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Viral Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925863/susceptibility-of-rubella-among-pregnant-women-attending-the-antenatal-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-jabalpur-central-india
#1
Bhupesh K Kori, Kavita N Singh, Ravendra K Sharma, Bhagwati S Sharma, Poorva Badkur, Pradip V Barde
The purpose of this study was to evaluate rubella susceptibility of pregnant women from central India as rubella infection can be devastating for the newborn if it occurs in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy, which may lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). There are very few studies about seroprevalence of rubella from India and none from central India. The study was conducted among women attending the obstetric department of a tertiary care hospital, in which 369 antenatal cases were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibody for rubella and its titer...
December 7, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918250/evaluation-of-immunostimulatory-effects-of-n-2-hydroxy-propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-chloride-for-improving-live-attenuated-hepatitis-a-virus-vaccine-efficacy
#2
Wei Tao, Ting Fu, Zhuojing He, Ruxi Hu, Lan Jia, Yan Hong
This study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) as an adjuvant for improving a commercial live attenuated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine efficacy in mice. Mice in the experimental group were intraperitoneally immunized with a solution of HTCC and live attenuated HAV vaccine. And for those injected with sterile water, HTCC or live attenuated HAV vaccine were treated as mock group, negative group, and positive group in turn. The serum HAV-specific IgG titers and the ratios of the serum HAV-specific IgG2a/IgG1 in the experimental group were significantly increased (p = 0...
December 5, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875662/influence-of-age-and-dose-of-african-swine-fever-virus-infections-on-clinical-outcome-and-blood-parameters-in-pigs
#3
Jacob Post, Eefke Weesendorp, Maria Montoya, Willie L Loeffen
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease for domestic pigs, leading to serious economic losses in countries where ASF is endemic. Despite extensive research, efficient vaccines against ASF are lacking. Since peripheral blood cells are important mediators for vaccines, we study the impact of ASF on blood parameters in pigs with different ages and infected with different doses of ASF virus. Four different groups were studied: (1) 12 weeks of age/low virus dose; (2) 12 weeks of age/high virus dose; (3) 18 weeks of age/low virus dose; and (4) 18 weeks of age/high virus dose...
November 22, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870604/immunoreactivity-analysis-of-the-nonstructural-proteins-of-human-enterovirus-71
#4
Xuyan Chen, Bo Qin, Min Shi, Longying Zhu, Menglin Sun, Xufeng Liu, Jianhua Zhang
Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is one of the main etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has been prevalent mainly in the Asia-Pacific region in the past several decades. The nonstructural proteins of EV-A71 will be expressed significantly during viral replication in host cells after EV-A71 infection. For the determination of the antibodies response against nonstructural proteins of EV-A71, in this study, the complete 2ABC, 3ABC, and 3D proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were then studied for their immunoreactivity by immunoblot assay and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively...
November 21, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870601/t-cell-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-in-the-setting-of-advanced-hiv-and-multiple-varicella-zoster-virus-recurrences
#5
Rachel A Bender Ignacio, Meena S Ramchandani, Kerry J Laing, Christine M Johnston, David M Koelle
A woman presented with at least four manifestations of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, including central nervous system vasculitis, during her first 2 years of HIV infection. We evaluated her CD4 T cell responses to VZV given the infrequency with which multiple recurrences of VZV occurred, especially following immune reconstitution on antiretroviral therapy.
November 21, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860556/immunopathogenesis-of-dengue-virus-induced-redundant-cell-death-apoptosis-and-pyroptosis
#6
San Suwanmanee, Natthanej Luplertlop
Dengue virus infection is a self-limited condition, which is of particular importance in tropical and subtropical regions and for which no specific treatment or effective vaccine is available. There are several hypotheses explaining dengue pathogenesis. These usually refer to host immune responses, including antibody-dependent enhancement, cytokine expression, and dengue virus particles including NS1 protein, which lead to cell death by both apoptosis and pyroptosis. A clear understanding of the pathogenesis should facilitate the development of vaccines and therapies...
