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Reproductive Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645525/placenta-as-alternative-specimen-to-detect-in-utero-cannabis-exposure-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Daniela Marchetti, Gerardo Di Masi, Francesca Cittadini, Giuseppe La Monaca, Nadia De Giovanni
The use of cannabis during pregnancy and lactation is widely recognized as a health concern. The placenta is one of the several biological matrices that can be used to detect in utero drug exposure with the distinct advantage of easy and noninvasive collection. We conducted a PubMed search of selected literature published to June 30, 2016 to investigate the pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids, the active constituent of cannabis, in the placenta. The majority of the selected twelve papers was before 1990 and concerned animals at term gestation with great variability of experimental conditions...
June 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633984/herbal-medicinal-products-in-pregnancy-which-data-are-available
#2
REVIEW
Jacqueline Wiesner, Werner Knöss
This review aims to highlight recent approaches concerning usage of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in pregnancy and to discuss appropriate strategies to handle limited information. Therefore, published monographs of the Committee on Herbal Medicinal products (HMPC) and selected publicly funded webpages, medicinal handbooks, publications and industry and health care organisations webpages were evaluated. While within the monographs of the HMPC a rather conservative approach could be found (mainly because of lacking nonclinical and/or clinical studies), all other sources display a wide variety of information or assessments, thereby often giving contradictory recommendations...
June 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625926/prenatal-caffeine-exposure-induced-high-susceptibility-to-metabolic-syndrome-in-adult-female-offspring-rats-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#3
Lin-Guo Pei, Chao Yuan, Yi-Tian Guo, Hao Kou, Li-Ping Xia, Li Zhang, You-E Yan, Dan Xu, Hui Wang
Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induced an intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)-associated neuroendocrine metabolism in 3-month-old offspring rats. In this study, we aimed to confirm this programming disorder and high susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in 10-month-old female PCE offspring with postnatal catch-up growth. We found that PCE female offspring rats showed decreased bodyweight but a higher rate of weight gain after birth...
June 15, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624605/transplacental-exposure-to-environmental-carcinogens-association-with-childhood-cancer-risks-and-the-role-of-modulating-factors
#4
REVIEW
A Fucic, V Guszak, A Mantovani
Biological responses to carcinogens from environmental exposure during adulthood are modulated over years or decades. Conversely, during transplacental exposure, the effects on the human foetus change within weeks, intertwining with developmental mechanisms: even short periods of transplacental exposure may be imprinted in the organism for a lifetime. The pathways leading to childhood and juvenile cancers, such as leukaemias, neuroblastoma/brain tumours, hepatoblastoma, and Willm's tumor involve prenatally-induced genomic, epigenomic and/or non-genomic effects caused by xenobiotics...
June 14, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627392/the-great-barrier-belief-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-considerations-for-juvenile-toxicity-studies
#5
REVIEW
Georg Schmitt, Neil Parrott, Eric Prinssen, Paul Barrow
Juvenile animal studies can be warranted to support the development of pediatric medicines. Drugs acting on the CNS or those which penetrate into the brain merit particular attention. The blood-brain barrier is functionally mature at birth, but undergoes functional postnatal modulation to provide a suitable microenvironment for the developing brain. In the past, dosing in rat juvenile studies has often commenced at 4 or 7days of age. However, rodents are very neurologically immature at birth compared with humans...
June 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610933/herbal-laxatives-and-antiemetics-in-pregnancy
#6
Reza Samavati, Eszter Ducza, Judit Hajagos-Tóth, Robert Gaspar
Constipation appears in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy, while nausea is the strongest in the 1st trimester. This review summarizes the applicability of herbal laxatives and antiemetics in pregnancy. A human study has shown that flax oil as laxative is safe from 2nd trimester. Human data is not available about the rhubarb, but animal studies reveal that its emodin content induces fetal abnormalities. Fenugreek induces teratogenic malformation both in human and animals. Senna seed is proved as a safe laxative in pregnancy...
