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Reproductive Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777755/folic-acid-and-primary-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Jan D van Gool, Herbert Hirche, Hildegard Lax, Luc De Schaepdrijver
With 4 mg folic acid daily, it may take 20 weeks to reach red-blood-cell folate levels between 1,050 and 1,340 nmol/L, optimal for reduction of the neural tube defect risk. Therefore, folic acid supplementation should be started 5-6 months before conception. The residual risk with optimal red-blood-cell folate levels is reportedly 4.5 per 10,000 total births. The residual risk in pooled data from countries with mandatory folic acid fortification is 7.5 per 10,000 pregnancies, regardless of pre-fortification rates...
May 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763655/no-evidence-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcome-after-exposure-to-ibuprofen-in-the-1st-trimester-evaluation-of-the-national-embryotox-cohort
#2
Katarina Dathe, Anne-Katrin Fietz, Lucas William Pritchard, Stephanie Padberg, Stefanie Hultzsch, Katja Meixner, Reinhard Meister, Christof Schaefer
Ibuprofen is an analgesic frequently used in the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Most relevant studies deal with NSAID as a group and do not specifically focus on ibuprofen. In this study, 1117 women exposed to ibuprofen in the 1st trimester were compared to 2229 non-exposed women. Data were retrieved from the German Embryotox database. No significantly increased risk of major birth defects (4.8% vs. 4.1%; OR adjusted 1.11, 95% CI 0.75-1.64) or a distinct pattern of birth defects were found. The cumulative incidences of spontaneous abortions were similar across cohorts (15...
May 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753929/best-practices-for-developmental-toxicity-assessment-for-classification-and-labeling
#3
George Daston, Aldert Piersma, Leonello Attias, Manon Beekhuijzen, Connie Chen, Jennifer Foreman, Nina Hallmark, Isabelle Leconte
Many chemicals are going through a hazard-based classification and labeling process in Europe. Because of the significant public health implications, the best science must be applied in assessing developmental toxicity data. The European Teratology Society and Health and Environmental Sciences Institute co-organized a workshop to consider best practices, including data quality and consistency, interpretation of developmental effects in the presence of maternal toxicity, human relevance of animal data, and limits of chemical classes...
May 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752986/perinatal-bpa-exposure-and-reproductive-axis-function-in-cd-1-mice
#4
Nicole Acevedo, Beverly S Rubin, Cheryl M Schaeberle, Ana M Soto
Perinatal Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure reduces fertility and fecundity in mice. This study examined effects of early BPA exposure on activation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in conjunction with a steroid-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, characterized patterns of estrous cyclicity and fertility over time, and assessed the ovarian follicular reserve to further explore factors responsible for the reduced fertility we previously described in this model. The percent activated GnRH neurons was reduced in BPA exposed females at 3-6 months, and periods of persistent proestrus was increased...
May 9, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729334/the-urgency-for-optimization-and-harmonization-of-thyroid-hormone-analyses-and-their-interpretation-in-developmental-and-reproductive-toxicology-studies
#5
REVIEW
Manon Beekhuijzen, Steffen Schneider, Narinder Barraclough, Nina Hallmark, Alan Hoberman, Sheri Lordi, Mary Moxon, Deborah Perks, Aldert H Piersma, Susan L Makris
In recent years several OECD test guidelines have been updated and some will be updated shortly with the requirement to measure thyroid hormone levels in the blood of mammalian laboratory species. There is, however, an imperative need for clarification and guidance regarding the collection, assessment, and interpretation of thyroid hormone data for regulatory toxicology and risk assessment. Clarification and guidance is needed for 1) timing and methods of blood collection, 2) standardization and validation of the analytical methods, 3) triggers for additional measurements, 4) the need for T4 measurements in postnatal day (PND) 4 pups, and 5) the interpretation of changes in thyroid hormone levels regarding adversity...
