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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

Isabel Cristina da Silva Haas, Isabela Maia Toaldo, Jefferson Santos de Gois, Daniel L G Borges, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz, Marilde T Bordignon-Luiz
Grape and grape derivatives contain a variety of antioxidants that have gain increasing interest for functional foods applications. The chemical composition of grapes is mainly related to grape variety and cultivation factors, and each grape constituent exhib its unique characteristics regarding its bioactive properties. This study investigated the chemical composition and the effect of drying on the bioactive content of the non-pomace constituent obtained in the processing of organic and conventional grape juices from V...
October 13, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Raheleh Jahanbani, S Mahmood Ghaffari, Maryam Salami, Kourosh Vahdati, Houri Sepehri, Nazanin Namazi Sarvestani, Nader Sheibani, Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) contains approximately 20-25 % protein with abundant essential amino acids. The enzymatic hydrolysate of Persian walnut (Chandler) seed proteins was prepared by incubation with three different proteases, including pancreatic chymotrypsin and trypsin, and a microbial enzyme proteinase K. The hydrolysates were found to possess excellent antioxidant capacities. The peptide fractions scavenged the 2, 2'-anizo-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals and inhibited the activity of reactive oxygen species...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
A L Márquez-Aguirre, R M Camacho-Ruíz, Y K Gutiérrez-Mercado, E Padilla-Camberos, M González-Ávila, F J Gálvez-Gastélum, N E Díaz-Martínez, D Ortuño-Sahagún
Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperglycemia by 25 % and liver steatosis by 40 %...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Iveta Brožková, Veronika Dvořáková, Kateřina Michálková, Libor Červenka, Helena Velichová
Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Jeksy Jos Manalil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Rong Shuang, Xu Rui, Li Wenfang
As the aging of the world's population is becoming increasingly serious, dementia-related diseases have become a hot topic in public health research. In recent years, human epidemiological studies have focused on lipid metabolism disorders and dementia. The efficacy of phytosterol intake as a cholesterol-lowering agent has been demonstrated. Phytosterols directly serve as ligands of the nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), activating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of dementia...
September 23, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Maribel Valdez-Morales, L Céspedes Carlos, María Elena Valverde, Enrique Ramírez-Chávez, Octavio Paredes-López
Huitlacoche mushroom (composed by the fruiting bodies growing on the maize ears from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis) is a culinary delicacy with a great economic and nutraceutical value. In this work, phenolic content, antioxidant activity, ergosterol and fatty acids profile from huitlacoche produced in 15 creole and in one hybrid maize genotypes, and harvested at different stages of development were determined. The hybrid crop was studied in raw and cooked samples. Total phenolic content ranged from 415...
September 7, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Abraham Wall-Medrano, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Guadalupe F Loarca-Piña, José A López-Díaz, Mónica A Villegas-Ochoa, Orlando Tortoledo-Ortiz, Francisco J Olivas-Aguirre, Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez, Ramón Robles-Zepeda
The fruit of Guamúchil is an excellent source of bioactive compounds for human health although their natural occurrence could be affected by the ripening process. The aim was to evaluate some physicochemical, chemical and antioxidant changes in guamúchil fruit during six ripening stages (I to VI). A defined trend (p ≤ 0.003) was observed for color [°Hue, 109 (light green) to 20 (dark red)], anthocyanins (+571 %), soluble solids (+0.33 (o)Brix), ash (+16 %), sucrose (-91 %), proanthocyanidins (63 %), ascorbic acid (-52 %) and hydrolysable PC (-21 %)...
September 2, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
C López-Palacios, C B Peña-Valdivia, A I Rodríguez-Hernández, J A Reyes-Agüero
The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g(-1) dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g(-1) dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species...
August 6, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Monica Rosa Loizzo, Marco Bonesi, Francesco Menichini, Maria Concetta Tenuta, Mariarosaria Leporini, Rosa Tundis
Sechum edule peel, leaves and pulp were investigated for their chemical composition (total phenol, flavonoid, carotenoid and vitamin C content), and for antioxidant activity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) inhibition. In order to evaluate the incidence of cooking process on retention of healthy phytochemicals, the pulp was subjected to different treatments (grill roasting, domestic oven baking, microwave cooking, blanching and steaming). Cooking processes reduced the total phenol content (58...
