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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

A L Dinel, C Rey, C Baudry, C Fressange-Mazda, P Le Ruyet, A Nadjar, P Pallet, C Joffre, S Layé
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Michael Glenn O'Connor, Kelly Thomsen, Rebekah F Brown, Michael Laposata, Adam Seegmiller
BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation is a significant contributor to the morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. One feature of this inflammation is the production of oxygenated metabolites, such as prostaglandins. Individuals with CF are known to have abnormal metabolism of fatty acids, typically resulting in reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial of DHA supplementation with endpoints of plasma fatty acid levels and prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) levels...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Rahul Chaudhary, Katayoon Saadin, Kevin P Bliden, William S Harris, Bao Dinh, Tushar Sharma, Udaya S Tantry, Paul A Gurbel
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine the associations between plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and various cardiovascular risk factors and with the use of fish oil supplements (FOS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization (n=433) were studied. Serum fatty acid (FA) composition, the concentrations of lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress, and dietary/lifestyle factors were measured...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
G E Leghi, B S Muhlhausler
Pregnancy represents a state of heightened oxidative stress and inflammation, and these processes are further increased in pregnancy complications. The quality of the maternal diet is directly associated with maternal health and wellbeing, pregnancy and fetal outcomes, as well as the risk of pregnancy complications. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have significant potential to modify placental and fetal lipid environments and thereby modulate health outcomes. The omega-3 (n-3) LCPUFA in particular have been shown to exhibit both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and have potential therapeutic applications in reducing oxidative damage and inflammation during pregnancy...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Samar Basu, Holly Harris, Alicja Wolk, Adrien Rossary, Florence Caldefie-Chézet, Marie-Paule Vasson, Anders Larsson
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a common cancer among women. Identifying cellular participation of F2-isoprostane, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in cancer we evaluated whether their prediagnostic systemic levels that originate from different inflammatory pathways were associated with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Seventy-eight breast cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 797 controls from the Swedish Mammography Cohort were analysed for urinary F2-isoprostane, PGF2α and plasma PTX3 levels...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Yu-Hong Lin, James A Brown, Carmine DiMartino, Irina Dahms, Norman Salem, Joseph R Hibbeln
Human studies and some animal work have shown more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) was accumulated or converted from precursors in females compared to males. This study explored in-depth the effect of gender on fatty acid composition and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in rats fed one of two well-defined diets containing 10% total fat. One diet contained 15% of linoleic acid (LA) and 3% of α-linolenic acid (ALA) of the total fatty acids (LA+ALA diet), while the other diet contained 15% LA and 0...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Irina Dahms, Eileen Bailey-Hall, Norman Salem
This study explores dog plasma and brain fatty acid composition achieved after long-term supplementation at high DHA doses. A 90% concentrate of DHA Ethyl Ester (DHA-EE) administered by oral gavage to Beagle dogs at doses of 100, 500, 1000, and 2000mg/kg bw/day for 8 weeks resulted in DHA increases in both plasma and brain. In a subsequent 9-month study, DHA-EE was administered at 150, 1000 and 2000mg/kg bw/day. Plasma DHA increased between 150 and 1000mg/kg bw/day but not between 1000 and 2000mg/kg bw/day and there were increases from Day 1to 92 but not between days 92 and 273...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
V H L See, E Mas, S Burrows, N J O'Callaghan, M Fenech, S L Prescott, L J Beilin, R C Huang, T A Mori
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and nutritional deficiency may influence the excessive shortening of the telomeric ends of chromosomes. It is known that stress exposure in intrauterine life can produce variations in telomere length (TL), thereby potentially setting up a long-term trajectory for disease susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy on telomere length and oxidative stress in offspring at birth and 12 years of age (12y)...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
L N Yelland, B J Gajewski, J Colombo, R A Gibson, M Makrides, S E Carlson
The DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) and Kansas DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) were randomized controlled trials that supplemented mothers with 800 and 600mg DHA/day, respectively, or a placebo during pregnancy. DOMInO was conducted in Australia and KUDOS in the United States. Both trials found an unanticipated and statistically significant reduction in early preterm birth (ePTB; i.e., birth before 34 weeks gestation). However, in each trial, the number of ePTBs were small. We used a novel Bayesian approach to estimate statistically derived low, moderate or high risk for ePTB, and to test for differences between the DHA and placebo groups...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Jing-Jing Wei, Du-Peng Tang, Jing-Jing Xie, Li-Yong Yang, Ze-Hao Zhuang
AIM: To investigate the effect of dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs on chronic reflux esophagitis (RE) and lipid peroxidation. METHOD: Rat RE model were established and then fed on a diet contained different n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (1:1.5, 5:1, 10:1) or received pure n-6 PUFA diet for 14 days. Esophageal pathological changes were evaluated using macroscopic examination and hematoxyline-eosin staining. IL-1β, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA and protein levels of were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
S Fares, M M Sethom, M Feki, M Cheour, H Sanhaji, S Kacem, N Kaabachi