May 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709520/ogg1-ser326cys-polymorphism-hiv-obesity-and-air-pollution-exposure-influences-adverse-birth-outcome-susceptibility-within-south-african-women
#6
Samantha M Anderson, Rajen N Naidoo, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Kareshma Asharam, Sheena Muttoo, Anil A Chuturgoon
The global HIV and obesity epidemics are major public health concerns; particularly as both are associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. Despite extensive research, their combined effect, in terms of birth outcomes, has not been investigated. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) (Ser326Cys) has been suggested to affect body mass indices and therefore could predispose South African (SA) women to adverse effects of obesity. This study investigated the associations of OGG1 Ser326Cys SNP in relation to HIV and obesity on the susceptibility of low-birthweight (LBW) and pre-term birth (PTB) in SA women exposed to ambient air-pollution living in Durban...
April 27, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709519/cardiopulmonary-consequences-of-gestational-toxicant-exposure-symposium-overview-at-the-56th-annual-sot-meeting-baltimore-md
#7
Phoebe A Stapleton, Christopher J Wingard, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, Alison C Holloway, Judith T Zelikoff, Thomas B Knudsen, Lynette K Rogers
Xenobiotic exposures affect the maternal and/or in utero environment resulting in impairments in fetal development. During the period of rapid fetal growth, developing cardiovascular systems are especially vulnerable to their environment. Furthermore, fetal exposures can evoke changes in epigenetic signatures that result in permanent modifications in gene expression. This symposium focused on the intersection between maternal and fetal exposure and the developing cardiovascular system. The impact of maternal exposures on prenatal development is of major concern for regulatory agencies given the unique vulnerability of the embryo/fetus to environmental factors, the importance of vascular biology to maternal-fetal interactions, and the adverse consequences of vascular disruption to children's health...
April 27, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709518/the-association-between-prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-birth-weight-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Cheng-Yang Hu, Feng-Li Li, Xiao-Guo Hua, Wen-Jiang, Chen Mao, Xiu-Jun Zhang
The association between prenatal BPA exposure and birth weight is controversial. Here, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between prenatal BPA exposure and birth weight. We searched literature addressing the association of interest in relevant databases. Data were independently extracted and analyzed using partial regression coefficient (β) and/or odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 140 references and included 8 studies. Based on the results of meta-analysis, the association between prenatal BPA exposure and continuous birth weight was estimated to be 4...
April 27, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702248/fertility-in-male-rats-disentangling-adverse-effects-of-arsenic-compounds
#9
Graziela Domingues de Almeida Lima, Marcela Nascimento Sertorio, Ana Cláudia Ferreira Souza, Tatiana Prata Menezes, Viviane Gorete Silveira Mouro, Nayara Magalhães, Jerusa Maria de Oliveira, Marc Henry, Mariana Machado-Neves
Arsenic impairs male reproductive functions. However, it is not clear whether different arsenic compounds similarly affect fertility. In this study, we compared the impact of sodium arsenite and arsenate on sperm quality and fertility. After 56 d exposure, male Wistar rats were mated and pregnant females were evaluated by fertility indexes. Clearly, exposure to 10 mg/L arsenite reduced daily sperm production via H2 O2 overproduction and germ cells loss. Animals from this group also showed a decrease in epididymal sperm counts and percentage of sperm with intact membranes...
April 24, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702247/young-mothers-and-higher-incidence-of-maternal-meiosis-i-non-disjunction-interplay-of-environmental-exposure-and-genetic-alterations-during-halt-phase-in-trisomy-21
#10
Nazia Saiyed, Sonal Bakshi, Srinivasan Muthuswamy, Sarita Agarwal
Trisomy 21 is a genetic condition caused when chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. We have studied conventional karyotype and QF-PCR using STR markers with high polymorphism and heterogeneity and the results were analyzed, to determine the paternal and meiotic origin of trisomy 21. This study was conducted using a detailed questionnaire to include: paternal, maternal, clinical and family history for various confounding factors such as age and regional environmental exposures where the parents resided...
