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Viral Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537534/elevated-plasma-growth-arrest-specific-6-protein-levels-are-associated-with-the-severity-of-disease-during-hantaan-virus-infection-in-humans
#1
Chunmei Zhang, Kang Tang, Yusi Zhang, Ying Ma, Ran Zhuang, Xuyang Zheng, Boquan Jin, Yun Zhang
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is caused by Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Seoul virus infection in Asia. The clinical manifestation of HFRS is characterized by the rapid loss of renal function (acute kidney injury) and thrombocytopenia. The specific immune mechanisms that cause thrombocytopenia in HFRS are not well described. The growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) protein and TAM (Tyro3, Axl and Mer) receptors have been recently shown to play prominent roles in immune regulation, and high plasma levels of Gas6 may predict the severity of diseases...
May 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530508/influence-of-transmitted-virus-on-the-host-s-immune-response-a-case-study
#2
Shahzma Merani, Michaela Lucas, Pooja Deshpande, Katja Pfafferott, Abha Chopra, Don Cooper, Shay Leary, Fabio Luciani, Silvana Gaudieri
Host hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cell responses and the ability of the virus to escape this response are important correlates of infection outcome. Understanding this host-viral interplay has been difficult given the often asymptomatic nature of acute HCV infection. We studied a recent transmission case to determine whether adapted viral strains can be transmitted and influence the recipient's anti-HCV T cell response. The diversity of viral populations was examined using next-generation sequencing, and HCV-specific T cell interferon (IFN)-γ responses were assessed using a peptide panel representing the autologous viruses...
May 22, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514189/effects-of-vaccination-with-the-c-strain-vaccine-on-immune-cells-and-cytokines-of-pigs-against-classical-swine-fever-virus
#3
Lu Xu, Xue-Zheng Fan, Qi-Zu Zhao, Zheng-Xing Zhang, Kai Chen, Yi-Bao Ning, Qian-Yi Zhang, Xing-Qi Zou, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Cui Li, Yu-Jie Zhang, Qin Wang
The attenuated C-strain vaccine against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of the safest and most effective attenuated vaccines. However, little is known of the host immune response after vaccination with the C-strain vaccine. Blood samples from vaccinated pigs were collected to evaluate the number of immune cells, the level of specific CSFV antibody, and related cytokines induced by the vaccination of C-strain vaccine. The C-strain nucleic acid was gradually removed and specific antibody to vaccine kept increasing; the amount of the lymphocyte, Tc cell, and Th cell increased; some inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α mainly showed downregulated trends, but IL-6 and IL-8 were upregulated greatly; IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12p40, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-I, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) kept high expression level after 28 days postvaccination (dpv); IFN-γ was upregulated slightly at 5 and 9 dpv, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504591/theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus
#4
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453414/innate-immune-gene-transcript-level-associated-with-the-infection-of-macrophages-with-ectromelia-virus-in-two-different-mouse-strains
#5
Patryk Dolega, Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Magdalena Bossowska, Matylda Mielcarska, Zuzanna Nowak, Felix N Toka
Poxviruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid the immune response of the infected host, and many of these mechanisms have not been fully described. Here, we studied the transcriptional response of innate immune genes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 peritoneal macrophages following infection with the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-Mos) with the aim of delineating innate immune genes that contribute to the difference between susceptibility and resistance to lethal infection. We show a generalized downregulation of many genes in four categories (toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and type I interferon signaling) of antiviral innate immune receptors, downstream signaling pathways, and responsive components...
April 28, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453403/high-rate-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigenemia-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-kakuri-kaduna-state-north-west-nigeria
#6
Cornelius Arome Omatola, Bernard Anyebe Onoja, Temitope Thomas
Globally, increased incidence of liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. This is because both viruses share common routes of transmission. We determined prevalence of HBV-HIV coinfection and the influence of some risk factors on concomitant infection among people living with HIV in a treatment center in Kakuri, Kaduna State. Two hundred consenting individuals with HIV infection participated in the study...
