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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688777/the-niacin-response-biomarker-as-a-schizophrenia-endophenotype-a-status-update
#1
REVIEW
Erik Messamore
Increasingly, it is recognized that the behavioral syndrome of schizophrenia is not a unitary disease with a single underlying cause. Rather, it may have several possible etiologies, and its symptoms may arise from multiple causes. Such heterogeneity could account for some of the difficulties in elucidating its genetics, and may also explain clinical observations of variable medication response in schizophrenia. The ability to categorize schizophrenia using objectively recognizable, physiologically-based subtypes promises to make our understanding of schizophrenia more comprehensive and could provide some clues for more personalized treatment...
June 30, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684067/roe-derived-phospholipid-administration-enhances-lymphatic-docosahexaenoic-acid-containing-phospholipid-absorption-in-unanesthetized-rats
#2
Kaeko Murota, Mika Takagi, Yomi Watanabe, Akira Tokumura, Takeshi Ohkubo
Plasma n-3 fatty acids are important as the supplying pool of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues including the brain, although the relationship between dietary n-3 fatty acids and their molecular species in the plasma are not fully clarified. We investigated the intestinal absorption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived from fish roe phospholipid (Roe-PL) and compared it with fish oil triacylglycerol and free DHA using unanesthetized lymph-cannulated rats. The DHA absorption from intraduodenally administered three samples were not significantly different, whereas Roe-PL administration resulted in a significantly higher level of DHA in the phospholipid fraction than the other two samples administrations...
June 28, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716464/modulating-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-pioglitazone-combination-on-insulin-resistance-through-toll-like-receptor-4-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Salma M Eraky, Noha Abdel-Rahman, Laila A Eissa
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) plays important roles in innate immunity. Changes in the reduction-oxidation balance of tissues can lead to a pro-inflammatory state and insulin resistance. An action thought to be mediated by TLRs. Omega-3 fatty acids and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists as pioglitazone are used for decreasing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of combining omega -3 fatty acid with pioglitazone on type 2 diabetes, and the modifying effects on TLR-4...
June 17, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552466/methylnicotinate-stimulated-prostaglandin-synthesis-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-investigation
#4
Brian M Ross
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness of unclear aetiology. The reduced ability of methylnicotinate to induce a topical vasodilatory response in patients with the disorder is well established. Methylnicotinate causes vasodilation via stimulating the release of prostaglandins (including prostaglandin D2) in the skin which in turn leads to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. To determine whether the abnormality is likely to be due to decreased prostaglandin production, or a decreased effect of prostaglandins upon the vessels, topical methylnicotinate was applied to the forearms of patients with schizophrenia or healthy controls, followed by rating of the resulting erythema...
May 19, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529008/role-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-human-brain-structure-and-function-across-the-lifespan-an-update-on-neuroimaging-findings
#5
REVIEW
Robert K McNamara, Ruth H Asch, Diana M Lindquist, Robert Krikorian
There is a substantial body of evidence from animal studies implicating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neuroinflammatory, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective processes in brain. However, direct evidence for a role of PUFA in human brain structure and function has been lacking. Over the last decade there has been a notable increase in neuroimaging studies that have investigated the impact of PUFA intake and/or blood levels (i.e., biostatus) on brain structure, function, and pathology in human subjects. The majority of these studies specifically evaluated associations between omega-3 PUFA intake and/or biostatus and neuroimaging outcomes using a variety of experimental designs and imaging techniques...
