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Reproductive Toxicology

Meng-Ge Lv, Wen-Qiong Chen, Shi-Qi Weng, Hou-Yang Chen, Yi-Min Cheng, Tao Luo
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a natural phenolic ester, is cytoprotective for male reproduction in animal models. The present study investigated the in vitro actions of RA on human sperm functions. Human sperm were exposed to 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µM RA in vitro and sperm functions were examined. The results showed that although RA did not affect human sperm viability, RA at 10-1000 µM dose-dependently reduced sperm motility, penetration ability, capacitation, and spontaneous acrosome reaction. In addition, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ), which serve as a key regulator of sperm function, was decreased by RA (10-1000 µM) in a dose-dependent manner...
July 13, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Mariana Bartos, Fernanda Gumilar, Cristina E Gallegos, Cristina Bras, Sergio Dominguez, Nina Mónaco, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Liliana M Cancela, Alejandra Minetti
Daily exposure to fluoride (F) depends mainly on the intake of this element with drinking water. When administered during gestation and lactation, F has been associated with cognitive deficits in the offspring. However, the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of F remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the effects of oral exposure to low levels of F during the gestational and lactation periods, on the memory of adult female rat offspring. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism...
July 13, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Hatice Hancı, Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Tolga Mercantepe, Ersan Odacı
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 60-day-old male rat testis following exposure to continuous 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) throughout the adolescent period using histopathological and biochemical analysis methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats aged 21 days were randomly and equally (n = 8) divided into three groups. No procedure was performed on the control group rats. The sham group rats were held in an EMF-cage without exposure to EMF. The EMF group rats were exposed to continuous 900-MHz EMF for 1 hour each day inside the EMF-cage during adolescence...
July 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Dinh Nam Tran, Eui-Man Jung, Yeong-Min Yoo, Changhwan Ahn, Hee Young Kang, Kyung-Chul Choi, Sang-Hwan Hyun, Vu Hoang Dang, Thi Ngoc Pham, Eui-Bae Jeung
Humans are at daily risk by simultaneous exposures to a broad spectrum of man-made chemicals in the commercial products. Several classes of chemicals have been shown to alter follicle development and reduce fertility, leading to premature ovarian failure (POF) in mammals. We investigate the synergistic effects of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) and phthalate, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on POF. Combination exposure with VCD and phthalate significantly reduced the numbers of primary follicles...
June 30, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Yeon Jean Cho, Seung Bin Park, Jung Woo Park, So Ra Oh, Myoungseok Han
Bisphenol A (BPA) has been implicated in altered human reproductive function. The oxidative stress or change of inflammatory signaling may appear a key factor in the biological changes of the human endometrium. Using MTT assay we assessed BPA mediated modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation responses in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). According to the results, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was highest upon exposure to 1000 pmol BPA. Increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were demonstrated...
June 28, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Anna Hejmej, Barbara Bilinska
In this review, we summarize recent findings on the effect of the anti-androgen flutamide on cell-cell junctions in the male reproductive system. We outline developmental aspects of flutamide action on the testis, epididymis, and prostate, and describe changes in junction protein expression and organization of junctional complexes in the adult boar following prenatal and postnatal exposure. We also discuss findings on the mechanisms by which flutamide induces alterations in cell-cell junctions in reproductive tissues of adult males, with special emphasis on cytoplasmic effects...
June 26, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Nazem El Husseini, Barbara F Hales
Hydroxyurea, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, is a potent teratogen in mice, causing severe limb and skeletal defects. The exposure of gestation day nine murine embryos to hydroxyurea elicits an early embryonic stress response that involves activation of the P53 transcription factor. The impact of this P53 activation on the embryotoxicity of hydroxyurea- is not known. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that P53 acts to suppress hydroxyurea embryotoxicity. Trp53+/- timed pregnant mice were treated with saline or hydroxyurea (200 or 400 mg/kg) on gestation day nine; fetuses were examined for viability and external and skeletal malformations on gestation day eighteen...
June 22, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Lianju Shen, Xiangliang Tang, Yi Wei, Chunlan Long, Bin Tan, Shengde Wu, Mang Sun, Yue Zhou, Xining Cao, Guanghui Wei
As an environmental endocrine disruptor, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects blood-testis barrier (BTB)-associated proteins expression, which compromises BTB integrity and causes infertility. Notably, DEHP-induced testicular toxicity is related to oxidative stress, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate this mechanism and determine whether vitamin C and vitamin E administration would attenuate the BTB impairment induced by DEHP in vivo and by Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (MEHP) in vitro, respectively...
June 22, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Céline Pique, Edward Marsden, Paul Quesada, Audrey Blondel, Lars Friis Mikkelsen
The minipig is accepted from scientific and regulatory perspectives for the safety evaluation of drug candidates on embryo-fetal development. The relative size and the duration of gestation (112-115 days) in the minipig is, however, considered a drawback compared with routine smaller species. We evaluated if study duration and cost could be optimized without impacting scientific validity by performing all terminal procedures around mid-gestation (60 days). At this stage, minipig fetal size is not too dissimilar to full term rabbit and therefore better suited to fetal processing/examination compared with at the end of gestation...
June 22, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Renata K Carvalho, Maingredy R Souza, Monaliza L Santos, Francisco S Guimarães, Roger Luís H Pobbe, Monica L Andersen, Renata Mazaro-Costa
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a potent substance extracted from Cannabis sativa. As it has been suggested that marijuana can affect the reproductive system, we decided to assess the effects of chronic CBD exposure on the male reproductive system in an animal model. 21-day old male Swiss mice received CBD for 34 consecutive days at doses (p.o.) of either 15 or 30 mg/kg, and a control group received sunflower oil. Body weight gain and circulating progesterone concentration did not significantly change in CBD-treated animals...