Fatty acids (FA), especially arachidonic (AA, 20:4ω6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids are critical for the health and development of infants. Colostrum FA composition has been examined in 101 lactating Tunisian women delivering prematurely using gas chromatography. Among polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid predominated whereas each of the other polyunsaturated FA accounted for 1% or less of total FA. Colostrum AA and DHA contents were lower in women aged above 34 years compared to those less than 34 years...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
H J Murff, H A Tindle, M J Shrubsole, Q Cai, W Smalley, G L Milne, L L Swift, R M Ness, W Zheng
Smoking is associated with lower n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) concentrations; however, limited studies have accounted for dietary PUFA intake or whether tobacco dose or smoking duration influences this association. We measured red blood cell phospholipid (RBC) membrane concentrations of fatty acids in 126 current smokers, 311 former smokers, and 461 never smokers using gas liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Smokers had lower RBC membrane percentages of total n-3 LCPUFAs compared to former smokers or never smokers (median percent: 5...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Jenifer I Fenton, Eric A Gurzell, Emily A Davidson, William S Harris
Numerous clinical trials examining the use of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) on various health outcomes have been conducted, and fish oil remains one of the most widely used nutritional supplements. More recently, studies have begun to utilize the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA+DHA in red blood cells (RBCs), as both a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA exposure and a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Considerably less research evaluates whether RBC phospholipid fatty acids reflect the phospholipid fatty acid composition of other tissues across increasing intakes of n-3 LCPUFAs...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Thomas C Hall, Dilraj K Bilku, Christopher P Neal, Jill Cooke, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Ashley R Dennison
BACKGROUND: Death from sepsis in the intensive therapy unit (ITU) is frequently preceded by the development of multiple organ failure as a result of uncontrolled inflammation. Treatment with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been demonstrated to attenuate the effects of uncontrolled inflammation and may be clinically beneficial in reducing mortality from organ dysfunction. Fish oil (FO) is a source of EPA and DHA...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ness Madingou, Kim Gilbert, Leandro Tomaro, Charles Prud'homme Touchette, François Trudeau, Samuel Fortin, Guy Rousseau
The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of two dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alone or in combination, on infarct size. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with different omega-3 diets. The animals were subjected to ischemia for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size, Akt (protein kinase B) activation level, caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were measured...
August 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
T I Shireman, E H Kerling, B J Gajewski, J Colombo, S E Carlson
The Kansas University DHA Outcomes Study (KUDOS) found a significant reduction in early preterm births with a supplement of 600mg DHA per day compared to placebo. The objective of this analysis was to determine if hospital costs differed between groups. We applied a post-hoc cost analysis of the delivery hospitalization and all hospitalizations in the following year to 197 mother-infant dyads who delivered at Kansas University Hospital. Hospital cost saving of DHA supplementation amounted to $1678 per infant...
August 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Anne-Helen Lutter, Ute Hempel, Ursula Anderer, Peter Dieter
Osteoclasts are large bone-resorbing cells of hematopoietic origin. Their main function is to dissolve the inorganic component hydroxyapatite and to degrade the organic bone matrix. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) indirectly affects osteoclasts by stimulating osteoblasts to release factors that influence osteoclast activity. The direct effect of PGE2 on osteoclasts is still controversial. To study the influence of PGE2 on osteoclast activity, human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMC) and mouse RAW264.7 cells were cultured on osteoblast-derived extracellular matrix...
August 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Chad M Cook, Hogne Hallaråker, Per Christian Sæbø, Sheila M Innis, Kathleen M Kelley, Kristen D Sanoshy, Alvin Berger, Kevin C Maki
This randomized, single-blind, crossover trial assessed the bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) from two different sources, each examined over a 12h period following consumption of a single serving and after 2-weeks of daily supplementation. Thirty-two adults with fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations between 100 and 399mg/dL were randomly assigned, with stratification by sex and age, to receive 12 capsules/day containing either phospholipid (PL)-rich herring roe oil (Romega® 30, 628mg/day EPA; 1810mg/day DHA; 137mg/day DPA) or TAG-rich fish oil (575mg/day EPA; 1843mg/day DHA; 259mg/day DPA) each for a 2-week period separated by a 4 week washout...
August 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Haim Shapiro, Pierre Singer, Amiram Ariel
Pain is a complex sensation that may be protective or cause undue suffering and loss of function, depending on the circumstances. Peripheral nociceptor neurons (PNs) innervate most tissues, and express ion channels, nocisensors, which depolarize the cell in response to intense stimuli and numerous substances. Inflamed tissues manifest inflammatory hyperalgesia in which the threshold for pain and the response to painful stimuli are decreased and increased, respectively. Constituents of the inflammatory milieu sensitize PNs, thereby contributing to hyperalgesia...
August 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
K J Hintze, J Tawzer, R E Ward
The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of both the % of dietary, 18-carbon PUFA (2.5%, 5% and 10%) and the n-6:n-3 ratio (1:1, 10:1 and 20:1) on the acute inflammatory response. Mice were fed diets for 8 weeks and injected intraperitoneally with LPS to induce acute inflammation. After 24h mice were sacrificed and plasma cytokines measured. Diets significantly affected the erythrocyte PUFA composition and the effect of PUFA ratio was more prominent than of PUFA concentration. The % dietary PUFA affected feed efficiency (p<0...
August 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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