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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

M Kim, M Kim, H J Yoo, A Lee, S Jeong, J H Lee
We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal interaction effects between the minor allele of FADS1 rs174547 and overweight on n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Plasma PUFA levels were measured via GC-MS, and arterial stiffness was determined as brachial-ankle PWV (ba-PWV) at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 3 years. The FADS1 rs174547 T > C genotype was analyzed. At 3-years of follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking and drinking, there were interaction effects between the FADS1 rs174547 T > C genotype and baseline BMI on the changes (from baseline) in plasma arachidonic acid (AA) levels, in the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/AA ratio, and in ba-PWV (p for interaction = 0...
March 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Gregor Jezernik, Uroš Potočnik
Fatty acids and their derivatives play an important role in inflammation. Diet and genetics influence fatty acid profiles. Abnormalities of fatty acid profiles have been observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a group of complex diseases defined by chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. IBD associated fatty acid profile abnormalities were observed independently of nutritional status or disease activity, suggesting a common genetic background. However, no study so far has attempted to look for overlap between IBD loci and fatty acid associated loci or investigate the genetics of fatty acid profiles in IBD...
March 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Luke A Downey, Tamara Simpson, Jorinde Timmer, Karen Nolidin, Kevin Croft, Keith A Wesnes, Andrew Scholey, Saurenne Deleuil, Con Stough
Age-associated cognitive decline amongst otherwise healthy older individuals is a multifaceted characteristic of ageing. The role of oxidative stress biomarkers has been increasingly examined in the context of pathological aging conditions that affect cognition. Plasma F2 -Isoprostane levels are a reliable index of systemic oxidative stress (specifically lipid peroxidation) and are elevated in dementia patients. Less is known about their role in healthy cognitive ageing. This study evaluated the relationship between F2 -Isoprostanes and cognitive functioning in a cohort of 211 healthy elderly adults (60-75 years: Male; 88, Female; 123)...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Yuan Shen, Bo Liu, Wei Mao, Ruifeng Gao, Shuang Feng, Yinghong Qian, Jindi Wu, Shuangyi Zhang, Long Gao, Changqi Fu, Qianru Li, Yang Deng, Jinshan Cao
Postpartum bacterial infections of the uterus cause endometritis in dairy cows. Inflammatory responses to bacterial infections in the bovine uterus were generated through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that bind to pathogen-associated molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. Among these PRRs, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is primarily responsible for LPS recognition, which triggers inflammatory responses via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB signaling activation, resulting in the expression of inflammatory mediators in mammals such as IL-8 and IL-6...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Anne M Mendonça, Lucien G J Cayer, Samantha D Pauls, Tanja Winter, Shan Leng, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Harold M Aukema
Dietary EPA and DHA given together alter oxylipins in adipose tissue. To compare the separate effects of individual dietary n-3 PUFA on oxylipins in different adipose depots (gonadal, mesenteric, perirenal, subcutaneous) in males and females, rats were provided diets containing higher levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA or DHA. Each n-3 PUFA enhanced its respective oxylipins the most, while effects on other n-3 oxylipins varied. For example: in perirenal and subcutaneous depots, more DHA oxylipins were higher with dietary ALA than with EPA; dietary EPA uniquely decreased 14-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid, in contrast to increasing many other DHA oxylipins...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Cheng-Ho Chang, Ping-Tao Tseng, Nai-Yu Chen, Pei-Chin Lin, Pao-Yen Lin, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Feng-Yu Kuo, Jenshinn Lin, Ming-Chang Wu, Kuan-Pin Su
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] are widely recommended for health promotion. Over the last decade, prescription omega-3 fatty acid products (RxOME3FAs) have been approved for medical indications. Nonetheless, there is no comprehensive analysis of safety and tolerability of RxOME3FAs so far. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out based on searches in six electronic databases...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Franca Marangoni, Patrizia Risé, Francesco Visioli, Carlo Agostoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
