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Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics

Alyson Budd, Murray Schellenberg, Bryan Gick
Tongue bifurcation (also called 'splitting' or 'forking') is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure in the body modification community that involves splitting the anterior tongue down the centre line. The implications of this procedure for speech have not been systematically studied; a few case studies have been published and suggest that there may be effects, primarily on fricatives. This article presents the first attempt to examine the acoustic implications of tongue bifurcation on speech production using a larger population sample...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Riitta Ronkainen, Minna Laakso, Eila Lonka, Tuula Tykkyläinen
This study examines lexical intervention sessions in speech and language therapy for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Particular focus is on the therapist's professional practices in doing the therapy. The participants in this study are three congenitally deaf children with CIs together with their speech and language therapist. The video recorded therapy sessions of these children are studied using conversation analysis. The analysis reveals the ways in which the speech and language therapist formulates her speaking turns to support the children's lexical learning in task interaction...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Myriam Kornisch, Michael P Robb, Richard D Jones
The relationship between stuttering and bilingualism to functional cerebral hemispheric processing was examined using a visual hemifield paradigm. Eighty native German speakers, half of whom were also proficient speakers of English as a second language (L2), were recruited. The participants were organised into four different groups according to speech status and language ability: 20 monolinguals who stutter, 20 bilinguals who stutter, 20 monolinguals who do not stutter, and 20 bilinguals who do not stutter...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Sanae Tanaka, Manabu Oi, Hiroshi Fujino, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Yuko Yoshimura, Yui Miura, Masatsugu Tsujii, Harue Ohoka
Some overlap has been suggested among the subtypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. The Japanese version of the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) is a useful measure for identifying profiles in relation to communication impairments in children with ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the CCC-2 could identify subtypes in relation to communication impairments in Japanese children with ASD. The study participants were 113 children with ASD but without intellectual disabilities aged 3-12 years...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Tim Bressmann, Gillian de Boer, Viviane Cristina de Castro Marino, Eliana Maria Gradim Fabron, Larissa Cristina Berti
The present study evaluated global aspects of lingual movement during sentence production with backward and forward voice focus. Nine female participants read a sentence with a variety of consonants in a normal condition and with backward and forward voice focus. Midsagittal tongue movement was recorded with ultrasound. Tongue height over time at an anterior, a central, and a posterior measurement angle was measured. The outcome measures were speech rate, cumulative distance travelled, and average movement speed of the tongue...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Lucille Wallet
This article deals with the intelligibility of stop consonants in onset position (initial and intervocalic) as pronounced by 10 French speakers treated by a type II or III cordectomy. These surgeries cause a less efficient glottal closure and a vibratory asymmetry. The voicing contrast in consonants may be altered. The patients' vocal samples were made up of non-words of the CVCVCVC type, where C = /p, t, k, b, d, g/ and V = /a, i, u/(n = 360), and were given to 22 French listeners for evaluation. Two identification tests were created and the listeners were asked to choose the consonants they thought they recognized (n = 7920)...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Wen-Hui Sah, Pao-Chuan Torng
This study investigates the ability of Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to use mental state terms in narratives. The narrative data are from 16 children with ASD and 16 typically developing children, matched on language and cognitive abilities. The narratives were elicited using Frog, where are you? Participants' use of lexical expressions referring to emotion, cognition, desire and perception was examined. The 'deer episode' of the story was chosen to analyse children's ability to talk about misrepresentation...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Asta Tuomenoksa, Kati Pajo, Anu Klippi
This study applies conversation analysis to compare everyday conversation samples between a person with aphasia (PWA) and a familiar communication partner (CP) before and after intensive language-action therapy (ILAT). Our analysis concentrated on collaborative repair sequences with the assumption that impairment-focused therapy would translate into a change in the nature of trouble sources, which engender collaborative repair action typical of aphasic conversation. The most frequent repair initiation technique used by the CP was candidate understandings...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Minna Laakso, Sisse Godt
The present study compares the ways in which conversational partners manage expressive linguistic problems produced by participants with fluent vs. non-fluent aphasia. Both everyday conversations with family members and institutional conversations with speech-language therapists were examined. The data consisted of 110 conversational sequences in which the conversational partners addressed expressive aphasic problems. Most problems of the speaker with fluent aphasia were locally restricted phonological and word-finding errors, which were immediately repaired...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Dolors Girbau
