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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

Fabiana Della Betta, Priscila Nehring, Siluana Katia Tischer Seraglio, Mayara Schulz, Andressa Camargo Valese, Heitor Daguer, Luciano Valdemiro Gonzaga, Roseane Fett, Ana Carolina Oliveira Costa
The aim of this study was to investigate the free individual phenolics and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of blackberry, acerola, yellow guava, guabiju, jambolan and jabuticaba fruits in two edible stages. Of the thirty-three phenolics investigated by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), twenty-five were quantified and the major ones were catechin, isoquercitrin, epicatechin and gallic acid. The highest values for the total phenolic content (in dry matter) were observed for acerola (83...
September 14, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Sinisa Djurasevic, Svetlana Bojic, Biljana Nikolic, Ivica Dimkic, Zoran Todorovic, Jelena Djordjevic, Dragana Mitic-Culafic
The gut microbiota is composed of a diverse population of obligate and facultative anaerobic microorganisms which are shown to influence host metabolism and immune homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil on the weekly fasting glycaemia, daily food and water intake and weekly body mass gain over 16 weeks, as well as the changes in composition of gut microbiota in both non-diabetic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Although the intake of virgin coconut oil did not decrease the diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, it affected the secondary parameters, such as food and water intake and average body mass gain...
August 31, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Rosa Tundis, Monica R Loizzo, Marco Bonesi, Vincenzo Sicari, Claudia Ursino, Ilaria Manfredi, Carmela Conidi, Alberto Figoli, Alfredo Cassano
For the first time the chemical profile, physico-chemical parameters, inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes associated with type 2 diabetes, and radical scavenging properties of Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry) juice treated by nanofiltration (NF) were investigated. Three commercial NF membranes with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) (400 and 1000 Da) and polymeric material (composite fluoro-polymer and polyethersulphone) were tested. According to HPLC analyses, most part of bioactive compounds were retained by the NF membranes producing a retentate fraction of interest for the production of functional foods...
August 8, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Luciana Linhares de Azevedo Bittencourt, Kelly Alencar Silva, Valéria Pereira de Sousa, Gizele Cardoso Fontes-Sant'Ana, Maria Helena Rocha-Leão
In the processing of fruits such as blueberry (Vaccinium sp), that has high levels of phenolic acid, the food industry produces tons of organic waste that causes harm to the environment. Encapsulation is a technique used to take advantage of these wastes. Several methods are used to encapsulate substances, among them ionotropic gelation proves to be a simple, precise, efficient and economical method for obtaining particles with encapsulated bioactives. In this manner, the aim of this study was to test sodium alginate as wall material to encapsulate blueberry residue by ionotropic gelation...
August 3, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
César A Puente-Garza, Claudia A Espinosa-Leal, Silverio García-Lara
Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck has traditionally been used for the production of fermented beverage known as "pulque" that has recently gained acceptance as a functional food. However, the plant requires up to 10 years to be used as raw material. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and bioactive principles of Agave salmiana during different stages of development. Wild grown plants from Coahuila, Mexico, were identified based on leaf and spine traits to obtain a representative sample from six different stages of development (I-VI) from 1 to 7 years old...
August 1, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Raúl E Cian, Antonela G Garzón, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Cecilia C Botto, Silvina R Drago
Antithrombotic activity of brewers' spent grain peptides before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and their effects on blood coagulation pathways were evaluated. Two hydrolysates were produced using sequential enzymatic systems: alkaline protease + Flavourzyme (AF) and neutral protease + Flavourzyme (PF). Simulation of gastrointestinal digestion of AF and PF hydrolysates was made using porcine pepsin and pancreatin enzymes, obtaining the corresponding digested samples: AFD and PFD, respectively...
