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Viral Immunology

Cecilia Martínez-Campos, Ana I Burguete-García, Vicente Madrid-Marina
Nucleic acid recognition by toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) initiates signaling pathways that regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines or type I interferons, as well as many other molecules required to initialize the immune response. The use of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been crucial to emulate the recognition of DNA sequences by TLR9. Furthermore, ODN administration to mice has shown to confer protection against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. In contrast, oncogenic DNA viruses like hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papilloma virus inhibit TLR9 expression, thus contributing to the establishment of chronic viral infections...
February 2, 2017: Viral Immunology
Wioletta Izabela Wujcicka, Jan Szczęsny Wilczyński, Dorota Ewa Nowakowska
The study was aimed to estimate the role and prevalence rates of genotypes, haplotypes, and alleles, located within the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin (IL) 1A, IL1B, and IL6 genes, in the occurrence and development of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection among pregnant women. A research was conducted in 129 pregnant women, out of whom, 65 were HCMV infected and 64 were age-matched control uninfected individuals. HCMV DNA was quantitated for UL55 gene by the real-time Q PCR in the body fluids...
February 2, 2017: Viral Immunology
Karen Trang, Rui André Saraiva Raposo, Margaret M Lowe, Elisabeth R Krow-Lucal, Wes Yonemoto, Vinicius D Cabido, Devi SenGupta, Joseph M McCune
Among untreated HIV-infected pregnant women, the frequency of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is low (5-10%), with most infections occurring at or after birth. Given findings that fetal and adult monocytes are distinct from one another in terms of basal transcriptional profiles, and in phosphorylation of signal transducer and activators of transcription in response to cytokines, we hypothesized that fetal CD14+CD16- monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) might, compared to their adult counterparts, express higher levels of transcripts for restriction factors and antiviral factors at baseline and/or after stimulation with cytokines that might be induced upon transmission of HIV in utero, for example, IFNα, IFNγ, and IL-6...
February 2, 2017: Viral Immunology
Noha G Bader El Din, Sally Farouk, Reem El-Shenawy, Mostafa M Elhady, Marwa K Ibrahim, Reham M Dawood, Ahmed M Salem, Mostafa K El Awady
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ1) cytokines are highly implicated in liver fibrosis. Polymorphisms in these cytokines affect their expression, secretion, and activity. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TNFα -308 G/A and TGFβ1 -509 C/T polymorphism on hepatic fibrosis progression in Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4. Genotyping of TNFα -308 G/A and TGFβ1 -509 C/T was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 122 subjects (50 healthy controls and 72 HCV patients)...
February 2, 2017: Viral Immunology
Vahid Asgary, Nazanin Mojtabavi, Alireza Janani, Tahereh Mousavi, Jamshid Hadjati, Mohammad Sadeq Khosravy, Reza Ahangari Cohan
This study is an improvement on the antibody binding test, known as ABT method, to develop a simple and fast method in comparison with NIH for determination of rabies vaccine potency. In the current study, several commercial human and veterinary vaccines were tested using both modified ABT and NIH methods. The ED50 was calculated using the probit method and the relative potency of each vaccine was measured based on the reference vaccine. The test was repeated four times to calculate the reproducibility of the method...
January 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
Muhammad Sohail Afzal
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health concern worldwide as a leading cause of liver-related mortalities and morbidities. Pakistan ranks second among countries with endemic HCV infection; ∼11 million cases are reported so far. HCV burden is continuously rising in Pakistan, mainly because of unsafe blood transfusions, surgical procedures, dental procedures, untrained clinicians, reuse of syringes, barbers, and ear/nose piercing tools. Lack of awareness about HCV transmission routes among the general and high-risk population is a major hurdle in disease management...