November 18, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830995/oncogenic-role-of-tumor-viruses-in-humans
#7
Nimrah Akram, Muhammad Imran, Mamoona Noreen, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Viruses are the intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. Approximately, 20% of all human oncogenesis is caused by cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses. Viral infection causes chronic inflammation leading to cell death, uncontrollable proliferation, and modulated expression of some of the regulatory proteins. Oncogenesis is a multistep phenomenon in which normal host cells are transformed into cancerous cells on the basis of host genetic variability...
November 10, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809682/human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-impairs-ifn-alpha-production-induced-by-tlr-7-agonist-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#8
Ashwini Dhamanage, Madhuri Thakar, Ramesh Paranjape
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play an important role in innate immune response against viruses, mainly through interferon-α (IFN-α) secretion. Impaired IFN-α secretion has been observed in patients with acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and the reasons for this impairment are still obscure. To know the grounds behind this situation, HIV-1 viral copy numbers similar to those found in primary HIV-1 infection were used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pDCs in this study...
November 3, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809679/induction-of-both-local-immune-response-in-mice-and-protection-in-a-rabbit-model-by-intranasal-immunization-with-modified-vaccinia-ankara-virus-expressing-a-secreted-form-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-glycoprotein-d
#9
María Paula Del Medico Zajac, Flavia Adriana Zanetti, María Soledad Esusy, Carlos Rodolfo Federico, Osvaldo Zabal, Alejandro Rafael Valera, Gabriela Calamante
In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of mucosal delivery of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing the secreted version of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein D (MVA-gDs) without addition of adjuvant in two animal models. First, we demonstrated the capability of MVA-gDs of inducing both local and systemic anti-gD humoral immune response after intranasal immunization of mice. Then, we confirmed that two doses of MVA-gDs administered intranasally to rabbits induced systemic anti-gD antibodies and conferred protection against BoHV-1 challenge...
November 3, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805477/role-of-cd8-t-cells-in-the-selection-of-hiv-1-immune-escape-mutations
#10
David Arcia, Liliana Acevedo-Sáenz, María Teresa Rugeles, Paula A Velilla
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection represents one of the biggest public health problems worldwide. The immune response, mainly the effector mechanisms mediated by CD8(+) T cells, induces the selection of mutations that allows the virus to escape the immune control. These mutations are generally selected within CD8(+) T cell epitopes restricted to human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I), leading to a decrease in the presentation and recognition of the epitope, decreasing the activation of CD8(+) T cells...
November 2, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788058/levels-of-circulating-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-in-children-with-symptomatic-dengue-evaluated-by-elisa-and-bead-based-assays
#11
Federico Perdomo-Celis, Doris M Salgado, Carlos F Narváez
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a key cytokine in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection, and its accurate detection in several types of human samples is critical. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the gold standard for the detection of TNF-α, but multiplexed bead-based assays such as cytometric bead array (CBA) are now frequently used. Here, using ELISA and two CBAs commercially available, we measured TNF-α concentrations in plasma and serum from children with acute dengue virus infection and healthy controls...
October 27, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726642/reservoirs-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#12
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875663/cross-reactive-potential-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-indian-individuals-against-multiple-hiv-1-potential-t-cell-epitope-gag-variants
#13
Neema Negi, Madhu Vajpayee, Ravinder Singh, Ashutosh Sharma, Kailapuri G Murugavel, Udaykumar Ranga, Madhuri Thakar, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Bimal Kumar Das
Vaccine immunogen with expanded T cell coverage for protection against HIV-1 diversity is the need of the hour. This study was undertaken to examine the ability of T cells to respond to a broad spectrum of potential T cell epitope (PTE) peptides containing variable as well as conserved sequences that would most accurately reflect immune responses to different circulating strains. Set of 320 PTE peptides were pooled in a matrix format that included 40 pools of 32 peptides per pool. These pools were used in interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay for screening and confirmation of HIV-1 PTE Gag-specific T cell immune responses in 34 HIV-1 seropositive Indian individuals...