Eleven native Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) (8;3-10;11) and 11 typically developing children (8;7-10;8) received a comprehensive psycholinguistic evaluation. Participants listened to either Direct Object (DO) pronoun sentences or filler sentences without any pronoun, and they decided whether a picture on the screen (depicting the antecedent, another noun in the sentence, or an unrelated object) was 'alive'. They answered comprehension questions about pronoun sentences. Children with SLI showed significantly poorer comprehension of DO pronoun sentences when answering comprehension questions than children with Typical Language Development (TLD)...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Charlotta Plejert, Christina Samuelsson, Jan Anward
The present article is a case study in which participation is investigated in terms of the use of interactional practices that enhance the involvement of a man with severe aphasia in activities that aim to capture his and his wife's experiences of everyday communication, and their views of his speech and language intervention. Five practices are identified: 1) collaborative telling, 2) formulations, 3) yes/no questions, 4) declaratives and 5) hint-and-guess strategies. It is demonstrated how participants' (wife, a speech and language pathologist, and two research assistants) use of these practices are beneficial for making the viewpoints of the man with aphasia come across, despite his communication difficulties...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Camilla Lindholm
This article is a conversation analytic study of how one elderly person with dementia and her interlocutors interact in a care home setting. Participation is studied in the form of responsive action of the person with dementia, focusing on the Swedish response token 'jaså,' which has not previously been analysed in detail. The central claim is that even though the sequential placement of the response token indicates interactional competence, other factors reveal limited competence and communication impairment...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Fiona E Gibbon, Alice Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Benjamin Munson, Sarah K Schellinger, Jan Edwards
Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children's productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgements of children's productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgements of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgements of a parameter that is relatively less continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Sarah K Schellinger, Benjamin Munson, Jan Edwards
Past studies have shown incontrovertible evidence for the existence of covert contrasts in children's speech, i.e. differences between target productions that are nonetheless transcribed with the same phonetic symbol. Moreover, there is evidence that these are relevant to forming prognoses and tracking progress in children with speech sound disorder. A challenge remains to determine the most efficient and reliable methods for assessing covert contrasts. This study investigates how readily listeners can identify covert contrasts in children's speech when using a continuous rating scale in the form of a visual analogue scale (VAS) to denote children's productions...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Niklas Norén, Maja Sigurd Pilesjö
Asking a question can be a highly challenging task for a person with multiple disabilities, but questions have not received much attention in research on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Conversation analysis is employed to examine an instance of multiparty interaction where a speech and language therapist supports a child with multiple disabilities to ask a question with a communication board. The question is accomplished through a practice where the action is built as a trajectory of interactional steps...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Joanne Cleland, James M Scobbie, Cornelia Heyde, Zoe Roxburgh, Alan A Wrench
Acoustic and articulatory studies demonstrate covert contrast in perceptually neutralised phonemic contrasts in both typical children and children with speech disorders. These covert contrasts are thought to be relatively common and symptomatic of phonetic speech disorders. However, clinicians in the speech therapy clinic have had no easy way of identifying this covertness. This study uses ultrasound tongue imaging to compare tongue contours for /t/and /k/in seven children with persistent velar fronting. We present a method of overlaying tongue contours to identify covert contrast at the articulatory level...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Gitte Rasmussen
This study investigates a specific method for making possible the participation of participants with cognitive and communicative impairments in social face-to-face interaction. Non-impaired co-participants design close-ended questions that project who the next speaker is, i.e. the impaired co-participant. The questions also project what kind of response amongst alternatives the impaired co-participant is supposed to produce. Upon answers to these questions, the non-impaired co-participant requests the impaired participant to confirm the answer twice...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Amanda Savio Lee, Michael Robb, Ondene Van Dulm, Tika Ormond
This is the third article in a series examining communication restriction in adults with stuttering (AWS). The aim was to explore interpersonal communication behaviour in AWS at long-term treatment follow-up, using systemic functional linguistics (SFL) as an analytical framework. The performance of 10 AWS within 10-minute conversation samples was compared across pretreatment (T1), post-treatment (T2) and 12-month follow-up (T3), in terms of language productivity and complexity, modality, and appraisal. At T1 and T3, comparisons were also made to a control group (AWNS)...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Jolien Faes, Steven Gillis
Fricative production is affected in children with cochlear implants (CI) as compared to age-matched normally hearing (NH) children. However, the phonological development of children with CI is rarely compared to that of NH peers matched on lexicon size. We compare the early word initial fricative development of 10 children with CI and 30 NH children matched on lexicon size and on chronological age. Children with CI are expected to differ from their NH peers when they are matched on chronological age. But, are lexical development and phonological development commensurate in children with CI as they have been shown to be in NH children? Results show that fricative production in children with CI deviates from that of age-matched NH peers...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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