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Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics

Jae Yung Song
Although the acoustic properties of clear speech have been extensively studied, its underlying articulatory details have not been well understood. The purpose of the present study is twofold: To examine the specific articulatory processes of clear speech using ultrasound and to investigate whether and how the type of listener (hard of hearing, normal hearing) and the lexical property of words (frequency) interact in the production of clear speech. To this end, we examined productions of /ɑ/, /æ/ and /u/ from 16 speakers of US English...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Natalia Zharkova
In this study, vowel-on-consonant lingual coarticulation at [t] closure offset was compared in 5-year-old children and 13-year-old adolescents. The study aimed to establish whether, by the end of the closure, children from the younger age group adjust the tongue shape to the following vowels to the same extent as adolescents. Ten 5-year-olds and ten 13-year-olds, all speakers of Scottish Standard English, produced [t]-vowel syllables with the vowels [i] and [a], in a carrier phrase. Measures of tongue shape based on midsagittal ultrasound imaging data were used to compare anticipatory coarticulation and within-speaker variability across groups...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Suzanne C Hopf, Sharynne McLeod, Sarah H McDonagh
Fiji is a multilingual nation with few assessment tools addressing children's communication. This article describes the validation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for Fiji English, Standard Fijian, and Fiji Hindi. Informants were caregivers of 65 typically developing multilingual children (aged 5;3-10;5) attending a Fiji primary school. The students spoke an average of 2.9 languages (range = 1-5). Their main language was Standard Fijian (41.5%), Fiji Hindi (23.1%), Fiji English (20.0%), or Fijian dialect (15...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Danira Tavares Francisco, Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner
This study describes the criteria that are used in ultrasound to measure the differences between the tongue contours that produce [s] and [ʃ] sounds in the speech of adults, typically developing children (TDC), and children with speech sound disorder (SSD) with the phonological process of palatal fronting. Overlapping images of the tongue contours that resulted from 35 subjects producing the [s] and [ʃ] sounds were analysed to select 11 spokes on the radial grid that were spread over the tongue contour. The difference was calculated between the mean contour of the [s] and [ʃ] sounds for each spoke...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Janet Vuolo, Lisa Goffman
This exploratory treatment study used phonetic transcription and speech kinematics to examine changes in segmental and articulatory variability. Nine children, ages 4 to 8 years old, served as participants, including two with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), five with speech sound disorder (SSD) and two who were typically developing. Children practised producing agent + action phrases in an imitation task (low linguistic load) and a retrieval task (high linguistic load) over five sessions. In the imitation task in session one, both participants with CAS showed high degrees of segmental and articulatory variability...
December 14, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Horabail S Venkatagiri, Nuggehalli P Nataraja, M Deepthi
The present study investigated the effect of certain unique morphophonemic features of Kannada words on the rate of stutters in a group of 22 adolescent and adult persons who stuttered in an oral reading task. A linear regression analysis showed that word length ranging from 1 to 8 syllables was a potent variable in the occurrence of stutters accounting for 25.3% of stutters. A composite index of morphophonemic complexity with points assigned for sandhi, geminates, consonant clusters, and number of morphemes accounted for a small 7...
December 12, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Andrea C Ash, Sean M Redmond, Geralyn R Timler, Jacob Kean
The addition of social (pragmatic) communication disorder [S(P)CD] to the DSM-5 taxonomy has left clinicians and researchers searching for appropriate diagnostic measures. Factor analysis procedures examined the extent to which S(P)CD symptoms presented within the Children's Communication Checklist-Second Edition (CCC-2) represented a unique construct and whether these factors were influenced by children's sex. Parents of 208 children (males = 125 and females = 83) from a community-based sample completed the CCC-2...
