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Viral Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227202/challenges-of-vaccine-development-for-zika-virus
#1
Marcia A Blackman, In-Jeong Kim, Jr-Shiuan Lin, Stephen J Thomas
The emergence of outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015 was associated with devastating effects on fetal development and prompted a world health emergency and multiple efforts to generate an effective vaccine against infection. There are now more than 40 vaccine candidates in preclinical development and six in clinical trials. Despite similarities with other flaviviruses to which successful vaccines have been developed, such as yellow fever virus and Japanese Encephalitis virus, there are unique challenges to the development and clinical trials of a vaccine for ZIKV...
December 11, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185877/evaluation-of-a-direct-immunofluorescent-assay-and-or-conjunctival-cytology-for-detection-of-canine-distemper-virus-antigen
#2
Labrini V Athanasiou, Maria C Kantere, Constantinos S Kyriakis, Dimitra Pardali, Katerina Adamama Moraitou, Zoe S Polizopoulou
Canine distemper is a common and potentially lethal multisystemic disease caused by the Canine distemper virus (CDV). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of direct immunofluorescent assay (FA) and cytology to detect CDV antigen in conjunctival cells compared with an established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay used as a gold standard for CDV diagnosis. Samples were collected from 57 young dogs presenting with central nervous system signs compatible with distemper disease. Exfoliative epithelial cells were collected from the right and left conjunctiva of each animal using nylon-bristled cytobrushes for cytology and cotton swabs for FA and PCR...
November 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185875/immunization-of-mice-by-rotavirus-nsp4-vp6-fusion-protein-elicited-stronger-responses-compared-to-vp6-alone
#3
Atefeh Afchangi, Arash Arashkia, Zahra Shahosseini, Somayeh Jalilvand, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Farzin Roohvand, Nasir Mohajel, Zabihollah Shoja
Due to the limitations and safety issues of the two currently approved live attenuated rotavirus (RV) vaccines "RotaTeq and Rotarix," studies on nonreplicating sources of RV vaccines and search for proper RV antigens are actively carried out. The adjuvant activity of NSP4 and highly immunogenic properties of RV VP6 protein prompted us to consider the construction of a NSP4112-175-VP6 fusion protein and to assess the anti-VP6 IgG, IgA, and IgG subclass responses induced by Escherichia coli-derived NSP4-VP6 fusion protein compared to that of VP6 protein with/without formulation in Montanide ISA 50V2 (M50) in BALB/c mice...
November 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173081/varicella-virus-vaccination-in-the-united-states
#4
Jana Shaw, Anne A Gershon
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster), and was once responsible for over 4 million infections in the United States annually. The development of a live attenuated VZV vaccine was initially viewed with extreme skepticism. Nonetheless, a VZV vaccine was developed in the 1970s by Takahashi and his colleagues in Japan and was eventually licensed in the US. It is now known to be one of the safest and most effective vaccines available and is administered worldwide...
November 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161226/development-of-competitive-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assays-for-antibody-detection-based-on-bluetongue-virus-monoclonal-antibodies
#5
Zhou Han, Zang Mingxin, Li Xuechun, Xu Yigang, Qiao Xinyuan, Wang Li, Cui Wen, Jiang Yanping, Li Yijing, Tang Lijie
Bluetongue is a ruminant infectious disease that is characterized by hyperpyrexia, leukocyte decrease and mucosal ulcerative inflammation changes. In this study, three segments of Bluetongue virus (BTV)-8 VP2 protein (BTV-8A, 8B, and 8C) were cloned into pET-28a (+) and pMAl-c5X vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as histidine (His)-tagged (His-8A/8B/8C) and maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged (MBP-8A/8B/8C) fusion proteins. After purification, His-8A/8B/8C were used to immunize BALB/mice and MBP-8A/8B/8C were used to screen for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-secreting hybridomas...
November 21, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148956/the-challenge-of-emerging-viruses
#6
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148920/the-unexpected-impact-of-vaccines-on-secondary-bacterial-infections-following-influenza
#7
Amber M Smith, Victor C Huber
Influenza virus infections remain a significant health burden worldwide, despite available vaccines. Factors that contribute to this include a lack of broad coverage by current vaccines and continual emergence of novel virus strains. Further complicating matters, when influenza viruses infect a host, severe infections can develop when bacterial pathogens invade. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) contribute to a significant proportion of influenza-related mortality, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae as major coinfecting pathogens...
