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Viral Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085643/presentation-of-a-conserved-adenoviral-epitope-on-hla-c-0702-allows-evasion-of-natural-killer-but-not-t-cell-responses
#1
Anna Keib, Patrick S Günther, Benjamin Faist, Anne Halenius, Dirk H Busch, Michael Neuenhahn, Gerhard Jahn, Kevin M Dennehy
Infection with adenovirus is a major cause of infectious mortality in children following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. While adoptive transfer of epitope-specific T cells is a particularly effective therapeutic approach, there are few suitable adenoviral peptide epitopes described to date. Here, we describe the adenoviral peptide epitope FRKDVNMVL from hexon protein, and its variant FRKDVNMIL, that is restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C*0702. Since HLA-C*0702 can be recognized by both T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, we characterized responses by both cell types...
January 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085634/an-interleukin-12-adjuvanted-herpes-simplex-virus-2-dna-vaccine-is-more-protective-than-a-glycoprotein-d-subunit-vaccine-in-a-high-dose-murine-challenge-model
#2
Kenneth C Bagley, Jennifer A Schwartz, Hanne Andersen, John H Eldridge, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Joshua J Geltz, William P Halford, Timothy R Fouts
Vaccination is a proven intervention against human viral diseases; however, success against Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) remains elusive. Most HSV-2 vaccines tested in humans to date contained just one or two immunogens, such as the virion attachment receptor glycoprotein D (gD) and/or the envelope fusion protein, glycoprotein B (gB). At least three factors may have contributed to the failures of subunit-based HSV-2 vaccines. First, immune responses directed against one or two viral antigens may lack sufficient antigenic breadth for efficacy...
January 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061318/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-promotes-the-invasion-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-upregulation-of-toll-like-receptor-2
#3
Shan Cheng, Bin Zhang, Ji-Ying Du, Yu-Hong Jin, Hai-Yang Lang, Li-Hua Zeng
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major risk factors leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) plays a pivotal role in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is also considered to mediate tumor progression. However, the interaction between HBsAg and TLR2 in HCC progression remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the study was to explore the effect of HBsAg-TLR2 pathway on growth and invasion of HBV-related HCC cells and examine the potential mechanisms been involved...
January 6, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051930/ifn-%C3%AE-attenuates-spontaneous-lymphocyte-proliferation-by-fuelling-regulatory-t-cells-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#4
Velislava I Terzieva, Dora N Popova, Ivaylo I Elenkov
HIV infection is characterized by a high degree of immune activation. It has an impact on CD4 cell count and populations' distribution and function. T regulatory cells (Tregs) were found to play a controversial role in the course of infection because of their beneficial effect on the degree of immune activation and unfavorable influence on the antigen-specific responses. The goal of the present work was to study the relationship among interferon-γ (IFN-γ), spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation, and regulatory T cells in HIV patients receiving therapy...
January 4, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051364/the-role-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-viral-infection
#5
Megan A O'Connor, Jessica L Rastad, William R Green
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous immature myeloid cells that are well described as potent immune regulatory cells during human cancer and murine tumor models. Reports of MDSCs during viral infections remain limited, and their association with immunomodulation of viral diseases is still being defined. Here, we provide an overview of MDSCs or MDSC-like cells identified during viral infections, including murine viral models and human viral diseases. Understanding the similarities and/or differences of virally induced versus tumor-derived MDSCs will be important for designing future immunotherapeutic approaches...
January 4, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005469/clinical-significance-of-dynamics-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-on-circulating-cd14-monocytes-and-cd19-b-cells-with-the-progression-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#6
Zi-Yi Huang, Ping Xu, Jian-Hua Li, Chen-Hua Zeng, Hua-Feng Song, Hui Chen, Yi-Bei Zhu, Ying-Ying Song, Han-Lin Lu, Chun-Ping Shen, Xue-Guang Zhang, Mei-Ying Wu, Xue-Feng Wang
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression has been revealed to be upregulated on T cells and contributes to T cell exhaustion in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), the ligand of PD-1, on circulating CD14(+) monocytes and CD19(+) B cells of HBV-infected patients at the stages of chronic HBV (CHB) infection, liver cirrhosis (LC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. The results showed that compared with healthy controls, the levels of PD-L1 expression on CD14(+) and CD19(+) populations were both upregulated in CHB, LC, and HCC groups...