January 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
Koichi Kitagawa, Chika Omoto, Tsugumi Oda, Ayame Araki, Hiroki Saito, Katsumi Shigemura, Takane Katayama, Hak Hotta, Toshiro Shirakawa
We previously generated an oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine using Bifidobacterium displaying the HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) polypeptide. NS3-specific cellular immunity is important for viral clearance and recovery from HCV infection. In this study, we enhanced the cellular immune responses induced by our oral HCV vaccine, Bifidobacterium longum 2165 (B. longum 2165), by combining interferon-α (IFN-α) as an adjuvant with the vaccine in a mouse experimental model. IFN-α is a widely used cytokine meeting the standard of care (SOC) for HCV infection and plays various immunoregulatory roles...
January 23, 2017: Viral Immunology
Anna Keib, Patrick S Günther, Benjamin Faist, Anne Halenius, Dirk H Busch, Michael Neuenhahn, Gerhard Jahn, Kevin M Dennehy
Infection with adenovirus is a major cause of infectious mortality in children following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. While adoptive transfer of epitope-specific T cells is a particularly effective therapeutic approach, there are few suitable adenoviral peptide epitopes described to date. Here, we describe the adenoviral peptide epitope FRKDVNMVL from hexon protein, and its variant FRKDVNMIL, that is restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C*0702. Since HLA-C*0702 can be recognized by both T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, we characterized responses by both cell types...
January 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
Kenneth C Bagley, Jennifer A Schwartz, Hanne Andersen, John H Eldridge, Rong Xu, Ayuko Ota-Setlik, Joshua J Geltz, William P Halford, Timothy R Fouts
Vaccination is a proven intervention against human viral diseases; however, success against Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) remains elusive. Most HSV-2 vaccines tested in humans to date contained just one or two immunogens, such as the virion attachment receptor glycoprotein D (gD) and/or the envelope fusion protein, glycoprotein B (gB). At least three factors may have contributed to the failures of subunit-based HSV-2 vaccines. First, immune responses directed against one or two viral antigens may lack sufficient antigenic breadth for efficacy...
January 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
Shan Cheng, Bin Zhang, Ji-Ying Du, Yu-Hong Jin, Hai-Yang Lang, Li-Hua Zeng
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major risk factors leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) plays a pivotal role in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is also considered to mediate tumor progression. However, the interaction between HBsAg and TLR2 in HCC progression remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the study was to explore the effect of HBsAg-TLR2 pathway on growth and invasion of HBV-related HCC cells and examine the potential mechanisms been involved...
January 6, 2017: Viral Immunology
Velislava I Terzieva, Dora N Popova, Ivaylo I Elenkov
HIV infection is characterized by a high degree of immune activation. It has an impact on CD4 cell count and populations' distribution and function. T regulatory cells (Tregs) were found to play a controversial role in the course of infection because of their beneficial effect on the degree of immune activation and unfavorable influence on the antigen-specific responses. The goal of the present work was to study the relationship among interferon-γ (IFN-γ), spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation, and regulatory T cells in HIV patients receiving therapy...
January 4, 2017: Viral Immunology
Megan A O'Connor, Jessica L Rastad, William R Green
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous immature myeloid cells that are well described as potent immune regulatory cells during human cancer and murine tumor models. Reports of MDSCs during viral infections remain limited, and their association with immunomodulation of viral diseases is still being defined. Here, we provide an overview of MDSCs or MDSC-like cells identified during viral infections, including murine viral models and human viral diseases. Understanding the similarities and/or differences of virally induced versus tumor-derived MDSCs will be important for designing future immunotherapeutic approaches...
January 4, 2017: Viral Immunology
Zi-Yi Huang, Ping Xu, Jian-Hua Li, Chen-Hua Zeng, Hua-Feng Song, Hui Chen, Yi-Bei Zhu, Ying-Ying Song, Han-Lin Lu, Chun-Ping Shen, Xue-Guang Zhang, Mei-Ying Wu, Xue-Feng Wang
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression has been revealed to be upregulated on T cells and contributes to T cell exhaustion in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), the ligand of PD-1, on circulating CD14(+) monocytes and CD19(+) B cells of HBV-infected patients at the stages of chronic HBV (CHB) infection, liver cirrhosis (LC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. The results showed that compared with healthy controls, the levels of PD-L1 expression on CD14(+) and CD19(+) populations were both upregulated in CHB, LC, and HCC groups...
