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Viral Immunology

Xiaojuan Wu, Zhenzhen Su, Bei Cai, Lin Yan, Yamei Li, Weihua Feng, Lanlan Wang
Follicular helper T cells (TFH) and follicular regulatory T cells (TFR), subsets of T cells, co-regulate the reactions of germinal center (GC) B cells. TFH provide help to the GC response, while the TFR suppress those processes. Nevertheless, the role of circulating TFR (cTFR) and circulating TFH (cTFH) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains limited. Twenty healthy controls (HCs), 24 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 23 with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), and 18 with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in our study between October 2015 and September 2016...
April 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
Geunha Park, Joo Young Lee, Soo Young Lee, Jong-Hyun Kim, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are among the major causes of respiratory infections in children, worldwide, including in Korea. There are four types of HPIVs, each with different epidemiological characteristics. HPIV3 is the most frequently circulating HPIV type, while the epidemiology of HPIV4 remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the age-stratified seropositivity rates of HPIV types 1-4 among children in Korea. These data will be useful to determine vaccine requirements. This study included 245 participants categorized into four age groups: 6-11 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3-5 years...
April 19, 2018: Viral Immunology
Zhi-Hong Zhang, Ben-Chun Jiang, Xiao-Hong Liu, Meng-Xuan Zhang, Zhen-Sheng-Nan Li, Guang-Ze Zhu
Signaling through interleukin (IL)-7 is essential and required for development, differentiation, proliferation, and homeostasis of T cells. However, the role of IL-7 in regulation of CD4+ T cells in chronic viral infections was not fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of IL-7 to T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and its contribution to pathogenesis of chronic HCV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A total of 47 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 19 normal controls were enrolled...
April 19, 2018: Viral Immunology
Giuseppe Colucci, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Enrico Galmozzi, Marco Maggioni, Stella De Nicola, Alessio Aghemo, Massimo Colombo
Total or partial inactivation of the chemokine 5 (CC5) pathway, as caused by the CC5 receptor Δ32 deletion (CCR5Δ32), may result in a profound manipulation of immune surveillance with significant consequences on the course and response to therapy of diverse human infections, including HIV. It has been postulated that in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), such a deregulation of CC5 pathway may compromise T cell-dependent antiviral immune responses, which in turn may favor viral persistence. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a cohort of 100 patients with CHC in whom 12 heterozygous and 1 homozygous CCR5Δ32 mutations were detected compared to 8 and none in 98 healthy controls (13% vs...
April 17, 2018: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Viral Immunology
Dalia Omran, Rania A Zayed, Mohammed M Nabeel, Lamiaa Mobarak, Zeinab Zakaria, Azza Farid, Mohamed Hassany, Sameh Saif, Muhammad Mostafa, Omar Khalid Saad, Ayman Yosry
Stage of liver fibrosis is critical for treatment decision and prediction of outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography (TE)-Fibroscan and noninvasive serum markers tests in the assessment of liver fibrosis in CHC patients, in reference to liver biopsy. One-hundred treatment-naive CHC patients were subjected to liver biopsy, TE-FibroScan, and eight serum biomarkers tests; AST/ALT ratio (AAR), AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), age-platelet index (AP index), fibrosis quotient (FibroQ), fibrosis 4 index (FIB-4), cirrhosis discriminant score (CDS), King score, and Goteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI)...
April 9, 2018: Viral Immunology
Rahul Brahma, Sanathoi Gurumayum, Leimarembi Devi Naorem, Mathavan Muthaiyan, Jeyakodi Gopal, Amouda Venkatesan
Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-strand RNA flavivirus, is transmitted primarily through Aedes aegypti. The recent outbreaks in America and unexpected association between ZIKV infection and birth defects have triggered the global attention. This vouches to understand the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection to develop effective drug therapy. A systems-level understanding of biological process affected by ZIKV infection in fetal brain sample led us to identify the candidate genes for pharmaceutical intervention and potential biomarkers for diagnosis...
April 2, 2018: Viral Immunology
Chandana Ray Das, Diptika Tiwari, Anita Dongre, Mohammad Aasif Khan, Syed Akhtar Husain, Anirudha Sarma, Sujoy Bose, Purabi Deka Bose
Multiple factors are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related cervical anomalies and its progression to cervical carcinoma (CaCx), but data vary with respect to the underlying HPV genotype and with population being studied. No data are available regarding the role of immunological imbalance in HPV infected CaCx pathogenesis from Northeast India, which has an ethnically distinct population, and was aimed to be addressed through this study. The study included 76 CaCx cases, 25 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases, and 50 healthy female controls...
April 2, 2018: Viral Immunology
Jegarubee Bavananthasivam, Raveendra R Kulkarni, Leah Read, Shayan Sharif
Evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are present in microbes. PAMPs induce several pathways downstream of TLRs that lead to induction of antiviral responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the stimulatory effect of various PAMPs (in the form of TLR ligands) in reducing Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEFs). To this end, CEFs were pretreated with Pam3CSK4, Poly(IC), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG ODN as TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR21 ligands, respectively for 24 h followed by infection with MDV...
March 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
Na Huang, Fanpu Ji, Shu Zhang, Yansong Pu, An Jiang, Rui Zhou, Yuanyuan Ji, Wei Wei, Jun Yang, Zongfang Li
Emerging evidences showed the promoting role of spleen in the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, in the context of portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In this study, we tried to explore the precise mechanism of how spleen regulates this process from the serum cytokines profile level. Compared with the 16 healthy subjects, the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array identified 136 cytokines differentially expressed in 36 cirrhotic patients. Splenectomy resulted in significant changes in 28 cytokines...
