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Viral Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346804/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lahore-pakistan
#1
Sana Mansha, Muhammad Imran, Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah, Muhsin Jamal, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Muhammmad Saleem, Sher Zaman Safi, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major cause of the global burden of hepatitis. One of the main routes of transmission for both viruses is through exposure to infected blood, which includes sharing blood-contaminated syringes and needles. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346793/early-immune-responses-to-marek-s-disease-vaccines
#2
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken cells and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. Although MD vaccines have been in use for several decades, the exact mechanism of vaccine-induced protection is unclear. It is believed that the innate immune system plays a role in vaccine-induced immunity against pathogenic strains of MDV. To shed light on the possible function of the innate immunity in vaccine-mediated protection, we investigated the effect of vaccination, Rispens/CVI988, on the activation of cellular components of the innate immune system by analyzing the expression pattern of select immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils (CT) and duodenum of two MD-susceptible and MD-resistant chicken lines at 3, 5, and 10 days postvaccination (dpv)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333576/epstein-barr-virus-lytic-reactivation-activates-b-cells-polyclonally-and-induces-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-expression-a-mechanism-underlying-autoimmunity-and-its-contribution-to-graves-disease
#3
Keiko Nagata, Keisuke Kumata, Yuji Nakayama, Yukio Satoh, Hirotsugu Sugihara, Sayuri Hara, Michiko Matsushita, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Masako Kato, Ichiro Murakami, Kazuhiko Hayashi
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that results in and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, and the reactivation of persisting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in B lymphocytes induces the differentiation of host B cells into plasma cells. We previously reported that some EBV-infected B cells had thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) as surface immunoglobulins (Igs), and EBV reactivation induced these TRAb+EBV+ cells to produce TRAbs. EBV reactivation induces Ig production from host B cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine total Ig productions from B cell culture fluids and to detect activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 in culture B cells during EBV reactivation induction and then we discussed the mechanisms of EBV reactivation-induced Ig production in relation to autoimmunity...
March 23, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304236/increased-spontaneous-programmed-cell-death-is-associated-with-impaired-cytokine-secretion-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-hepatitis-c-virus-positive-patients
#4
Abdulkarim Alhetheel, Ahmed Albarrag, Zahid Shakoor, Khalid Alswat, Ayman Abdo, Waleed Al-Hamoudi, Suliman Alomar
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) play a critical role in clearing hepatitis C virus (HCV). PBMC defects have been linked with HCV infection; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We hypothesized that PBMCs of HCV-infected patients are more susceptible to programmed cell death (PCD), and are therefore unable to clear HCV. We compared spontaneous PBMC PCD and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1, -6, -8, -10, and -12] secretion between untreated (naive) HCV(+) and treated [sustained responder (SR)] patients with HCV, and HCV(-) healthy controls...
March 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281914/vaccine-development
#5
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151075/association-of-snps-from-il1a-il1b-and-il6-genes-with-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-among-pregnant-women
#6
Wioletta Izabela Wujcicka, Jan Szczęsny Wilczyński, Dorota Ewa Nowakowska
The study was aimed to estimate the role and prevalence rates of genotypes, haplotypes, and alleles, located within the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin (IL) 1A, IL1B, and IL6 genes, in the occurrence and development of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection among pregnant women. A research was conducted in 129 pregnant women, out of whom, 65 were HCMV infected and 64 were age-matched control uninfected individuals. HCMV DNA was quantitated for UL55 gene by the real-time Q PCR in the body fluids...
February 2, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151065/relative-mrna-expression-levels-of-restriction-factors-and-antiviral-genes-in-fetal-and-adult-human-monocytes-and-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#7
Karen Trang, Rui André Raposo, Margaret M Lowe, Elisabeth R Krow-Lucal, Wes Yonemoto, Vinicius D Cabido, Devi SenGupta, Joseph M McCune
Among untreated HIV-infected pregnant women, the frequency of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is low (5-10%), with most infections occurring at or after birth. Given findings that fetal and adult monocytes are distinct from one another in terms of basal transcriptional profiles, and in phosphorylation of signal transducer and activators of transcription in response to cytokines, we hypothesized that fetal CD14+CD16- monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) might, compared to their adult counterparts, express higher levels of transcripts for restriction factors and antiviral factors at baseline and/or after stimulation with cytokines that might be induced upon transmission of HIV in utero, for example, IFNα, IFNγ, and IL-6...