James F Markworth, Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Kirsten M M Aasen, Brenan R Durainayagam, Sarah M Mitchell, Alex H C Chan, Andrew J Sinclair, Manohar Garg, David Cameron-Smith
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is the metabolic precursor to the eicosanoid family of lipid mediators. Eicosanoids have potent pro-inflammatory actions, but also act as important autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules in skeletal muscle growth and development. Whether dietary ARA is incorporated into skeletal muscle phospholipids and the resulting impact on intramuscular inflammatory and adaptive processes in-vivo is not known. In the current study, resistance trained men (≥1 year) received dietary supplementation with 1...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Maria Fernanda Fernandes, Maria Cristina Tache, Shannon L Klingel, Francesco Leri, David M Mutch
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have important signalling roles in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates whole-body energy homeostasis. While evidence suggests that high PUFA intake can impact hypothalamic activity, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulated by essential dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFA (i.e., linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively) remain poorly described in this brain region. To differentiate the roles of essential dietary PUFA on hypothalamic function, we fed male rats high-fat diets (35% kcal/d) containing either safflower (linoleic acid) or flaxseed (α-linolenic acid) oil for 2 months...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Agnieszka Stawarska, Agnieszka Białek, Andrzej Tokarz
The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of different dietary oils and the dietary energy restriction on the activity of enzymes participating in the process of arachidonic acid synthesis and on fatty acid profile in serum. It was also evaluated how diet modification affects the weight of animals and weight of the specific organs: liver, kidney and spleen. Wistar male rats were divided into 6 groups according to the diet fed (control, sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil and a group of dietary energy restriction - DER group)...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
E Stoutjesdijk, A Schaafsma, D A J Dijck-Brouwer, F A J Muskiet
INTRODUCTION: Erythrocyte (RBC) DHA+EPA is considered optimal at 8g%. Mothers with lifetime high fish intakes exhibiting this status produce milk with about 1g% DHA+EPA. We established DHA+EPA supplemental dosages needed to augment RBC DHA+EPA to 8g% and milk DHA+EPA to 1g%. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant women were randomly allocated to DHA+EPA dosages of: 225+90 (n=9), 450+180 (n=9), 675+270 (n=11) and 900+360 (n=7) mg/day. Samples were collected at 20 and 36 gestational weeks and 4 weeks postpartum...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
John Douglas Mann, Keturah R Faurot, Beth MacIntosh, Olafur S Palsson, Chirayath M Suchindran, Susan Ann Gaylord, Chanee Lynch, Angela Johnston, Kristen Maiden, David A Barrow, Joseph R Hibbeln, Christopher E Ramsden
Migraine is a prevalent neurological disorder, affecting over 16% of adult women and 7% of adult men in the U.S., causing significant pain, disability, and medical expense, with incomplete benefits from conventional medical management. Migraine, as a chronic pain syndrome, provides a practical model for investigating the impact of dietary modifications in omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids. This paper reports the protocol of a trial to assess whether targeted dietary modifications designed to increase n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with or without concurrent reduction in n-6 linoleic acid (LA), will alter nociceptive lipid mediators and mediate decreases in frequency and severity of migraine...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
E L Lien, C Richard, D R Hoffman
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are present in breast milk and play important roles in early infant development. A supply of these fatty acids in infant formula (typically following breast milk as a model with ARA > DHA) is thought to be important since endogenous synthesis is insufficient to maintain tissue levels equivalent to breast-fed infants. Intervention studies assessing the impact of DHA- and ARA-supplemented formulas have resulted in numerous positive developmental outcomes (closer to breast-fed infants) including measures of specific cognition functions, visual acuity, and immune responses...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Hui Gyu Park, Matthew G Engel, Kyle Vogt-Lowell, Peter Lawrence, Kumar S Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
