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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111383/disturbed-glutathione-antioxidative-defense-is-associated-with-structural-brain-changes-in-neuroleptic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#1
K Langbein, J Hesse, A Gussew, B Milleit, S Lavoie, G P Amminger, C Gaser, G Wagner, J R Reichenbach, U-C Hipler, D Winter, S Smesny
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense are reported in schizophrenia and are thought to be associated with disturbed neurodevelopment, brain structural alterations, glutamatergic imbalance, negative symptomatology, and cognitive impairment. To test some of these assumptions we investigated the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system (AODS) and brain structural abnormalities in drug-naïve individuals with first acute episode of psychosis (FEP). METHOD: The study involved 27 drug-naïve FEP patients and 31 healthy controls (HC)...
October 18, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079039/neurocognitive-effects-of-an-omega-3-fatty-acid-and-vitamins-e-c-in-schizophrenia-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
H Bentsen, N I Landrø
There is need for more efficient treatment of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In this 16 weeks randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we examined neurocognitive effects of adding ethyl-eicosapentaenoate 2g/day and/or vitamins E 364mg/day + C 1000mg/day to antipsychotics in 53 patients aged 18-39 years with acute schizophrenia. For the sake of validating neurocognitive tests, healthy subjects, not taking trial drugs, were also included in the study. Ethyl-EPA given alone to patients with low baseline RBC polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and Vitamins E+C given alone to high PUFA patients, impaired sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test, CPT-IP d prime score), standardised effect sizes d = 0...
October 16, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113747/differential-effects-of-epa-dpa-and-dha-on-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
Xiao-Fei Guo, Andrew J Sinclair, Gunveen Kaur, Duo Li
The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on lipid metabolism in 4 month-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. The high-fat fed mice showed evidence of fatty liver, obesity and insulin resistance after being on the high-fat diet for 6 weeks compared with the control low-fat diet fed mice. Supplementation of the high-fat diet with either EPA, DPA or DHA prevented the fatty liver, prevented high serum cholesterol and serum glucose and prevented high liver cholesterol levels...
September 22, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032859/the-effect-of-maternal-dha-supplementation-on-body-fat-mass-in-children-at-7-years-follow-up-of-the-domino-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
K Wood, E Mantzioris, B Lingwood, J Couper, M Makrides, R A Gibson, B S Muhlhausler
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have suggested that an increased supply of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during the perinatal period can prevent later excess body fat mass. However, previous human studies have produced inconsistent findings, and few have assessed potential effects beyond 6 years of age. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplementing women in the second half of pregnancy with omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as DHA, on the percentage body fat of children at 7 years of age, as assessed by two methods: air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS)...
September 22, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156157/continuous-gradient-temperature-raman-spectroscopy-from-100-to-40%C3%A2-c-yields-new-molecular-models-of-arachidonic-acid-and-2-arachidonoyl-1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
#5
C Leigh Broadhurst, Walter F Schmidt, Julie K Nguyen, Jianwei Qin, Kuanglin Chao, Moon S Kim
Despite its biochemical importance, a complete Raman analysis of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) has never been reported. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we utilize the GTRS technique for AA and 1-18:0, 2-20:4n-6 phosphatidyl choline (AAPC) from cryogenic to mammalian body temperatures...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156156/effects-of-arachidonic-acid-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-brain-development-using-artificial-rearing-of-delta-6-desaturase-knockout-mice
#6
Akiko Harauma, Erisa Hatanaka, Hidemi Yasuda, Manabu T Nakamura, Norman Salem, Toru Moriguchi
This study focused on the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during the lactation period of delta-6-desaturase knockout (D6D-KO) mice using an artificial rearing method. Newborn pups of D6D-KO male mice were separated from their dams within 48h and were fed artificial milk. Six formulations of milk were used: Control (Cont) milk (3.9% α-linolenic acid and 18% linoleic acid), + 1.3% arachidonic acid (ARA), + 1.2% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), + 1.3% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), + 1.1% ARA + 1.3% DHA, and + 1...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156155/leukotriene-b4-indicates-lung-injury-and-on-going-inflammatory-changes-after-severe-trauma-in-a-porcine-long-term-model
#7
Philipp Störmann, Birgit Auner, Lukas Schimunek, Rafael Serve, Klemens Horst, Tim-P Simon, Roman Pfeifer, Kernt Köhler, Frank Hildebrand, Sebastian Wutzler, Hans-Christoph Pape, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