November 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131713/vaccines-we-need-but-don-t-have
#8
Stanley A Plotkin
Vaccinations have had tremendous success in the 20th century. However, in the 21st century, we are facing complex immunological issues in relation to controlling underlying infectious diseases. Therefore, new technologies are needed to develop vaccines against infectious diseases like respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus. In addition, recent emerging infections have taught us that we must prepare preventative measures in advance using our scientific abilities.
November 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130830/enhanced-cd103-expression-and-reduced-frequencies-of-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells-among-airway-lymphocytes-after-influenza-vaccination-of-mice-deficient-in-vitamins-a%C3%A2-%C3%A2-d
#9
Sherri L Surman, Bart G Jones, David L Woodland, Julia L Hurwitz
Previous research has evaluated antibody responses toward an influenza virus vaccine in the context of deficiencies for vitamins A and D (VAD+VDD). Results showed that antibodies and antibody-forming cells in the respiratory tract were reduced in VAD+VDD mice. However, effectors were recovered when oral supplements of vitamins A + D were delivered at the time of vaccination. Here we address the question of how vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell responses are affected by deficiencies for vitamins A + D. VAD+VDD and control mice were vaccinated with an intranasal, cold-adapted influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 vaccine, with or without oral supplements of vitamins A + D...
November 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130827/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-immune-related-genes-with-development-of-dengue-hemorrhagic-fever-in-a-mexican-population
#10
Angélica Berenice Vargas-Castillo, Karina Ruiz-Tovar, Héctor Vivanco-Cid, Sarai Quiroz-Cruz, Alejandro Escobar-Gutiérrez, Jorge Francisco Cerna-Cortes, Gilberto Vaughan, Salvador Fonseca-Coronado
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in immune-related genes have been associated with risk or protection for development of dengue, depending on ethnicity. Here, we genotyped seven SNPs located in immune response-related genes to identify their association with severe forms of dengue in patients from an endemic region in Mexico. One hundred and thirty-eight patients with dengue fever (DF), thirty-one dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients, as well as 304 healthy donors were genotyped by using a TaqMan-based approach...
November 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116892/lessons-from-the-meningitis-vaccine-project
#11
F Marc LaForce, Mamoudou Djingarey, Simonetta Viviani, Marie-Pierre Preziosi
From 2001 to 2017 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a Gates Foundation funded partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO), successfully developed, tested, licensed, and introduced an affordable new Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac(®), in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccine was well received, and from 2010 to 2016, over 260 million Africans have received a dose of the vaccine in campaigns largely directed at 1-29-year olds. The public health impact has been dramatic with the elimination of Group A meningococcal infections wherever the vaccine has been used at public health scale...
November 8, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099687/conjugated-bilirubin-upregulates-tim-3-expression-on-cd4-cd25-t-cells-anti-inflammatory-implications-for-hepatitis-a-virus-infection
#12
Jorge L Trujillo-Ochoa, Karla F Corral-Jara, Claudia L Charles-Niño, Arturo Panduro, Nora A Fierro
Bilirubin (BR), a metabolite with increased concentrations in plasma during viral hepatitis, has been recognized as a potential immune-modulator. We recently reported that conjugated BR (CB) augments regulatory T cell (Treg) suppressor activity during acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, the mechanisms related to the effects of CB on Treg function in the course of hepatotropic viral diseases have not been elucidated. T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3), via its interactions with galectin-9 (GAL-9), is a receptor associated with enhanced Treg function...
November 3, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064351/mechanisms-and-factors-that-drive-extensive-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hypervariability-an-overview
#13
Mahmoud Mohammad Yaseen, Nizar Mohammad Abuharfeil, Mohammad Ali Alqudah, Mohammad Mahmoud Yaseen
The extensive hypervariability of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) populations represents a major barrier against the success of currently available antiretroviral therapy. Moreover, it is still the most important obstacle that faces the development of an effective preventive vaccine against this infectious virus. Indeed, several factors can drive such hypervariability within and between HIV-1 patients. These factors include: first, the very low fidelity nature of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase; second, the extremely high HIV-1 replication rate; and third, the high genomic recombination rate that the virus has...