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860554/a-vaccine-against-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus
#14
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860553/developing-an-inactivated-rotavirus-vaccine-and-evaluating-the-immunogenicity-against-a-commercially-available-attenuated-rotavirus-vaccine-using-a-mice-animal-model
#15
Ayaa S M Hashim, Khaled M A Aboshanab, Aly F M El-Sayed
There is a high demand for public immunization against Rotavirus (RV), especially in Africa. In Africa, the attenuated RV vaccination is contraindicated in patients with immune diseases and nutrition deficiency. Therefore, the inactivated RV vaccine (IRVV) could be an alternative. In this study, we aimed to develop a pentavalent-IRVV using the most circulating RV strains in Egypt and evaluate it against the commercially available Rotarix(®) vaccine. Trial-IRVV was developed with 5% sucrose, 2% polysorbate-80, and adsorbed on Alum to potentiate the vaccine immune response...
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834623/evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-of-a-potyvirus-like-particle-as-an-adjuvant-of-a-synthetic-peptide
#16
Albertina Cárdenas-Vargas, Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga, Abel Gutierrez-Ortega, Claudia Charles-Niño, César Pedroza-Roldán
Improvement of current vaccines is highly necessary to increase immunogenicity levels and protection against several pathogens. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising approaches for vaccines because they emulate infectious virus structure, but lack any genetic material needed for replication. Plant viruses have emerged as a potential framework for VLP design, mainly because there is no preexisting immunity in mammals. In this study, we evaluated the scaffold of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as a VLP adjuvant for a short synthetic peptide derived from the Hemagglutinin protein of AH1 N1 influenza virus-hemagglutinin (VLP-HA)...
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834618/assessment-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-in-young-rabbits
#17
Sonsoles Pacho, Elias Dahdouh, Javier Merino, Monica Suárez
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDVb) is the new variant of the classical RHDV, a virulent pathogen responsible for an acute disease in young rabbits. The virus invades internal organs, especially the liver, spleen, kidneys, and gut; prevents coagulation; and causes liver necrosis. This eventually leads to quick death of the animal because of hemorrhage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a new vaccine against RHDVb in rabbits at a young age, after experimental infection using four different viral isolates...
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676210/role-of-some-predominant-host-immunomodulators-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-severity-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
Shafiq Ur Rehman, Mahd Rauf, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammed Haroon Hamed, Ishtiaq Qadri
Hepatitis B and C infections can be either acute or chronic. The chronic infection can culminate in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Influence of the host genetic makeup on conversion of acute to chronic infection, development of cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma is an interesting area of research. Variability in different immune system genes may account for such differences in the outcome of infection. This article discusses single nucleotide polymorphisms in different host immunomodulator genes that have been frequently reported to influence the outcome of infection and severity of disease...
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643915/modulation-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-through-interaction-with-the-porcine-intercellular-adhesion-molecule-3-grabbing-nonintegrin
#19
Pablo E Piñeyro, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Scott P Kenney, C Lynn Heffron, Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important global swine pathogen. PRRSV infects porcine dendritic cells (DCs), but the effects of the interactions with DCs are largely unknown. Current research focuses on the production and regulation of interferons and selected inflammatory cytokines in DCs, which may play key roles in immune modulation. In addition, PRRSV also downregulates swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I), SLA-II, and CD80/86 costimulatory molecules in DCs...
December 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750030/evaluation-of-nlrc4-nlrp1-and-nlrp3-as-components-of-inflammasomes-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients
#20
Azadeh Askari, Reza Nosratabadi, Mehdi Khaleghinia, Nahid Zainodini, Derek Kennedy, Ziba Shabani, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Nucleotide-binding domain leucine repeats (NLRs) are required for the recognition of various molecules that are expressed within microbes and are able to actuate appropriate immune responses via activation of cytokines. The current study evaluates the expression levels of NLRP1 and NLRC4, which are components of inflammasomes, in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus-infected patients. This study recruited two series of CHB patients (each contained 60 patients) and 60 healthy controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to evaluate mRNA expression levels of NLRP1, NLRP3, and NLRC4 as well as hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA copy number...
November 2016: Viral Immunology
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