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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888333/maternal-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-status-and-pregnancy-complications
#1
REVIEW
Nisha Wadhwani, Vidya Patil, Sadhana Joshi
Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in influencing fetal growth and birth outcome. Any nutritional insult starting several weeks before pregnancy and during critical periods of gestation is known to influence fetal development and increase the risk for diseases during later life. Literature suggests that chronic adult diseases may have their origin during early life - a concept referred to as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) which states that adverse exposures early in life "program" risks for later chronic disorders...
August 15, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778752/dha-epa-and-their-combination-at-various-ratios-differently-modulated-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-neurotoxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#2
Yong-Ping Zhang, Richard E Brown, Ping-Cheng Zhang, Yun-Tao Zhao, Xiang-Hong Ju, Cai Song
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been reported to prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) in both experimental and clinical/epidemiological studies. However, whether DHA and EPA from natural products exert similar or different neuroprotective effects and how these n-3 PUFAs target cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis are unknown. In the present study, we used amyloid-β (Aβ)25-35-treated differentiated SH-SY5Y cells as a model of AD to compare the neuroprotective effect of DHA, EPA and their combination at various ratios...
July 14, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688777/the-niacin-response-biomarker-as-a-schizophrenia-endophenotype-a-status-update
#3
REVIEW
Erik Messamore
Increasingly, it is recognized that the behavioral syndrome of schizophrenia is not a unitary disease with a single underlying cause. Rather, it may have several possible etiologies, and its symptoms may arise from multiple causes. Such heterogeneity could account for some of the difficulties in elucidating its genetics, and may also explain clinical observations of variable medication response in schizophrenia. The ability to categorize schizophrenia using objectively recognizable, physiologically-based subtypes promises to make our understanding of schizophrenia more comprehensive and could provide some clues for more personalized treatment...
June 30, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684067/roe-derived-phospholipid-administration-enhances-lymphatic-docosahexaenoic-acid-containing-phospholipid-absorption-in-unanesthetized-rats
#4
Kaeko Murota, Mika Takagi, Yomi Watanabe, Akira Tokumura, Takeshi Ohkubo
Plasma n-3 fatty acids are important as the supplying pool of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues including the brain, although the relationship between dietary n-3 fatty acids and their molecular species in the plasma are not fully clarified. We investigated the intestinal absorption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived from fish roe phospholipid (Roe-PL) and compared it with fish oil triacylglycerol and free DHA using unanesthetized lymph-cannulated rats. The DHA absorption from intraduodenally administered three samples were not significantly different, whereas Roe-PL administration resulted in a significantly higher level of DHA in the phospholipid fraction than the other two samples administrations...
June 28, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870372/dha-and-epa-in-red-blood-cell-membranes-are-associated-with-dietary-intakes-of-omega-3-rich-fish-in-healthy-children
#5
Colleen A Parks, Neil R Brett, Sherry Agellon, Paula Lavery, Catherine A Vanstone, Jonathon L Maguire, Frank Rauch, Hope A Weiler
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are important in child development. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the associations between dietary intakes of n-3 LCPUFA and red blood cell (RBC) n-3 LCPUFA in young children. Healthy children, (2-8y) underwent RBC fatty acid profiling. Dietary intakes were parent-reported over 6 mo using three 24h dietary intake assessments and three 30 d food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Participants (n = 49, 5.6 ± 1.9y), were 59% male, and had a body mass index (BMI) z-score of 0...
September 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870371/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-a-fundamental-fatty-acid-for-the-brain-new-dietary-sources
#6
REVIEW
Francisca Echeverría, Rodrigo Valenzuela, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Alfonso Valenzuela
Docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6n-3, DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of marine origin fundamental for the formation and function of the nervous system, particularly the brain and the retina of humans. It has been proposed a remarkable role of DHA during human evolution, mainly on the growth and development of the brain. Currently, DHA is considered a critical nutrient during pregnancy and breastfeeding due their active participation in the development of the nervous system in early life. DHA and specifically one of its derivatives known as neuroprotectin D-1 (NPD-1), has neuroprotective properties against brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases and injury caused after brain ischemia-reperfusion episodes...
September 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838557/fads3-modulates-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-liver-and-brain
#7
Ji Yao Zhang, Xia Qin, Allison Liang, Ellen Kim, Peter Lawrence, Woo Jung Park, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
Fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) is the third member of the FADS gene cluster. FADS1 and FADS2 code for enzymes required for highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) biosynthesis, but FADS3 function remains elusive. We generated the first Fads3 knockout (KO) mouse with an aim to characterize its metabolic phenotype and clues to in vivo function. All mice (wild type (WT) and KO) were fed facility rodent chow devoid of HUFA. No differences in overt phenotypes (survival, fertility, growth rate) were observed. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) levels in the brain of postnatal day 1 (P1) KO mice were lower than the WT (P < 0...
