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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

Beata Ulewicz-Magulska, Marek Wesolowski
Herbs used for medical purposes are required to meet high pharmacopoeial quality standards, whereas spices used as additives to dishes and food products do not have to meet such rigorous standards. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to compare medicinal herbs and spices of the same plant species that are applied in different areas with regard to the total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of their methanolic and water extracts. This study showed that the TPC values of both extracts prepared from medicinal herbs and spices as quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent did not differ significantly; however, the TAC values obtained by the DPPH assays of the methanol and water extracts differed significantly...
October 29, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Yen K T Dang, Ha V H Nguyen
Cocoa beans and cocoa products contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds. Harvesting cocoa fruit too early or too late may have effects on the phenolic and alkaloid concentrations of the cocoa powder. Fermentation, a primary processing used to transform cocoa beans to cocoa powder, may also influence the contents of bioactive compounds. In this study, proanthocyanidins, the major compounds in cocoa polyphenols, caffeine and theobromine of cocoa beans, were evaluated at different maturities at harvest, and with different fermentation durations, with and without the addition of a commercial enzyme, Pectinex® Ultra SP-L...
October 27, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Mojca Lunder, Irena Roškar, Jan Hošek, Borut Štrukelj
The diet rich in fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes development by various mechanisms of action, mainly due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. Extracts from different conifer species are known to be a rich source of various polyphenols. In the present study we elucidated the in vitro mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of silver fir (Abies alba) wood and bark extracts and compared their activity to non-coniferous sweet chestnut wood extract and standardized maritime pine bark extract...
October 25, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Lei Li, Wenwen Zhong, Hangru Kong, Jianping Sun, Xiaofen Zhang, Yanwen Su
Soybeans are a major source of nonheme iron in Chinese diet. Germination is considered to be effective in improving iron bioavailability in soybeans. The study is to evaluate the effect of sprout soybean supplementation on the iron status of anemic adolescent girls in rural area of China and to compare it with the effect of soybeans. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescent girls were assigned to receive one of three dietary supplements (100 mL) a day for 6 m: 1) rice milk as the control (C); 2) sprout soybean milk (SS); 3) soybean milk (S)...
October 25, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Ignacio Fernández de Las Nieves, Luis Manuel Aguilera Saez, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Laurence Legeai-Mallet, Mohamed Bouaziz, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Plants, including most food and feed plants, produce a broad range of bioactive chemical compounds. Among these compounds, polyphenols are reported to provide beneficial effects as anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, immune modulating, anti-microbial, vasodilatory and analgesic. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), a major, economically important, international crop, has been related to several nutritional benefits, which have been associated with the phenolic fraction. The main subclass of flavonoids found in cocoa is flavanols, particularly (epi)catechins monomers, and their oligomers, also known as procyanidins...
October 15, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Maria V Chandra-Hioe, Jenny Elvira, Jayashree Arcot
Lutein is a xanthophyll, a bioactive phytochemical that presents itself as colourful pigments in plants. Australian sweet lupin flour has been incorporated as a food ingredient in wheat bread and pasta to improve their sensory property and nutritional quality. However, the amount of lutein in lupin flour has not yet been determined. This is the first study to quantify naturally occurring lutein in Australian sweet lupin flour after the extraction efficiency was optimised. Several organic solvents (acetone, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and hexane), the use of an ultrasonic bath or a probe, the need for saponification and addition of ascorbic acid (served as antioxidant) were tested to compare the extraction yield...
October 10, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Fabiana Della Betta, Priscila Nehring, Siluana Katia Tischer Seraglio, Mayara Schulz, Andressa Camargo Valese, Heitor Daguer, Luciano Valdemiro Gonzaga, Roseane Fett, Ana Carolina Oliveira Costa
The aim of this study was to investigate the free individual phenolics and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of blackberry, acerola, yellow guava, guabiju, jambolan and jabuticaba fruits in two edible stages. Of the thirty-three phenolics investigated by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), twenty-five were quantified and the major ones were catechin, isoquercitrin, epicatechin and gallic acid. The highest values for the total phenolic content (in dry matter) were observed for acerola (83...
