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Viral Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622101/hepatitis-c-virus-in-pakistan-community-education-is-an-effective-weapon-against-the-killer
#1
Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618246/adjuvants-for-animal-vaccines
#2
Yulia Burakova, Rachel Madera, Scott McVey, John R Schlup, Jishu Shi
Vaccines are essential tools for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in animals. One of the most important steps in vaccine development is the selection of a suitable adjuvant. The focus of this review is the adjuvants used in vaccines for animals. We will discuss current commercial adjuvants and experimental formulations with attention to mineral salts, emulsions, bacterial-derived components, saponins, and several other immunoactive compounds. In addition, we will also examine the mechanisms of action for different adjuvants, examples of adjuvant combinations in one vaccine formulation, and challenges in the research and development of veterinary vaccine adjuvants...
June 15, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614011/structural-basis-for-cd4-t-cell-epitope-dominance-in-arbo-flavivirus-envelope-proteins-a-meta-analysis
#3
Samuel J Landry, Daniel L Moss, Da Cui, Ryan P Ferrie, Mitchell L Fullerton, Evan A Wells, Lu Yang, Nini Zhou, Thomas Dougherty, Ramgopal R Mettu
A meta-analysis of CD4+ T cell epitope maps reveals clusters and gaps in envelope-protein (E protein) immunogenicity that can be explained by the likelihood of epitope processing, as determined by E protein three-dimensional structures. Differential processing may be at least partially responsible for variations in disease severity among arbo-flaviruses and points to structural features that modulate protection from disease.
June 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609255/regional-immune-responses-in-the-lung-after-respiratory-virus-infections
#4
Shiki Takamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609250/recognition-of-viral-rna-by-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-the-induction-of-innate-immunity-and-excessive-inflammation-during-respiratory-viral-infections
#5
Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Takahisa Kouwaki, Tsukasa Seya, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against virus infection that triggers the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, resulting in the induction of innate immune responses. Viral RNA in endosomes is recognized by Toll-like receptors, and cytoplasmic viral RNA is recognized by RIG-I-like receptors. The host innate immune response is critical for protection against virus infection...
June 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598267/interaction-of-immunoglobulin-with-cytomegalovirus-infected-cells
#6
Nobuyasu Aiba, Atsuko Shiraki, Misako Yajima, Yukari Oyama, Yoshihiro Yoshida, Ayumu Ohno, Hiroshi Yamada, Masaya Takemoto, Tohru Daikoku, Kimiyasu Shiraki
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used to treat or prevent severe viral infection, especially cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. IVIG was characterized to understand its interaction with CMV-infected cells. IVIG retarded CMV spread and reduced virus yields depending on the neutralizing (NT) antibody titer. Immediate early protein synthesis was reduced by IVIG in 3 to 15 h, and IVIG specifically reduced the ratio of 66/68k protein synthesis among immediate early proteins in an NT antibody-dependent manner between 4 and 8 h after infection, indicating that antigenic modulation of CMV-infected cells by IVIG reduced viral protein synthesis and virus production...
June 9, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594599/genetic-variants-in-the-il-4-il-13-pathway-influence-measles-vaccine-responses-and-vaccine-failure-in-children-from-mozambique
#7
Holly D Clifford, Catherine M Hayden, Siew-Kim Khoo, Denise Naniche, Inacio M Mandomando, Guicheng Zhang, Peter Richmond, Peter N Le Souëf
Despite effective measles vaccines, measles still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The Th2 pathway involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 cytokines, and their receptor IL-4Rα, play important roles in the Th1/Th2 balance and antibody production. A Th2 skewing of the cytokine milieu may affect vaccine responses. We investigated IL-4, IL-13, and IL-4Rα polymorphisms and their impact on measles IgG responses and measles vaccine failure, in two separate cohorts: 12-month-old Australian children immunized with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (n = 137) and a case/control cohort of children aged 6 months-14 years from Mozambique, Africa (n = 89), some of whom were vaccinated, but still contracted measles (vaccine failure)...
June 8, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574756/sod2-facilitates-the-antiviral-innate-immune-response-by-scavenging-reactive-oxygen-species
#8
Wan Wang, Yufei Jin, Ningxiang Zeng, Qingwei Ruan, Feng Qian
Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is essential in radical scavenging, which balances the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The dysfunction of SOD2 is associated with increasing incidence of various human diseases, including cancer, neuron diseases, and myocardial defects. However, the connections between SOD2-mediated oxidative homeostasis and innate immune response remain unclear. In this study, we report that SOD2 is a crucial regulator of antiviral signaling. Depletion of SOD2 impairs RNA virus-induced type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokine production, resulting in enhanced viral replication...
June 2, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530508/influence-of-transmitted-virus-on-the-host-s-immune-response-a-case-study
#9
Shahzma Merani, Michaela Lucas, Pooja Deshpande, Katja Pfafferott, Abha Chopra, Don Cooper, Shay Leary, Fabio Luciani, Silvana Gaudieri
Host hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cell responses and the ability of the virus to escape this response are important correlates of infection outcome. Understanding this host-viral interplay has been difficult given the often asymptomatic nature of acute HCV infection. We studied a recent transmission case to determine whether adapted viral strains can be transmitted and influence the recipient's anti-HCV T cell response. The diversity of viral populations was examined using next-generation sequencing, and HCV-specific T cell interferon (IFN)-γ responses were assessed using a peptide panel representing the autologous viruses...
