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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

Piotr Latocha
The kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta) is a new product on the market that is enjoying growing consumer acceptance around the world. This widespread interest has created increased demand for identification of the kiwiberry's nutritional health benefits. Containing over 20 essential nutrients and a range of vitamins, the kiwiberry comes near the top of fruits classed as superfoods. It is one of the richest sources of vitamin C with up to 430 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) and is considered the richest dietary source of myo-inositol (up to 982 mg/100 g FW)...
October 7, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Cristina M Rosell
Studies on porous starch have been directed to explore different industrial applications as bio-adsorbents of a variety of compounds. However, the analysis of starch digestibility is essential for food application. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of porous structure on in vitro starch digestibility. Porous starches were obtained using a range of concentrations of amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM), cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase) or branching enzyme (BE). Porous starches exhibited major content of digestible starch (DS) that increased with the intensity of the enzymatic treatment, and very low amount of resistant starch (RS)...
October 5, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Chanida Hansawasdi, Peter Kurdi
Two agricultural wastes, rice bran and cassava pulp were subjected to acidic hydrolysis by 2 M sulfuric acid which resulted in hemicellulosic oligosaccharide mixtures. Monosaccharide component analysis of these mixtures revealed that the oligosaccharides of rice bran acid hydrolysate (RAHF) composed of glucose and arabinose while cassava pulp acid hydrolysate (CAHF) was found to be comprised of glucose, galactose and arabinose. Both RAHF and CAHF were able to fuel all of the tested three Lactobacillus, five Bifidobacterium and three Bacteroides strains indicating the prebiotic potential of these oligosaccharide mixtures...
October 3, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Diego A Luna-Vital, Elvira González de Mejía, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña
The aim was to evaluate the antineoplastic potential of a previously characterized peptide extract from the non-digestible fraction of common bean cv. Azufrado Higuera (AH) and its most abundant pure peptide GLTSK, in an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis Balb/c mice model. The healthy control (C-) had no induction and no treatment, and the induced control (C+) had induction but no treatment. Groups AH and GLTSK were administered 50 mg/kg-bw of AH or GLTSK, respectively...
September 30, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Ni Cheng, Yuan Wang, Wei Cao
In this study, the antioxidant activity and the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage were assessed for five honeys of different botanical origin. Seven phenolic acids were detected in the honey samples. Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid detected in longan honey, jujube honey and buckwheat honey. Ellagic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid were the main phenolic acids detected in vitex honey. Of all honey samples tested, the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in buckwheat honey, whereas the lowest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in locust honey...
September 19, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Elizabeth León-García, Gilber Vela-Gutiérrez, Oscar A Del Ángel-Coronel, Cristobal Torres-Palacios, Javier De La Cruz-Medina, Miguel A Gómez-Lim, Hugo Sergio García
A healthy lifestyle includes fruits and vegetables consumption. Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables, although it is susceptible to physical damage through postharvest handling, thus leading to important losses. Softening is an important variable during tomato ripening; excessive softening is undesirable and leads to postharvest losses. TomloxB plays an important role in ripening, mainly in the loss of cellular integrity caused by fatty acids released from the lipid matrix of membranes that initiate oxidative deterioration, which is in turn carried into senescence...
September 16, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Mario Armando Gómez-Favela, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Edith Oliva Cuevas-Rodríguez, Vicente Adrián Canizalez-Román, Claudia Del Rosario León-Sicairos, Jorge Milán-Carrillo, Cuauhtémoc Reyes-Moreno
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) plant is native from southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Their seeds are a rich source of bioactive compounds which protect consumers against chronic diseases. Germination improves functionality of the seeds due to the increase in the bioactive compounds and associated antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to obtain functional flour from germinated chia seeds under optimized conditions with increased antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, GABA, essential amino acids, and dietary fiber with respect to un-germinated chia seeds...