August 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838556/eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-vs-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-effects-in-epididymal-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice-fed-a-high-fructose-diet
#8
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Larissa Pereira Santos, Daiana Guimarães Lopes Machado, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to be beneficial for many diseases, including those associated with the metabolic syndrome (e.g. insulin resistance and hypertension). Nevertheless, not only their actions are not entirely understood, but also their only effects were not yet elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of EPA and DHA, alone or in combination, on the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in mice fed a high-fructose diet...
August 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838555/distinct-effects-of-dietary-flax-compared-to-fish-oil-soy-protein-compared-to-casein-and-sex-on-the-renal-oxylipin-profile-in-models-of-polycystic-kidney-disease
#9
Jessay G Devassy, Tamio Yamaguchi, Md Monirujjaman, Melissa Gabbs, Amir Ravandi, Jing Zhou, Harold M Aukema
Oxylipins are bioactive lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are important regulators of kidney function and health. Targeted lipidomic analyses of renal oxylipins from four studies of rodent models of renal disease were performed to investigate the differential effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex. Across all studies, dietary fish oil was more effective than flax oil in reducing n-6 PUFA derived oxylipins and elevating eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived oxylipins, whereas dietary flax oil resulted in higher α-linolenic acid (ALA) oxylipins...
August 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735627/inhibition-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activity-by-fatty-acids-and-prostaglandins-a-structure-function-analysis
#10
M Costabile, N K Bassal, J P Gerber, B P Hughes
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) catalyses the first and rate-limiting step in the metabolism of L-tryptophan. Degradation of L-Trp leads to the production of several immunosuppressive metabolites, including N-formyl kynurenine and kynurenine (Kyn). Apart from a normal physiological role, IDO-1 has also been identified to play a crucial role in immune suppression and tumour induced tolerance. Indeed, many primary tumours express high levels of IDO-1 compared to normal cells of the same stroma. IDO-1 is accepted as being an inducible negative regulator of T cell viability, proliferation and activation...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735626/differentiation-of-hmsc-and-hpdlsc-induced-by-pge2-or-bmp-7-in-3d-models
#11
Christina Ern, Tamara Berger, Iris Frasheri, Richard Heym, Reinhard Hickel, Matthias Folwaczny
Regenerative therapies of pathogenic tissue defects are gaining increasing importance in periodontology. Among others, the osteogenic effect of BMP-7 seems to play a major role in the development of teeth and alveolar bone. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSC), as well as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), show the ability to differentiate into various types of tissues. Regarding prostaglandin E2, many studies have confirmed that it is involved in the inflammation associated to periodontitis stimulating osteoclasts, which ultimately leads to resorption of tooth supporting bone...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735625/free-fatty-acid-receptor-ffar-agonists-inhibit-proliferation-of-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#12
Mandi M Hopkins, Kathryn E Meier
Many cellular actions of omega-3 fatty acids are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors, FFA1 and FFA4, free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family members that are activated by these dietary constituents. FFAR agonists inhibit proliferation of human prostate and breast cancer cells. Since omega-3 fatty acids can inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth, the current study tested the potential role of FFARs in the response. OVCAR3 and SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cell lines express mRNA for FFA1; FFA4 mRNA was detected at low levels in SKOV3 but not OVCAR3...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735624/the-effect-of-prostaglandin-e2-receptor-ptger2-activation-on-growth-factor-expression-and-cell-proliferation-in-bovine-endometrial-explants
#13
Shuangyi Zhang, Bo Liu, Wei Mao, Qianru Li, Changqi Fu, Nan Zhang, Ying Zhang, Long Gao, Yuan Shen, Jinshan Cao
The domestic animal endometrium undergoes regular periods of regeneration and degeneration during cycles of oestrus and dioestrus. If blastocyst implantation occurs in the uterus, the endometrium will prepare for pregnancy by changing its pattern of development to build a connection with the embryo to nourish it. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion synchronized with endometrial growth in these processes and could be involved in endometrial growth. One of the PGE2 receptors (PTGER2) is present in endometrium and its increased expression accompanies with endometrial growth in above processes...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735623/genes-involved-in-leukotriene-synthesis-pathway-are-dynamically-regulated-during-lung-development-in-rhesus-monkeys
#14
Wanmin Xia, Liang Xie, Bangrong Cao, Shujun Cheng, Huajing Wan, Hanmin Liu
BACKGROUND: Leukotrienes play critical roles in many inflammatory lung diseases and several antagonists of their receptors have been used in the clinical settings. However, the physiological functions of leukotrienes in lung development are still unclear. METHOD: The expression levels of 34 genes involved in leukotriene synthesis and function pathway in the lungs of Rhesus monkey during different developmental time points were determined on a MiSeq platform and analyzed by the reads per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads (RPKM) method...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716464/modulating-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-pioglitazone-combination-on-insulin-resistance-through-toll-like-receptor-4-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Salma M Eraky, Noha Abdel-Rahman, Laila A Eissa
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) plays important roles in innate immunity. Changes in the reduction-oxidation balance of tissues can lead to a pro-inflammatory state and insulin resistance. An action thought to be mediated by TLRs. Omega-3 fatty acids and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists as pioglitazone are used for decreasing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of combining omega -3 fatty acid with pioglitazone on type 2 diabetes, and the modifying effects on TLR-4...