July 10, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Bruno Gastaldi, G Marino, Y Assef, F M Silva Sofrás, C A N Catalán, S B González
Six native plants of South America traditionally consumed in the Patagonian region (southern Argentina and Chile), namely: Adesmia boronioides Hook. f., Apium australe Thouars, Buddleja globosa Hope, Drimys andina (Reiche) R. Rodr. & Quezada, Dysphania multifida L. and Solidago chilensis Meyen were investigated to determine the nutraceutical properties of infusions of their aerial parts. The infusions were characterized in terms of their antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content, profile of phenolic compounds, general toxicity and cytotoxicity on two different human cell lines: T84 (derived from colon cancer) and HTR8/SVneo (not derived from cancer)...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Leda Guzmán, Cristóbal Balada, Guillermo Flores, Rocío Álvarez, Marcela Knox, Raúl Vinet, José L Martínez
Postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Evidence shows that high glucose generates oxidative stress and a pro-inflammatory state promoting the development of cardiovascular diseases. trans-Resveratrol (t-RV) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. To determine whether t-RV acts as a protector against acute high glucose (AHG)-induced damage, two in vitro models, rat aortic rings (RAR) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
José Rogelio Ramos-Enríquez, Benjamín Ramírez-Wong, Rosario Maribel Robles-Sánchez, Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda, Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado
The extrusion process (EP) consists of heat and mechanical treatments under different conditions of moisture, shear, and pressure and rapidly causes structural alterations and changes in the functional properties of the extruded material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions and optimize the wheat bran extrusion conditions to achieve the greatest content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. The EP factors evaluated were feed moisture (FM) (25-33...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Leilson de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Sérgio Almeida, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho, Renata Galhardo Borguini, José Carlos Sá Ferreira, Suely Pereira Freitas, Virgínia Martins da Matta
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of processing steps on bioactive compounds and physicochemical and rheological characteristics of a juçara, banana and strawberry smoothie. The product was obtained by mixing the pulps of these fruits in previously defined proportions. The mixture was standardized in a pilot disintegrator, homogenized at 60 MPa in continuous mode and pasteurized at 90 °C for 35 s. The homogenization step increased the concentration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, major anthocyanins in the smoothie...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Sandra Montes-Lora, Francisco J Rodríguez-Pulido, María Jesús Cejudo-Bastante, Francisco J Heredia
The evolution during ripening of Beta vulgaris (var. Pablo) on colour and betalain composition, not previously conducted in conjunction in red beets, has been examined. According to the results, it could be asserted that the ripening stage significantly (p < 0.05) influenced on all the studied parameters. On the basis of the betalain content, the optimum ripening stage corresponded to a medium weigh-to-calibre ratio, in the light of the significantly (p < 0.05) higher content of betalains, especially betanin and vulgaxanthin I...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Angélica Gallego-Narbón, Belén Zapatera, Inmaculada Álvarez, M Pilar Vaquero
Cobalamin deficiency represents a health issue for vegetarians, especially vegans, if supplements are not consumed. Vitamin B12 serum levels, traditionally used to assess the vitamin B12 status, can be normal under functional deficiency conditions. In this regard, methylmalonic acid (MMA) has proven to be a more specific marker to detect subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency. In this study, we present for the first time the cobalamin status of Spanish vegetarians using both vitamin B12 and MMA markers, and the effects of the plant-based diet and the intake of vitamin B12 supplements...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Renata Alves Mazuco, Pryscilla Maria Martins Cardoso, Érica Sartório Bindaco, Rodrigo Scherer, Rachel Oliveira Castilho, André Augusto Gomes Faraco, Fabiana Gomes Ruas, Jairo Pinto Oliveira, Marco Cesar Cunegundes Guimarães, Tadeu Uggere de Andrade, Dominik Lenz, Fernão Castro Braga, Denise Coutinho Endringer
The juçara fruits (Euterpe edulis Martius), native to the Atlantic Forest, are rich in anthocyanins. To preserve the anthocyanins in juçara fruit pulp, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of microencapsulation by spray drying and freeze drying with maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent 16.5 to 19.5) and gum arabic in different proportions. The obtained microparticles were characterized by quantifying the total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, by performing differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, and infrared spectroscopy and by using scanning electron microscopy to analyze the morphology of the particles...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Katarzyna Pawłowska, Maciej Kuligowski, Iwona Jasińska-Kuligowska, Marcin Kidoń, Aleksander Siger, Magdalena Rudzińska, Jacek Nowak
