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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

E Ogundipe, N Tusor, Y Wang, M R Johnson, A D Edwards, M A Crawford
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ArA) are essential brain specific fatty acids (BSFA) for mammalian central nervous system development. Human brains have accelerated growth with significant increase in cerebral content of ArA and DHA during the last trimester of pregnancy and first postnatal months. This randomized double blind placebo controlled single centre trial assessed the impact of BSFA supplementation in pregnancy on newborn infants' brain volumes. Eighty six infants born to study mothers had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans soon after birth...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Anu Anil, Soorya Parathodi Illam, Sruthi Panniyan Kandiyil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Thermal oxidation products of edible oils including aldehydes, peroxides and polymerized triglycerides formed during the cooking process are increasingly debated as contributory to chronic degenerative diseases. Depending on the oil used for cooking, the source of fatty acids and its oxidation products may vary and would have a differential influence on the physiological process. Coconut oil (CO) is a medium chain triglyceride-rich edible oil used in South India and other Asia Pacific countries for cooking purposes...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
K J Gagnon, N Lefort, S J Poirier, D A Barnett, M E Surette
5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) into pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. N-3 PUFA like eicosapentaenoic acid are subject to a similar metabolism and are precursors of pro-resolving mediators. Stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3, SDA) is a plant source of n-3 PUFA that is elongated to 20:4 n-3, an analogue of AA. However, no 5-LO metabolites of 20:4 n-3 have been reported. In this study, control and 5-LO-expressing HEK293 cells were stimulated in the presence of 20:4 n-3. Metabolites were characterized by LC-MS/MS and their anti-inflammatory properties assessed using AA-induced autocrine neutrophil stimulation and leukotriene B4 -mediated chemotaxis...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Daniel M Lamontagne-Kam, Alan Chalil, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Sam J Hogenhout, Ken D Stark
Fetal accretion for DHA is high during late pregnancy due to the brain growth spurt. Prior evidence suggests that DHA is mobilized from maternal liver and adipose to meet fetal accretion and physiological requirements. However, changes in the DHA levels of various maternal tissues throughout pregnancy and into lactation of mothers on diets with and without dietary DHA, and with a background dietary fatty acid profile that resembles human intake has not been examined. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a total western diet with (TWD + ) or without DHA (TWD-) along with a commercial rodent chow control (Chow) throughout pregnancy and postpartum...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Rohan M Lewis, Caroline E Childs, Philip C Calder
The human foetus depends on placental transfer for the fatty acids required for its growth and development. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) may specifically influence neurodevelopment. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of placental transfer of LC-PUFAs. The simple view of placental fatty acid transfer is that it occurs by diffusion down the maternal to foetal gradient, facilitated by membrane transporters. This view has been complicated by studies highlighting the role of placental metabolism in fatty acid transfer...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Tatjana Gehring, Dagmar Heydeck, Agathe Niewienda, Katharina Janek, Hartmut Kuhn
Lipoxygenases are lipid peroxidizing enzymes, which frequently occur in higher plants and animals. In bacteria, these enzymes are rare and have been introduced via horizontal gene transfer. Since viruses function as horizontal gene transfer vectors and since lipoxygenases may be helpful for releasing assembled virus particles from host cells we explored whether these enzymes may actually occur in viruses. For this purpose we developed a four-step in silico screening strategy and searching the publically available viral genomes for lipoxygenase-like sequences we detected a single functional gene in the genome of a mimivirus infecting Acantamoeba polyphaga...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Susan E Carlson, Byron J Gajewski, Sibelle Alhayek, John Colombo, Elizabeth H Kerling, Kathleen M Gustafson
As previously reported, intention-to-treat findings from our phase III randomized clinical trial found that a supplement of 600 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/day during the last half of pregnancy reduced the incidence of early preterm birth (ePTB, <34 weeks gestation) and very low birth weight (VLBW < 1500 g) offspring. Given the potentially immense clinical significance of these findings, the goal of this secondary analysis was to (1) identify maternal characteristics related with capsule intake (i...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Kumar S D Kothapalli, Hui Gyu Park, Xiaoxian Guo, Xuepeng Sun, James Zou, Stephanie S Hyon, Xia Qin, Peter Lawrence, Rinat R Ran-Ressler, Ji Yao Zhang, Zhenglong Gu, J Thomas Brenna
INTRODUCTION: The only known non-pharmacological means to alter long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) abundance in mammalian tissue is by altering substrate fatty acid ratios. Alternative mRNA splicing is increasingly recognized as a modulator of protein structure and function. Here we report identification of a novel alternative transcript (AT) of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) that inhibits production of omega-3 but not omega-6 LCPUFA, discovered during study of ATs in human milk fat globules (MFG)...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ameer Y Taha, Marie Hennebelle, Jun Yang, Daisy Zamora, Stanley I Rapoport, Bruce D Hammock, Christopher E Ramsden
Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (α-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3)...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Paul C Norris, Hildur Arnardottir, Julia M Sanger, David Fichtner, Gregory S Keyes, Charles N Serhan
Resolution of infection and inflammation is governed by innate immune cells. The resolvin family of n-3 mediators produced by resolving exudates stimulates clearance of neutrophils and attenuates pro-inflammatory signals. Using metabololipidomics, endogenous resolvin D3 (RvD3) was identified in self-resolving exudates during active E. coli infection. Through a new, independent synthetic route for RvD3, we matched endogenous and synthetic RvD3 and determined that RvD3 (ng doses) potently reduced the resolution interval (Ri ) by ~4...
