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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610056/omega-6-fatty-acids-and-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
Inflammation is a normal process that is part of host defence and tissue healing. However, excessive or unresolved inflammation can lead to uncontrolled tissue damage, pathology and disease. In humans on a Western diet, the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) makes a significant contribution to the fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids of cells involved in inflammation. ARA is a precursor to a number of potent pro-inflammatory mediators including well described prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which has led to the development of anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals that target the ARA pathway to successfully control inflammation...
March 22, 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599053/the-omega-6-omega-3-ratio-a-critical-appraisal-and-possible-successor
#2
REVIEW
William S Harris
The well-known health effects of the long-chain, marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) has led to a growing interest in the prognostic value that blood levels of these FAs might have vis-à-vis cardiovascular and neurocognitive diseases. The measurement and expression of n-3 FA levels is not straight-forward, however, and a wide variety of means of expression of n-3 FA status have been used in research and clinical medicine. This has led to considerable confusion as to what "optimal" n-3 FA status is...
March 20, 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735021/influence-of-prednisolone-on-parameters-of-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-indices-for-stearoyl-coa-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturase-activity-in-healthy-males-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#3
I G Pranger, D H van Raalte, M Brands, M H A Muskiet, I P Kema, M J Serlie, M Diamant, S J L Bakker, F A J Muskiet
Glucocorticoid treatment decreases liver insulin sensitivity and may modify fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the influence of oral prednisolone on indices for de novo lipogenesis (DNLi), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCDi) and Δ6-desaturase (D6Di) activity in healthy males. In addition, we explored whether the changes may be associated with prednisolone-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Thirty-two healthy young males (mean ± SD age 22 ± 3 years, BMI 22.4 ± 1...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735020/linoleic-acid-glycemic-control-and-type-2-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Martha A Belury, Rachel M Cole, Deena B Snoke, Taylor Banh, Austin Angelotti
Dietary fat quality, especially the intake of specific types of fatty acids, impacts the risk of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A recent pooled analysis involving 20 studies from around the world revealed that higher linoleic acid (18:2n-6 LA) biomarker is associated with dose-dependent decreases in the incidence of T2DM. This latest study corroborates earlier cross-sectional studies and intervention trials showing that biomarkers of LA intake are associated with reduced risk of T2DM and better glycemic control and/or insulin sensitivity...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735019/supplementation-with-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-reduces-high-levels-of-circulating-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-aging-adults-a-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Alai Tan, Brent Sullenbarger, Ruchika Prakash, Jodi C McDaniel
BACKGROUND: High levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines are characteristic of inflammaging, a term coined to describe age-related chronic systemic inflammation involved in the etiology of many age-related disorders including nonhealing wounds. Some studies have shown that supplementing diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) lowers systemic levels of key proinflammatory cytokines associated with inflammaging. However, findings from the few studies that have focused exclusively on older adults are inconclusive...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735018/arachidonic-acid-activates-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-to-enhance-tumoricidal-action-of-bleomycin-against-imr-32-cells
#6
Sailaja Polavarapu, Bilikere S Dwarakanath, Undurti N Das
Bleomycin is a commonly used anti-cancer drug in the management of a variety of cancers. Previously, we showed that arachidonic acid (AA) augmented the growth inhibitory action of bleomycin on IMR-32 (human neuroblastoma cells) in vitro by enhancing oxidative stress. Despite these results, the exact molecular mechanism of cytotoxic action of bleomycin and its augmentation by AA is not known. Our current study revealed that a combination of bleomycin and AA significantly enhanced the expression of FAS gene, which is involved in programmed cell death (apoptosis) and caspases 3 and 8 compared to either bleomycin or AA alone implying that activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway plays a major role in their (bleomycin + AA) tumoricidal action...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735017/adding-a-purple-corn-extract-in-rats-supplemented-with-chia-oil-decreases-gene-expression-of-srebp-1c-and-retains-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-6-hepatic-desaturase-activity-unmodified-the-hepatic-lipid-profile
#7
Sixto Reyna Gallegos, Génesis Torres Arrunátegui, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, María Elena Villanueva Espinoza
