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Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

Kumar S D Kothapalli, Hui Gyu Park, Xiaoxian Guo, Xuepeng Sun, James Zou, Stephanie S Hyon, Xia Qin, Peter Lawrence, Rinat R Ran-Ressler, Ji Yao Zhang, Zhenglong Gu, J Thomas Brenna
INTRODUCTION: The only known non-pharmacological means to alter long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) abundance in mammalian tissue is by altering substrate fatty acid ratios. Alternative mRNA splicing is increasingly recognized as a modulator of protein structure and function. Here we report identification of a novel alternative transcript (AT) of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) that inhibits production of omega-3 but not omega-6 LCPUFA, discovered during study of ATs in human milk fat globules (MFG)...
June 28, 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Mulia Nurhasan, Nanna Roos, Jutta Kh Skau, Frank T Wieringa, Henrik Friis, Kim F Michaelsen, Marjoleine A Dijkhuizen, Ken D Stark, Christian Ritz, Chamnan Chhoun, Lotte Lauritzen
The impact of freshwater fish consumption on the status of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in infants in landlocked, low-income populations is unknown. We used secondary data from a randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial to evaluate the impact of daily consumption of complementary food products with small amounts of freshwater fish on whole blood n-3 LCPUFA in Cambodian infants. Infants (n = 419), received daily, one of four food products for 9 months. Two products contained freshwater fish: WinFood (10% fish by dry weight) and WinFood-L (12% fish by dry weight), while two products were non-fish-based: corn-soy blends (CSB+ and CSB++)...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Breetha R, Ramaprasad Tr
This study addresses the effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in maternal dyslipidemia induced inflammation over three generation in rats. The detailed protocol for animal feeding and mating is described in the methodology. Placenta and fetal liver were isolated on the eighteenth day of gestation and delivered pups after lactation were kept on their maternal diets. Compared to control and experimental groups, high-fat fed rats (HFL) had a higher level of cytokines and eicosanoids in serum (p < 0.05). Liver and uterine expression of cPLA-2, Cox-2, 5-Lox, EP-1, BLT-1, and ICAM-1 were higher (p < 0...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
S S Al-Ghannami, E Sedlak, I S Hussein, Y Min, S M Al-Shmmkhi, H S Al-Oufi, A Al-Mazroui, P Clough, K Ghebremeskel
Dietary habits of Omani population particularly of children and young adults have changed significantly. Consumption of imported calorie-dense foods, vegetable oils, milled and polished grains and carbonated beverages have become the norm. Concomitantly, there has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. The impact of the westernisation of eating habits on children has not been evaluated. We have investigated blood fatty acid profile of male (n = 125) and female (n = 160) children aged 9 and 10 (9...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
A Nadjar
Microglia phagocytosis is an essential process to maintain lifelong brain homeostasis and clear potential toxic factors from the neuropil. Microglia can engulf cells or part of cells through the expression of specific receptors at their surface and activation of downstream signaling pathways to engulf material. Microglia phagocytosis is finely regulated and is under the dependence of many factors, including environmental cues such as dietary lipids. Yet, the molecular mechanisms implicated are still largely unknown...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Laís Vales Mennitti, Lila Missae Oyama, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Oller do Nascimento, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
We evaluated the impacts of maternal consumption of different types of fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation on the lipid and glucose metabolism of 21-day-old offspring. Rats received either control (C), saturated (SFAs), trans (TFAs) or n - 3 polyunsaturated (PUFAs) normolipidic diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. 21-day old male pups constituted the groups: C21, S21, T21 and PUFA21. At 21st day, serum parameters, hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) deposition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and liver protein expressions were investigated...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Dong D Wang
Epidemiologists have been studying the effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) for many decades. Abundant evidence from prospective studies on the clinical endpoints of CVD, including cohort studies measuring n-6 PUFA intake by food frequency questionnaires and nested case-control studies using biomarkers of intake level, strongly support that higher intakes of n-6 PUFAs are associated with a lower risk of CVD. Furthermore, a significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved when saturated fatty acids (SFAs) is replaced by n-6 PUFAs...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
A E Sanders, S R Shaikh, G D Slade
The objective of this study was to assess whether dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with lower prevalence of headache in the U.S. POPULATION: This cross-sectional study used data for a nationally representative sample of 12,317 men and women aged ≥ 20 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 1999-2004. Interviewers recorded self-report of severe headache or migraine in the past three months...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
S Fares, M M Sethom, M B Hammami, M Cheour, S Kacem, S Hadj-Taieb, M Feki
The study aimed to test whether or not milk fatty acid composition in mothers of small for gestational age (SGA) infants is similar to that in mothers of adequate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Thirty three mothers of SGA preterm infants and 66 mothers of AGA preterm infants were included. Milk and plasma fatty acids were analyzed using capillary gas chromatography. Milk DHA (0.68 ± 0.37 vs. 0.44 ± 0.24; p < 0.01) was higher and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio (12.0 ± 4.64 vs. 16.0 ± 6...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Sergej Nadalin, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović
Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism may be associated with altered cytosolic Ca2+ -dependent phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) signaling in patients with schizophrenia. The relationship between schizophrenia and the functional BanI polymorphism (rs10798059 variant, A/G polymorphism) of the PLA2G4A gene for cPLA2 has been extensively investigated. We previously reported that it can influence several clinical features of schizophrenia, and it was shown to contribute to schizophrenia risk in several population studies...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
T Yuzyuk, B Lozier, E L Schwarz, K Viau, E Kish-Trier, I De Biase
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) play key roles in mammalian cells as sources of energy, structural components and signaling molecules. Given their importance in numerous physiological processes, the roles of LCFAs in health and disease have been extensively investigated. In the majority of studies, correlations are established using a single measurement in plasma or red blood cells (RBCs). Although a few studies have reported on reproducibility of individual fatty acid measurements, the comprehensive analysis of intra-individual LCFA variability has not been performed...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Yan Xing, Xiaodong Zheng, Jing Qi, Yao Fu, Weiwei Cao, Jiali Li, Daling Zhu