June 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602609/satellite-rats-are-redundant-in-embryo-fetal-development-studies
#7
Manon Beekhuijzen, Yaomi de Lange, Ankie Lambregts, Birgit Peter, Mira Wenker, Harry Emmen
Routinely in many laboratories, satellite rats are added to embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies for pharmaceuticals to assess toxicokinetic (TK) properties, because it is assumed that collection of multiple blood samples with relatively large volumes might affect the study outcome. With recent refinement of blood sampling techniques, this belief requires reevaluation. The current work showed successful implementation of jugular vein blood sampling in an EFD rat study without satellite animals, thereby reducing the number of rats in standard EFD studies for pharmaceuticals by 20%...
June 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591664/retinoic-acid-in-developmental-toxicology-teratogen-morphogen-and-biomarker
#8
REVIEW
Aldert H Piersma, Ellen V Hessel, Yvonne C Staal
This review explores the usefulness retinoic acid (RA) related physiological factors as possible biomarkers of embryotoxicity. RA is involved in the morphogenesis of the early embryo as well as in the development and maturation of a wide variety of organ anlagen. The region-specific homeostasis of RA in the embryo is in many ways the driving force determining developmental cell proliferation versus differentiation. As a consequence, RA concentrations are carefully controlled in time and space in the developing embryo...
June 4, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583884/28th-conference-of-the-european-network-of-teratology-information-services-entis-september-2-5-2017-budapest-hungary
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577896/review-of-tce-cardiac-defects-data-by-makris-et-al-is-not-systematic
#10
LETTER
John M DeSesso, Stephen P Risotto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576684/influence-of-oil-related-environmental-pollutants-on-female-reproduction
#11
REVIEW
Alexander V Sirotkin, Abdul Halim Harrath
The petroleum low-weight aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene, also known as BTEX, are among the most common hazardous sources of environmental contamination. This paper reviews the available data concerning the effects of BTEX on different aspects of female reproduction, including the fecundity, ovaries, central nervous system (CNS), oocytes, embryos, oviducts, cytogenetics of somatic and generative cells, intracellular signaling systems, and hypothalamic, pituitary and peripheral reproductive hormones...
May 31, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576685/aberrant-dna-methylation-patterns-of-human-spermatozoa-in-current-smoker-males
#12
M Laqqan, S Tierling, Y Alkhaled, C Lo Porto, E F Solomayer, M E Hammadeh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of current cigarette smoking on sperm DNA methylation patterns. A total of 108 males (51 current smokers and 57 never smoked males) were included in the study. Using 450 BeadChip Arrays, the differentially methylated CpGs between current smokers (n=15) and never smoked males (n=15) were identified. Out of significantly 11 CpGs identified, 2 CpGs namely cg07869343 and cg19169023, which are located in the MAPK8IP3 and TKR genes were selected for further analysis...
May 30, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571977/the-systematic-review-of-tce-cardiac-defects-makris-et-al-2016
#13
LETTER
Susan L Makris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559127/effects-of-maternal-hypoglycemia-on-fetal-eye-and-skeleton-development-in-rats
#14
Chiharu Kuwata, Naoko Saeki, Kumi Honda, Toshiki Matsuoka, Yoshimi Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro Shimomura
The relationship between insulin-induced maternal hypoglycemia and teratogenicity was investigated in detail. We injected 4 different forms of insulin (insulin human, aspart, glargine, and detemir) subcutaneously at 1 or 2 dose levels to Sprague-Dawley rats from Days 6 to 11 of pregnancy, measured blood glucose levels, and conducted fetal examination. In the insulin human and aspart (low dose) groups, while severe hypoglycemia (approximately 50mg/dL) was seen, it lasted only 6h and no fetal anomalies were observed...
May 27, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552675/the-era-of-3rs-implementation-in-developmental-and-reproductive-toxicity-dart-testing-current-overview-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Manon Beekhuijzen
Since adoption of the first globally implemented guidelines for developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) testing for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and agrochemicals, many years passed without major updates. However in recent years, significant changes in these guidelines have been made or are being implemented. These changes have been guided by the ethical drive to reduce, refine and replace (3R) animal testing, as well as the addition of endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints. Recent applied improvements have focused on reduction and refinement...