June 21, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
J D Rasinger, T S Carroll, F Maranghi, R Tassinari, G Moracci, I Altieri, A Mantovani, A-K Lundebye, C Hogstrand
Developmental health risks of chronical exposure to low doses of foodborne persistent organic pollutants (POP) are recognized but still largely uncharacterized. Juvenile female BALB/c mice exposed to either HBCD, CB-153 or TCDD at doses relevant to human dietary exposures (49.5 μg, 1.35 μg and 0.90 pg kg-1 bw-1 day-1 , respectively) for 28 days displayed histopathological changes in liver (HBCD, CB-153, TCDD), thymus (HBCD, CB-153) and uterus (HBCD), reduced serum oestradiol 17β (E2) levels (HBCD), increased serum testosterone (T) levels (CB-153) and an increased T/E2 ratio (HBCD)...
June 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Lívia Teresa Ribeiro da Silveira, Talita de Mello Santos, Lucas Fredini Camora, Cristiane Figueiredo Pinho, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Raquel Fantin Domeniconi, Luis Antonio Justulin, Luis Fernando Barbisan, Wellerson Rodrigo Scarano
This study evaluated the protective effects of resveratrol on the prostate development of rats exposed to TCDD. Pregnant rats received TCDD (1 µg/kg) at GD15 and/or RES (20 mg/kg/day) from GD10 to PND21. Newborn and adult males from Control, TCDD, TCDD + RES and RES groups were euthanized and the prostate was excised. On PND1, there was a reduction in the number of prostatic buds, AR-positive mesenchymal cells and proliferation index in epithelial and mesenchymal cells in TCDD group, but restored by RES...
June 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Tomoyuki Moriyama, Dai Kakiuchi, Luigi Grasso, David L Hutto, Danielle Fernando, Charles Schweizer
Farletuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting human folate receptor alpha, which is being developed as an anti-cancer drug. A non-human primate reproductive study was conducted to evaluate whether it could cause any embryonic or fetal abnormalities. Farletuzumab was administered intravenously to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (n = 16/group) at doses of 0 or 67.5 mg/kg once weekly during gestation day (GD) 20 through 97. C-section was performed on GD100 ± 2, and fetuses were evaluated for morphologic (external, visceral and skeletal) effects...
June 18, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ursula Winterfeld, Corinna Weber-Schöndorfer, Christof Schaefer, Erik von Elm, Thierry Buclin
The European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) is in a privileged position to perform independent post-marketing surveillance of drugs in pregnancy. The aim of this survey was to describe the legal requirements and procedures involved in obtaining ethical approval for collaborative cohort studies. We sent a survey questionnaire to all 28 Teratology Information Services (TIS), of which 25 (89%) in 18 countries completed our questionnaire. For 15 TIS, specific research ethical approval was mandatory...
June 15, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Yu-Mei Zhang, En-En Gao, Qian-Qian Wang, Hao Tian, Jian Hou
Aberrant hypermethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) is a key barrier to the development of cloned embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of chaetocin, an inhibitor of H3K9 methyltransferase SUV39 H, in regulating the H3K9 methylation in ovine SCNT embryos. Treatment of sheep fetal fibroblast cells with chaetocin specifically decreased the levels of H3K9 di-and trimethylation, and down-regulated the expression of H3K9 methyltransferases, SUV39H1/2 and G9A...
June 14, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Cuneyt Kemal Buharalioglu, Selin Acar, Hilal Erol-Coskun, Gözde Küçüksolak, Barış Karadas, Tijen Kaya-Temiz, Yusuf C Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pregnancy outcomes of women who were exposed to betahistine during their pregnancies. METHODS: We identified and evaluated the outcomes of 27 pregnant women who were referred to Terafar (Teratology Information Service, Izmir, Turkey) for a teratological risk assessment. RESULTS: Of 24 pregnancies with known outcomes, 21 resulted in live births (including two pairs of twins) whereas two ended with miscarriage and three with elective terminations...
June 13, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Maria Cristina Budani, Stefania Fensore, Marco Di Marzio, Gian Mario Tiboni
There is convincing evidence that cigarette smoking can impair female reproductive potential. This meta-analysis updates the knowledge regarding the effects of cigarette smoking on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Twenty-six studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and statistical heterogeneity between the studies was evaluated with Higgins (I2 ), Breslow (τ2 ), Birge's ratio (H2 ) indices and Chi-square test (χ2 )...
June 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
María Leiza Vitale, R-Marc Pelletier
The anterior pituitary regulates endocrine organs and physiological activities in the body. Environmental pollutants and drugs deleterious to the endocrine system may affect anterior pituitary activity through direct action on anterior pituitary cells. Within the gland, endocrine and folliculostellate cells are organized into and function as individual tridimensional networks, each network regulating its activity by coordinating the connected cells' responses to physiological or pathological cues. The gap junctions connecting endocrine cells and/or folliculostellate cells allow transmission of information among cells that is necessary for adequate network function...
June 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Naho Yakuwa, Ken Nakajima, Sachi Koinuma, Mikako Goto, Tomo Suzuki, Naoki Ito, Omi Watanabe, Atsuko Murashima
OBJECTIVE: To confirm the current state of Japanese women's perception of the teratogenic risk of medication exposure during pregnancy, and to assess the effect of counseling by Japan Drug Information Institute in Pregnancy. METHODS: We used VAS to monitor the sentiments of pregnant women, before and after face-to-face counseling, about their own teratogenic risk perception, and their intention to continue pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes were investigated by mailed questionnaires...
June 6, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
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