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Viral Immunology

Azadeh Askari, Reza Nosratabadi, Mehdi Khaleghinia, Nahid Zainodini, Derek Kennedy, Ziba Shabani, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Nucleotide-binding domain leucine repeats (NLRs) are required for the recognition of various molecules that are expressed within microbes and are able to actuate appropriate immune responses via activation of cytokines. The current study evaluates the expression levels of NLRP1 and NLRC4, which are components of inflammasomes, in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus-infected patients. This study recruited two series of CHB patients (each contained 60 patients) and 60 healthy controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to evaluate mRNA expression levels of NLRP1, NLRP3, and NLRC4 as well as hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA copy number...
October 17, 2016: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Viral Immunology
Shafiq Ur Rehman, Mahd Rauf, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammed Haroon Hamed, Ishtiaq Qadri
Hepatitis B and C infections can be either acute or chronic. The chronic infection can culminate in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Influence of the host genetic makeup on conversion of acute to chronic infection, development of cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma is an interesting area of research. Variability in different immune system genes may account for such differences in the outcome of infection. This article discusses single nucleotide polymorphisms in different host immunomodulator genes that have been frequently reported to influence the outcome of infection and severity of disease...
September 27, 2016: Viral Immunology
Xiaoyan Li, Runzhou Ni
There are over 350 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world, of whom about a third eventually develop severe HBV-related complications. HBV contributes to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma development. Remarkable progress has been made in selective inhibition of HBV replication by nucleoside analogs. However, how to generate protective antibody of HBsAb in HBV-infected patients after HBV-DNA becomes negative still remains a challenge for scientists. In this study, we show that OmpC-HBsAg 'a' epitope chimeric protein vaccine can break HBV tolerance and induce protective immunity in HBV transgenic mice based on mimicking T cell-independent antigen to bypass T cells from the adaptive immune system...
September 23, 2016: Viral Immunology
Pablo E Piñeyro, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Scott P Kenney, C Lynn Heffron, Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important global swine pathogen. PRRSV infects porcine dendritic cells (DCs), but the effects of the interactions with DCs are largely unknown. Current research focuses on the production and regulation of interferons and selected inflammatory cytokines in DCs, which may play key roles in immune modulation. In addition, PRRSV also downregulates swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I), SLA-II, and CD80/86 costimulatory molecules in DCs...
September 19, 2016: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Viral Immunology
Xinglong Wang, Zhenbing Wang, Hongyu Xu, Biao Xiang, Ruiyi Dang, Zengqi Yang
The mucosal immune response against the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is very important in piglets. To develop a PEDV vaccine suitable for inducing high levels of intestinal IgA in piglets, recombinant yeast expressing the PEDV S1 gene was constructed and tested by oral immunization of mice and piglets. The S1-specific IgG and IgA were tested at 0, 14, and 28 days postimmunization (dpi) in mice. Compared to the control group, the mice treated with S1 expressing yeast, demonstrated significantly higher levels of IgG and IgA against PEDV from 14 dpi onward...
September 6, 2016: Viral Immunology
Jaythoon Hassan, Kate Browne, Cillian De Gascun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Viral Immunology
Eveli Kallas, Kristi Huik, Silver Türk, Merit Pauskar, Ene-Ly Jõgeda, Marina Šunina, Tõnis Karki, Don Des Jarlais, Anneli Uusküla, Radko Avi, Irja Lutsar
Intravenous drug use (IDU) is one of the most important transmission routes for blood borne viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). These infections alter the subset distributions of T cells; however, knowledge of such effects during HIV, HBV, and or HCV coinfection is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate any associations between T cell distribution and the presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV coinfections among persons who inject drugs (PWID)...
August 26, 2016: Viral Immunology
Keisuke Kumata, Keiko Nagata, Michiko Matsushita, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Masako Kato, Ichiro Murakami, Shuji Fukata, Kazuhiko Hayashi
Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that mainly presents as hyperthyroidism and is caused by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) that stimulate thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. We previously reported that Graves' disease patients and healthy controls both had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected TRAb-positive B cells and the EBV-reactivated induction of these B cells in cultures may induce the production of TRAbs. In the present study, we quantified serum TRAb-IgG and TRAb-IgM levels in 34 Graves' disease patients and 15 controls using ELISA to elucidate the mechanisms underlying EBV-related antibody production...
August 16, 2016: Viral Immunology
Areej M Assaf, Eman A Hammad, Randa N Haddadin
Influenza vaccination is the most effective method in preventing influenza and its complications. This study's objectives were to investigate the vaccination coverage and frequency and to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward influenza vaccination in Jordan during the year 2012 and the 5 years preceding it. Additionally, it aimed at identifying the barriers and motivations to receive the vaccine and the factors contributing to its uptake. In May 2012, a self-administered cross-sectional survey was distributed to 3,200 adults conveniently selected across Jordan to explore influenza vaccination status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the influenza vaccine...
August 10, 2016: Viral Immunology
Nilesh B Ingle, Rashmi G Virkar, Kalpana Agnihotri, Kapil S Sharma, Kavita S Lole, Vidya A Arankalle
Continued evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses causing high mortality in humans obviates need for broadly cross-reactive vaccines. For this, hemagglutinin (HA) inducing specific protective antibodies, highly conserved nucleoprotein (NP), and ectodomain of matrix (M2e) protein, either singly or in combination, were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Recombinant HA and NP (baculovirus system) and M2e (synthetic peptide) and 3 adjuvants, that is, liposomes, Mw (heat killed Mycobacterium w), and alum were utilized for the homologous virus challenge...