September 14, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Claudia Y Salazar-González, Francisco J Rodríguez-Pulido, Anass Terrab, Consuelo Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A Fuenmayor, Francisco J Heredia
Bee pollen is a hive product, resulting from floral pollen agglutination by worker bees and it is characterized by its excellent bioactive and nutritional composition. Currently, research is focused on bee pollen applications on food industry, because this product has been considered an excellent source of compounds for human nutrition. It is also important in some industries, where color and particle size are important characteristics for production. Due to the granular nature of bee pollen, conventional colorimetry does not allow describing color correctly; thus, digital image analysis is a better alternative...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
María Gricelda Vázquez-Carrillo, Luis Alfredo Aparicio-Eusebio, Yolanda Salinas-Moreno, María Ofelia Buendía-Gonzalez, David Santiago-Ramos
Blue corn is an anthocyanin-rich material that can be used in the preparation of baking products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical, nutraceutical, and sensory properties of polvorones (a traditional flour-based confectionery) made with whole blue-corn flour. All samples showed similar bromatological composition, but polvorones from whole blue-corn flour had a higher phenolics (837.1 mg gallic acid/kg) and anthocyanins (373.0 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/kg) content, which exerted an influence on their higher antioxidant activity compared with wheat flour-based laboratory and commercial samples...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Paulina Nowicka, Aneta Wojdyło, Piotr Laskowski
The presented study provides important insights on the health properties of Prunus persica fruit related to their polyphenol and carotenoid profiles, antioxidant capacity and in vitro potential to inhibit enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase) and obesity (pancreatic lipase) management. Such results have not been published so far. The study showed substantial differences in the chemical composition of peach fruit depending on the cultivar. At the same time, it demonstrated some common features of selected cultivars - the varieties with light flesh ('Spring Time'; 'Madison') were characterized by a high content of phenolic acids and flavonols, thus exhibiting high activity against α-amylase, while the yellow varieties with high content of carotenoids ('Harrow Diamond'; 'Harrow Beauty') showed high inhibitory activity toward porcine pancreatic lipase...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Hana Scepankova, Margarida Martins, Letícia Estevinho, Ivonne Delgadillo, Jorge A Saraiva
Natural extracts, like those obtained from medicinal herbs, dietary plants and fruits are being recognized as important sources of bioactive compounds with several functionalities including antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities. Plant extracts rich in phenolic antioxidants are currently being successfully used for several pharmaceutical applications and in the development of new foods (i.e., functional foods), in order to enhance the bioactivity of the products and to replace synthetic antioxidants...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Katalin Szabo, Adriana-Florinela Cătoi, Dan Cristian Vodnar
Alongside paper, plastic, metal and glass, an important segment in the recycling area is represented by the wastes of different vegetal processing industries. These by-products gained interest lately, in the context of food waste prevention and growing population number. In the tomato processing industry approximately, 8.5 million tons of wastes are generated globally, each year. The present study highlights the valuable bioactive constituents as lycopene, beta-carotene, glutamic acid or aspartic acid from the by-products of tomato processing industries, which can be revalorized as incorporated nutrients in functional foods...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Gabriela López-Angulo, Julio Montes-Avila, Leticia Sánchez-Ximello, Sylvia P Díaz-Camacho, Valentín Miranda-Soto, José A López-Valenzuela, Francisco Delgado-Vargas
Red arils of Pithecellobium dulce fruit, commonly known as guamuchil, show high antioxidant (AOx) and α-glucosidase inhibitory (IαG) activities, which have been mainly associated with the content of unknown anthocyanins. In this study, the AOx (i.e., DPPH and ABTS as Trolox equivalents, μmol TE/g) and IαG (as half-maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 , mg/mL) activities of the anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF) obtained from red arils were contrasted with those of the methanol extract (ME), and the main ARF anthocyanins were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, GC-MS and 1 H-NMR...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Sinisa Djurasevic, Svetlana Bojic, Biljana Nikolic, Ivica Dimkic, Zoran Todorovic, Jelena Djordjevic, Dragana Mitic-Culafic
