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Supakrit Auiwattanakul, Kaweesak Chittawatanarat, Onuma Chaiwat, Sunthiti Morakul, Suneerat Kongsayreepong, Winai Ungpinitpong, Surakrant Yutthakasemsunt, Supawan Buranapin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of nutrition factors on a 28-d mortality outcome and sepsis occurrence in surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The data was extracted from a THAI-SICU study that prospectively recruited participants (≥18 y of age) from three Thai surgical intensive care units (SICUs) of university-based hospitals. The demographic data and nutrition factors at SICU admission included energy delivery deficit, weight loss severity, route of energy delivery, and albumin and nutrition risk screening (NRS-2002)...
November 1, 2018: Nutrition
Temitope Gabriel Adedeji, Adesoji Fasanmade, Emiola Olapade-Olaopa
OBJECTIVES: Gene-nutrient interactions are implicated in metabolic phenotypes like metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diet-induced metabolic phenotypes in rats and investigate the effects of these phenotypes in three successive generations. METHODS: Three generations of rats were fed on different diets and mated. Blood glucose, adiposity, lipid profile, insulin, adipocytokines, ghrelin, and corticosterone concentrations were determined in F0, F1, and F2 generations using standard methods...
November 1, 2018: Nutrition
Nariman K Badr El-Din, Doaa A Ali, Rania F Abou-El-Magd
OBJECTIVES: Chemoprevention or intervention of cancer by means of natural dietary components has shown great promise in controlling malignancy. This study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of grape seeds (GSE) combined with grape skin (GSK) in mice that were inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: GSE + GSK were mixed with the standard diet and supplemented to mice 14 d before Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell inoculation and continued throughout the experiment...
November 1, 2018: Nutrition
Luis H B Ferreira, Andre C Smolarek, Philip D Chilibeck, Marcelo P Barros, Steven R McAnulty, Brad J Schoenfeld, Bruna Amorim Zandona, Tácito P Souza-Junior
OBJECTIVES: It is well established that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) causes metabolic alkalosis. However, there is no consensus in terms of optimal NaHCO3 doses leading to enhanced performance. This study aimed to determine the effects of different NaHCO3 doses on performance and lactate clearance in non-professional cyclists. METHODS: Twenty-one cyclists performed the following three double-blind trials: 1) ingestion of 0.3 g · kg-1 body weight (BW) of placebo; 2) ingestion of 0...
October 13, 2018: Nutrition
Ghazaleh Eslamian, Seyed Hossein Ardehali, Ahmad-Reza Baghestani, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi
OBJECTIVES: In this study we sought to investigate the effect of early enteral bovine colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability in intensive care unit (ICU)-hospitalized patients. METHODS: A total of 70 ICU-hospitalized adult patients were randomly assigned to receive a bovine colostrum supplement or placebo according to the stratified blocked randomization by age and admission category. Plasma endotoxin and zonulin concentrations were measured on days 5 and 10 of intervention...
October 12, 2018: Nutrition
Pim Jansson, Bartholomew Kay
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality globally. Studies have suggested that supplementary ω-3 oils may provide cardiovascular protection, although the literature is equivocal. Recently, it has been established that many commercially available ω-3 supplements are unacceptably oxidized, leading to myriad potential health risks. One oxidation product of concern is aldehydes, which have been shown to have mutagenic, cytotoxic, and inflammatory properties that may contribute to many different disease processes, including CVD...
October 11, 2018: Nutrition
Nataly Simões Bandiera Thimóteo, Tatiana Mayumi Veiga Iryioda, Daniela Frizon Alfieri, Brunna Emanuella França Rego, Bruna Miglioranza Scavuzzi, Elis Fatel, Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy, Andréa Name Colado Simão, Isaias Dichi
OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects; however, to our knowledge, the effects of cranberry juice consumption have not been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to verify the effect of cranberry juice consumption on several inflammatory biomarkers and on the disease activity of patients with RA. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 41 women diagnosed with RA...
October 10, 2018: Nutrition
Akimasa Fukuta, Takashi Saito, Shunsuke Murata, Daisuke Makiura, Junichiro Inoue, Maho Okumura, Yoshitada Sakai, Rei Ono
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of preoperative cachexia on postoperative length of stay (LOS) in elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled 98 patients (≥60 y of age) with gastric or colorectal cancer who were scheduled to undergo curative surgery and were categorized as either having cachexia or as being in a non-cachexia group. The definition of cachexia was patients with >5% loss of stable body weight over the previous 6 mo, a body mass index (BMI) <20 kg/m2 and ongoing weight loss >2%, or sarcopenia and ongoing weight loss >2%...
October 10, 2018: Nutrition
Colin E Champ, Nick A Iarrobino, Christopher P Haskins
OBJECTIVE: The Veterans Health Administration is the largest integrated health care system fully funded through the US government; however, compliance with government dietary recommendations within Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine which foods are available at VA hospitals and whether these foods comply with government recommendations. METHODS: Process verification for a Freedom of Information Act request was used to assess government-run inpatient and outpatient VA hospital facilities by accessing the location, quantity, and contents of vending machines...
October 9, 2018: Nutrition
Aline V Caris, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Santos
High altitudes are a challenge for human physiology and for sports enthusiasts. Several reasons lead to deterioration in performance at high altitudes. Hypoxia owing to high altitude causes a breakdown of homeostasis with imbalance in several physiological systems, including the immune system. The reduction in mucosal immunity and inflammation and the predominance of the humoral immune response causes a condition of immunosuppression and an increased likelihood of infection. In addition, it is known that worsening of the immune response is associated with reduced performance...
