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Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics

Fabrizio Arosio, Maria Teresa Guasti
We aim at determining whether 7-year-old Italian-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI): (1) have problems with the production of wh- questions; (2) display a subject/object asymmetry in producing which- and who questions; (3) attempt to simplify questions, especially which- questions; (4) have difficulties with movement and verbal agreement in wh- questions. We elicited subject and object who and which NP questions in 10 children with SLI (M = 7;2), in 10 chronological age (CA)-matched controls (M = 7;2) and 10 language-matched controls (M = 5;2)...
September 21, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Lara Draghi, Laura Zampini
Morphosyntax is one of the most impaired aspects of language development in children with Down syndrome. The present study aimed to assess the emergence of multiword utterances in this population. Sixteen Italian-speaking children with Down syndrome were followed from 36 to 48 months of age. Data derived from an analysis of their spontaneous productions showed that although the mean productivity of multiword utterances increased over the three time points (36, 42 and 48 months), different growth patterns of early syntactic development could be identified: (1) null or marginal development; (2) a gradual increase in multiword production over time; (3) an increase in the production of more complex multiword utterances and a decrease or inverted U-shaped profile in the production of simpler multiword productions; (4) an inverted U-shaped profile in multiword productions...
September 19, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Charlotte Howland, Elise Baker, Natalie Munro, Sharynne McLeod
The aim of this research was to explore how preschool-aged children with phonological impairment (PI) realise grammatical morphemes across different phonological contexts (i.e. singleton consonant, consonant cluster, syllable), conditions of finiteness and individual morpheme types. Factors accounting for children's realisation of grammatical morphemes were also examined. Eighty-seven Australian English-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-5 years) with PI completed the Children's Assessment of Morphophonology (CHAMP)-an elicited response task-in addition to standardised tests of speech and receptive language...
September 12, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Elizabeth Murray, Donna Thomas, Jacqueline McKechnie
There is continuing debate about the origins of productive morphological errors in children with speech sound disorders. This is the case for children with theorised phonetic and motor disorders, such as children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS, e.g., Ekelman & Aram, 1983; McNeill & Gillon, 2013 ). The morphological skills of children with CAS remain relatively unexplored in pre-schoolers. We investigated English morphology in a retrospective, cross-sectional design of 26 children aged 4-5 years who completed the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool (2nd edition; Wiig, Secord & Semel, 2006)...
September 10, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Jonathan L Preston, Patricia McCabe, Mark Tiede, Douglas H Whalen
Speakers of North American English use variable tongue shapes for rhotic sounds. However, quantifying tongue shapes for rhotics can be challenging, and little is known about how tongue shape complexity corresponds to perceptual ratings of rhotic accuracy in children with residual speech sound errors (RSE). In this study, 16 children aged 9-16 with RSE and 14 children with typical speech (TS) development made multiple productions of 'Let Robby cross Church Street'. Midsagittal ultrasound images were collected once for children with TS and twice for children in the RSE group (once after 7 h of speech therapy, then again after another 7 h of therapy)...
September 10, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Nathalie Boonen, Hanne Kloots, Jo Verhoeven, Steven Gillis
Acoustic measurements have shown that the speech of hearing-impaired (HI) children differs from that of normally hearing (NH) children, even after several years of device use. This study focuses on the perception of HI speech in comparison to NH children's speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adult listeners can identify the speech of NH and HI children. Moreover, it is studied whether listeners' experience and the children's length of device use play a role in that assessment. For this study, short utterances of 7 children with a cochlear implant (CI), 7 children with an acoustic hearing aid (HA) and 7 children with NH were presented to 90 listeners who were required to specify the hearing status of each speech sample...
September 6, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Elaine Ballard, Helen Charters, Melenaite Taumoefolau
The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines on how to develop a naming test for an under-researched language, through adaptation of an English test. An additional consideration is how to make an assessment suitable for bilinguals. While test development involves a number of phases, the focus in this research is on test construction. To illustrate the steps required for this, a Tongan adaptation of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) for Tongan-English bilinguals is discussed. In the adaptation, language structure and cultural appropriateness are considered in item selection...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Juliane Hasselaar, Carolyn Letts, Cristina McKean
Identification of children with specific language impairment (SLI, now known as Developmental Language Disorder) remains challenging. Morphosyntax difficulties have been proposed as potential linguistic 'markers' for SLI across a number of languages. This study investigates the existence of such a clinical marker in German-speaking children with SLI, looking in particular at German case marking, and makes comparisons with matched typically developing groups and a group with isolated phonological impairment (PI)...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Anna Sfakianaki, Katerina Nicolaidis, Areti Okalidou, George Vlahavas
Hearing loss affects both speech perception and production with detrimental effects on various speech characteristics including coarticulatory dynamics. The aim of the present study is to explore consonant-to-vowel (C-to-V) and vowel-to-vowel (V-to-V) coarticulation in magnitude, direction and temporal extent in the speech of young adult male and female speakers of Greek with normal hearing (NH) and hearing impairment (HI). Nine intelligible speakers with profound HI, using conventional hearing aids, and five speakers with NH produced /pV1 CV2 / disyllables, with the point vowels /i, a, u/ and the consonants /p, t, s/, stressed either on the first or the second syllable...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Liang Chen, Jianghua Lei, Huina Gong
The effect of hearing status on the ability to speechread is poorly understood, and current findings are inconclusive regarding differences in speechreading performance between children and adults with hearing impairment and those with normal hearing. In this study, we investigated the effect of hearing status on speechreading skills in Chinese adolescents. Thirty seven severely deaf students with a mean pure-tone average of 93 dB hearing threshold level and 21 hearing controls aged 16 completed tasks measuring their speechreading of simplex finals (monophthongs), complex finals (diphthongs or vowel + nasal constellations) and initials (consonants) in Chinese...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Elena Babatsouli, Dimitrios Sotiropoulos