The gut microbiota is composed of a diverse population of obligate and facultative anaerobic microorganisms which are shown to influence host metabolism and immune homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil on the weekly fasting glycaemia, daily food and water intake and weekly body mass gain over 16 weeks, as well as the changes in composition of gut microbiota in both non-diabetic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Although the intake of virgin coconut oil did not decrease the diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, it affected the secondary parameters, such as food and water intake and average body mass gain...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Rosa Tundis, Monica R Loizzo, Marco Bonesi, Vincenzo Sicari, Claudia Ursino, Ilaria Manfredi, Carmela Conidi, Alberto Figoli, Alfredo Cassano
For the first time the chemical profile, physico-chemical parameters, inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes associated with type 2 diabetes, and radical scavenging properties of Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry) juice treated by nanofiltration (NF) were investigated. Three commercial NF membranes with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) (400 and 1000 Da) and polymeric material (composite fluoro-polymer and polyethersulphone) were tested. According to HPLC analyses, most part of bioactive compounds were retained by the NF membranes producing a retentate fraction of interest for the production of functional foods...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Luciana Linhares de Azevedo Bittencourt, Kelly Alencar Silva, Valéria Pereira de Sousa, Gizele Cardoso Fontes-Sant'Ana, Maria Helena Rocha-Leão
In the processing of fruits such as blueberry (Vaccinium sp), that has high levels of phenolic acid, the food industry produces tons of organic waste that causes harm to the environment. Encapsulation is a technique used to take advantage of these wastes. Several methods are used to encapsulate substances, among them ionotropic gelation proves to be a simple, precise, efficient and economical method for obtaining particles with encapsulated bioactives. In this manner, the aim of this study was to test sodium alginate as wall material to encapsulate blueberry residue by ionotropic gelation...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
César A Puente-Garza, Claudia A Espinosa-Leal, Silverio García-Lara
Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck has traditionally been used for the production of fermented beverage known as "pulque" that has recently gained acceptance as a functional food. However, the plant requires up to 10 years to be used as raw material. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and bioactive principles of Agave salmiana during different stages of development. Wild grown plants from Coahuila, Mexico, were identified based on leaf and spine traits to obtain a representative sample from six different stages of development (I-VI) from 1 to 7 years old...
December 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Bruno Gastaldi, G Marino, Y Assef, F M Silva Sofrás, C A N Catalán, S B González
Six native plants of South America traditionally consumed in the Patagonian region (southern Argentina and Chile), namely: Adesmia boronioides Hook. f., Apium australe Thouars, Buddleja globosa Hope, Drimys andina (Reiche) R. Rodr. & Quezada, Dysphania multifida L. and Solidago chilensis Meyen were investigated to determine the nutraceutical properties of infusions of their aerial parts. The infusions were characterized in terms of their antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content, profile of phenolic compounds, general toxicity and cytotoxicity on two different human cell lines: T84 (derived from colon cancer) and HTR8/SVneo (not derived from cancer)...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Leda Guzmán, Cristóbal Balada, Guillermo Flores, Rocío Álvarez, Marcela Knox, Raúl Vinet, José L Martínez
Postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Evidence shows that high glucose generates oxidative stress and a pro-inflammatory state promoting the development of cardiovascular diseases. trans-Resveratrol (t-RV) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. To determine whether t-RV acts as a protector against acute high glucose (AHG)-induced damage, two in vitro models, rat aortic rings (RAR) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
José Rogelio Ramos-Enríquez, Benjamín Ramírez-Wong, Rosario Maribel Robles-Sánchez, Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda, Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado
The extrusion process (EP) consists of heat and mechanical treatments under different conditions of moisture, shear, and pressure and rapidly causes structural alterations and changes in the functional properties of the extruded material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions and optimize the wheat bran extrusion conditions to achieve the greatest content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. The EP factors evaluated were feed moisture (FM) (25-33...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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