April 28, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436755/modes-of-action-for-mucosal-vaccine-adjuvants
#7
Taiki Aoshi
Vaccine adjuvants induce innate immune responses and the addition of adjuvants to the vaccine helps to induce protective immunity in the host. Vaccines utilizing live attenuated or killed whole pathogens usually contain endogenous adjuvants, such as bacterial cell wall products and their genomic nucleic acids, which act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are sufficient to induce adaptive immune responses. However, purified protein- or antigen-based vaccines, including component or recombinant vaccines, usually lose these endogenous innate immune stimulators, so the addition of an exogenous adjuvant is essential for the success of these vaccine types...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436740/major-immunodominant-region-of-hepatitis-b-virus-core-antigen-as-a-delivery-vector-to-improve-the-immunogenicity-of-the-fusion-antigen-rop2-sag1-multiepitope-from-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice
#8
Wenhuan Wang, Fangfang Feng, Jinhui Lv, Zixin Xie, Jun Chen, Lifang Zhang, Wenshu Li
To prepare the dominant multiepitope fusion antigen ROP2-SAG1 (RSmultiepitope) from Toxoplasma gondii in a prokaryotic system, the major immunodominant region (MIR) of the human hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg(MIR)) was used as a delivery vector. The gene encoding the RSmultiepitope was inserted into HBcAg(MIR), and rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope was prepared, purified, and administered to BALB/c mice through intradermal injection. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis based on a multiepitope peptide facilitated the specific differentiation of sera obtained from mice immunized with the rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope protein, and high titers (greater than 1:6,400) of specific anti-RSmultiepitope antibodies were obtained...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418786/evaluation-in-mice-of-the-immunogenicity-of-a-tetravalent-subunit-vaccine-candidate-against-dengue-virus-using-mucosal-and-parenteral-immunization-routes
#9
Laura Lazo Vázquez, Lázaro Gil González, Ernesto Marcos López, Yusleidi Pérez Fuentes, Lázaro Cervetto de Armas, Enma Brown Richards, Iris Valdés Prado, Edith Suzarte Portal, Karem Cobas Acosta, Melyssa Yaugel Novoa, Yaremis Romero Fernández, Gerardo Guillén Nieto, Lisset Hermida Cruz
Our group has developed a subunit vaccine candidate against Dengue virus (DENV) based on two different viral regions, the domain III of the envelope protein and the capsid protein. The chimeric proteins for each serotype (DIIIC1-4), aggregated with the oligodeoxynucleotide 39 M, form the tetravalent formulation named Tetra DIIIC. Tetra DIIIC induces a protective immune response in mice when it is inoculated by intraperitoneal route. However, if children are the main targets for a DENV vaccine, then a needle-free route of administration should be attractive and advantageous...
April 18, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418771/persistence-in-temporary-lung-niches-a-survival-strategy-of-lung-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells
#10
Shiki Takamura
Respiratory virus infections, such as those mediated by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), rhinovirus, and adenovirus, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in children and older adults. Furthermore, the potential emergence of highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus poses a significant public health threat. Thus, the development of vaccines capable of eliciting long-lasting protective immunity to those pathogens is a major public health priority...
April 18, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414634/detection-of-the-canine-parvovirus-2c-subtype-in-australian-dogs
#11
Lucy Woolford, Paul Crocker, Hannah Bobrowski, Trevor Baker, Farhid Hemmatzadeh
Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is an important cause of hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. In Australia the disease has been associated with CPV-2a and CPV-2b variants. A third more recently emerged variant overseas, CPV-2c, has not been detected in surveys of the Australian dog population. In this study, we report three cases of canine parvoviral enteritis associated with CPV-2c infection; case 1 occurred in an 8-week-old puppy that died following acute hemorrhagic enteritis. Cases 2 and 3 were an 11-month-old female entire Saint Bernard and a 9-month-old male entire Siberian husky, respectively, both which had completed vaccination schedules and presented with vomiting or mild diarrhea only...
April 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410454/transcriptomic-analysis-of-host-immune-response-in-the-skin-of-chickens-infected-with-marek-s-disease-virus
#12
Mohammad Heidari, Phillip C Delekta
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of T cell lymphoma and neuropathic disease called Marek's disease. The skin is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virions are produced and shed into the environment. Studies have demonstrated that MDV infection induces immunological responses within the skin, including the release of cytokines and the recruitment of T lymphocytes. The host immune response, however, is not sufficient to block replication and shedding of the virus particles from the skin...
April 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410452/notch-signaling-regulates-circulating-t-helper-22-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#13
Ben-Chun Jiang, Xin Liu, Xiao-Hong Liu, Zhen-Sheng-Nan Li, Guang-Ze Zhu
Notch signaling enhanced the response of interleukin (IL)-22-producing CD4(+) T cells that were defined as T helper 22 (Th22) cells, and Notch-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-IL-22 axis fine-tuned inflammatory response. Previous studies have demonstrated that both Notch signaling and Th22 cells took part in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Thus, in this study, we aimed at examining the regulatory role of Notch signaling in Th22 cells in HCV infection. A total of 59 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 22 normal controls (NCs) were enrolled in this study...
April 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402729/differential-regulation-of-chtlr3-by-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-with-different-virulence-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Xiumiao He, Yanyan Chen, Synat Kang, Guo Chen, Ping Wei
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is one of the TLRs whose ligand is double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a dsRNA virus that could be recognized by TLR3. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the virulence of IBDV on the expression of chicken TLR3 (chTLR3). For this purpose, the levels of chTLR3 expression and its downstream effectors, Interferon β (IFN-β) and Interleukin 8 (IL-8), were detected and analyzed after infection of IBDV field isolates with differential virulence in vitro (chicken embryo fibroblast and/or chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and in vivo (commercial Three-Yellow chicken)...