November 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Alessandra Peres, Gilson P Dorneles, Maria Carolina R Boeira, Lucas L Schipper, Ângela Beretta, Thais Vilela, Vanessa M Andrade, Pedro R T Romão
AIM: To evaluate the effects of acute fish oil supplementation (FOS) in DNA damage, lymphocyte phenotype and cytokines production after strenuous exercise in obese individuals. METHODS: Sixteen sedentary obese (BMI >30.0 to <35.0 kg/m²) men performed two sessions of exhaustive exercise and consumed 2000 mg of either placebo or fish oil one hour before the exercise session; trials were separated by 14 days. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected pre, immediately after and 1 h after both exercise sessions and stimulated in vitro with 2% phytohemagglutinin for cytokines secretion (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α)...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
O A Akerele, S K Cheema
Omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important regulators of inflammatory response that may impact pregnancy outcome. The effects of breeding chow diets containing n-3 PUFA from either fish oil (FO) or soybean oil (SO) were investigated on tissue fatty acid composition, inflammatory cytokines and pregnancy outcome. Female C57BL/6 mice (7 weeks old) were fed FO or SO diets for 2 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. Animals were sacrificed before and during pregnancy at day 6.5, 12.5 and 18...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Cansu Ozbayer, Medine Nur Kebapci, Irfan Degirmenci, Emine Yagci, Hasan Veysi Gunes, Hulyam Kurt
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is caused by the decreased β-cell mass and insulin deficiency, and disease is characterized by hypoglycemia. The insulin resistance also plays an important role in T2DM pathogenesis. Insulin resistance is the reduced biological response to insulin at the normal concentration in the circulation and develops with the influence of environmental factors with genetic abnormalities. In recent years, it has been reported that inflammatory pathway causes activation of the insulin resistance...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Gregory C Shearer, Rachel E Walker
Oxylipins are lipid mediators produced from polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism, and are thought to be a molecular explanation for the diverse biological effects of PUFAs. Like PUFAs, oxylipins are distinguished by their omega-6 (n6) or omega-3 (n3) chemistry. We review the use of n6 oxylipins as biomarkers of disease and their use in diagnosis and risk assessment. We show cases where oxylipins derived from linoleate (LA) or arachidonate (AA) produced by the activities of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, epoxygenase, ω/ω-1 hydroxylase, and autooxidation are useful as biomarkers or risk markers...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues, Gisele Gus Manfro, Robert Daniel Levitan, Meir Steiner, Michael Joseph Meaney, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
Poor fetal growth is associated with long-term behavioral, metabolic and psychiatric alterations, including impulsivity, insulin resistance, and mood disorders. However, the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) seems to be protective for this population, improving inhibitory control and behavioral reactivity. We investigated whether the presence of the A allele of rs8887 SNP (PLIN4 gene), known to be associated with increased sensitivity to the consumption of n-3 PUFAs, interacts with fetal growth influencing inhibitory control...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Erandi Hewawasam, Ge Liu, David W Jeffery, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Robert A Gibson
Oxylipins are biologically important lipid mediators that are derived enzymatically from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and have a major role in regulating inflammatory processes. The currently available methods for measuring oxylipins from human biological samples have limitations, which restricts their use in large studies. We have developed a novel method for measuring 21 oxylipins from dried blood spot (DBS) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and stable isotope dilution analysis...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Stephanie Smith, Karl Kevala, Bridget Cunningham, Christopher Rouse, Carl E Hunt, Hee-Yong Kim
PURPOSE: Measure concentrations of the neurogenic, pro-neurogenic, pro-synaptogenic and anti-inflammatory mediator N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine (synaptamide) in relation to its precursor docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast milk. DESIGN AND METHODS: Postpartum women were recruited prior to discharge. We supplemented half the subjects with omega-3 fatty acids. Breast milk samples were collected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks. Synaptamide and DHA concentrations were determined by liquidchromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography, respectively...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Robert K McNamara, Ruth H Asch, Diana M Lindquist, Robert Krikorian
There is a substantial body of evidence from animal studies implicating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neuroinflammatory, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective processes in brain. However, direct evidence for a role of PUFA in human brain structure and function has been lacking. Over the last decade there has been a notable increase in neuroimaging studies that have investigated the impact of PUFA intake and/or blood levels (i.e., biostatus) on brain structure, function, and pathology in human subjects. The majority of these studies specifically evaluated associations between omega-3 PUFA intake and/or biostatus and neuroimaging outcomes using a variety of experimental designs and imaging techniques...
September 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Wenting Zhang, Ruiying Chen, Tuo Yang, Na Xu, Jun Chen, Yanqin Gao, R Anne Stetler
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are required for the brain development and significantly impact aging and stroke. Due to the hydrophobicity of fatty acids, fatty acids transportation related proteins that include fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), long chain acyl-coA synthase (ACS), fatty acid transportation proteins (FATPs), fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and newly reported major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein (Mfsd2a) play critical roles in the uptake of various fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids...
September 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Sarah E Strandjord, Bill Lands, Joseph R Hibbeln
Proportions of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) in 20- and 22-carbon highly unsaturated fatty acids with 3 or more double bonds (HUFA) accumulated in tissue HUFA (e.g., the %n-6 in HUFA) are biomarkers reflecting intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. An empirical equation, referred to here as the Lands' Equation, was developed previously to use dietary intakes of n-6 and n-3 HUFA and their 18-carbon precursors to estimate the %n-6 in HUFA of humans. From the PubMed database, we identified clinical trials reporting (a) dietary intake of at least linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), and (b) the amounts of at least arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in lipids of plasma, serum, or red blood cell...
September 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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