May 9, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735627/inhibition-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activity-by-fatty-acids-and-prostaglandins-a-structure-function-analysis
#6
M Costabile, N K Bassal, J P Gerber, B P Hughes
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) catalyses the first and rate-limiting step in the metabolism of L-tryptophan. Degradation of L-Trp leads to the production of several immunosuppressive metabolites, including N-formyl kynurenine and kynurenine (Kyn). Apart from a normal physiological role, IDO-1 has also been identified to play a crucial role in immune suppression and tumour induced tolerance. Indeed, many primary tumours express high levels of IDO-1 compared to normal cells of the same stroma. IDO-1 is accepted as being an inducible negative regulator of T cell viability, proliferation and activation...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735626/differentiation-of-hmsc-and-hpdlsc-induced-by-pge2-or-bmp-7-in-3d-models
#7
Christina Ern, Tamara Berger, Iris Frasheri, Richard Heym, Reinhard Hickel, Matthias Folwaczny
Regenerative therapies of pathogenic tissue defects are gaining increasing importance in periodontology. Among others, the osteogenic effect of BMP-7 seems to play a major role in the development of teeth and alveolar bone. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSC), as well as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), show the ability to differentiate into various types of tissues. Regarding prostaglandin E2, many studies have confirmed that it is involved in the inflammation associated to periodontitis stimulating osteoclasts, which ultimately leads to resorption of tooth supporting bone...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735625/free-fatty-acid-receptor-ffar-agonists-inhibit-proliferation-of-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#8
Mandi M Hopkins, Kathryn E Meier
Many cellular actions of omega-3 fatty acids are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors, FFA1 and FFA4, free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family members that are activated by these dietary constituents. FFAR agonists inhibit proliferation of human prostate and breast cancer cells. Since omega-3 fatty acids can inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth, the current study tested the potential role of FFARs in the response. OVCAR3 and SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cell lines express mRNA for FFA1; FFA4 mRNA was detected at low levels in SKOV3 but not OVCAR3...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735624/the-effect-of-prostaglandin-e2-receptor-ptger2-activation-on-growth-factor-expression-and-cell-proliferation-in-bovine-endometrial-explants
#9
Shuangyi Zhang, Bo Liu, Wei Mao, Qianru Li, Changqi Fu, Nan Zhang, Ying Zhang, Long Gao, Yuan Shen, Jinshan Cao
The domestic animal endometrium undergoes regular periods of regeneration and degeneration during cycles of oestrus and dioestrus. If blastocyst implantation occurs in the uterus, the endometrium will prepare for pregnancy by changing its pattern of development to build a connection with the embryo to nourish it. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion synchronized with endometrial growth in these processes and could be involved in endometrial growth. One of the PGE2 receptors (PTGER2) is present in endometrium and its increased expression accompanies with endometrial growth in above processes...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735623/genes-involved-in-leukotriene-synthesis-pathway-are-dynamically-regulated-during-lung-development-in-rhesus-monkeys
#10
Wanmin Xia, Liang Xie, Bangrong Cao, Shujun Cheng, Huajing Wan, Hanmin Liu
BACKGROUND: Leukotrienes play critical roles in many inflammatory lung diseases and several antagonists of their receptors have been used in the clinical settings. However, the physiological functions of leukotrienes in lung development are still unclear. METHOD: The expression levels of 34 genes involved in leukotriene synthesis and function pathway in the lungs of Rhesus monkey during different developmental time points were determined on a MiSeq platform and analyzed by the reads per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads (RPKM) method...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651702/effect-of-dha-supplementation-on-oxylipin-levels-in-plasma-and-immune-cell-stimulated-blood
#11
Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Annika I Ostermann, Lisa Stork, Sabrina Fritzsch, Heike Kohrs, Theresa Greupner, Andreas Hahn, Nils Helge Schebb
INTRODUCTION: EPA and DHA cause different physiological effects, which are in many cases mediated via their oxidative metabolites (oxylipins). However, metabolism studies investigating the effect of either EPA or DHA on comprehensive oxylipin patterns are lacking. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The short and long term (1, 3, 6, and 12 week) effect of 1076mg/d DHA (free of EPA) on free (unesterified) oxylipin concentrations in plasma and lipopolysacharid (LPS) stimulated blood of 12 healthy men (mean age 25...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651701/oxidative-stress-reduction-related-to-the-efficacy-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-secondary-outcome-analysis-of-the-offer-randomized-trial
#12
T Pawełczyk, M Grancow-Grabka, E Trafalska, J Szemraj, A Pawełczyk
Intervention studies of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia have not examined changes in oxidative stress. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of a 26-week intervention composed of 2.2g/day of n-3 PUFA was found to reduce symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. The present study is an extension of our previous report, whose secondary aim was to assess the association between the clinical effect of n-3 PUFA and changes in oxidative stress indices...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651700/erythrocyte-omega-3-fatty-acids-are-inversely-associated-with-incident-dementia-secondary-analyses-of-longitudinal-data-from-the-women-s-health-initiative-memory-study-whims
#13
Eric M Ammann, James V Pottala, Jennifer G Robinson, Mark A Espeland, William S Harris