April 12, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402228/complement-components-are-expressed-by-infiltrating-macrophages-activated-microglia-early-following-viral-infection
#15
Jane E Libbey, Matthew F Cusick, Daniel J Doty, Robert S Fujinami
The individual innate immune components, interleukin-6 and complement component C3, play a role in the development of acute seizures in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced seizure model. We examined the mRNA expression of various other complement components, cytokines, chemokines, and major histocompatibility complex antigens both within brain and in isolated ramified microglial and infiltrating macrophage/activated microglial cell populations over a time course covering the first 3 days postinfection...
April 12, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402196/mice-antibody-response-to-conserved-nonadjuvanted-multiple-antigenic-peptides-derived-from-e1-e2-regions-of-hepatitis-c-virus
#16
Tawfeek H Abdelhafez, Noha G Bader El Din, Ashraf A Tabll, Mohammad M Mashaly, Reham M Dawood, Nemat A Yassin, Mostafa K El-Awady
Synthetic peptides are one of the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific small molecules that have antiviral activity and represent a target for HCV vaccine. This study aims to determine the lowest concentration of adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted (multiple antigenic peptide [MAP]) form of three conserved HCV envelope peptides that can induce murine immunogenic responses and evaluate the neutralization capacities of the generated antibodies (Abs) against HCV in cultured Huh7.5 cells. In this study, three HCV synthetic peptides, E1 peptide (a...
April 12, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402179/antiviral-effect-of-ido-in-mouse-fibroblast-cells-during-influenza-virus-infection
#17
Fang Li, Håkan Karlsson
While upregulation of 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) accompanied by degradation of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway have been reported to exert antimicrobial effects against a wide range of infectious agents, its role in the replication of influenza A virus remains uncertain. We performed experiments using influenza A/WSN/33 virus infection of mouse fibroblast cell-line (NIH-3T3) to study the effects of IDO on viral replication. Influenza infection resulted in prominent elevations of transcripts encoding IDO, interferon (IFN)-β, and segment 8 of the virus in NIH-3T3 cells...
April 12, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388330/yellow-fever-virus-modulates-the-expression-of-key-proteins-related-to-the-microrna-pathway-in-the-human-hepatocarcinoma-cell-line-hepg2
#18
Gustavo Moraes Holanda, Samir Mansour Moraes Casseb, Karla Fabiane Lopes Mello, Pedro Fernando Costa Vasconcelos, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz
Yellow fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV) and transmitted by mosquitoes of the family Culicidae. It is well known that cellular and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in modulation of viral and cellular gene expression, as well as immune response, and are considered by the scientific community as possible targets for an effective therapy against viral infections. This regulation may be involved in different levels of infection and clinical symptomatology. We used viral titration techniques, viral kinetics from 24 to 96 hours postinfection (hpi), and analyzed the expression of key proteins related to the miRNA pathway by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
April 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355125/epitope-mapping-of-the-antibody-response-against-the-envelope-proteins-of-the-feline-foamy-virus
#19
Michael Mühle, Anne Bleiholder, Martin Löchelt, Joachim Denner
Foamy viruses (FV) are retroviruses that infect several species without pathological signs, but induce substantial antibody responses in the infected host. In the case of feline FV (FFV), antibodies against Gag, Bet, and Env have been used to indicate infection; however, it is unclear whether the response to specific epitopes correlates with immunity. Here, we investigated the epitope specificity of antibodies targeting the Env protein using peptide microarrays. Sera from naturally and experimentally FFV-infected cats and pumas and from rats immunized with FFV Env expression plasmids were analyzed...
March 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355105/josd1-negatively-regulates-type-i-interferon-antiviral-activity-by-deubiquitinating-and-stabilizing-socs1
#20
Xiaofang Wang, Liting Zhang, Yunli Zhang, Peng Zhao, Liping Qian, Yukang Yuan, Jin Liu, Qiao Cheng, Wenqian Xu, Yibo Zuo, Tingting Guo, Zhengyuan Yu, Hui Zheng
The Josephin domain-containing (JOSD) protein 1 (JOSD1) is recognized as one member of deubiquitinases (DUBs) due to its catalytic "Josephin" domain. However, the in vivo deubiquitinating activity of JOSD1 remains unidentified, and the biological functions of JOSD1 are largely unknown. In this study, we report that JOSD1 plays an important role in regulating type-I interferon (IFN-I)-mediated antiviral activity. JOSD1 physically interacts with SOCS1, which is an essential negative regulator of many cytokines signaling, and enhances SOCS1 stability by deubiquitinating K48-linked polyubiquitination of SOCS1...
March 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
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