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Akimasa Fukuta, Takashi Saito, Shunsuke Murata, Daisuke Makiura, Junichiro Inoue, Maho Okumura, Yoshitada Sakai, Rei Ono
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of preoperative cachexia on postoperative length of stay (LOS) in elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled 98 patients (≥60 y of age) with gastric or colorectal cancer who were scheduled to undergo curative surgery and were categorized as either having cachexia or as being in a non-cachexia group. The definition of cachexia was patients with >5% loss of stable body weight over the previous 6 mo, a body mass index (BMI) <20 kg/m2 and ongoing weight loss >2%, or sarcopenia and ongoing weight loss >2%...
October 10, 2018: Nutrition
Josephine Kschonsek, Cornelia Wiegand, Uta-Christina Hipler, Volker Böhm
OBJECTIVES: More than 70% of birch pollen-allergic individuals are affected by a cross-allergy from apples. The aim of this study was to determine if an increased polyphenolic content of apples is inversely related to clinical allergic reactions in sufferers. METHODS: The polyphenolic content of two old and two new apple cultivars was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro concentration of sulfidoleukotrienes and the CD63 basophil activation of 27 birch pollen sufferers with cross-reactivity to apples were determined with cellular antigen stimulation and basophil activation tests after incubation with different apple cultivars...
September 29, 2018: Nutrition
Yurie Mikami, Yutaka Watanabe, Ayako Edahiro, Keiko Motokawa, Maki Shirobe, Jun Yasuda, Masaharu Murakami, Kohji Murakami, Yu Taniguchi, Junichi Furuya, Hirohiko Hirano
OBJECTIVE: This 1-y cohort study examined whether Council of Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) scores predicted mortality in 316 elderly Japanese residents of five nursing homes (60 men, 256 women; mean age: 84.9 ± 8.3 y). METHODS: The baseline survey included participant characteristics (e.g., age, sex, height, weight, and medical history), and Barthel Index (BI), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA® -SF), CNAQ, Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ; simplified CNAQ), and SNAQ for the Japanese elderly (SNAQ-JE) scores...
August 25, 2018: Nutrition
Stefano Benedini, Roberto Codella, Andrea Caumo, Ileana Terruzzi, Livio Luzi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of low-intensity exercise on the postprandial hormonal and metabolic milieu induced by breakfast consumption. METHODS: Exercise began 100min after the initiation of breakfast consumption and consisted of cycling at 40% of maximum oxygen uptake for 20min. Three different breakfasts were used to elicit the postprandial state: B1 = skimmed milk (125 mL) and 30g corn flakes; B2 = skimmed milk (220 mL), 200g apple, 30g cocoa cream-filled sponge cake; B3 = skimmed milk (125 mL), 50g bread, 150g apple, and 15g hazelnut and cocoa spread...
July 24, 2018: Nutrition
Yannis Manios, Odysseas Androutsos, Christina Katsarou, Eleni Anna Vampouli, Zbigniew Kulaga, Beata Gurzkowska, Violeta Iotova, Natalya Usheva, Greet Cardon, Berthold Koletzko, Luis A Moreno, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
OBJECTIVES: Health inequalities are observed among different regions and socioeconomic groups. The present study aimed to record the prevalence of overweight and obesityamong preschoolers across six European countries in relation to sociodemographic and family factors. METHODS: A total of 7554 preschool-aged children and their parents participated in the ToyBox-study. Children's weight and height were measured and parents self-reported their weight, height, and family sociodemographic data using questionnaires...
November 2018: Nutrition
Yingshan Liu, Marianne Milner, Markos Klonizakis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with improved physiological function. METHODS: This was a single-center, cohort pilot study with 24 healthy, sedentary younger (18-35 y of age) and older (55-75 y of age) adults. Participants were advised to follow the MD for 4 wk. Baseline and post-intervention measurements were taken of weight, height, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, and heart rate, as well as microvascular physiological assessments using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at rest, as well as transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2) during a sub-maximal exercise assessment...
November 2018: Nutrition
Débora Lopes Souto, Joana Rodrigues Dantas, Marcus Miranda Dos Santos Oliveira, Eliane Lopes Rosado, Ronir Raggio Luiz, Lenita Zajdenverg, Melanie Rodacki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a sucrose-free diet with a sucrose-added diet on glucose variability in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This was a two-way crossover design study in which patients with type 1 diabetes were monitored by blinded continuous glucose monitoring and were selected to receive a sucrose-free diet (<30 g/d), followed by a sucrose-added diet (>80 g/d) for 2 d each. Intra-day glucose variability was assessed by the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), the M-value, J-index, glycemic risk assessment in diabetes equation (GRADE), and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA1-3 )...
November 2018: Nutrition
Sajjad Moradi, Amos Issah, Hamed Mohammadi, Khadijeh Mirzaei
OBJECTIVES: Dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores have been inconsistently linked to cancer risks. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to examine the associations between the DII and the risks of breast and prostate cancer among men and women. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases up to March 2018. Data were available from 13 studies; of these, four studies used a prospective cohort design and nine studies were case-control studies...
November 2018: Nutrition
Maryam Abshirini, Fereydoun Siassi, Fariba Koohdani, Mostafa Qorbani, Shahla Khosravi, Mehdi Hedayati, Zahra Aslani, Mahshid Soleymani, Gity Sotoudeh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) and menopausal symptoms (MS) in postmenopausal middle-aged women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 400 postmenopausal women who referred to municipality health houses and health centers in south Tehran, Iran. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measures such as body weight, height, and waist circumference were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using a 147-item validated food frequency questionnaire...