September 12, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Dongye He, Ping Zhang, Xuan Sai, Xiaoyu Li, Lili Wang, Yongping Xu
Camellia euphlebia (family, Theaceae) has been used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Southern China. However, there has been no report on the hypolipidemic activity of Camellia euphlebia flower. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of different preparation of Camellia euphlebia flower extracts using in vivo models. Mice intragastrically administered aqueous extract at 400 mg/kg dose or ethanol extract at 100 and 400 mg/kg doses of Camellia euphlebia flower for 28 days exhibited significant decreases in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while displaying increased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum...
September 8, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Cristina Segundo, Laura Román, Manuel Lobo, Mario M Martinez, Manuel Gómez
About one-fifth of all bananas harvested become culls that are normally disposed of improperly. However, ripe banana pulp contains significant amounts of fibre and polyphenol compounds as well as a high content of simple sugars (61.06 g/100 g), making it suitable for sucrose replacement in bakery products. This work studied the feasibility of incorporating ripe banana flour (20 and 40% of replacement) in cake formulation. Physical, nutritional and sensory attributes of sponge and layer cakes were evaluated...
September 8, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Małgorzata Tańska, Iwona Konopka, Millena Ruszkowska
This study compares the quality of extrudates made from corn grits with the addition of up to 8% of spirulina powder. The sensory properties (shape, color, aroma, taste and crispness), chemicals (content of water, protein, fat, ash, fiber, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll and phycocyanin) and physical properties (color, water absorption index, expansion indices, texture and water sorption properties) were determined. It has been found that spirulina-enriched extrudates had slightly lower sensory scores, but the addition of spirulina improved their nutritional value...
September 2, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Patrush Lepcha, Ashley N Egan, Jeff J Doyle, N Sathyanarayana
Winged bean, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC., is analogous to soybean in yield and nutritional quality, proving a valuable alternative to soybean in tropical regions of the world. The presence of anti-nutritional factors and high costs associated with indeterminate plant habit have been major concerns in this crop. But occurrence of good genetic variability in germplasm collections offers precious resources for winged bean breeding. However, lack of germplasm characterization is hindering such efforts...
September 2, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Nallely Gaxiola-Cuevas, Saraid Mora-Rochín, Edith Oliva Cuevas-Rodriguez, Liliana León-López, Cuauhtémoc Reyes-Moreno, Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez, Jorge Milán-Carrillo
Phenolic acids profiles, chemical antioxidant activities (ABTS and ORAC), as well as cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of tortilla of Mexican native maize landraces elaborated from nixtamalization and lime cooking extrusion processes were studied. Both cooking procedures decreased total phenolics, chemicals antioxidant activity when compared to raw grains. Extruded tortillas retained 79.6-83.5%, 74.1-77.6% and 79.8-80.5% of total phenolics, ABTS and ORAC values, respectively, compared to 47.8-49.8%, 41.3-42...
August 29, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
R Vilcacundo, D Barrio, C Carpio, A García-Ruiz, J Rúales, B Hernández-Ledesma, W Carrillo
Quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) was extracted and digested under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The protein content of QPC was in the range between 52.40 and 65.01% depending on the assay used. Quinoa proteins were almost completely hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH of 1.2, 2.0, and 3.2. At high pH, only partial hydrolysis was observed. During the duodenal phase, no intact proteins were visible, indicating their susceptibility to the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. Zebrafish larvae model was used to evaluate the in vivo ability of gastrointestinal digests to inhibit lipid peroxidation...
August 22, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Amira Daniela Calvo-López, Fernando Martínez-Bustos
Resistant starch type IV (RSIV) can be produced by chemical modifications (etherized or esterified) such as conversion, substitution, or cross-linking, which can prevent its digestion by blocking enzyme access and forming atypical linkages. In this research, the effects of barrel temperature (145.86-174.14 °C), the screw speed (42.93-57.07 Hz) and derivatization (esterification) in the formation of RSIV content of directly expanded snacks (second generation snacks) were studied. Potato starch was chemically modified by phosphorylation and succinylation, and expanded by using the extrusion cooking process...