Flavonoids upregulate gene expression of PPAR-α and underregulate the gene expression of SREBP-1c, and their intake increases the plasmatic concentration of n-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. In this work, the effect of oral supplementation of ALA from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil and anthocyanins from a purple corn extract (PCE) on gene expression of SREBP-1c, PPAR-α and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases (Δ5D and Δ6D), the activity of these enzymes in the liver as well as the hepatic lipid profile were evaluated in thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats whose diet was supplemented with olive oil (OL), chia oil (CH), olive oil and PCE (OL + PCE) or chia oil and PCE (CH + PCE)...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628049/identification-of-novel-cyp4f2-genetic-variants-exhibiting-decreased-catalytic-activity-in-the-conversion-of-arachidonic-acid-to-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-20-hete
#8
Woo-Young Kim, Su-Jun Lee, Jungki Min, Kyung-Suk Oh, Dong-Hyun Kim, Heui-Soo Kim, Jae-Gook Shin
CYP4F2 is an enzyme involved in the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) from arachidonic acid and metabolizes vitamin K into an inactive form. Our objectives were to identify new CYP4F2 genetic variants and to characterize the functional consequences of the conversion of arachidonic acid into 20-HETE. We used direct DNA sequencing to identify a total of 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including four coding variants, A27V, R47C, P85A, and V433M, in 50 randomly selected subjects. Of these, A27V and P85A were new...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628048/comprehensive-study-of-rodent-olfactory-tissue-lipid-composition
#9
Anne Marie Le Bon, Nicolas Deprêtre, Estelle Sibille, Stéphanie Cabaret, Stéphane Grégoire, Vanessa Soubeyre, Elodie Masson, Niyazi Acar, Lionel Bretillon, Xavier Grosmaitre, Olivier Berdeaux
The peripheral olfactory tissue (OT) plays a primordial role in the detection and transduction of olfactory information. Recent proteomic and transcriptomic studies have provided valuable insight into proteins and RNAs expressed in this tissue. Paradoxically, there is little information regarding the lipid composition of mammalian OT. To delve further into this issue, using a set of complementary state-of-the-art techniques, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of OT lipid composition in rats and mice fed with standard diets...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628047/increased-expression-of-cyslt-2-receptors-in-the-lung-of-asthmatic-mice-and-role-in-allergic-responses
#10
Masaya Matsuda, Yuki Tabuchi, Kazuma Nishimura, Yuri Nakamura, Tomohiko Sekioka, Michiaki Kadode, Kazuhito Kawabata, Takeshi Nabe
Compared with CysLT1 receptors, the functional role of CysLT2 receptors in asthma has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether CysLT2 receptors are expressed in the lung of mice and if expression increases in asthmatic mice, and 2) whether CysLT2 receptors are involved in allergic leukocyte infiltration into the lung and in the development of airway remodeling in asthmatic mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) + Al(OH)3 , and intratracheally challenged with OVA 4 times...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628046/mechanisms-underlying-the-effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-fear-memory-processing-and-their-hypothetical-effects-on-fear-of-cancer-recurrence-in-cancer-survivors
#11
REVIEW
R Okubo, C Chen, M Sekiguchi, K Hamazaki, Y J Matsuoka
The relationship of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and gut microbiota with brain function has been extensively reported. Here, we review how n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect fear memory processing. n-3 PUFAs may improve dysfunctional fear memory processing via immunomodulation/anti-inflammation, increased BDNF, upregulated adult neurogenesis, modulated signal transduction, and microbiota-gut-brain axis normalization. We emphasize how n-3 PUFAs affect this axis and also focus on the hypothetical effects of PUFAs in fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), the primary psychological unmet need of cancer survivors...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628045/musings-about-the-role-dietary-fats-after-40-years-of-fatty-acid-research
#12
REVIEW
Robert A Gibson
Since the 1950's nutrition recommendations have focussed on the replacement of saturated fats in the diet with polyunsaturated fats, a strategy that continues to this day. Despite supporting evidence from clinical trials for the advantages of Mediterranean diets, there has been less attention paid to the role of monounsaturated fats. It has been known for many years that diets high in linoleic acid (LA) compete for the incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids into tissues. What is also clear is that diets rich in LA are not free from concerns and the discovery of oxlams, oxygenated derivatives of LA, having potent inflammatory effects may help us question the dogma of LA rich diets...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549917/associations-among-fads1-rs174547-eicosapentaenoic-acid-arachidonic-acid-ratio-and-arterial-stiffness-in-overweight-subjects
#13
M Kim, M Kim, H J Yoo, A Lee, S Jeong, J H Lee
We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal interaction effects between the minor allele of FADS1 rs174547 and overweight on n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Plasma PUFA levels were measured via GC-MS, and arterial stiffness was determined as brachial-ankle PWV (ba-PWV) at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 3 years. The FADS1 rs174547 T > C genotype was analyzed. At 3-years of follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking and drinking, there were interaction effects between the FADS1 rs174547 T > C genotype and baseline BMI on the changes (from baseline) in plasma arachidonic acid (AA) levels, in the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/AA ratio, and in ba-PWV (p for interaction = 0...
