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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552466/methylnicotinate-stimulated-prostaglandin-synthesis-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-investigation
#1
Brian M Ross
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness of unclear aetiology. The reduced ability of methylnicotinate to induce a topical vasodilatory response in patients with the disorder is well established. Methylnicotinate causes vasodilation via stimulating the release of prostaglandins (including prostaglandin D2) in the skin which in turn leads to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. To determine whether the abnormality is likely to be due to decreased prostaglandin production, or a decreased effect of prostaglandins upon the vessels, topical methylnicotinate was applied to the forearms of patients with schizophrenia or healthy controls, followed by rating of the resulting erythema...
May 19, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529008/role-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-human-brain-structure-and-function-across-the-lifespan-an-update-on-neuroimaging-findings
#2
REVIEW
Robert K McNamara, Ruth H Asch, Diana M Lindquist, Robert Krikorian
There is a substantial body of evidence from animal studies implicating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neuroinflammatory, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective processes in brain. However, direct evidence for a role of PUFA in human brain structure and function has been lacking. Over the last decade there has been a notable increase in neuroimaging studies that have investigated the impact of PUFA intake and/or blood levels (i.e., biostatus) on brain structure, function, and pathology in human subjects. The majority of these studies specifically evaluated associations between omega-3 PUFA intake and/or biostatus and neuroimaging outcomes using a variety of experimental designs and imaging techniques...
May 9, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457600/fatty-acid-transporting-proteins-roles-in-brain-development-aging-and-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Wenting Zhang, Ruiying Chen, Tuo Yang, Na Xu, Jun Chen, Yanqin Gao, R Anne Stetler
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are required for the brain development and significantly impact aging and stroke. Due to the hydrophobicity of fatty acids, fatty acids transportation related proteins that include fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), long chain acyl-coA synthase (ACS), fatty acid transportation proteins (FATPs), fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and newly reported major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein (Mfsd2a) play critical roles in the uptake of various fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids...
April 21, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408067/polyphenol-supplementation-inhibits-physiological-increase-of-prostaglandin-e2-during-reproductive-period-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
A M Zilio, P Zielinsky, I Vian, K Lampert, D Raupp, C Weschenfelder, C Brum, A Arnt, A Piccoli, L H Nicoloso, M I Schaun, M Markoski
Anti-inflammatory property of polyphenols and their effect on the metabolism of prostaglandins is not established in healthy humans. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of polyphenol supplementation in plasma levels of prostaglandin E2 and other markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in women using contraceptives. In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, women aged 25-35 years were selected. Participants received capsules containing polyphenols or placebo, to be consumed for fifteen days. From 40 women randomized, 28 completed the study...
April 5, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515020/supplementation-with-high-dose-docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-the-omega-3-index-more-than-high-dose-eicosapentaenoic-acid
#5
Janie Allaire, William S Harris, Cécile Vors, Amélie Charest, Johanne Marin, Kristina Harris Jackson, André Tchernof, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515019/serum-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolites-as-useful-tool-for-screening-potential-biomarker-of-colorectal-cancer
#6
Li-Jian Zhang, Bin Chen, Jun-Jie Zhang, Jian Li, Qingjing Yang, Qi-Sheng Zhong, Song Zhan, Huwei Liu, Chun Cai
The biomarker identification of cancer is benefit for early detection and less invasion. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolite as inflammatory mediators can affect progression and treatment of cancer. In this work, the serum was collected from colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers, and then we tested the change of serum PUFA metabolites in both of them by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Of the 158 PUFA and their metabolites, we found that abnormal change of 2, 3-dinor-8-iso-PGF2α, 19-HETE and 12-keto-LTB4 from arachidonic acid were observed in colorectal cancer patients...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515018/plasma-levels-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-related-n-acylethanolamines-and-linoleic-acid-derived-oxylipins-in-patients-with-migraine
#7
Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Kristina Goldin, Sanaz A Hashemian, Agneta Lindberg, Monica Persson, Malin L Nording, Katarina Laurell, Christopher J Fowler
There is evidence that patients with migraine have deficient levels of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide (AEA). It is not known, however, if this is a localised or generalised phenomenon. In the present study, levels of AEA, related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and linoleic acid-derived oxylipins have been measured in the blood of 26 healthy women and 38 women with migraine (26 with aura, 12 without aura) who were matched for age and body-mass index. Blood samples were taken on two occasions: the first sample near the start of the menstrual cycle (when present) and the second approximately fourteen days later...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515017/fatty-acid-binding-protein3-expression-in-bewo-cells-a-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-cell-line