We have previously shown that 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and its metabolite 15-hydroxyeicosanoid (15-HETE) play a critical role on hypoxia-triggered pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) phenotype alteration through multifactorial pathways, like extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Here, we hypothesize that activator protein 1 (AP-1) was also involved in the PASMC phenotype alteration. Hypoxia elevated AP-1 expression in pulmonary arterials and in cultured PASMCs with a time-dependent manner...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Clemens von Schacky, William S Harris
As currently defined, the Omega-3 Index comprises eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but not docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in erythrocytes. In fish and many fish oils DPA is detectable (along with EPA and DHA), but sources rich in DPA are scarce. Purified DPA is available, and DPA is a precursor of biologically active molecules, but much remains to be learned about the effects of DPA in humans. In epidemiologic studies, erythrocyte DPA did not predict risk for total mortality, sudden cardiac death, or other relevant cardiovascular events, and, more importantly, did not improve prediction of these events when included along with EPA and DHA, the original Omega-3 Index...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
James P C Coverdale, Kondwani G H Katundu, Amélie I S Sobczak, Swati Arya, Claudia A Blindauer, Alan J Stewart
Myocardial ischemia is difficult to diagnose effectively with still few well-defined biochemical markers for identification in advance, or in the absence of myocardial necrosis. "Ischemia-modified albumin" (IMA), a form of albumin displaying reduced cobalt-binding affinity, is significantly elevated in ischemic patients, and the albumin cobalt-binding (ACB) assay can measure its level indirectly. Elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying the identity of IMA and the ACB assay hinges on understanding metal-binding properties of albumin...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Carlos Cardoso, Joana Paiva Martinho, Paula A Lopes, Susana Martins, Jorge Correia, Cláudia Afonso, Francisco J Alarcón, María J González-Fernández, Rui M Pinto, José A Prates, Narcisa M Bandarra, José L Guil-Guerrero
In this study, we hypothesized that terrestrial plant oils, rich in alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) relative to fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevent negative effects on cardiovascular and neurological function using a rat model fed a hypercaloric diet. Results showed effects on the FA profile, namely, eicosapentaenoic, EPA, and docosahexaenoic, DHA, levels. There were also effects on neural aspects (cAMP response element-binding protein, CREB, gene expression, at least, doubled) and the pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance (TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha reduced by 30-50%)...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
J R Jensen, M H Pitcher, Z X Yuan, C E Ramsden, A F Domenichiello
Chronic pain is both a global public health concern and a serious source of personal suffering for which current treatments have limited efficacy. Recently, oxylipins derived from linoleic acid (LA), the most abundantly consumed polyunsaturated fatty acid in the modern diet, have been implicated as mediators of pain in the periphery and spinal cord. However, oxidized linoleic acid derived mediators (OXLAMs) remain understudied in the brain, particularly during pain states. In this study, we employed a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain followed by a targeted lipidomic analysis of the animals' amygdala and periaqueductal grey (PAG) using LC-MS/MS to investigate the effect of chronic inflammatory pain on oxylipin concentrations in these two brain nuclei known to participate in pain sensation and perception...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Fanny Lemarié, Erwan Beauchamp, Gaëtan Drouin, Philippe Legrand, Vincent Rioux
Caprylic acid (octanoic acid, C8:0) belongs to the class of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs). Dairy products and specific oils such as coconut oil are natural sources of dietary caprylic acid. MCFAs display distinct chemico-physical and metabolic properties from those of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs ≥ 12 carbons) and potential beneficial physiological effects of dietary C8:0 have been studied for many years. More recently, caprylic acid was shown to octanoylate ghrelin, the only known peptide hormone with an orexigenic effect...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Andréa Taschereau-Charron, Jean-François Bilodeau, Jessica Larose, Karine Greffard, Line Berthiaume, François Audibert, William D Fraser, Pierre Julien, Iwona Rudkowska
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and pregnancy are both associated with oxidative stress, characterized by an increase of F2 -isoprostanes from the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid, a n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). We hypothesized that pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes will be characterized by elevated levels of specific F2 -isoPs isomers and altered PUFA composition in plasma early pregnancy when compared to normoglycemic controls. METHODS: Plasma samples from 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancies and 11 women with pre-existing diabetes in pregnancy were collected between 12 and 18 weeks of pregnancy (MIROS cohort)...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
R Barreiro, M Díaz-Bao, A Cepeda, P Regal, C A Fente
Based on the premise that the fatty acid composition of human milk can be substantially altered by diet, the current study investigated the fatty acid profile (fattyacidome) of breast milk in Galicia, a small region located in the north-west of Spain and characterized by the Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD). A cross-country comparison was also performed to assess worldwide variety and diet impact, reviewing the profiles reported various European, North and South American, Asian and African countries and Australia...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ryan L Anderson, Matthew R Battistini, Dylan J Wallis, Christopher Shoji, Brian G O'Flynn, John E Dillashaw, David J Merkler
The purpose of this research is to unravel the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of an insect arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase from Bombyx mori (Bm-iAANAT) and to determine if this enzyme will catalyze the formation of long chain N-acylarylalkylamides in vitro. However, the determination of substrates and products for Bm-iAANAT in vitro is no guarantee that these same molecules are substrates and products for the enzyme in the organism. Therefore, RT-PCR was performed to detect the Bm-iAANAT transcripts and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) analysis was performed on purified lipid extracts from B...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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