June 17, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651702/effect-of-dha-supplementation-on-oxylipin-levels-in-plasma-and-immune-cell-stimulated-blood
#16
Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Annika I Ostermann, Lisa Stork, Sabrina Fritzsch, Heike Kohrs, Theresa Greupner, Andreas Hahn, Nils Helge Schebb
INTRODUCTION: EPA and DHA cause different physiological effects, which are in many cases mediated via their oxidative metabolites (oxylipins). However, metabolism studies investigating the effect of either EPA or DHA on comprehensive oxylipin patterns are lacking. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The short and long term (1, 3, 6, and 12 week) effect of 1076mg/d DHA (free of EPA) on free (unesterified) oxylipin concentrations in plasma and lipopolysacharid (LPS) stimulated blood of 12 healthy men (mean age 25...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651701/oxidative-stress-reduction-related-to-the-efficacy-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-secondary-outcome-analysis-of-the-offer-randomized-trial
#17
T Pawełczyk, M Grancow-Grabka, E Trafalska, J Szemraj, A Pawełczyk
Intervention studies of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia have not examined changes in oxidative stress. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of a 26-week intervention composed of 2.2g/day of n-3 PUFA was found to reduce symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. The present study is an extension of our previous report, whose secondary aim was to assess the association between the clinical effect of n-3 PUFA and changes in oxidative stress indices...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651700/erythrocyte-omega-3-fatty-acids-are-inversely-associated-with-incident-dementia-secondary-analyses-of-longitudinal-data-from-the-women-s-health-initiative-memory-study-whims
#18
Eric M Ammann, James V Pottala, Jennifer G Robinson, Mark A Espeland, William S Harris
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether red blood cell (RBC) docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA+EPA) levels have a protective association with the risk of dementia in older women. METHODS: RBC DHA+EPA levels were assessed at baseline, and cognitive status was evaluated annually in a cohort of 6706 women aged ≥65 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). Cox regression was used to quantify the association between RBC DHA+EPA and the risk of probable dementia, independent of major dementia risk factors...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651699/levels-of-oxylipins-endocannabinoids-and-related-lipids-in-plasma-before-and-after-low-level-exposure-to-acrolein-in-healthy-individuals-and-individuals-with-chemical-intolerance
#19
Anna-Sara Claeson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Jenny Häggström, Christopher J Fowler, Malin L Nording
Oxylipins and endocannabinoids play important biological roles, including effects upon inflammation. It is not known whether the circulating levels of these lipids are affected by inhalation of the environmental pollutant acrolein. In the present study, we have investigated the consequences of low-level exposure to acrolein on oxylipin, endocannabinoid and related lipid levels in the plasma of healthy individuals and individuals with chemical intolerance (CI), an affliction with a suggested inflammatory origin...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651698/an-association-between-pla2g6-and-pla2g4c-gene-polymorphisms-and-schizophrenia-risk-and-illness-severity-in-a-croatian-population
#20
Sergej Nadalin, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović
We investigated the allele and genotype frequency of the rs4375 and rs1549637 polymorphisms in phospholipase A2 (PLA2)G6 and PLA2G4C genes in 203 patients with schizophrenia and 191 controls in a Croatian population. We hypothesized that these polymorphic variations might influence the age of schizophrenia onset and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale psychopathology (PANSS) data. We detected a significant overrepresentation of the PLA2G6-CT and PLA2G4C-AT genotype combination in patients compared with controls (14...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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