March 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549916/comprehensive-genetic-study-of-fatty-acids-helps-explain-the-role-of-noncoding-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-snps-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-disease-pathogenesis
#14
Gregor Jezernik, Uroš Potočnik
Fatty acids and their derivatives play an important role in inflammation. Diet and genetics influence fatty acid profiles. Abnormalities of fatty acid profiles have been observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a group of complex diseases defined by chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. IBD associated fatty acid profile abnormalities were observed independently of nutritional status or disease activity, suggesting a common genetic background. However, no study so far has attempted to look for overlap between IBD loci and fatty acid associated loci or investigate the genetics of fatty acid profiles in IBD...
March 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482768/impaired-verbal-episodic-memory-in-healthy-older-adults-is-marked-by-increased-f-2-isoprostanes
#15
Luke A Downey, Tamara Simpson, Jorinde Timmer, Karen Nolidin, Kevin Croft, Keith A Wesnes, Andrew Scholey, Saurenne Deleuil, Con Stough
Age-associated cognitive decline amongst otherwise healthy older individuals is a multifaceted characteristic of ageing. The role of oxidative stress biomarkers has been increasingly examined in the context of pathological aging conditions that affect cognition. Plasma F2 -Isoprostane levels are a reliable index of systemic oxidative stress (specifically lipid peroxidation) and are elevated in dementia patients. Less is known about their role in healthy cognitive ageing. This study evaluated the relationship between F2 -Isoprostanes and cognitive functioning in a cohort of 211 healthy elderly adults (60-75 years: Male; 88, Female; 123)...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482767/pge-2-downregulates-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-via-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-bovine-endometrial-epithelial-cells
#16
Yuan Shen, Bo Liu, Wei Mao, Ruifeng Gao, Shuang Feng, Yinghong Qian, Jindi Wu, Shuangyi Zhang, Long Gao, Changqi Fu, Qianru Li, Yang Deng, Jinshan Cao
Postpartum bacterial infections of the uterus cause endometritis in dairy cows. Inflammatory responses to bacterial infections in the bovine uterus were generated through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that bind to pathogen-associated molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. Among these PRRs, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is primarily responsible for LPS recognition, which triggers inflammatory responses via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB signaling activation, resulting in the expression of inflammatory mediators in mammals such as IL-8 and IL-6...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482766/distinct-effects-of-dietary-ala-epa-and-dha-on-rat-adipose-oxylipins-vary-by-depot-location-and-sex
#17
Anne M Mendonça, Lucien G J Cayer, Samantha D Pauls, Tanja Winter, Shan Leng, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Harold M Aukema
Dietary EPA and DHA given together alter oxylipins in adipose tissue. To compare the separate effects of individual dietary n-3 PUFA on oxylipins in different adipose depots (gonadal, mesenteric, perirenal, subcutaneous) in males and females, rats were provided diets containing higher levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA or DHA. Each n-3 PUFA enhanced its respective oxylipins the most, while effects on other n-3 oxylipins varied. For example: in perirenal and subcutaneous depots, more DHA oxylipins were higher with dietary ALA than with EPA; dietary EPA uniquely decreased 14-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid, in contrast to increasing many other DHA oxylipins...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482765/safety-and-tolerability-of-prescription-omega-3-fatty-acids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Cheng-Ho Chang, Ping-Tao Tseng, Nai-Yu Chen, Pei-Chin Lin, Pao-Yen Lin, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Feng-Yu Kuo, Jenshinn Lin, Ming-Chang Wu, Kuan-Pin Su
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] are widely recommended for health promotion. Over the last decade, prescription omega-3 fatty acid products (RxOME3FAs) have been approved for medical indications. Nonetheless, there is no comprehensive analysis of safety and tolerability of RxOME3FAs so far. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out based on searches in six electronic databases...
February 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413365/claudio-galli-1938-2017
#19
Franca Marangoni, Patrizia Risé, Francesco Visioli, Carlo Agostoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413364/arachidonic-acid-supplementation-modulates-blood-and-skeletal-muscle-lipid-profile-with-no-effect-on-basal-inflammation-in-resistance-exercise-trained-men
#20
James F Markworth, Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Kirsten M M Aasen, Brenan R Durainayagam, Sarah M Mitchell, Alex H C Chan, Andrew J Sinclair, Manohar Garg, David Cameron-Smith
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is the metabolic precursor to the eicosanoid family of lipid mediators. Eicosanoids have potent pro-inflammatory actions, but also act as important autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules in skeletal muscle growth and development. Whether dietary ARA is incorporated into skeletal muscle phospholipids and the resulting impact on intramuscular inflammatory and adaptive processes in-vivo is not known. In the current study, resistance trained men (≥1 year) received dietary supplementation with 1...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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