April 24, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694846/reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-of-potassium-perfluorohexanesulfonate-in-cd-1-mice
#11
Sue Chang, John L Butenhoff, George A Parker, Prägati S Coder, Jeremiah D Zitzow, Ryan M Krisko, James A Bjork, Kendall B Wallace, Jennifer G Seed
Potassium perfluorohexanesulfoante (K+ PFHxS) was evaluated for reproductive/developmental toxicity in CD-1 mice. Up to 3 mg/kg-d K+ PFHxS was administered (n = 30/sex/group) before mating, for at least 42 days in F0 males, and for F0 females, through gestation and lactation. F1 pups were directly dosed with K+ PFHxS for 14 days after weaning. There was an equivocal decrease in live litter size at 1 and 3 mg/kg-d, but the pup-born-to-implant ratio was unaffected. Adaptive hepatocellular hypertrophy was observed, and in 3 mg/kg-d F0 males, it was accompanied by concomitant decreased serum cholesterol and increased alkaline phosphatase...
April 22, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689290/multigenerational-effects-of-maternal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-during-pregnancy-on-sperm-counts-of-f1-and-f2-male-offspring
#12
Hye Jeong Lee, Na Young Choi, Yo Seph Park, Seung-Won Lee, Jin Seok Bang, Yukyeong Lee, Jae-Sung Ryu, Seong-Jin Choi, Sang-Hyub Lee, Gwang Soo Kim, Hyun Woo Chung, Kisung Ko, Kyuhong Lee, Kinarm Ko
Animal models and human studies showed that in utero cigarette smoke exposure decreases sperm counts of offspring. This study used a mouse model to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke on reproductive systems in F1 and F2 male offspring. Female ICR mice were exposed either to clean air or to cigarette smoke during pregnancy at the post-implantation stage. Epididymal sperm counts were decreased in a cigarette smoke dose-dependent manner in F1 (by 40-60%) and F2 males (by 23-40%) at postnatal day 56...
April 21, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684509/detection-of-lindane-and-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-toxicity-at-low-concentrations-in-a-three-dimensional-ovarian-follicle-culture-system
#13
Hong Zhou, Cara J Young, Rita Loch-Caruso, Ariella Shikanov
Exposure to environmental toxicants that target ovarian follicles can have long-lasting effects on women's reproductive health and health of the offspring. Experiments in rodents have contributed knowledge about the effects of individual toxicants on ovarian follicles. However, little is known about the effects of mixtures of toxicants on ovarian follicular health. We studied the combined effects of low, physiologically- and environmentally-relevant concentrations of toxicants on murine secondary ovarian follicles cultured in an encapsulated three-dimensional (3D) system...
April 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673796/cigarette-smoke-extract-interferes-with-placenta-macrophage-functions-a-new-mechanism-to-compromise-placenta-functions
#14
Rym Belhareth, Soraya Mezouar, Amira Ben Amara, Céline Chartier, Eya Ben Azzouz, Eric Chabrière, Mohamed Amri, Jean-Louis Mege
The success of pregnancy depends on the maternal immune system's ability to promote tolerance and host defense. This equilibrium is compromised in inflammatory and infectious impairment of placenta. Smoking during pregnancy exposes the fetus to severe complications which might result from an alteration in placenta macrophages (pMφ) functions. In this study, we assessed the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the functions of third trimester pMφs.CSE inhibited particles uptake and the formation of multinucleated giant cells, a recently reported property of pMφs based on their ability to fuse in vitro...
April 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660390/review-of-embryo-fetal-developmental-toxicity-studies-performed-for-pharmaceuticals-approved-by-fda-in-2016-and-2017
#15
REVIEW
Paul Barrow
Details of embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies were compiled for all FDA drug approvals in 2016-17. Rats and rabbits were used for 63% of small molecule (SM) drugs. The cynomolgus monkey was used for 47% of biopharmaceuticals. Rodent studies using the clinical mAb or animal homologue replaced monkey studies under some circumstances. EFD studies were not required for anti-cancer drugs when the mode of action was associated with known developmental risk. One quarter of SM non-oncology drugs and all tested SM anti-cancer drugs were teratogenic in at least one species...