October 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058554/re-assessing-the-detection-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-igg-in-suspected-and-proven-cases-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-by-alhetheel-et-al-viral-immunol-2017-epub-ahead-of-print-doi-10-1089-vim-2017-0091
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028178/zika-virus-immune-evasion-mechanisms-currently-available-therapeutic-regimens-and-vaccines
#15
Arun Asif, Sobia Manzoor, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Muhammad Saalim, Maliha Ashraf, Javeria Ishtiyaq, Madiha Khalid
The sudden emergence of infectious pathogens such as Zika virus (ZIKV) holds global health concerns. Recent dissemination of ZIKV from Pacific to Americas with an upsurge of congenital anomalies and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in adults has created an alarming situation. High-throughput studies are in progress to understand ZIKV's mode of pathogenesis and mechanism of immune escape, yet the pathogenesis remains obscure. Mainly ZIKV's envelope (E) protein and nonstructural proteins (mainly NS1 and NS5) manipulate host cell to support viral immune escape by modulation of the interferon pathway and complement antagonism...
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016246/cognitive-dysfunction-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-persons-a-systematic-review
#16
Tatiana Lins Carvalho, Raul Emídio Lima, Gustavo Henrique Belarmino Góes, Lívio Amaro Pereira, Matheus Santos de Sousa Fernandes, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire Moura, Luydson Richardson Silva Vasconcelos, Carolina Cunha Correia
The aim of this study was to realize a systematic review to identify data reported in the literature involving people infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) with cognitive dysfunctions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The research was realized in six databases and the selection of studies was performed in two stages. Initially, we searched indexed articles from the following electronic databases: SciELO, MEDLINE, PubMed, HighWire, LILACS, and ScienceDirect. Then the articles were completely read and those that did not meet the eligibility criteria were excluded...
October 10, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953450/enhanced-immune-response-to-rabies-viruses-by-the-use-of-a-liposome-adjuvant-in-vaccines
#17
Li Miao, Yi Yang, Mingkun Yan, Yanchun Li, Jieshu Zhao, Jieshi Guo, Dong Zheng
Essen regimen, the Thai Red Cross two-site ID regimen, Zagreb schedule, and the eight-site ID regimen are the standard rabies vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, a liposomal rabies vaccine (LipoRV) was developed, which was found to facilitate the production of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) in BALB/c mice. Liposome solution was prepared with hydrogenated soya phosphatide and cholesterol. LipoRV composed of liposome solution and inactivated rabies vaccine (IRV)...
September 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949818/polymerase-chain-reaction-based-detection-method-is-suitable-for-dengue-infection-during-epidemics
#18
Kashif Iqbal, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Muhammad Idrees, Sadeem Shahzad, Zareen Fatima
Over the years, dengue fever has become a significant infectious disease in different parts of the world. Medical and public health services have been unable to deal with infection as there is no vaccine available for the prevention of this infection. With dengue, effective treatments are not available due to which severe symptoms may develop. To deal with this challenge, a sensitive and specific technique is required for its early diagnosis along with the knowledge of dengue serotype to increase the specificity of diagnosis and treatment...
September 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910194/chikungunya-virus-induced-arthritis-role-of-host-and-viral-factors-in-the-pathogenesis
#19
Sarika Amdekar, Deepti Parashar, Kalichamy Alagarasu
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of Alphavirus genus, is responsible for chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by the presence of fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Reemergence of CHIKV has become a significant public health concern in Asian and African countries and is newly emerging in the Middle East, Pacific, American, and European countries. Cytokines, innate (monocytes, natural killer cells) and adaptive immune response (role of B cells and T cells i.e. CD4+ and CD8+), and/or viral factors contribute to CHIKV-induced arthritis...
December 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035156/cd4-t-memory-stem-cells-correlate-with-disease-progression-in-chronically-hiv-1-infected-patients
#20
Xiaofan Lu, Bingbing Song, Wenjia Weng, Huan Xia, Bin Su, Hao Wu, Tong Zhang, Wei Li, Yanqing Gao
Recently identified T memory stem (Tscm) cells have stem-cell-like properties, including long lifespan, self-renewal capacity, and multipotency to differentiate into other memory T cell types. In the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, selective depletion of CCR5(+)CD4(+) Tscm cells and the high proliferation rate of these cells are believed to be responsible for the pathogenesis of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Here, we conducted a cohort study to investigate the influence of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on CD4(+) Tscm cell homeostasis, and the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on CD4(+) Tscm cells...
November 2017: Viral Immunology
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