#8
Claire Leroy, Kari Anne Risan Tobin, Sanjay Basak, Anne Cathrine Staff, Asim K Duttaroy
Cellular uptake of long chain fatty acids in human placental trophoblasts is thought to be mediated by several membrane- and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP). FABP3 was shown to be involved in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) uptake in human trophoblastic choriocarcinoma cells, BeWo as the uptake of arachidonic acid,20:4n-6 (ARA) was decreased in FABP3-knockdown BeWo cells. However, the regulation of expression of FABP3 in these cells is not yet well known. The aim of the present study was to examine the FABP3 expression by LCPUFAs, insulin and LXR agonists in BeWo cells...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410669/curcumin-and-linseed-oil-co-delivered-in-phospholipid-nanoemulsions-enhances-the-levels-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-serum-and-tissue-lipids-of-rats
#9
D Sugasini, B R Lokesh
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) primarily found in marine fishes. The diets of vegetarian population do not contain preformed DHA, but they can derive it from shorter chain α-linolenic acid (ALA) found in plant oils. However, the conversion efficiency of ALA to DHA is minimal in human adults. This may cause insufficiency of DHA in the vegetarian population. Curcumin, diferuloyl methane found in the spice turmeric, has the potential to increase the formation of DHA from ALA by activating the enzymes FADS2 and elongase 2...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410668/lipid-correlates-of-antidepressant-response-to-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-a-pilot-study
#10
Licinia Ganança, Hanga C Galfalvy, Maria A Oquendo, Adrienne Hezghia, Thomas B Cooper, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are seen in major depression. We examined effects of six weeks of fish oil supplementation on clinical characteristics in 16 patients with symptomatic major depressive disorder, and tested plasma phospholipid levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as correlates of clinical response. Depression symptoms improved after supplementation (p=0.007). The reduction in depression severity was not predicted by baseline PUFA levels but did exhibit a relationship with endpoint PUFAs, correlating negatively with DHA as a percentage of plasma phospholipids (DHA%; R(2)=0...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410667/comparative-effects-of-high-oleic-acid-vs-high-mixed-saturated-fatty-acid-obesogenic-diets-upon-pufa-metabolism-in-mice
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Matthew J Picklo, Joseph Idso, Drew R Seeger, Harold M Aukema, Eric J Murphy
Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets influences physiologic outcomes. There are scant data regarding how the content of non-essential fatty acids like monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) impact the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this work, we tested the hypothesis that obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9) reduce polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels vs an obesogenic diet enriched in SFAs. Adult male mice were fed for eight weeks either (1) a control 16% fat energy (en) diet with 5...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410666/a-new-cyslt1-and-cyslt2-receptors-mediated-anaphylaxis-guinea-pig-model
#12
Tomohiko Sekioka, Michiaki Kadode, Noriko Osakada, Manabu Fujita, Naoya Matsumura, Yoshiyuki Yamaura, Shinji Nakade, Takeshi Nabe, Kazuhito Kawabata
Although the effectiveness of CysLT1 receptor antagonists on asthma has been clinically established, the effects of CysLT2 receptor antagonists are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to develop a new CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors-mediated anaphylaxis guinea pig model using S-hexyl GSH, a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP) inhibitor, to suppress conversion of LTC4 to LTD4. Actively sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with OVA in the absence or presence of S-hexyl GSH, and survival rate following anaphylactic response was monitored...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410665/impact-of-dietary-precursor-ala-versus-preformed-dha-on-fatty-acid-profiles-of-eggs-liver-and-adipose-tissue-and-expression-of-genes-associated-with-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-laying-hens
#13
M Neijat, P Eck, J D House
Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314621/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-an-essential-nutrient-and-a-nutraceutical-for-brain-health-and-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Grace Y Sun, Agnes Simonyi, Kevin L Fritsche, Dennis Y Chuang, Mark Hannink, Zezong Gu, C Michael Greenlief, Jeffrey K Yao, James C Lee, David Q Beversdorf
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched in phospholipids in the brain and retina, is known to play multi-functional roles in brain health and diseases. While arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), DHA is linked to action of the Ca(2+)-independent iPLA2. DHA undergoes enzymatic conversion by 15-lipoxygenase (Alox 15) to form oxylipins including resolvins and neuroprotectins, which are powerful lipid mediators. DHA can also undergo non-enzymatic conversion by reacting with oxygen free radicals (ROS), which cause the production of 4-hydoxyhexenal (4-HHE), an aldehyde derivative which can form adducts with DNA, proteins and lipids...