INTRODUCTION: In mammals, FADS2 catalyzes "front-end" Δ4-, Δ6-, and Δ8-desaturation of fatty acyl chains, whereas FADS1 has Δ5-desaturase activity. Eighteen and 20-carbon precursors to highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids are the usual substrates for FADS1 and FADS2. Our main objective was to characterize the metabolic fate of oleic acid (OA) due to action of FADS gene products. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were stably transformed with either FADS1 or FADS2 or empty vector...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Mimi Tang, Min Zhang, Lu Wang, Huande Li, Hualin Cai, Ruili Dang, Pei Jiang, Yiping Liu, Ying Xue, Yanqin Wu
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are rapidly accumulated in brain during pre- and neonatal life, which is important for the development and function of central nervous system. Deficiency of biologically important n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA) is associated with impaired visual, attention and cognition, and would precipitate psychiatric symptoms. However, clinical studies of the potential mechanism on the effect of dietary DHA deficiency on neural development remain unclear. In addition, the effects of n-6 PUFAs and n-3 PUFAs ingestion on the dynamic process of the cell proliferation in neurogenesis of offspring were investigated using immunefluorescence...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Gregory C Shearer, Kamil Borkowski, Susan L Puumala, William S Harris, Theresa L Pedersen, John W Newman
Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is characterized by chronic inflammation which mediates the associated high risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Oxylipins are a superclass of lipid mediators with potent bioactivities in inflammation, vascular biology, and more. While their role as locally produced agents is appreciated, most oxylipins in plasma are found in lipoproteins suggesting defective regulation of inflammation could be mediated by the elevated VLDL and low HDL levels characteristic of MetSyn. Our objective was to compare the oxylipin composition of VLDL, LDL, and HDL in 14 optimally healthy individuals and 31 MetSyn patients, and then to determine the effects of treating MetSyn subjects with 4g/day of prescription omega-3 fatty acids (P-OM3) on lipoprotein oxylipin profiles...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
C Leigh Broadhurst, Walter F Schmidt, Julie K Nguyen, Jianwei Qin, Kuanglin Chao, Moon S Kim
Despite its biochemical importance, a complete Raman analysis of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) has never been reported. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we utilize the GTRS technique for AA and 1-18:0, 2-20:4n-6 phosphatidyl choline (AAPC) from cryogenic to mammalian body temperatures...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Akiko Harauma, Erisa Hatanaka, Hidemi Yasuda, Manabu T Nakamura, Norman Salem, Toru Moriguchi
This study focused on the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during the lactation period of delta-6-desaturase knockout (D6D-KO) mice using an artificial rearing method. Newborn pups of D6D-KO male mice were separated from their dams within 48h and were fed artificial milk. Six formulations of milk were used: Control (Cont) milk (3.9% α-linolenic acid and 18% linoleic acid), + 1.3% arachidonic acid (ARA), + 1.2% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), + 1.3% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), + 1.1% ARA + 1.3% DHA, and + 1...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Philipp Störmann, Birgit Auner, Lukas Schimunek, Rafael Serve, Klemens Horst, Tim-P Simon, Roman Pfeifer, Kernt Köhler, Frank Hildebrand, Sebastian Wutzler, Hans-Christoph Pape, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
BACKGROUND: Recognizing patients at risk for pulmonary complications (PC) is of high clinical relevance. Migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to inflammatory sites plays an important role in PC, and is tightly regulated by specific chemokines including interleukin (IL)-8 and other mediators such as leukotriene (LT)B4. Previously, we have reported that LTB4 indicated early patients at risk for PC after trauma. Here, the relevance of LTB4 to indicating lung integrity in a newly established long-term porcine severe trauma model (polytrauma, PT) was explored...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, R Muthangaparambil Shylaja, Sangeetha P Davis, Priyanga James, Ravisankar Valsalan, Thekkekara Devassy Babu, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Coconut oil (CO), the primary choice of cooking purposes in the south Asian countries, is rich in medium chain saturated fatty acids, especially lauric acid (50-52%). The oil has high medicinal use in Ayurvedic system and known to contain polyphenolic antioxidants. Studies have reported that CO improves insulin sensitivity and shows hypoglycemic effect. However, there is no information regarding its effect on chronic diabetic complications including retinopathy and nephropathy is available. The secondary diabetic complications are mediated by the activation of polyol pathway, where aldose reductase (AR) plays crucial role...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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