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether red blood cell (RBC) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA+EPA) levels have a protective association with the risk of dementia in older women. METHODS: RBC DHA+EPA levels were assessed at baseline, and cognitive status was evaluated annually in a cohort of 6706 women aged ≥65 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). Cox regression was used to quantify the association between RBC DHA+EPA and the risk of probable dementia, independent of major dementia risk factors...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651699/levels-of-oxylipins-endocannabinoids-and-related-lipids-in-plasma-before-and-after-low-level-exposure-to-acrolein-in-healthy-individuals-and-individuals-with-chemical-intolerance
#14
Anna-Sara Claeson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Jenny Häggström, Christopher J Fowler, Malin L Nording
Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651698/an-association-between-pla2g6-and-pla2g4c-gene-polymorphisms-and-schizophrenia-risk-and-illness-severity-in-a-croatian-population
#15
Sergej Nadalin, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović
We investigated the allele and genotype frequency of the rs4375 and rs1549637 polymorphisms in phospholipase A2 (PLA2)G6 and PLA2G4C genes in 203 patients with schizophrenia and 191 controls in a Croatian population. We hypothesized that these polymorphic variations might influence the age of schizophrenia onset and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale psychopathology (PANSS) data. We detected a significant overrepresentation of the PLA2G6-CT and PLA2G4C-AT genotype combination in patients compared with controls (14...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651697/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-and-arachidonic-acid-ara-balance-in-developmental-outcomes
#16
John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Kathleen M Gustafson, Susan E Carlson
The DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development (DIAMOND) trial represents one of only a few studies of the long-term dose-response effects of LCPUFA-supplemented formula feeding during infancy. The trial contrasted the effects of four formulations: 0.00% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.00% arachidonic acid (ARA), 0.32% DHA/0.64% ARA, 0.64% DHA/0.64% ARA, and 0.96% DHA/0.64% ARA against a control condition (0.00% DHA/0.00% ARA). The results of this trial have been published elsewhere, and show improved cognitive outcomes for infants fed supplemented formulas, but a common finding among many of the outcomes show a reduction of benefit for the highest DHA dose (i...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651696/importance-of-the-regiospecific-distribution-of-long-chain-saturated-fatty-acids-on-gut-comfort-fat-and-calcium-absorption-in-infants
#17
REVIEW
Valérie Petit, Laurence Sandoz, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
Gastrointestinal tolerance and fat and calcium (Ca) absorption are different between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants. Certain components and/or structural particularities in human milk (HM), can contribute to favorable outcomes in BF infants. In HM, the long-chain saturated fatty acid (LCSFA) palmitic acid has a different stereospecific distribution (sn-2 position) compared to most infant formula (IF) (primarily sn-1, 3 positions), which may contribute to unfavorable outcomes. Evidence suggests palmitic acid is important in the formation of stool FA-mineral (or FA-Ca) soaps, associated with harder stools in FF infants...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651695/dietary-salba-salvia-hispanica-l-improves-the-altered-metabolic-fate-of-glucose-and-reduces-increased-collagen-deposition-in-the-heart-of-insulin-resistant-rats
#18
Agustina Creus, Adriana Benmelej, Noelia Villafañe, Yolanda B Lombardo
This study reports the effects of dietary Salba (chia) seeds on the mechanisms underlying impaired glucose metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Wistar rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Afterwards, half the animals continued with the SRD; in the other half's diet chia seeds replaced corn oil (CO) for three months (SRD+chia). In the control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seeds in the SRD restored the activities of key enzymes involved in heart glucose metabolism decreasing fatty acid oxidation...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651694/maternal-plasma-phosphatidylcholine-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-growth-and-adiposity
#19
Jonathan Y Bernard, Mya-Thway Tint, Izzuddin M Aris, Ling-Wei Chen, Phaik Ling Quah, Kok Hian Tan, George Seow-Heong Yeo, Marielle V Fortier, Fabian Yap, Lynette Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey, Philip C Calder, Mary F F Chong, Michael S Kramer, Jérémie Botton, Yung Seng Lee
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for offspring development, but it is less clear whether pregnancy PUFA status affects growth and adiposity. METHODS: In 985 mother-offspring pairs from the ongoing Singaporean GUSTO cohort, we analyzed the associations between offspring growth and adiposity outcomes until age 5 years and five PUFAs of interest, measured in maternal plasma at 26-28 weeks' gestation: linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651693/fatty-acid-and-lipid-profiles-in-primary-human-trophoblast-over-90h-in-culture
#20
Véronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Michael C Rudolph, Thomas Jansson, Theresa L Powell
Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the preferential transport of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to the fetus by the syncytiotrophoblast and the role of cytotrophoblasts in placental lipid metabolism and transport. We studied primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells cultured for 90h to determine the fatty acid and lipid composition of cytotrophoblast (18h culture) and syncytiotrophoblast (90h culture) cells. In cultured PHT total lipid fatty acids were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at 90h compared to 18h in culture including lower levels of palmitic acid (PA, 16:0, -37%), palmitoleic acid (POA, 16:1n-7, -30%), oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9, -31%), LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6, -28%) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, -55%)...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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