July 29, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Silvina R Drago, Hanai Franco-Miranda, Raúl E Cian, David Betancur-Ancona, Luis Chel-Guerrero
The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Fu-Long Huang, Robin Y-Y Chiou, Wei-Cheng Chen, Huey-Jiun Ko, Li-Jung Lai, Shu-Mei Lin
Flesh of Basella alba L. mature fruits bearing deep-violet juice provides a novel and potential source of natural colorant. To minimize the pigment purification process and warrant safety acceptability, B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was prepared using mature fruits through a practical batch preparation and subjected to fundamental pigment characterization, food safety assessment and bio-function evaluation. Yield of the dehydrated B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was 37 g/kg fresh fruits. Reconstituted aqueous solution of the BACP exhibited an identical visible spectrum (400-700 nm) as that of fresh juice...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
C Gentile, C Reig, O Corona, A Todaro, A Mazzaglia, A Perrone, G Gianguzzi, M Agusti, V Farina
In this paper the diversity of fruit quality within nine loquat cultivars, including five international affirmed cultivars (Algerie, Golden Nugget, Peluche, Bueno, El Buenet) and four local cultivars (Sanfilippara, Nespolone di Trabia, BRT20 and Claudia), were investigated in order to discriminate the variation in pomological characteristics, sensory profile, and antioxidant properties. Finally, to evaluate potential bioactivity, antiproliferative activity of hydrophilic extracts from loquat fruits was assessed, at dietary relevant concentrations, against three human epithelial cell lines...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Rabia Onbas, Aslihan Kazan, Ayse Nalbantsoy, Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas
In this study, cytotoxicity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) originating from Sivas, Turkey was screened against several cancer cell lines, namely PC-3, U87MG, A-549, mPANC96, CaCo-2, MCF-7, HeLa, MDA-MB-231 and a non-tumor cell line HEK293 by MTT assay. The inhibition levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were also determined by using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. EEP exhibited significant cytotoxic nitric oxide inhibition activities with an IC50 value of 0...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Mariangela Marrelli, Francesco Menichini, Filomena Conforti
At present, the various medical treatments of obesity involve side effects. The aim of the research is therefore to find natural compounds that have anti-obesity activity with minimum disadvantages. In this study, the hypolipidemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers from Capsicum annuum L. was examined through the evaluation of inhibition of pancreatic lipase. Antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Francisco J Esparza-Martínez, Rita Miranda-López, Sara M Mata-Sánchez, Salvador H Guzmán-Maldonado
The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Paul Urbain, Juan Valverde, Jette Jakobsen
Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central Europe and to investigate vitamin D2 and vitamin D4 production in sliced Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) and to analyse and compare the agaritine content of naturally and artificially UV-irradiated mushrooms. Agaritine was measured for safety aspects even though there is no rationale for a link between UV light exposure and agaritine content...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Rui Yang, Guoyu Sun, Min Zhang, Zhongkai Zhou, Quanhong Li, Padraig Strappe, Chris Blanchard
The instability and low bioavailability of polyphenols limit their applications in food industries. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and soybean seed ferritin deprived of iron (apoSSF) were fabricated as a combined double shell material to encapsulate rutin flavonoid molecules. Firstly, due to the reversible assembly characteristics of phytoferritin, rutin was successfully encapsulated within apoSSF to form a ferritin-rutin complex (FR) with an average molar ratio of 28.2: 1 (rutin/ferritin). The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of rutin were 18...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Małgorzata Tańska, Beata Roszkowska, Sylwester Czaplicki, Eulalia Julitta Borowska, Justyna Bojarska, Aneta Dąbrowska
Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Parminder Kaur Ajji, Ken Walder, Munish Puri
Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) have received considerable attention in biomedical research because of their unique activities towards tumor and virus-infected cells. We extracted balsamin, a type-I RIP, from Momordica balsamina. In the present study, a detailed investigation on DNase activity, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity was conducted using purified balsamin. DNase-like activity of balsamin towards plasmid DNA was pH, incubation time and temperature dependent. Moreover, the presence of Mg(2+) (10-50 mM) influenced the DNA cleavage activity...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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