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Viral Immunology

Robert Lethbridge, Franciska Prastanti, Cassandra Robertson, Stephen Oo, Siew-Kim Khoo, Peter N Le Souëf, Ingrid A Laing
To assess if the difference in species-specific immune response to RV-C correlates with a higher frequency of reinfection, shorter time to reinfection, or different symptom severity than infections with RV-A or RV-B. Forty-three patients were enrolled of which 34 were successfully tracked longitudinally over 3 months, with nasal swabs and symptom questionnaires provided every 2 weeks to identify rhinovirus (RV) strains and the concurrent symptomatology. No difference was found in the time to reinfection with an RV species between RV-C and RV-A or RV-B (p = 0...
February 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Julia L Hurwitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Viral Immunology
Li Miao, Liwei Shi, Yi Yang, Kunming Yan, Hongliang Sun, Zhaojun Mo, Li Li
This study evaluated the immunological effect of an aGV rabies virus strain using the Essen and Zagreb immunization programs. A total of 1,944 subjects were enrolled and divided into three groups: the Essen test group, Essen control group, and Zagreb test group. Neutralizing antibody levels and antibody seroconversion rates were determined at 7 and 14 days after the initial inoculations and then 14 days after the final inoculation in all of the subjects. The seroconversion rates for the Essen test group, Essen control group, and Zagreb test group, which were assessed 7 days after the first dosing in a susceptible population, were 35...
February 2, 2018: Viral Immunology
Hyunsuh Kim, Robert G Webster, Richard J Webby
Numerous modern technological and scientific advances have changed the vaccine industry. However, nearly 70 years of influenza vaccine usage have passed without substantial changes in the underlying principles of the vaccine. The challenge of vaccinating against influenza lies in the constantly changing nature of the virus itself. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic evolution through antigenic drift and shift in their surface glycoproteins. This has forced frequent updates of vaccine antigens to ensure that the somewhat narrowly focused vaccine-induced immune responses defend against circulating strains...
January 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
Diego A Diaz-Dinamarca, Francisco J Ibañez, Daniel A Soto, Jorge A Soto, Pablo F Cespedes, Nicolás A Muena, Diego S Garate, Alexis M Kalergis, Abel E Vasquez
The human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second leading cause globally of acute infection of the respiratory tract in children, infecting the upper and lower airways. The hMPV may induce an inappropriate Th2-type immune response, which causes severe pulmonary inflammation, leading to the obstruction of airways. Despite its severe epidemiological relevance, no vaccines are currently available for the prevention of hMPV-induced illness. In this investigation, we demonstrated that immunization of mice with the recombinant hMPV nucleoprotein (hMPV-N) mixed with the AbISCO-100 adjuvant reduced viral replication in lungs following challenge with the virus...
January 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
Brendon Y Chua, Toshiki Sekiya, David C Jackson
Empirically derived vaccines have in the past relied on the isolation and growth of disease-causing microorganisms that are then inactivated or attenuated before being administered. This is often done without prior knowledge of the mechanisms involved in conferring protective immunity. Recent advances in scientific technologies and in our knowledge of how protective immune responses are induced enable us to rationally design novel and safer vaccination strategies. Such advances have accelerated the development of inactivated whole-organism- and subunit-based vaccines...
January 25, 2018: Viral Immunology
Meghan O Altman, Davide Angeletti, Jonathan W Yewdell
Influenza A virus (IAV) imposes a significant socioeconomic burden on humanity. Vaccination is effective in only 60% of individuals, even under optimal circumstances. The difficulty stems from the remarkable ability of IAV to evade existing immunity. IAV's error prone polymerase enables the rapid antigenic evolution of the two virion surface glycoproteins, neuraminidase and hemagglutinin (HA). Since the most potent antibodies (Abs) at neutralizing viral infectivity are directed the head of the HA, amino acid substitutions in this region enable IAV to evade Ab-based immunity...