February 2, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118120/development-of-a-time-and-cost-benefit-antibody-binding-test-based-method-for-determination-of-rabies-vaccine-potency
#8
Vahid Asgary, Nazanin Mojtabavi, Alireza Janani, Tahereh Mousavi, Jamshid Hadjati, Mohammad Sadeq Khosravy, Reza Ahangari Cohan
This study is an improvement on the antibody binding test, known as ABT method, to develop a simple and fast method in comparison with NIH for determination of rabies vaccine potency. In the current study, several commercial human and veterinary vaccines were tested using both modified ABT and NIH methods. The ED50 was calculated using the probit method and the relative potency of each vaccine was measured based on the reference vaccine. The test was repeated four times to calculate the reproducibility of the method...
January 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118096/hepatitis-c-virus-and-interferon-free-antiviral-therapeutics-revolution-implications-for-pakistan
#9
Muhammad Sohail Afzal
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health concern worldwide as a leading cause of liver-related mortalities and morbidities. Pakistan ranks second among countries with endemic HCV infection; ∼11 million cases are reported so far. HCV burden is continuously rising in Pakistan, mainly because of unsafe blood transfusions, surgical procedures, dental procedures, untrained clinicians, reuse of syringes, barbers, and ear/nose piercing tools. Lack of awareness about HCV transmission routes among the general and high-risk population is a major hurdle in disease management...
January 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112593/oral-combination-vaccine-comprising-bifidobacterium-displaying-hepatitis-c-virus-nonstructural-protein-3-and-interferon-%C3%AE-induces-strong-cellular-immunity-specific-to-nonstructural-protein-3-in-mice
#10
Koichi Kitagawa, Chika Omoto, Tsugumi Oda, Ayame Araki, Hiroki Saito, Katsumi Shigemura, Takane Katayama, Hak Hotta, Toshiro Shirakawa
We previously generated an oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine using Bifidobacterium displaying the HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) polypeptide. NS3-specific cellular immunity is important for viral clearance and recovery from HCV infection. In this study, we enhanced the cellular immune responses induced by our oral HCV vaccine, Bifidobacterium longum 2165 (B. longum 2165), by combining interferon-α (IFN-α) as an adjuvant with the vaccine in a mouse experimental model. IFN-α is a widely used cytokine meeting the standard of care (SOC) for HCV infection and plays various immunoregulatory roles...
January 23, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085643/presentation-of-a-conserved-adenoviral-epitope-on-hla-c-0702-allows-evasion-of-natural-killer-but-not-t-cell-responses
#11
Anna Keib, Patrick S Günther, Benjamin Faist, Anne Halenius, Dirk H Busch, Michael Neuenhahn, Gerhard Jahn, Kevin M Dennehy
Infection with adenovirus is a major cause of infectious mortality in children following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. While adoptive transfer of epitope-specific T cells is a particularly effective therapeutic approach, there are few suitable adenoviral peptide epitopes described to date. Here, we describe the adenoviral peptide epitope FRKDVNMVL from hexon protein, and its variant FRKDVNMIL, that is restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C*0702. Since HLA-C*0702 can be recognized by both T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, we characterized responses by both cell types...
January 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085634/an-interleukin-12-adjuvanted-herpes-simplex-virus-2-dna-vaccine-is-more-protective-than-a-glycoprotein-d-subunit-vaccine-in-a-high-dose-murine-challenge-model
#12
Kenneth C Bagley, Jennifer A Schwartz, Hanne Andersen, John H Eldridge, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Joshua J Geltz, William P Halford, Timothy R Fouts
Vaccination is a proven intervention against human viral diseases; however, success against Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) remains elusive. Most HSV-2 vaccines tested in humans to date contained just one or two immunogens, such as the virion attachment receptor glycoprotein D (gD) and/or the envelope fusion protein, glycoprotein B (gB). At least three factors may have contributed to the failures of subunit-based HSV-2 vaccines. First, immune responses directed against one or two viral antigens may lack sufficient antigenic breadth for efficacy...
January 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061318/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-promotes-the-invasion-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-upregulation-of-toll-like-receptor-2
#13
Shan Cheng, Bin Zhang, Ji-Ying Du, Yu-Hong Jin, Hai-Yang Lang, Li-Hua Zeng
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major risk factors leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) plays a pivotal role in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is also considered to mediate tumor progression. However, the interaction between HBsAg and TLR2 in HCC progression remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the study was to explore the effect of HBsAg-TLR2 pathway on growth and invasion of HBV-related HCC cells and examine the potential mechanisms been involved...