October 7, 2018: Nutrition
Matheus Garcia, Marilia Seelaender, Athanassia Sotiropoulos, Dario Coletti, Antonio Herbert Lancha
The relevance of vitamin D to skeletal muscle metabolism has been highlighted in recent years. The interest arises from the important findings of studies demonstrating multiple effects of vitamin D on this tissue, which can be divided into genomic (direct effects) and non-genomic effects (indirect effects). Another important aspect to be considered in the study of vitamin D and muscle fiber metabolism is related to different expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which varies in muscle tissue depending on age, sex, and pathology...
October 7, 2018: Nutrition
Josely Correa Koury, Maria Almeida Ribeiro, Fabia Albernaz Massarani, Filomena Vieira, Elisabetta Marini
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of biological maturity on body composition in Brazilian adolescent athletes, to verify the accuracy of previous bioimpedance predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM), and to develop new predictive equations, considering sexual and skeletal maturity. METHODS: There were 318 Brazilian adolescent athletes (52% male) involved in this study. FFM was determined using single-frequency (50 kHz) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which was used as the reference method...
October 6, 2018: Nutrition
Stephen A McClave, Robert G Martindale
Strategies for providing optimal nutritional therapy have evolved over time, with the emphasis on specific directives (such as route, use of immunonutrition, high protein, organ-specific formulas, etc.), achieving variable degrees of success for improving outcomes in the intensive care unit. As the largest immune organ in the body comprising the largest interface between the host and the external environment, the gut can have an amplifying effect on a pattern of dysbiosis, immune dysregulation, and multiple organ failure seen in the critically ill patient...
October 5, 2018: Nutrition
Masato Nishiwaki, Yuri Nakano, Naoyuki Matsumoto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of regular high-cocoa chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness and fat oxidation during light- to moderate-intensity exercise. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, parallel-group intervention study included 32 Japanese college students (mean age, 20.7 ± 0.3 y; men, n = 24; women, n = 8) who were assigned to either control or intervention groups (n = 16 each). The control group did not alter their habitual diet or physical activity throughout the study period...
October 5, 2018: Nutrition
Josephine Kschonsek, Cornelia Wiegand, Uta-Christina Hipler, Volker Böhm
OBJECTIVES: More than 70% of birch pollen-allergic individuals are affected by a cross-allergy from apples. The aim of this study was to determine if an increased polyphenolic content of apples is inversely related to clinical allergic reactions in sufferers. METHODS: The polyphenolic content of two old and two new apple cultivars was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro concentration of sulfidoleukotrienes and the CD63 basophil activation of 27 birch pollen sufferers with cross-reactivity to apples were determined with cellular antigen stimulation and basophil activation tests after incubation with different apple cultivars...
September 29, 2018: Nutrition
Antonino De Lorenzo, Lorenzo Romano, Laura Di Renzo, Paola Gualtieri, Chiara Salimei, Elena Carrano, Tiziana Rampello, Renata Costa de Miranda
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare body mass index (BMI) and triponderal mass index (TMI) as predictors of fat mass percentage (FM%) and to develop TMI cutoffs for screening high adiposity. Therefore, TMI- and BMI-based references against FM% criterion for indicating adiposity in Italian children and adolescents were compared. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Human Nutrition Unit, from 2008 to 2015...
September 19, 2018: Nutrition
Shalini D/O Ponnalagu, Xinyan Bi, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
OBJECTIVES: Differential distribution of fats can vary among ethnic groups and thus have varying effects on metabolic risk. Measuring metabolic risk of individuals using simple anthropometric measurements is essential to replace current invasive methods of obtaining blood samples. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) has been advocated as the best simple anthropometric measurement, but, because of the high visceral fat of Asians, there has been speculation as to the possibility of using only waist circumference (WC) to measure metabolic risk...
September 19, 2018: Nutrition
Shahla Rezaei, Masoumeh Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza Sasani, Reza Barati Boldaji
OBJECTIVES: Olive oil has health benefits for the correction of metabolic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the effect of olive oil consumption on the severity of fatty liver and cardiometabolic markers in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted on 66 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients were divided to receive either olive or sunflower oil, each 20 g/d for 12 wk...
January 2019: Nutrition
Yannis Manios, Odysseas Androutsos, Christina Katsarou, Eleni Anna Vampouli, Zbigniew Kulaga, Beata Gurzkowska, Violeta Iotova, Natalya Usheva, Greet Cardon, Berthold Koletzko, Luis A Moreno, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
OBJECTIVES: Health inequalities are observed among different regions and socioeconomic groups. The present study aimed to record the prevalence of overweight and obesityamong preschoolers across six European countries in relation to sociodemographic and family factors. METHODS: A total of 7554 preschool-aged children and their parents participated in the ToyBox-study. Children's weight and height were measured and parents self-reported their weight, height, and family sociodemographic data using questionnaires...
November 2018: Nutrition
Yingshan Liu, Marianne Milner, Markos Klonizakis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with improved physiological function. METHODS: This was a single-center, cohort pilot study with 24 healthy, sedentary younger (18-35 y of age) and older (55-75 y of age) adults. Participants were advised to follow the MD for 4 wk. Baseline and post-intervention measurements were taken of weight, height, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, and heart rate, as well as microvascular physiological assessments using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at rest, as well as transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2) during a sub-maximal exercise assessment...
November 2018: Nutrition
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