May 25, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552383/transient-congenital-dilated-cardiomyopathy-after-maternal-r-chop-chemotherapy-during-pregnancy
#16
Stephanie Padberg, Inge Mick, Cornelia Frenzel, Richard Greil, Johannes Hilberath, Christof Schaefer
Pregnancy-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare event. Experience regarding fetal effects of maternal treatment during pregnancy is limited. Cardiotoxicity is a known adverse effect of some antineoplastic agents especially of doxorubicin. We report a case of pregnancy-associated DLBCL, which was treated between gestational week 26 and 33 with three cycles of R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combined with rituximab). At gestational age 34 2/7 she delivered a male infant who was admitted to neonatal care due to cardiomyopathy...
May 25, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527947/embryonic-vascular-disruption-adverse-outcomes-linking-high-throughput-signaling-signatures-with-functional-consequences
#17
Robert G Ellis-Hutchings, Raja S Settivari, Alene T McCoy, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Jill Franzosa, Thomas B Knudsen, Edward W Carney
Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as chemical disruption of cardiovascular development induces broad prenatal defects. High throughput screening (HTS) assays aid AOP development although linking in vitro data to in vivo apical endpoints remains challenging. This study evaluated two anti-angiogenic agents, 5HPP-33 and TNP-470, across the ToxCastDB HTS assay platform and anchored the results to complex in vitro functional assays: the rat aortic explant assay (AEA), rat whole embryo culture (WEC), and the zebrafish embryotoxicity (ZET) assay...
May 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526456/combined-exposure-to-low-doses-of-pesticides-causes-decreased-birth-weights-in-rats
#18
Ulla Hass, Sofie Christiansen, Marta Axelstad, Martin Scholze, Julie Boberg
Decreased birth weight is a common effect of many pesticides in reproductive toxicity studies, but there are no empirical data on how pesticides act in combination on this endpoint. We hypothesized that a mixture of six pesticides (cyromazine, MCPB, pirimicarb, quinoclamine, thiram, and ziram) would decrease birth weight, and that these mixture effects could be predicted by the Dose Addition model. Data for the predictions were obtained from the Draft Assessment Reports of the individual pesticides. A mixture of equi-effective doses of these pesticides was tested in two studies in Wistar rats, showing mixture effects in good agreement with the additivity predictions...
May 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501545/betamethasone-causes-intergenerational-reproductive-impairment-in-male-rats
#19
Cibele Dos Santos Borges, Taina Louise Pacheco, Katiussia Pinho da Silva, Fábio Henrique Fernandes, Mary Gregory, André Sampaio Pupo, Daisy Maria F Salvadori, Daniel G Cyr, Wilma De G Kempinas
Prenatal betamethasone (BM) exposure in rats negatively impacts sperm quality and male fertility. Studies have shown that BM can cause multi-generational effects on the pituitary-adrenal-axis of rats. The objective of this study was to assess the reproductive development and fertility of male rats (F2) whose fathers (F1) were exposed to BM (0.1mg/kg) on gestational days 12, 13, 18 and 19. In F2 rats, there was a significant reduction in body weights of the BM-treated group at PND 1 as well as delayed onset of puberty, and decreases in FSH levels, Leydig cell volume, sperm number and motility, seminal vesicle contractility and ejaculated volume...
May 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499744/does-prednisone-use-or-disease-activity-in-pregnant-women-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-influence-the-body-composition-of-their-offspring
#20
Florentien Deirdre Olivia de Steenwinkel, Radboud J E M Dolhain, Johanna M W Hazes, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega
Glucocorticoids are given during pregnancy when rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is too active. It could lead to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the offspring. Elevated RA disease activity during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and rapid post-natal growth. Both can negatively influence the body composition later in life. This study shows that prednisone use or RA disease activity in pregnant women with RA had no influence on the body composition of prepubertal offspring...
May 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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