January 6, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051930/ifn-%C3%AE-attenuates-spontaneous-lymphocyte-proliferation-by-fuelling-regulatory-t-cells-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#14
Velislava I Terzieva, Dora N Popova, Ivaylo I Elenkov
HIV infection is characterized by a high degree of immune activation. It has an impact on CD4 cell count and populations' distribution and function. T regulatory cells (Tregs) were found to play a controversial role in the course of infection because of their beneficial effect on the degree of immune activation and unfavorable influence on the antigen-specific responses. The goal of the present work was to study the relationship among interferon-γ (IFN-γ), spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation, and regulatory T cells in HIV patients receiving therapy...
January 4, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267428/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#15
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151089/role-of-tlr9-in-oncogenic-virus-produced-cancer
#16
Cecilia Martínez-Campos, Ana I Burguete-García, Vicente Madrid-Marina
Nucleic acid recognition by toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) initiates signaling pathways that regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines or type I interferons, as well as many other molecules required to initialize the immune response. The use of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been crucial to emulate the recognition of DNA sequences by TLR9. Furthermore, ODN administration to mice has shown to confer protection against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. In contrast, oncogenic DNA viruses like hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papilloma virus inhibit TLR9 expression, thus contributing to the establishment of chronic viral infections...
March 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151059/the-synergistic-effect-of-tnf%C3%AE-%C3%A2-308%C3%A2-g-a-and-tgf%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-509%C3%A2-c-t-polymorphisms-on-hepatic-fibrosis-progression-in-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-4-patients
#17
Noha G Bader El Din, Sally Farouk, Reem El-Shenawy, Mostafa M Elhady, Marwa K Ibrahim, Reham M Dawood, Ahmed M Salem, Mostafa K El Awady
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ1) cytokines are highly implicated in liver fibrosis. Polymorphisms in these cytokines affect their expression, secretion, and activity. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TNFα -308 G/A and TGFβ1 -509 C/T polymorphism on hepatic fibrosis progression in Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4. Genotyping of TNFα -308 G/A and TGFβ1 -509 C/T was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 122 subjects (50 healthy controls and 72 HCV patients)...
March 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051364/the-role-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-viral-infection
#18
Megan A O'Connor, Jessica L Rastad, William R Green
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous immature myeloid cells that are well described as potent immune regulatory cells during human cancer and murine tumor models. Reports of MDSCs during viral infections remain limited, and their association with immunomodulation of viral diseases is still being defined. Here, we provide an overview of MDSCs or MDSC-like cells identified during viral infections, including murine viral models and human viral diseases. Understanding the similarities and/or differences of virally induced versus tumor-derived MDSCs will be important for designing future immunotherapeutic approaches...
March 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996636/immunogenicity-evaluation-of-modified-adenovirus-vaccines-expressing-porcine-circovirus-type-2-capsid-protein-in-pigs
#19
Delong Li, Dan Xu, Zhenyu Wang, Qian Du, Lingling Chang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) adenovirus vaccine has been reported, but strong immune responses induced by adenovirus vector can decrease vaccine efficacy. To reduce the immunogenicity of adenovirus proteins, in previous study, we constructed the PCV2 adenovirus vaccine either modified with human cytomegalovirus first intron (Intron A) and woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) to increase the expression of Cap, or coexpressed porcine tumor necrosis factor-related activate protein (CD40L) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) to improve the immunogenicity of PCV2 Cap adenovirus vaccine...
March 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925863/susceptibility-of-rubella-among-pregnant-women-attending-the-antenatal-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-jabalpur-central-india
#20
Bhupesh K Kori, Kavita N Singh, Ravendra K Sharma, Bhagwati S Sharma, Poorva Badkur, Pradip V Barde
The purpose of this study was to evaluate rubella susceptibility of pregnant women from central India as rubella infection can be devastating for the newborn if it occurs in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy, which may lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). There are very few studies about seroprevalence of rubella from India and none from central India. The study was conducted among women attending the obstetric department of a tertiary care hospital, in which 369 antenatal cases were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibody for rubella and its titer...
March 2017: Viral Immunology
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