March 22, 2018: Viral Immunology
Marlinang Diarta Siburian, Ivet Marita Suriapranata, Septelia Inawati Wanandi
A cross-sectional study on hepatitis B patients in Indonesia showed association of pre-S2 start codon mutation (M120 V) with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which was dissimilar from studies from other populations where pre-S2 deletion mutation was more prevalent. Different mutation patterns were attributed to different hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotypes in each population study. HBV surface proteins are reported to induce the activation of NF-κB, a transcriptional factor known to play an important role in the development of liver disease...
March 19, 2018: Viral Immunology
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Christopher Overend, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Shannon R Matzinger, Adam J Rogers, Debin Tian, Qian M Cao, Scott P Kenney, Xiang-Jin Meng
CD137 is a costimulatory molecule transiently expressed on activated T cells after mitogen or antigen stimulation that can be exploited for isolating antigen-specific T cells as reported in mouse models. By utilizing an antiporcine CD137 monoclonal antibody (mAb, clone 3B9) developed in our laboratory, we isolated virus-specific CD8β T cells from peripheral blood of pigs experimentally infected with different porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains. Similar to mouse, porcine CD8β T cells also express CD137 transiently upon Concavalin A stimulation while the unstimulated cells did not...
February 28, 2018: Viral Immunology
Dale Christiansen, Linda Earnest-Silveira, Brendon Chua, Irene Boo, Heidi E Drummer, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Eric J Gowans, David C Jackson, Joseph Torresi
The development of an effective preventative hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine will reside, in part, in its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). We previously reported a genotype 1a HCV virus like particle (VLP) vaccine that produced HCV specific NAb and T cell responses that were substantially enhanced by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonists. We have now produced a quadrivalent genotype 1a/1b/2a/3a HCV VLP vaccine and tested the ability of two TLR2 agonists, R4 Pam2 Cys and E8 Pam2 Cys, to stimulate the production of NAb...
February 28, 2018: Viral Immunology
Thomas Dymond
Over the past decade, metabolic dysfunction has been re-examined as an area of interest in a variety of atopic, malignant, and autoimmune conditions. The unique immune and, specifically, lymphocyte metabolic dysfunctions in disease are starting to be more clearly classified. Exploring the lymphocyte metabolic profiles of these diseases in the current literature, we characterize these diseases into two distinct metabolic groups. The influence of viral infection on immune metabolic dysfunction is explored. During an acute or chronic infection, there is a varied rapid shift in nutrients available to immune cells...
February 27, 2018: Viral Immunology
Alisa Kachikis, Linda O Eckert, Janet Englund
Maternal immunization for prevention of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and their neonates due to infectious diseases is ongoing worldwide. The complexity of vaccine research and development in this population is challenging. Not only do vaccines for pregnant women require evidence of immunogenicity, potency, stability, and limited reactogenicity, they must also provide efficacy in decreasing morbidity for the pregnant woman, her fetus, and the neonate, demonstrate safety or lack of evidence of harm, and offer benefit or potential benefit of vaccination during pregnancy...
February 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
Alireza Tahamtan, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Azadeh Shadab, Farhad Rezaei, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
Endocannabinoid system plays an important role in pathophysiologic processes such as immune functions and impacts on disease severity. Our previous study showed that cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) affects clinical course of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In this study, we investigated the role of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in RSV immunopathology and its therapeutic potential in mice model. To study the role of CB1 receptors in the immunopathology of RSV, CB1 was blocked daily with AM281 as a selective antagonist in Balb/c mice and were infected by intranasal inoculation of RSV-A2 24 h following the first dose of antagonist administration...
February 20, 2018: Viral Immunology
Robert Lethbridge, Franciska Prastanti, Cassandra Robertson, Stephen Oo, Siew-Kim Khoo, Peter N Le Souëf, Ingrid A Laing
To assess if the difference in species-specific immune response to RV-C correlates with a higher frequency of reinfection, shorter time to reinfection, or different symptom severity than infections with RV-A or RV-B. Forty-three patients were enrolled of which 34 were successfully tracked longitudinally over 3 months, with nasal swabs and symptom questionnaires provided every 2 weeks to identify rhinovirus (RV) strains and the concurrent symptomatology. No difference was found in the time to reinfection with an RV species between RV-C and RV-A or RV-B (p = 0...
February 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Julia L Hurwitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Viral Immunology
Li Miao, Liwei Shi, Yi Yang, Kunming Yan, Hongliang Sun, Zhaojun Mo, Li Li
This study evaluated the immunological effect of an aGV rabies virus strain using the Essen and Zagreb immunization programs. A total of 1,944 subjects were enrolled and divided into three groups: the Essen test group, Essen control group, and Zagreb test group. Neutralizing antibody levels and antibody seroconversion rates were determined at 7 and 14 days after the initial inoculations and then 14 days after the final inoculation in all of the subjects. The seroconversion rates for the Essen test group, Essen control group, and Zagreb test group, which were assessed 7 days after the first dosing in a susceptible population, were 35...
February 2, 2018: Viral Immunology
Diego A Diaz-Dinamarca, Francisco J Ibañez, Daniel A Soto, Jorge A Soto, Pablo F Cespedes, Nicolás A Muena, Diego S Garate, Alexis M Kalergis, Abel E Vasquez
The human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second leading cause globally of acute infection of the respiratory tract in children, infecting the upper and lower airways. The hMPV may induce an inappropriate Th2-type immune response, which causes severe pulmonary inflammation, leading to the obstruction of airways. Despite its severe epidemiological relevance, no vaccines are currently available for the prevention of hMPV-induced illness. In this investigation, we demonstrated that immunization of mice with the recombinant hMPV nucleoprotein (hMPV-N) mixed with the AbISCO-100 adjuvant reduced viral replication in lungs following challenge with the virus...
January 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
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