March 10, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292553/low-dietary-n-6-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-ratio-prevents-induced-oral-carcinoma-in-a-hamster-pouch-model
#15
Hsiu-Chuan Lee, An Liang, Yun-Ho Lin, Yu-Ru Guo, Shih-Yi Huang
Dietary fatty acid patterns have been linked to the prevalence of certain cancers, however in oral carcinoma is limited. Thus, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of various dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]-anthracene (DMBA)- and betel quid extract (BQE) -induced hamster oral cancer model. Thirty 6-week-old adult male hamsters were housed and divided into normal, low, and high dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid groups under DMBA + BQE treatment for 16 weeks. The right buccal pouch of all hamsters were evaluated by tumor number, volume, burden and selected inflammatory parameters...
March 9, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390839/validation-of-an-equation-predicting-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acid-hufa-compositions-of-human-blood-fractions-from-dietary-intakes-of-both-hufas-and-their-precursors
#16
Sarah E Strandjord, Bill Lands, Joseph R Hibbeln
Proportions of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) in 20- and 22-carbon highly unsaturated fatty acids with 3 or more double bonds (HUFA) accumulated in tissue HUFA (e.g., the %n-6 in HUFA) are biomarkers reflecting intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. An empirical equation, referred to here as the Lands' Equation, was developed previously to use dietary intakes of n-6 and n-3 HUFA and their 18-carbon precursors to estimate the %n-6 in HUFA of humans. From the PubMed database, we identified clinical trials reporting (a) dietary intake of at least linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), and (b) the amounts of at least arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in lipids of plasma, serum, or red blood cell...
March 8, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288702/the-oil-rich-alga-schizochytrium-sp-as-a-dietary-source-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-improves-shape-discrimination-learning-associated-with-visual-processing-in-a-canine-model-of-senescence
#17
K B Hadley, J Bauer, N W Milgram
Whole cell Schizochytrium sp. is a rich source of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an important nutrient for brain health. Aged beagle dogs experienced on a visuospatial task of working memory, variable-delay delayed-non-matching-to-position were used to assess efficacy of DHA-rich microalgae based upon DHA wt% of total phospholipids and 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in plasma, and performance on cognitive assessments of visual object discrimination, learning, and memory consolidation after 25 weeks on fortified diet...
March 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288701/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-and-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-mechanisms-animal-models-and-potential-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Lara T Meital, Shaun L Sandow, Philip C Calder, Fraser D Russell
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with macrophage accumulation in the adventitia, oxidative stress, medial elastin degradation and aortic dilation. Progression of AAA is linked to increased risk of rupture, which carries a high mortality rate. Drug therapies trialled to date lack efficacy and although aneurysm repair is available for patients with large aneurysm, peri-surgical morbidity and mortality have been widely reported. Recent studies using rodent models of AAA suggest that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) and their metabolites can moderate inflammation and oxidative stress perpetuated by infiltrating macrophages and intervene in the destruction of medial elastin...
March 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237088/low-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acid-status-in-middle-aged-women
#19
Sandra Gellert, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn
INTRODUCTION: Long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and cognitive decline. Several studies have shown that the LC n-3 PUFA status in women in western countries is low. The aim of this study was to assess the LC n-3 PUFA status in middle-aged German women and to identify variables that might affect the status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the nationwide and cross-sectional German VitaMinFemin study, fatty acid levels in the erythrocyte membrane (% of total erythrocyte fatty acids) were ascertained for 446 women (40-60 years)...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237087/e-configuration-structures-of-epa-and-dha-derived-from-euphausia-superba-and-their-significant-inhibitive-effects-on-growth-of-human-cancer-cell-lines-in-vitro
#20
Weilong Zheng, Xudong Wang, Wenjing Cao, Bowen Yang, Ying Mu, Yuesheng Dong, Zhilong Xiu
Many bioactive components such as poly-unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. EPA and DHA), phospholipids and astaxanthin are known in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) oil. The krill DHA and EPA are generally considered to be similar to natural ones. However, two chemical compounds which were separated from Antarctic krill oil and identified as EPA and DHA by HRESIMS and NMR acted much more effective inhibitive activities on growth of several cell lines (U937, K562, SMMC-7721, PC-3, MDA-MB-231, HL60 and MCF-7) than those from sturgeon liver and commercial fish oil...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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