January 22, 2018: Viral Immunology
Prasad S Kulkarni, Julia L Hurwitz, Eric A F Simões, Pedro A Piedra
Correlates of protection (CoPs) can play a significant role in vaccine development by assisting the selection of vaccine candidates for clinical trials, supporting clinical trial design and implementation, and simplifying tests of vaccine modifications. Because of this important role in vaccine development, it is essential that CoPs be defined by well-designed immunogenicity and efficacy studies, with attention paid to benefits and limitations. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) field is unique in that a great deal of information about the humoral response is available from basic research and clinical studies...
January 16, 2018: Viral Immunology
Charles J Russell, Eric A F Simões, Julia L Hurwitz
Human parainfluenza viruses (family Paramyxoviridae), human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (family Pneumoviridae) infect most infants and children within the first few years of life and are the etiologic agents for many serious acute respiratory illnesses. These virus infections are also associated with long-term diseases that impact quality of life, including asthma. Despite over a half-century of vaccine research, development, and clinical trials, no vaccine has been licensed to date for the paramyxoviruses or pneumoviruses for the youngest infants...
January 11, 2018: Viral Immunology
Julia L Hurwitz, Mattia Bonsignori
In 2016, there were more than 30 million individuals living with HIV-1, ∼1.8 million new HIV-1 infections, and ∼1 million HIV-1-related deaths according to UNAIDS ( ). Hence, a preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a global priority. The variant envelopes of HIV-1 present a significant obstacle to vaccine development and the vaccine field has realized that immunization with a single HIV-1 envelope protein will not be sufficient to generate broadly neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe two nonmutually exclusive, targeted pathways with which a multi-envelope HIV-1 vaccine may generate protective immune responses against variant HIV-1...
January 9, 2018: Viral Immunology
Ian H Frazer
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important causal agent of premalignant cervical epithelial changes and cervical cancers. These cancers account for ∼5% of all cancers globally and kill more than a quarter million women annually. HPV infections also associate with certain anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Events leading to the development of HPV vaccines to prevent associated cancers are described, with a further discussion of goals that must be met to achieve full virus eradication.
January 3, 2018: Viral Immunology
Paul A Offit
Rotavirus is the most important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In developing countries, the virus is a major cause of death in infants and young children. In the United States, before the licensure of vaccines, rotavirus infections accounted for ∼2.7 million cases of gastroenteritis annually. Here are described the history and challenges surrounding the development of a rotavirus vaccine.
December 21, 2017: Viral Immunology
Diane E Griffin
Measles remains an important cause of child morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine. The current measles virus (MeV) vaccine was developed empirically by attenuation of wild-type (WT) MeV by in vitro passage in human and chicken cells and licensed in 1963. Additional passages led to further attenuation and the successful vaccine strains in widespread use today. Attenuation is associated with decreased replication in lymphoid tissue, but the molecular basis for this restriction has not been identified...
December 19, 2017: Viral Immunology
Sharilyn Almodovar, Jessica Swanson, Luis D Giavedoni, Sreetharan Kanthaswamy, Carlin S Long, Norbert F Voelkel, Michael G Edwards, Joy M Folkvord, Elizabeth Connick, Susan V Westmoreland, Paul A Luciw, Sonia C Flores
Fatal pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) affects HIV-infected individuals at significantly higher frequencies. We previously showed plexiform-like lesions characterized by recanalized lumenal obliteration, intimal disruption, medial hypertrophy, and thrombosis consistent with PAH in rhesus macaques infected with chimeric SHIVnef but not with the parental SIVmac239, suggesting that Nef is implicated in the pathophysiology of HIV-PAH. However, the current literature on non-human primates as animal models for SIV(HIV)-associated pulmonary disease reports the ultimate pathogenic pulmonary outcomes of the research efforts; however, the variability and features in the actual disease progression remain poorly described, particularly when using different viral sources for infection...