December 22, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996636/immunogenicity-evaluation-of-modified-adenovirus-vaccines-expressing-porcine-circovirus-type-2-capsid-protein-in-pigs
#7
Delong Li, Dan Xu, Zhenyu Wang, Qian Du, Lingling Chang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) adenovirus vaccine has been reported, but strong immune responses induced by adenovirus vector can decrease vaccine efficacy. To reduce the immunogenicity of adenovirus proteins, in previous study, we constructed the PCV2 adenovirus vaccine either modified with human cytomegalovirus first intron (Intron A) and woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) to increase the expression of Cap, or coexpressed porcine tumor necrosis factor-related activate protein (CD40L) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) to improve the immunogenicity of PCV2 Cap adenovirus vaccine...
December 20, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925863/susceptibility-of-rubella-among-pregnant-women-attending-the-antenatal-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-jabalpur-central-india
#8
Bhupesh K Kori, Kavita N Singh, Ravendra K Sharma, Bhagwati S Sharma, Poorva Badkur, Pradip V Barde
The purpose of this study was to evaluate rubella susceptibility of pregnant women from central India as rubella infection can be devastating for the newborn if it occurs in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy, which may lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). There are very few studies about seroprevalence of rubella from India and none from central India. The study was conducted among women attending the obstetric department of a tertiary care hospital, in which 369 antenatal cases were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibody for rubella and its titer...
December 7, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918250/evaluation-of-immunostimulatory-effects-of-n-2-hydroxy-propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-chloride-for-improving-live-attenuated-hepatitis-a-virus-vaccine-efficacy
#9
Wei Tao, Ting Fu, Zhuojing He, Ruxi Hu, Lan Jia, Yan Hong
This study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) as an adjuvant for improving a commercial live attenuated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine efficacy in mice. Mice in the experimental group were intraperitoneally immunized with a solution of HTCC and live attenuated HAV vaccine. And for those injected with sterile water, HTCC or live attenuated HAV vaccine were treated as mock group, negative group, and positive group in turn. The serum HAV-specific IgG titers and the ratios of the serum HAV-specific IgG2a/IgG1 in the experimental group were significantly increased (p = 0...
December 5, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870604/immunoreactivity-analysis-of-the-nonstructural-proteins-of-human-enterovirus-71
#10
Xuyan Chen, Bo Qin, Min Shi, Longying Zhu, Menglin Sun, Xufeng Liu, Jianhua Zhang
Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is one of the main etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has been prevalent mainly in the Asia-Pacific region in the past several decades. The nonstructural proteins of EV-A71 will be expressed significantly during viral replication in host cells after EV-A71 infection. For the determination of the antibodies response against nonstructural proteins of EV-A71, in this study, the complete 2ABC, 3ABC, and 3D proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were then studied for their immunoreactivity by immunoblot assay and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively...
November 21, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055519/seroprevalence-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-among-a-rural-population-of-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#11
Augustin Etile Anoh, Arsène Mossoun, Chantal Akoua-Koffi, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Maude Pauly, Siv-Aina Leendertz, Eliezer Kouakou N'goran, Grit Schubert, Sabrina Weiss, Jörg Hofmann, Fabian H Leendertz, Bernhard Ehlers
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that can be pathogenic to humans. In particular, immunocompromised patients can develop life-threatening symptoms. In the present study, HCMV seroprevalence was investigated in a rural population of Western Côte d'Ivoire. Plasma samples collected from 166 apparently healthy subjects living in 8 villages surrounding the Taï Forest National Park were tested for anti-HCMV immunoglobulin G and M antibody with two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Prevalence of anti-HCMV IgG and IgM antibody was 100% and 5...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996692/three-reviews-highlight-different-aspects-of-the-host-response-to-viral-infection
#12
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976981/hepatitis-b-virus-e-antigen-regulates-monocyte-function-and-promotes-b-lymphocyte-activation
#13
Bingru Lu, Bingchang Zhang, Laicheng Wang, Chunyan Ma, Xiaowen Liu, Yueran Zhao, Yulian Jiao
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) e (HBe) antigen is a nonstructural virus component with great immune regulation roles. It regulates adaptive immunity response and participates in persistent infection development. However, its roles on monocytes and B lymphocytes were rarely studied. Herein, we studied HBe roles on U937 and Hmy2.CIR by creating HBe stably transfected cells using lentivirus. We detected the motility of HBe-U937 through transwell migration assay. Cytokines that primarily produced by monocytes, including BAFF, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL), were measured in culture supernatants of transfected U937, and serum BAFF, IL-6, and IL-10 were detected in HBe-positive and HBe-negative HBV-infected patients...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875662/influence-of-age-and-dose-of-african-swine-fever-virus-infections-on-clinical-outcome-and-blood-parameters-in-pigs