The proximity of consonant clusters in child speech is measured in the literature by the proportion of adult-like produced clusters to targeted clusters. With this measure, all clusters that are produced adult-like score 100%, while all others score 0%. Consonant clusters in child speech go through three main developmental stages: omission, reduction, two-member production (as targeted or substituted). Several authors claim that two-member clusters produced as two members should be considered acquired whether realised as targeted or not...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Margaret Kehoe, Tamara Patrucco-Nanchen, Margaret Friend, Pascal Zesiger
This study examines the relation between lexical and phonological variables in 40 French-speaking children, aged 2;5. Specifically, it examines the influence of phonetic complexity, phonological production, phonological memory and neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size. Children were divided into four groups on the basis of their scores on the French version of the Communicative Developmental Inventory (CDI): late1 (< 10%ile), late2 (15-25%ile), middle (40-60%ile) and precocious (> 90%ile). The children's lexicons were coded in terms of phonetic complexity and ND (one-and two-syllable words), and their production capacities were determined from measuring percent consonants correct (PCC) and the number of syllable-initial (CSI ) and -final (CSF ) consonants in their phonetic inventories...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Judit Bóna
Cluttering is a fluency disorder which can be characterised by excessive disfluencies. However, the low number of studies dealing with the analysis of disfluencies in cluttering show contradictory results. The aim of this article is to analyse disfluency clusters in cluttered, fast and typical speech. Frequency of all disfluency clusters and those complex disfluencies which contain more than two constituents were analysed. The number and types of the constituents of complex disfluencies and the reason of their occurrence were analysed in detail...
August 27, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Giovanna Lenoci, Irene Ricci
This study aims at evaluating speech motor skills in the fluent speech of a cohort of stuttering Italian children. Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder that may arise from an innate limitation of the speech motor control system, which fails to prepare and organize the movements required for fluent speech (Van Lieshout, Hulstijn, & Peters, 2004). Anticipatory coarticulation in CV sequences and stability of speech movements have been used as measures of the maturity of articulatory processes for fluent speech production...
August 23, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
HaKyung Kim, ShaoHua Gao, RunJie Shi, YuZhe Zhang, XiaoMing Liu, Bin Yi
Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is an objective multi-parametric measurement of voice quality, which has been widely used in different countries. Studies indicate that DSI may be influenced by vocal pathology, age and geographical factors, whereas gender does not significantly affect DSI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gender and age on the DSI and related parameters in a Shanghainese population. The present study measured the DSI and the parameters maximum phonation time (MPT), highest fundamental frequency (HF0), lowest intensity (LI) and Jitter in 187 Shanghainese subjects, including 106 young adults aged 18-23 years (52 males and 54 females) and 81 children aged 7-9 years (44 boys and 37 girls)...
August 23, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Michelle Pascoe, Olebeng Mahura, Jane Le Roux
English is one of eleven official languages in South Africa, but there is limited information on children's acquisition of English and other languages in this context. This paper describes speech development in 308 children aged 3;0-5;11 acquiring South African English in Cape Town. The study focused on English speech acquisition, although children were grouped by language background into monolingual, isiXhosa bilingual, Afrikaans bilingual and trilingual groups. The primary objective was to describe phonetic and phonological acquisition (percentage consonants and vowels correct (PCC and PVC); phonetic inventory and phonological processes) by children's age and language background...
August 21, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Maria Mastropavlou, Kakia Petinou, Ianthi Maria Tsimpli, Anastasios M Georgiou
The current study investigates the role of the morphophonological realisation of grammatical features as a compensatory mechanism for morphosyntactic deficits in specific language impairment (SLI). The phenomenon examined is past tense formation in Standard Modern Greek (SMG) and Cypriot Greek (CG) as it manifests a distinction in morphophonological salience realisation in the two linguistic via differential use of a stress shift and stressed syllabic augment [é] required for past tense rule formation. Participants were pre-schoolers with typical language development (TD) and children with SLI...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Danielle Brimo, Shannon Hall-Mills
Analysing spoken and written language samples across different genres provides speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and educators with information about adolescents' production of complex syntax, an important socially and academically related language skill. However, researchers report that production of complex syntax is affected by genre and modality. Although the narrative and expository genres elicit a greater amount of complex syntax than conversational discourse, it is unknown whether differences in production of complex syntax exist between the persuasive and expository genres...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Geoffrey A Coalson, Courtney T Byrd, Shanley B Treleaven, Lillian Dang
Non-word repetition is weaker for adults who stutter (AWS) compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS) as phonological demands increase. However, non-word stimuli used in previous studies varied by length, but did not vary with regard to segmental or metrical complexity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique influence of these two distinct types of complexity on non-word repetition in AWS and AWNS via administration of the Test of Phonological Structure (TOPhS). Twenty-four adults (12 AWNS, 12 AWS) repeated 96 non-words within a soundproof booth immediately after auditory presentation...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Laura M Tobin, Susan H Ebbels
This pilot study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention using visual strategies for improving accurate use of auxiliary and copula marking in singular and plural, past and present tense by students with moderate learning disability and complex needs. Eleven students, aged 10-14 years, in a specialist school based in the UK, participated in the study. A within participants design was used which included testing at baseline, pre- and post-intervention to consider progress with intervention as compared with progress during a baseline period of similar length...
July 26, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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