December 19, 2017: Viral Immunology
Marcia A Blackman, In-Jeong Kim, Jr-Shiuan Lin, Stephen J Thomas
The emergence of outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015 was associated with devastating effects on fetal development and prompted a world health emergency and multiple efforts to generate an effective vaccine against infection. There are now more than 40 vaccine candidates in preclinical development and six in clinical trials. Despite similarities with other flaviviruses to which successful vaccines have been developed, such as yellow fever virus and Japanese Encephalitis virus, there are unique challenges to the development and clinical trials of a vaccine for ZIKV...
December 11, 2017: Viral Immunology
Labrini V Athanasiou, Maria C Kantere, Constantinos S Kyriakis, Dimitra Pardali, Katerina Adamama Moraitou, Zoe S Polizopoulou
Canine distemper is a common and potentially lethal multisystemic disease caused by the Canine distemper virus (CDV). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of direct immunofluorescent assay (FA) and cytology to detect CDV antigen in conjunctival cells compared with an established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay used as a gold standard for CDV diagnosis. Samples were collected from 57 young dogs presenting with central nervous system signs compatible with distemper disease. Exfoliative epithelial cells were collected from the right and left conjunctiva of each animal using nylon-bristled cytobrushes for cytology and cotton swabs for FA and PCR...
November 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
Atefeh Afchangi, Arash Arashkia, Zahra Shahosseini, Somayeh Jalilvand, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Farzin Roohvand, Nasir Mohajel, Zabihollah Shoja
Due to the limitations and safety issues of the two currently approved live attenuated rotavirus (RV) vaccines "RotaTeq and Rotarix," studies on nonreplicating sources of RV vaccines and search for proper RV antigens are actively carried out. The adjuvant activity of NSP4 and highly immunogenic properties of RV VP6 protein prompted us to consider the construction of a NSP4112-175-VP6 fusion protein and to assess the anti-VP6 IgG, IgA, and IgG subclass responses induced by Escherichia coli-derived NSP4-VP6 fusion protein compared to that of VP6 protein with/without formulation in Montanide ISA 50V2 (M50) in BALB/c mice...
November 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
Jana Shaw, Anne A Gershon
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster), and was once responsible for over 4 million infections in the United States annually. The development of a live attenuated VZV vaccine was initially viewed with extreme skepticism. Nonetheless, a VZV vaccine was developed in the 1970s by Takahashi and his colleagues in Japan and was eventually licensed in the US. It is now known to be one of the safest and most effective vaccines available and is administered worldwide...
November 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
Zhou Han, Zang Mingxin, Li Xuechun, Xu Yigang, Qiao Xinyuan, Wang Li, Cui Wen, Jiang Yanping, Li Yijing, Tang Lijie
Bluetongue is a ruminant infectious disease that is characterized by hyperpyrexia, leukocyte decrease and mucosal ulcerative inflammation changes. In this study, three segments of Bluetongue virus (BTV)-8 VP2 protein (BTV-8A, 8B, and 8C) were cloned into pET-28a (+) and pMAl-c5X vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as histidine (His)-tagged (His-8A/8B/8C) and maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged (MBP-8A/8B/8C) fusion proteins. After purification, His-8A/8B/8C were used to immunize BALB/mice and MBP-8A/8B/8C were used to screen for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-secreting hybridomas...
November 21, 2017: Viral Immunology
Vahid Asgary, Alireza Shoari, Majid Afshar Moayad, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Razieh Bigdeli, Leila Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Sadeq Khosravy, Erfan Panahnejad, Alireza Janani, Rouzbeh Bashar, Maliheh Abedi, Reza Ahangari Cohan
For induction of an appropriate immune response, especially in the case of an inactivated vaccine, the use of an adjuvant is crucial. In this study, adjuvanticity effect of G2 dendrimer in veterinary rabies vaccine has been investigated. A nonlinear globular G2 dendrimer comprising citric acid and polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG-600) was synthesized and the toxicity was studied in vitro on the J774A.1 cell line. The adjuvanticity effect of the dendrimer was then investigated on rabies virus in NMRI mice as a model...
January 2018: Viral Immunology
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