known as benzophenone-3 (BP-3), is a commonly used ultraviolet filter in skincare and as a food additive. Large concentrations of similar phenolic compounds have been detected in urine, amniotic fluid, and placental tissue, thereby raising questions about its impact on reproduction. The objective of this paper was to investigate the reproductive toxicity of BP-3 in humans and animals. In humans, studies showed that high levels of BP-3 exposure could be linked to an increase in male birth weight but a decline in female birth weight and male gestational age...
August 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
E L Patkin, N A Grudinina, L K Sasina, E M Noniashvili, L I Pavlinova, I O Suchkova, M E Kustova, N N Kolmakov, Tran Van Truong, G A Sofronov
Earlier we showed that asymmetric methylation of sister chromatids (AMSC) was a specific characteristic of differentiation potency, and supposed that AMSC could be a useful marker of environmental impact connected with differentiation and/or dedifferentiation. Here we investigated the level of AMSC in chromosomes and the nuclei methylation in mouse preimplantation and postimplantation embryos, in comparison with the undifferentiated cells of mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line F9, and human differentiated HEK293 cells upon BPA influence...
August 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Violeta Zalgeviciene, Vytautas Kulvietis, Danute Bulotiene, Edvardas Zurauskas, Aida Laurinaviciene, Artiom Skripka, Ricardas Rotomskis
The increasing use of nanoparticles in consumer products raises the concerns of their safety. This study investigated the biological effects of quantum dots (QD) exposure to rats during pregnancy. CdTe QD were injected on the 13th gestation day. Morphological features of 121 fetuses and histological analysis of placentas were performed on the 20th gestation day. The results showed that QD exhibit dose dependent embryotoxicity: survival rates of fetuses were 97% (5mg/kg dose), 86% (10mg/kg dose) and 43% (20mg/kg dose)...
August 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Zhe Qin, Haiyan Hou, Feng Fu, Jun Wu, Bin Han, Wen Yang, Liwen Zhang, Jin Cao, Xiaohan Jin, Shixiang Cheng, Zhen Yang, Min Zhang, Xiaoxia Lan, Ting Yao, Qulong Dong, Siyu Wu, Jingjing Zhang, Zhongwei Xu, Yuming Li, Yaqiong Chen
Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes but the mechanisms are not clear. Our research confirms that PM2.5 induced DNA damage, and inhibited cell proliferation in HTR-8/SVneo cells, presenting in a dose- and time-dependent manners. Using quantitative proteomics, the 182 and 486 differentially expressed proteins in cells treated with 120μgml(-1) PM2.5 for 24 and 48h were involved in many critical biological processes, including of cell proliferation, response to DNA damage, regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction, and etc...
August 24, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Carmen Loreto-Gómez, Paulina Farías, Hortensia Moreno-Macías, S P Romano-Riquer, Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez
There is no consensus on which anogenital distance (AGD) variant to use and how to adjust it by body size in humans. This study quantitatively evaluated AGD variants and body size adjustments to determine which would be the best choice. AGD variants, height, and weight were measured on five occasions during the first year of life of 307 infants. The ratio of anoscrotal distance (ASD) in boys and anofourchette distance (AFD) in girls increased from 1.9 at birth to 2.3 at 12 months of age. Each AGD variant was divided by each body size variable to generate different indices...
August 23, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Miao Yu, Yongliang Feng, Xiaona Zhang, Jun Wang, Hua Tian, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Semicarbazide (SMC), an emerging water contaminant, exerts anti-estrogenic effects in female zebrafish. However, the exact influence of SMC on male reproduction remains unclear. In this study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to 1-1000μg/L SMC in a semi-static system for 28 d prior to examining the testicular somatic index (TSI), testis histology, plasma sex hormone levels, and the transcription of genes involved in reproduction. The results showed that testicular morphology was altered and TSI was down-regulated by high concentrations of SMC (≥100μg/L and 1000μg/L, respectively)...
August 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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