December 22, 2016: Viral Immunology
Delong Li, Dan Xu, Zhenyu Wang, Qian Du, Lingling Chang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) adenovirus vaccine has been reported, but strong immune responses induced by adenovirus vector can decrease vaccine efficacy. To reduce the immunogenicity of adenovirus proteins, in previous study, we constructed the PCV2 adenovirus vaccine either modified with human cytomegalovirus first intron (Intron A) and woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) to increase the expression of Cap, or coexpressed porcine tumor necrosis factor-related activate protein (CD40L) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) to improve the immunogenicity of PCV2 Cap adenovirus vaccine...
December 20, 2016: Viral Immunology
Bhupesh K Kori, Kavita N Singh, Ravendra K Sharma, Bhagwati S Sharma, Poorva Badkur, Pradip V Barde
The purpose of this study was to evaluate rubella susceptibility of pregnant women from central India as rubella infection can be devastating for the newborn if it occurs in the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy, which may lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). There are very few studies about seroprevalence of rubella from India and none from central India. The study was conducted among women attending the obstetric department of a tertiary care hospital, in which 369 antenatal cases were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibody for rubella and its titer...
December 7, 2016: Viral Immunology
Wei Tao, Ting Fu, Zhuojing He, Ruxi Hu, Lan Jia, Yan Hong
This study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) as an adjuvant for improving a commercial live attenuated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine efficacy in mice. Mice in the experimental group were intraperitoneally immunized with a solution of HTCC and live attenuated HAV vaccine. And for those injected with sterile water, HTCC or live attenuated HAV vaccine were treated as mock group, negative group, and positive group in turn. The serum HAV-specific IgG titers and the ratios of the serum HAV-specific IgG2a/IgG1 in the experimental group were significantly increased (p = 0...
December 5, 2016: Viral Immunology
Augustin Etile Anoh, Arsène Mossoun, Chantal Akoua-Koffi, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Maude Pauly, Siv-Aina Leendertz, Eliezer Kouakou N'goran, Grit Schubert, Sabrina Weiss, Jörg Hofmann, Fabian H Leendertz, Bernhard Ehlers
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that can be pathogenic to humans. In particular, immunocompromised patients can develop life-threatening symptoms. In the present study, HCMV seroprevalence was investigated in a rural population of Western Côte d'Ivoire. Plasma samples collected from 166 apparently healthy subjects living in 8 villages surrounding the Taï Forest National Park were tested for anti-HCMV immunoglobulin G and M antibody with two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Prevalence of anti-HCMV IgG and IgM antibody was 100% and 5...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Viral Immunology
Bingru Lu, Bingchang Zhang, Laicheng Wang, Chunyan Ma, Xiaowen Liu, Yueran Zhao, Yulian Jiao
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) e (HBe) antigen is a nonstructural virus component with great immune regulation roles. It regulates adaptive immunity response and participates in persistent infection development. However, its roles on monocytes and B lymphocytes were rarely studied. Herein, we studied HBe roles on U937 and Hmy2.CIR by creating HBe stably transfected cells using lentivirus. We detected the motility of HBe-U937 through transwell migration assay. Cytokines that primarily produced by monocytes, including BAFF, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL), were measured in culture supernatants of transfected U937, and serum BAFF, IL-6, and IL-10 were detected in HBe-positive and HBe-negative HBV-infected patients...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
Jacob Post, Eefke Weesendorp, Maria Montoya, Willie L Loeffen
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease for domestic pigs, leading to serious economic losses in countries where ASF is endemic. Despite extensive research, efficient vaccines against ASF are lacking. Since peripheral blood cells are important mediators for vaccines, we study the impact of ASF on blood parameters in pigs with different ages and infected with different doses of ASF virus. Four different groups were studied: (1) 12 weeks of age/low virus dose; (2) 12 weeks of age/high virus dose; (3) 18 weeks of age/low virus dose; and (4) 18 weeks of age/high virus dose...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
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