August 10, 2016: Viral Immunology
Bo Niklasson, Gustav Arbrandt, Anne Kawecki, Lisa Juntti-Berggren, Per-Olof Berggren, Saad Misfer Al-Qahtani, Anna-Lena Gustafsson, Galyna Bryzgalova, William Klitz
A picornavirus (Ljungan virus) has been associated with diabetes in its wild rodent reservoir and in diabetes-prone biobreeding (DP-BB) rats. We attempted to alter the development of diabetes in DP-BB rats using two anti-picornavirus compounds (pleconaril and APO-N039), singly or in combination. Antiviral therapy was initiated 2 weeks before expected onset of diabetes. Pleconaril or APO-N039 alone did not affect the debut of diabetes. However, animals receiving a combination of both compounds were protected for at least the entire period of treatment (4 weeks after expected time of diabetes onset)...
August 9, 2016: Viral Immunology
Ildefonso Pulido, Miguel Genebat, Ana I Alvarez-Rios, Rebeca S De Pablo-Bernal, Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi Benhnia, Yolanda M Pacheco, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Manuel Leal
Toxicities related to the use of nucleoside analogues have increased the interest in developing nucleoside-sparing regimens, mainly combining protease inhibitors with raltegravir. However, data regarding the use of CCR5-antagonists in this setting and in the naive scenario are scarce. The main objective was to analyze the immunovirological efficacy and tolerability of a low-dose, once-daily, maraviroc (MVC)-containing, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing dual therapy compared with standard triple therapy after 48 weeks for naive HIV-infected patients in the routine clinical practice setting...
October 2016: Viral Immunology
Lijie Tang, Haiyan Kang, Kexin Duan, Mengting Guo, Gaihong Lian, Yang Wu, Yijing Li, Shuai Gao, Yanping Jiang, Jiyuan Yin, Min Liu
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infects salmonid fish, resulting in high mortality and serious economic losses to salmonid aquaculture. Therefore, an effective IHNV vaccine is urgently needed. To select an inactivation agent for the preparation of an effective IHNV vaccine, rainbow trout were immunized with mineral oil emulsions of IHNV vaccines inactivated by formaldehyde, binary ethylenimine (BEI), or β-propiolactone (BPL). The fish were challenged 8 weeks after vaccination, and their IgM antibody response and relative percent survival (RPS) were evaluated...
September 2016: Viral Immunology
Nancy Cardoso, Olga Lucía Franco-Mahecha, Wenzel Czepluch, María Eugenia Quintana, Darío Amílcar Malacari, Myrian Vanesa Trotta, Florencia Celeste Mansilla, Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Infection of professional antigen presenting cells by viruses can have a marked effect on these cells and important consequences for the generation of subsequent immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that different strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect bovine dendritic cells differentiated from nonadherent peripheral monocytes (moDCs). BVDV did not cause apoptosis in these cells. Infection of moDC was prevented by incubating the virus with anti-E2 antibodies or by pretreating the cells with recombinant E2 protein before BVDV contact, suggesting that BVDV infects moDC through an E2-mediated mechanism...
September 2016: Viral Immunology
Sobia Manzoor, Umair Akhtar, Sidrah Naseem, Madiha Khalid, Misha Mazhar, Fahed Parvaiz, Saba Khaliq
Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane bound, ATP-gated ion channels that are expressed on wide range of cells and respond to varying ATP concentrations in extracellular environment. Upon activation they increase membrane permeability for Ca(2+) ions and trigger a cascade of signaling complexes. During the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, ATP is released from the infected hepatocyte, which binds with Purinergic receptors (P2X) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and initiate downstream signaling pathways by disturbing the ionic balance of the cell...
September 2016: Viral Immunology
Helia Maghzi, Behrooz Ataei, Farzin Khorvash, Majid Yaran, Amir-Hadi Maghzi
Epstein-Barr virus and vitamin D both have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, especially multiple sclerosis (MS). Vitamin D influences both innate and adaptive immune responses and has been linked to increased susceptibility to other viral infections such as influenza. Here we aimed to examine the association between vitamin D and acute infectious mononucleosis (IM).This study is a case-control study that was conducted on IM patients and a control group of healthy individuals at infectious disease clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences...
September 2016: Viral Immunology
Barbara M Schulte, Paul R Gielen, Esther D Kers-Rebel, Amy C Prosser, Katharina Lind, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Cees J Tack, Lammy D Elving, Gosse J Adema
In children at risk for type 1 diabetes, innate immune activity is detected before seroconversion. Enterovirus infections have been linked to diabetes development, and a polymorphism (A946T) in the innate immune sensor recognizing enterovirus RNA, interferon-induced with helicase C domain 1/melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, predisposes to disease. We hypothesized that the strength of innate antienteroviral responses is affected in autoimmune type 1 diabetes patients and linked to the A946T polymorphism...
September 2016: Viral Immunology
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Bilal Ahmed
Zika virus (Zika V) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by mosquito bites. Zika V Envelop protein is antigenic and is involved in fusion and entry of viral particles into the cell. Till date, there is no vaccine and antiviral drug available against Zika V. Thus, there is a need to develop a vaccine against Zika V. This study was designed for the prediction of B cell and T cell epitopes that can be helpful in diagnosis and vaccine designing against this emerging threat. For this purpose, several B cell and T cell epitopes were predicted that are conserved among Zika virus genomes taken from 12 different countries...
September 2016: Viral Immunology
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