December 12, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Alyson Budd, Murray Schellenberg, Bryan Gick
Tongue bifurcation (also called 'splitting' or 'forking') is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure in the body modification community that involves splitting the anterior tongue down the centre line. The implications of this procedure for speech have not been systematically studied; a few case studies have been published and suggest that there may be effects, primarily on fricatives. This article presents the first attempt to examine the acoustic implications of tongue bifurcation on speech production using a larger population sample...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Riitta Ronkainen, Minna Laakso, Eila Lonka, Tuula Tykkyläinen
This study examines lexical intervention sessions in speech and language therapy for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Particular focus is on the therapist's professional practices in doing the therapy. The participants in this study are three congenitally deaf children with CIs together with their speech and language therapist. The video recorded therapy sessions of these children are studied using conversation analysis. The analysis reveals the ways in which the speech and language therapist formulates her speaking turns to support the children's lexical learning in task interaction...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Fiona E Gibbon, Alice Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Benjamin Munson, Sarah K Schellinger, Jan Edwards
Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children's productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgements of children's productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgements of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgements of a parameter that is relatively less continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Wen-Hui Sah, Pao-Chuan Torng
This study investigates the ability of Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to use mental state terms in narratives. The narrative data are from 16 children with ASD and 16 typically developing children, matched on language and cognitive abilities. The narratives were elicited using Frog, where are you? Participants' use of lexical expressions referring to emotion, cognition, desire and perception was examined. The 'deer episode' of the story was chosen to analyse children's ability to talk about misrepresentation...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Joanne Cleland, James M Scobbie, Cornelia Heyde, Zoe Roxburgh, Alan A Wrench
Acoustic and articulatory studies demonstrate covert contrast in perceptually neutralised phonemic contrasts in both typical children and children with speech disorders. These covert contrasts are thought to be relatively common and symptomatic of phonetic speech disorders. However, clinicians in the speech therapy clinic have had no easy way of identifying this covertness. This study uses ultrasound tongue imaging to compare tongue contours for /t/and /k/in seven children with persistent velar fronting. We present a method of overlaying tongue contours to identify covert contrast at the articulatory level...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Sarah K Schellinger, Benjamin Munson, Jan Edwards
Past studies have shown incontrovertible evidence for the existence of covert contrasts in children's speech, i.e. differences between target productions that are nonetheless transcribed with the same phonetic symbol. Moreover, there is evidence that these are relevant to forming prognoses and tracking progress in children with speech sound disorder. A challenge remains to determine the most efficient and reliable methods for assessing covert contrasts. This study investigates how readily listeners can identify covert contrasts in children's speech when using a continuous rating scale in the form of a visual analogue scale (VAS) to denote children's productions...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Anette Lohmander, Inger Lundeborg, Christina Persson
Normative language-based data are important for comparing speech performances of clinical groups. The Swedish Articulation and Nasality Test (SVANTE) was developed to enable a detailed speech assessment. This study's aim was to present normative data on articulation and nasality in Swedish speakers. Single word production, sentence repetition and connected speech were collected using SVANTE in 443 individuals. Mean (SD) and prevalences in the groups of 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, 16- and 19-year-olds were calculated from phonetic transcriptions or ordinal rating...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Philippa Munro, Samantha Siyambalapitiya
Limited research has investigated treatment of single word comprehension in people with aphasia, despite numerous studies examining treatment of naming deficits. This study employed a single case experimental design to examine efficacy of a modified semantic feature analysis (SFA) therapy in improving word comprehension in an individual with Global aphasia, who presented with a semantically based comprehension impairment. Ten treatment sessions were conducted over a period of two weeks. Following therapy, the participant demonstrated improved comprehension of treatment items and generalisation to control items, measured by performance on a spoken word picture matching task...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Seung-Yun Yang, Diana Sidtis, Seung Nam Yang
This study investigates the effects of left- (LHD) or right-hemisphere damage (RHD) on the production of matched idiomatic or literal expressions by examining healthy listeners' abilities to identify, evaluate and perceptually characterize the utterances. Native speakers of Korean with LHD or RHD and healthy controls (HCs) produced six ditropically ambiguous (idiomatic or literal) sentences in an elicitation and a repetition task. Healthy listeners identified the sentence types and indicated how well each utterance represented the intended meaning...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Natalia Zharkova, Fiona E Gibbon, Alice Lee
Ultrasound tongue imaging has become a promising technique for detecting covert contrasts, due to the developments in data analysis methods that allow for processing information on tongue shape from young children. An important feature concerning analyses of ultrasound data from children who are likely to produce covert contrasts is that the data are likely to be collected without head-to-transducer stabilisation, due to the speakers' age. This article is a review of the existing methods applicable in analysing data from non-stabilised recordings...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Daphna Harel, Elaine Russo Hitchcock, Daniel Szeredi, José Ortiz, Tara McAllister Byun
Perceptual ratings aggregated across multiple nonexpert listeners can be used to measure covert contrast in child speech. Online crowdsourcing provides access to a large pool of raters, but for practical purposes, researchers may wish to use smaller samples. The ratings obtained from these smaller samples may not maintain the high levels of validity seen in larger samples. This study aims to measure the validity and reliability of crowdsourced continuous ratings of child speech, obtained through Visual Analog Scaling, and to identify ways to improve these measurements...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Fiona E Gibbon, Alice Lee
The phenomenon of covert contrasts has intrigued researchers and clinicians since it was first identified using instrumental data nearly 50 years ago. The term covert contrast refers to phonological contrasts that listeners do not readily identify and which therefore pass unrecorded in transcription-based studies. Covert contrasts are viewed as significant from theoretical and clinical perspectives. Although influential, there are relatively few instrumental studies of covert contrasts. The studies that do exist are limited to revealing contrasts that manifest in specific phonetic parameters or phonological processes...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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