#14
Jacob Post, Eefke Weesendorp, Maria Montoya, Willie L Loeffen
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease for domestic pigs, leading to serious economic losses in countries where ASF is endemic. Despite extensive research, efficient vaccines against ASF are lacking. Since peripheral blood cells are important mediators for vaccines, we study the impact of ASF on blood parameters in pigs with different ages and infected with different doses of ASF virus. Four different groups were studied: (1) 12 weeks of age/low virus dose; (2) 12 weeks of age/high virus dose; (3) 18 weeks of age/low virus dose; and (4) 18 weeks of age/high virus dose...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870601/t-cell-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-in-the-setting-of-advanced-hiv-and-multiple-varicella-zoster-virus-recurrences
#15
Rachel A Bender Ignacio, Meena S Ramchandani, Kerry J Laing, Christine M Johnston, David M Koelle
A woman presented with at least four manifestations of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, including central nervous system vasculitis, during her first 2 years of HIV infection. We evaluated her CD4 T cell responses to VZV given the infrequency with which multiple recurrences of VZV occurred, especially following immune reconstitution on antiretroviral therapy.
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860556/immunopathogenesis-of-dengue-virus-induced-redundant-cell-death-apoptosis-and-pyroptosis
#16
San Suwanmanee, Natthanej Luplertlop
Dengue virus infection is a self-limited condition, which is of particular importance in tropical and subtropical regions and for which no specific treatment or effective vaccine is available. There are several hypotheses explaining dengue pathogenesis. These usually refer to host immune responses, including antibody-dependent enhancement, cytokine expression, and dengue virus particles including NS1 protein, which lead to cell death by both apoptosis and pyroptosis. A clear understanding of the pathogenesis should facilitate the development of vaccines and therapies...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830995/oncogenic-role-of-tumor-viruses-in-humans
#17
Nimrah Akram, Muhammad Imran, Mamoona Noreen, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Viruses are the intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. Approximately, 20% of all human oncogenesis is caused by cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses. Viral infection causes chronic inflammation leading to cell death, uncontrollable proliferation, and modulated expression of some of the regulatory proteins. Oncogenesis is a multistep phenomenon in which normal host cells are transformed into cancerous cells on the basis of host genetic variability...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809682/human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-impairs-ifn-alpha-production-induced-by-tlr-7-agonist-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#18
Ashwini Dhamanage, Madhuri Thakar, Ramesh Paranjape
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play an important role in innate immune response against viruses, mainly through interferon-α (IFN-α) secretion. Impaired IFN-α secretion has been observed in patients with acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and the reasons for this impairment are still obscure. To know the grounds behind this situation, HIV-1 viral copy numbers similar to those found in primary HIV-1 infection were used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pDCs in this study...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809679/induction-of-both-local-immune-response-in-mice-and-protection-in-a-rabbit-model-by-intranasal-immunization-with-modified-vaccinia-ankara-virus-expressing-a-secreted-form-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-glycoprotein-d
#19
María Paula Del Medico Zajac, Flavia Adriana Zanetti, María Soledad Esusy, Carlos Rodolfo Federico, Osvaldo Zabal, Alejandro Rafael Valera, Gabriela Calamante
In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of mucosal delivery of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing the secreted version of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein D (MVA-gDs) without addition of adjuvant in two animal models. First, we demonstrated the capability of MVA-gDs of inducing both local and systemic anti-gD humoral immune response after intranasal immunization of mice. Then, we confirmed that two doses of MVA-gDs administered intranasally to rabbits induced systemic anti-gD antibodies and conferred protection against BoHV-1 challenge...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805477/role-of-cd8-t-cells-in-the-selection-of-hiv-1-immune-escape-mutations
#20
David Arcia, Liliana Acevedo-Sáenz, María Teresa Rugeles, Paula A Velilla
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection represents one of the biggest public health problems worldwide. The immune response, mainly the effector mechanisms mediated by CD8(+) T cells, induces the selection of mutations that allows the virus to escape the immune control. These mutations are generally selected within CD8(+) T cell epitopes restricted to human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I), leading to a decrease in the presentation and recognition of the epitope, decreasing the activation of CD8(+) T cells...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
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