July 25, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Yeni Lim, Yoon Hee Ahn, Jae Keun Yoo, Kyoung Sik Park, Oran Kwon
Sales of multivitamins have been growing rapidly and the concept of natural multivitamin, plant-based multivitamin, or both has been introduced in the market, leading consumers to anticipate additional health benefits from phytochemicals that accompany the vitamins. However, the lack of labeling requirements might lead to fraudulent claims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a strategy to verify identity of plant-based multivitamins. Phytochemical fingerprinting was used to discriminate identities...
July 20, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Margaux Vallée, Xikun Lu, Joan Oñate Narciso, Wenhui Li, Yuyue Qin, Margaret A Brennan, Charles S Brennan
Black ear mushroom (Auricularia auricula) is an important genus of cultivated mushroom, which contains health benefits. Incorporating black ear (BE) mushroom into brown rice by extrusion changed the physicochemical, and more importantly, the nutritional characteristics of the extrudates. With increased incorporation of BE mushroom in the extrudates in vitro starch digestion of the different extrudates revealed significantly reduced starch digestion, suggesting a lower glycaemic index. In addition, incorporation of BE in brown rice extrudates increased the total phenolic concentration of the samples, which led to higher % scavenging effect against free-radicals in DPPH assay...
July 4, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Kelly Cosgrove, Carol S Johnston
Acidogenic diets, commonly measured by the potential renal acid load (PRAL), have been linked with metabolic diseases including insulin resistance, hepatic dysfunction, and cardiometabolic risk. Vegan diets are linked to low dietary acid loads, but the degree of adherence to a vegan diet to demonstrate this benefit is unknown. This study compared the change in PRAL and urine pH of omnivores who followed a vegan diet for either 2, 3, or 7 days over one week. Healthy adults were recruited from a campus population and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: VEG7 (vegan diet followed for seven consecutive days); VEG3 (vegan diet followed for three evenly spaced days over one week); or VEG2 (vegan diet followed for two evenly spaced days over one week)...
July 4, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
A K M Mofasser Hossain, Margaret A Brennan, Susan L Mason, Xinbo Guo, Charles S Brennan
A diet with high glycaemic index, which causes rapid spikes in blood sugar level, can lead to disorders such as significantly increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity. These conditions are also linked to the progression of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. Blackcurrant powder (BC) is a rich source of dietary fibre and bioactive compounds. Wholemeal wheat, barley and oat flours contain high amount of fibre. In this study, a model food (cookie) was developed and used to investigate the in vitro glycaemic glucose equivalent and antioxidant activities of the cookies made with three different wholemeal flours (wheat, barley and oat) with different replacement levels (5, 10 and 15%) of blackcurrant powder...
June 28, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Celia Carrillo, Raquel Rey, Marc Hendrickx, María Del Mar Cavia, Sara Alonso-Torre
Red beetroot has been ranked among the 10 most potent antioxidant vegetables, although only extraction-based methods have been used to evaluate its total antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the present study aims at comparing the traditional extraction-based method with two more recent approaches (QUENCHER -QUick, Easy, New, CHEap and Reproducible- and GAR -global antioxidant response method), in order to establish their suitability in the case of beetroot. Our results indicate that the total antioxidant capacity of beetroot would be underestimated when using extraction-based procedures, since both QUENCHER and GAR methods resulted in a higher total antioxidant capacity...
June 15, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Abraham Figueiras Abdala, Nadia Mendoza, Nancy Valadez Bustos, Eleazar Máximo Escamilla Silva
High antioxidant capacity molecules, such as anthocyanins, occur naturally in blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). In particular, 'Dasha' blackberry cultivar has scarcely been studied and, it is becoming economically more important in Mexico. In this study, several blackberry extraction conditions, conferred different amounts of detectable phytochemical groups that in turn were analysed with a new approach to investigate their influence on antioxidant capacity (AC). Additionally, a central composite design (CCD) was proposed to study effects of temperature and acidification on AC...
June 10, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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