November 2018: Nutrition
Rávila Graziany Machado de Souza, Aline Corado Gomes, Inar Alves de Castro, João Felipe Mota
OBJECTIVES: Nut consumption is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease. Baru almonds have a high protein content and high quantities of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a baru almond-enriched diet on body composition and markers of lipid metabolism in overweight and obese women. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, 8-wk clinical trial of 46 overweight and obese women was conducted...
November 2018: Nutrition
Kathrin Beyer, Stein Atle Lie, Marian Kjellevold, Lisbeth Dahl, Johan G Brun, Anne Isine Bolstad
OBJECTIVES: Marine ω-3 fatty acids (FAs) and Vitamin D (VitD) are reportedly capable of down-regulating inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease. This study was undertaken to relate marine FA and VitD status to RA disease status and periodontal conditions. METHODS: RA outpatients (age ≥35 y) were consecutively recruited. Rheumatologic clinical data were collected and periodontal status obtained. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate fish and supplement intake...
November 2018: Nutrition
Anika Saiyara Rouf, Zhixian Sui, Anna Rangan, Amanda Grech, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
OBJECTIVES: Calcium is an essential nutrient required for peak bone mass growth during adolescence and into young adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine the calcium intake of Australian adolescents and young adults from both food sources and supplements; and the relationship between calcium intake and intake of food groups. METHODS: Dietary data from 770 adolescents (14-18 y of age) and 774 young adults (19-25 y of age) from the 2011 to 12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used...
November 2018: Nutrition
Cecilia Gavazzi, Sabina Sieri, Francesca Traclò, Alessandro Sproviero, Giulia Vandoni, Roberta Ricci, Silvia Stragliotto, Vittorina Zagonel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cancer patients changing their diet in relation to cancer site, sex, age and geographic distribution. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the rationale behind dietary changes and to identify sources of information in order to plan specific educational training. METHODS: Patients ≥18 y of age who accessed the Italian Cancer Patients, Families and Friends Association information points were invited to participate...
November 2018: Nutrition
Amornpan Lertrit, Sasinee Srimachai, Sunee Saetung, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, La-Or Chailurkit, Chatvara Areevut, Pornalat Katekao, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul, Chutintorn Sriphrapradang
OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that non-nutritive sweeteners might induce glucose intolerance. This study aims to determine the effects of chronic exposure to sucralose on glycemic response, insulin secretion and sensitivity, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release in healthy subjects. METHODS: Healthy volunteers who did not use non-nutritive sweeteners and were normoglycemia after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were recruited. Subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT on two separate occasions, preceded by blindly consuming pills containing either 200 mg sucralose or placebo for 4 wk in a randomized crossover trial...
November 2018: Nutrition
Patrizia Calella, Giuliana Valerio, Malcolm Brodlie, Lorenzo Maria Donini, Mario Siervo
OBJECTIVES: Patients with cystic fibrosis are characterized by an increased risk of nutrient malabsorption and inflammation, which may influence body composition. We examined the differences in body composition between patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy controls and how body composition differences may impact disease risk and mortality. METHODS: Three different electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase) were used to find articles from inception until March 2017...
November 2018: Nutrition
Xinyan Bi, Yi Ting Loo, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance (IR) is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes, the prevalence of which has become a major public health threat in Asia. The aim of this study was to use ultrasound measurements of abdominal fat thickness to predict IR and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels among Singaporean adults. METHODS: A total of 399 healthy Singaporeans (mean age 36.7 ± 14.3 y; 43.4% men) took part in this study. Preperitoneal fat thickness (PFT) and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) were determined by ultrasound...
November 2018: Nutrition
Ana Beatriz Franco-Sena, Linda G Kahn, Dayana R Farias, Aline A Ferreira, Ilana Eshriqui, Amanda C C Figueiredo, Pam Factor-Litvak, Michael M Schlüssel, Gilberto Kac
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the association between nightly, napping, and 24-h sleep duration throughout pregnancy and birth weight z-score among nulli- and multiparous women. METHODS: Nightly,napping, and 24-h sleep duration and birth weight z-score (calculated on thebasis of the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st century standards) were studied in a cohort of 176 pregnant women from Brazil. Linear mixed-effect analyses were performed to assess the longitudinal evolution of sleep duration and the best unbiased linear predictors of the random coefficients were estimated...
November 2018: Nutrition
Fátima Cruz, Elisabete Ramos, Carla Lopes, Joana Araújo
OBJECTIVE: According to the dietary patterns identified in adolescence, we assessed the tracking of food and nutrient intake between adolescence and early adulthood. METHODS: Participants were 962 adolescents from the Epidemiologic Health Investigation of Teenagers in Porto (EPITeen) cohort, with dietary patterns assigned at 13 y and valid information on diet at 21 y. In both waves, diet was evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of each food group, energy, and nutrients at 21 y were compared across the four dietary patterns with one-way analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test...
November 2018: Nutrition
Jessica M Perkins, Renuka Jayatissa, S V Subramanian
OBJECTIVES: We investigate the association between child dietary diversity and anthropometric status and failure in Sri Lanka while accounting for other child and household factors by employing multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses. METHODS: Using a nationally representative survey of children ages 6 mo to 59 mo, child dietary diversity was based on the 24-h recall of a child's food intake across seven food groups. The minimum dietary diversity was a score of four or above...
November 2018: Nutrition
Saman Khalatbari-Soltani, Gérard Waeber, Pedro Marques-Vidal
OBJECTIVES: Hospital administrative databases are widely used for disease monitoring. Undernutrition is highly prevalent among hospitalized patients but the diagnostic accuracy of undernutrition coding in administrative data is poorly known. This study examined the diagnostic accuracy of undernutrition coding in administrative hospital discharge databases. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using 2013 and 2014 administrative data of the Internal Medicine Unit of the Lausanne University Hospital (n = 2509)...
November 2018: Nutrition
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