BACKGROUND: Recognizing patients at risk for pulmonary complications (PC) is of high clinical relevance. Migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to inflammatory sites plays an important role in PC, and is tightly regulated by specific chemokines including interleukin (IL)-8 and other mediators such as leukotriene (LT)B4. Previously, we have reported that LTB4 indicated early patients at risk for PC after trauma. Here, the relevance of LTB4 to indicating lung integrity in a newly established long-term porcine severe trauma model (polytrauma, PT) was explored...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156154/coconut-phytocompounds-inhibits-polyol-pathway-enzymes-implication-in-prevention-of-microvascular-diabetic-complications
#8
Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, R Muthangaparambil Shylaja, Sangeetha P Davis, Priyanga James, Ravisankar Valsalan, Thekkekara Devassy Babu, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Coconut oil (CO), the primary choice of cooking purposes in the south Asian countries, is rich in medium chain saturated fatty acids, especially lauric acid (50-52%). The oil has high medicinal use in Ayurvedic system and known to contain polyphenolic antioxidants. Studies have reported that CO improves insulin sensitivity and shows hypoglycemic effect. However, there is no information regarding its effect on chronic diabetic complications including retinopathy and nephropathy is available. The secondary diabetic complications are mediated by the activation of polyol pathway, where aldose reductase (AR) plays crucial role...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156153/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-is-not-associated-with-oxidative-stress-assessed-using-plasma-f2-isoprostanes-and-isofurans
#9
Tomas Corcoran, Sonya Ting, Emilie Mas, Michael Phillips, Edmond O'Loughlin, Anne Barden, Trevor A Mori
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is increasingly used in medical practice as a means of enhancing the formation of collagen matrix and angiogenesis, thus promoting healing in wounds and necrotic tissue. However, there are concerns that oxygen can also associate with increased production of oxygen free radicals and oxidative stress. F2-Isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) formed by non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) are reliable measures for assessing oxidative stress in vivo...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156152/limited-effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-the-quality-of-life-in-survivors-of-traumatic-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Hiroko Noguchi, Daisuke Nishi, Kenta Matsumura, Kei Hamazaki, Tomohito Hamazaki, Yutaka J Matsuoka
Empirical evidence is divided on whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are associated with quality of life (QOL). This study investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on QOL in survivors of traumatic injury. In this secondary analysis of a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 110 trauma patients (82% men; mean age, 39.6 years) in an intensive care unit. Fifty-three received DHA-rich supplements and 57 received placebo for 12 weeks. We used the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess QOL at the end of intervention...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031403/the-role-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-maternal-fetal-health
#11
REVIEW
E Elliott, C K Hanson, A L Anderson-Berry, T M Nordgren
Infants developing in a pro-inflammatory intrauterine environment have a significant risk for severe complications after birth. It has been shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation, and also reduce early preterm births and decrease risk of infant admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. However, the mechanism for omega-3 fatty acids exerting these effects was previously unknown. Recent evidence has shown that downstream products of polyunsaturated fatty acids called specialized pro-resolving mediators may mediate inflammatory physiology, thus playing an important role in maternal-fetal health...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031402/associations-between-maternal-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-concentrations-and-child-cognition-at-7-years-of-age-the-mefab-birth-cohort
#12
E M Brouwer-Brolsma, O van de Rest, R Godschalk, M P A Zeegers, M Gielen, R H M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: Concentrations of the fish fatty acids EPA and DHA are low among Dutch women of reproductive age. As the human brain incorporates high concentrations of these fatty acids in utero, particularly during third trimester of gestation, these low EPA and DHA concentrations may have adverse consequences for fetal brain development and functioning. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using longitudinal observational data of 292 mother-child pairs participating in the MEFAB cohort...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031401/screening-of-some-lesser-known-tree-borne-oilseed-plants-from-north-east-india-for-their-oil-content-and-major-fatty-acid-components
#13
Bithika Chaliha, Lipika Lahkar, Anjali Doley, Rumi Kotoky, Siddhartha P Saikia, Subhan C Nath
Forest of North-East India is rich in a variety of tree borne oilseeds and there were no serious efforts to exploit the less known oilseeds of the forest origin. Considering the vast plant wealth and with an objective to explore these untapped potentialities of oilseed resources of NE India, a research program was undertaken. The present communication is based on the investigation of seeds of 14 lesser known plant species for fats and oils. The screened plant species exhibited oil yield ranging from 4.71% to 48...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031400/neither-linoleic-acid-nor-arachidonic-acid-promote-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-fads2-mice-fed-low-fat-diets