The increasing demand for cocoa and search for ingredients rich in bioactive compounds encouraged us to investigate the possibility of replacing it by carob powder in the muffins containing soy beans, sesame oil and flaxseeds. There was 5% addition of carob or cocoa powder to the individual doughs. The muffins with the addition of carob were characterized by improved antiradical activity (by 36% - 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) method, by 83% - 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method), higher content of genistein (18%) and total phytosterols (17%) in the dry mass...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
C Tsang, N F Smail, S Almoosawi, G J M McDougall, E A S Al-Dujaili
Arterial stiffness is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease and dietary anthocyanins may be important in mediating vascular tone. The present study investigated the effect of consumption of an anthocyanin-rich potato, Purple Majesty on arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity in 14 healthy male and female adults. Participants consumed 200 g/day of cooked purple potato containing 288 mg anthocyanins, or a white potato containing negligible anthocyanins for 14 days, separated by a 7-day washout period...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Ivana Šola, Mirta Stipaničev, Valerija Vujčić, Božena Mitić, Ana Huđek, Gordana Rusak
Native Crocus taxa are abundant in regions with moderate and dry climate; however, their potential in the food industry has thus far been neglected. The objective of this study was to compare the quantitative and qualitative flavonoid content and antioxidant and cytotoxic activity in organs of several populations of Croatian native taxa and assess their potential for application in the food industry. The dominant flavonoids in the native Crocus taxa were kaempferol and quercetin. Tepals contained similar or higher concentrations of flavonoid-glycosides than other organs...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
G A Camelo-Méndez, P E Vanegas-Espinoza, M L Escudero-Gilete, F J Heredia, O Paredes-López, A A Del Villar-Martínez
In food industry, roselle beverages and their subproducts could be functional ingredients since they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds with improved performance due to their important anthocyanins content. The aim of this study was to analyze anthocyanin content and antioxidant properties of aqueous infusions elaborated with color contrasting Hibiscus materials and design a mathematical model in order to predict color-composition relationship. Color measurements of beverages from roselle (Negra, Sudan and Rosa) were made by transmission spectrophotometry, anthocyanins quantification was determined by HPLC, and antioxidant potential was evaluated by in vitro methods (ABTS and FRAP assays)...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Kinga Topolska, Radosław Piotr Radzki, Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Adam Florkiewicz, Teresa Leszczyńska, Ewa Cieślik
This study was designed to determine the effect of feeding female rats with low-calcium diet containing one of three fructan sources (Jerusalem artichoke, yacon, Beneo Orafti Synergy1), on selected bone parameters. Growing Wistar rats were fed modified AIN-93 G diet enriched in fructan sources (8%), added alone or as a strawberry sorbet ingredient. Two of eight groups were a validation model, where the positive control group was fed with recommended calcium dose in the diet (RCD), and negative one - with low calcium diet (LCD)...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Yosuke Kikuchi, Satomi Nozaki, Miki Makita, Shoji Yokozuka, Shin-Ichi Fukudome, Takashi Yanagisawa, Seiichiro Aoe
Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m2 ...
September 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Juana Fernández-López, Raquel Lucas-González, Manuel Viuda-Martos, Estrella Sayas-Barberá, José Angel Pérez-Alvarez
The aim of this work was to characterize the coproduct obtained from chia oil production (cold-pressing) with a view to its possible application in new food product development. For this characterization, the following determinations were made: proximate composition, physicochemical analysis, techno-functional properties, total phenolic and flavonoid content, polyphenolic profile and antioxidant capacity (using four different methods). Chia coproduct showed significantly higher levels of proteins and total dietary fiber and lower levels of fats than chia seeds, pointing to the promising nature of this coproduct as an ingredient of food formulations since it remains a source of high biological value proteins and total dietary fiber (as chia seeds themselves) but with a lower energy value...
June 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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