April 13, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635049/effects-of-maternal-subclinical-hypothyroidism-on-amniotic-fluid-cells-oxidative-status
#16
Tanja R Novakovic, Zana C Dolicanin, Natasa Z Djordjevic
In this study, we researched the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the amniotic fluid cells oxidative metabolism during the first trimester of pregnancy. Oxidative stress and damage biomarkers were assayed in the amniotic fluid cells of healthy and pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Obtained results show that amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism have significantly higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers (superoxide anion, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxide and micronuclei frequency), but lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione in comparison to healthy pregnant women...
April 7, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635048/expression-of-kappa-opioid-receptors-in-developing-rat-brain-implications-for-perinatal-buprenorphine-exposure
#17
Kathleen Z Tan, Anne M Cunningham, Anjali Joshi, Ju Lee Oei, Meredith C Ward
Buprenorphine, a mu opioid receptor partial agonist and kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist, is an emerging therapeutic agent for maternal opioid dependence in pregnancy and neonatal abstinence syndrome. However, the endogenous opioid system plays a critical role in modulating neurodevelopment and perinatal buprenorphine exposure may detrimentally influence this. To identify aspects of neurodevelopment vulnerable to perinatal buprenorphine exposure, we defined KOR protein expression and its cellular associations in normal rat brain from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 23 with double-labelling immunohistochemistry...
April 7, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635047/the-impact-of-confounder-selection-in-propensity-scores-when-applied-to-prospective-cohort-studies-in-pregnancy
#18
Ronghui Xu, Jue Hou, Christina D Chambers
Our work was motivated by small cohort studies on the risk of birth defects in infants born to pregnant women exposed to medications. We controlled for confounding using propensity scores (PS). The extremely rare events setting renders the matching or stratification infeasible. In addition, the PS itself may be formed via different approaches to select confounders from a relatively long list of potential confounders. We carried out simulation experiments to compare different combinations of approaches: IPW or regression adjustment, with 1) including all potential confounders without selection, 2) selection based on univariate association between the candidate variable and the outcome, 3) selection based on change in effects (CIE)...
April 7, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635046/effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-proliferation-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-synthesis-of-polyamines-interferon-tau-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-by-ovine-trophectoderm-cells
#19
Mohammed A Elmetwally, Amal A Halawa, Yasser Y Lenis, Wanjin Tang, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
This study evaluated the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on proliferation of ovine trophectoderm (oTr1) cells, as well as expression of genes for transport of arginine and synthesis of polyamines. BPA reduced proliferation of oTr1 cells at concentrations of 1 × 10-6 , 1 × 10-5 , 1 × 10-4  M compared to concentrations of 0, 1 × 10-9 , and 1 × 10-8  M at 24 and 96 h of culture. Lower concentrations of BPA significantly increased expression of mRNAs for agmatinase (AGMAT), arginine decarboxylase (ADC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) and solute carrier family 7 member 1 (SLC7A1)...
April 7, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635045/implantation-loss-induced-by-ethanolamine-in-the-rat-is-ameliorated-by-a-choline-supplemented-diet
#20
Nigel P Moore, Markus Wahl, Steffen Schneider
Ethanolamine (EA) reduced implantation success in a two-generation reproduction toxicity study; the aim of this work was to explore the underlying basis for this response. When administered to pregnant rats during gestation days (GD) 1-3, 4-5, or 6-7, EA had no effect upon implantation success. In a second experiment, EA was administered either in the diet or by oral gavage from two weeks prior to mating through to GD 8. Parallel groups also received a diet supplemented with choline. In the absence of supplementary choline, EA induced early resorptions, statistically significant only when administered in the diet...
April 7, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
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