#14
Katherine Suitor, George W Payne, Ousseynou Sarr, Salma Abdelmagid, Manabu T Nakamura, David Wl Ma, David M Mutch
Dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are widely perceived to promote inflammation and contribute to the development of chronic diseases. This dogma has been recently questioned due to evidence that n-6 PUFA, specifically linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), do not appear to activate inflammatory signalling pathways when consumed in moderate amounts. However, delineating the independent roles of different dietary n-6 PUFA in vivo is challenging because LA is continuously converted into AA in a pathway regulated by the fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2) gene...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031399/ozone-exposure-effect-on-systemic-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-in-rat-plasma-and-urine-may-not-reveal-pulmonary-damage-through-inflammation
#15
Samar Basu, Maria B Kadiiska
The acute ozone induced lung injury model has been widely used to explore injury and repair processes induced by oxidant overload. The current study evaluated acute ozone exposure effects on prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in male Fischer rat plasma and urine with the hypothesis that ozone may induce an inflammatory response in the body that can be measured by the induction of PGF2α. That might then lead to the identification of potential marker for acute lung injury through systemic inflammation. The time and dose-dependent effects of ozone exposure on the plasma and urinary levels of a major PGF2α metabolite15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α were determined using a radioimmunoassay...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031398/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-levels-at-birth-and-child-to-adult-growth-results-from-the-mefab-cohort
#16
N Stratakis, M Gielen, K Margetaki, R W Godschalk, I van der Wurff, S Rouschop, A Ibrahim, E Antoniou, L Chatzi, R H M de Groot, M P Zeegers
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may influence childhood growth. However, available evidence mostly derived from short-term studies is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether fetal PUFA exposure is associated with height and body mass index (BMI), a common measure of adiposity, from 6 months to 23 years of age. METHODS: In the MEFAB cohort, we assessed cord blood phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels, reflecting fetal exposure in late pregnancy...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031397/modulation-of-the-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-by-ruminant-trans-fatty-acids-and-dairy-proteins-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-huvec
#17
Marine S Da Silva, Jean-François Bilodeau, Jessica Larose, Karine Greffard, Pierre Julien, Olivier Barbier, Iwona Rudkowska
This study aimed to determine whether dairy macronutrients alter markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Human endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with ruminant trans fatty acids (rTFA), either trans-vaccenic acid (tVA) or trans-palmitoleic acid (tPA), whey protein hydrolysate, leucine or combinations of rTFA and dairy protein compounds. Industrial TFA elaidic acid (EA) was also investigated and compared with rTFA. Inflammatory prostaglandins (PG) and F2-isoprostanes (F2-isoP) isomers, markers of oxidative stress, were assessed in cell supernatants by LC-MS/MS...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031396/supplementing-dams-with-both-arachidonic-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-has-beneficial-effects-on-growth-and-immune-development
#18
K B Hadley, F Guimont-Desrochers, E Bailey-Hall, N Salem, K Yurko-Mauro, C J Field
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAS) modulate immune cells in vitro and in vivo. This study investigated the effects of enriching the maternal diet with the n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs, arachidonic (20:4n-6, 0.6%wt ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, 0.32%wt DHA), or 1:1 and 2:1 ratios (ARA: DHA) on total lipids in milk, total lipids, and immunophenotypes in plasma, lymph nodes, and spleen from isolated immune cells from 28d old pups. From day 15 of gestation to day 3 pp, Sprague-Dawley dams were fed a commercial chow...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031395/habitual-dietary-intake-of-fatty-acids-are-associated-with-leptin-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-patients-without-diabetes
#19
Hosein Rostami, Mohammad Samadi, Emad Yuzbashian, Maryam Zarkesh, Golaleh Asghari, Mehdi Hedayati, Afsoon Daneshafrooz, Parvin Mirmiran, Alireza Khalaj
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031394/the-role-of-cysteinyl-leukotrienes-and-their-receptors-in-refractory-nasal-polyps
#20
Jintao Du, Luo Ba, Jiao Zhou, Lingyu Yu, Ruowu Liu, Jie Zhang, Feng Liu, Junming Xian, Shixi Liu, Yafeng Liu
Leukotriene signaling is essential in many diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Nevertheless, the expression of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and its receptors (CYSLTRs) in different types of nasal polyps (NPs), and the role of their antagonist in the treatment of refractory chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are not well understood. The following study investigates the expression of CysLTs and CYSLTRs in different types of NPs, as well as the role of leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) in refractory NPs...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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