May 22, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514189/effects-of-vaccination-with-the-c-strain-vaccine-on-immune-cells-and-cytokines-of-pigs-against-classical-swine-fever-virus
#10
Lu Xu, Xue-Zheng Fan, Qi-Zu Zhao, Zheng-Xing Zhang, Kai Chen, Yi-Bao Ning, Qian-Yi Zhang, Xing-Qi Zou, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Cui Li, Yu-Jie Zhang, Qin Wang
The attenuated C-strain vaccine against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of the safest and most effective attenuated vaccines. However, little is known of the host immune response after vaccination with the C-strain vaccine. Blood samples from vaccinated pigs were collected to evaluate the number of immune cells, the level of specific CSFV antibody, and related cytokines induced by the vaccination of C-strain vaccine. The C-strain nucleic acid was gradually removed and specific antibody to vaccine kept increasing; the amount of the lymphocyte, Tc cell, and Th cell increased; some inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α mainly showed downregulated trends, but IL-6 and IL-8 were upregulated greatly; IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12p40, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-I, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) kept high expression level after 28 days postvaccination (dpv); IFN-γ was upregulated slightly at 5 and 9 dpv, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453403/high-rate-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigenemia-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-kakuri-kaduna-state-north-west-nigeria
#11
Cornelius Arome Omatola, Bernard Anyebe Onoja, Temitope Thomas
Globally, increased incidence of liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. This is because both viruses share common routes of transmission. We determined prevalence of HBV-HIV coinfection and the influence of some risk factors on concomitant infection among people living with HIV in a treatment center in Kakuri, Kaduna State. Two hundred consenting individuals with HIV infection participated in the study...
April 28, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436755/modes-of-action-for-mucosal-vaccine-adjuvants
#12
Taiki Aoshi
Vaccine adjuvants induce innate immune responses and the addition of adjuvants to the vaccine helps to induce protective immunity in the host. Vaccines utilizing live attenuated or killed whole pathogens usually contain endogenous adjuvants, such as bacterial cell wall products and their genomic nucleic acids, which act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are sufficient to induce adaptive immune responses. However, purified protein- or antigen-based vaccines, including component or recombinant vaccines, usually lose these endogenous innate immune stimulators, so the addition of an exogenous adjuvant is essential for the success of these vaccine types...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436740/major-immunodominant-region-of-hepatitis-b-virus-core-antigen-as-a-delivery-vector-to-improve-the-immunogenicity-of-the-fusion-antigen-rop2-sag1-multiepitope-from-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice
#13
Wenhuan Wang, Fangfang Feng, Jinhui Lv, Zixin Xie, Jun Chen, Lifang Zhang, Wenshu Li
To prepare the dominant multiepitope fusion antigen ROP2-SAG1 (RSmultiepitope) from Toxoplasma gondii in a prokaryotic system, the major immunodominant region (MIR) of the human hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg(MIR)) was used as a delivery vector. The gene encoding the RSmultiepitope was inserted into HBcAg(MIR), and rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope was prepared, purified, and administered to BALB/c mice through intradermal injection. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis based on a multiepitope peptide facilitated the specific differentiation of sera obtained from mice immunized with the rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope protein, and high titers (greater than 1:6,400) of specific anti-RSmultiepitope antibodies were obtained...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418771/persistence-in-temporary-lung-niches-a-survival-strategy-of-lung-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells
#14
Shiki Takamura
Respiratory virus infections, such as those mediated by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), rhinovirus, and adenovirus, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in children and older adults. Furthermore, the potential emergence of highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus poses a significant public health threat. Thus, the development of vaccines capable of eliciting long-lasting protective immunity to those pathogens is a major public health priority...
April 18, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410452/notch-signaling-regulates-circulating-t-helper-22-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#15
Ben-Chun Jiang, Xin Liu, Xiao-Hong Liu, Zhen-Sheng-Nan Li, Guang-Ze Zhu
Notch signaling enhanced the response of interleukin (IL)-22-producing CD4(+) T cells that were defined as T helper 22 (Th22) cells, and Notch-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-IL-22 axis fine-tuned inflammatory response. Previous studies have demonstrated that both Notch signaling and Th22 cells took part in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Thus, in this study, we aimed at examining the regulatory role of Notch signaling in Th22 cells in HCV infection. A total of 59 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 22 normal controls (NCs) were enrolled in this study...
April 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402729/differential-regulation-of-chtlr3-by-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-with-different-virulence-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Xiumiao He, Yanyan Chen, Synat Kang, Guo Chen, Ping Wei
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is one of the TLRs whose ligand is double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a dsRNA virus that could be recognized by TLR3. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the virulence of IBDV on the expression of chicken TLR3 (chTLR3). For this purpose, the levels of chTLR3 expression and its downstream effectors, Interferon β (IFN-β) and Interleukin 8 (IL-8), were detected and analyzed after infection of IBDV field isolates with differential virulence in vitro (chicken embryo fibroblast and/or chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and in vivo (commercial Three-Yellow chicken)...
April 12, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402179/antiviral-effect-of-ido-in-mouse-fibroblast-cells-during-influenza-virus-infection
#17
Fang Li, Håkan Karlsson
While upregulation of 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) accompanied by degradation of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway have been reported to exert antimicrobial effects against a wide range of infectious agents, its role in the replication of influenza A virus remains uncertain. We performed experiments using influenza A/WSN/33 virus infection of mouse fibroblast cell-line (NIH-3T3) to study the effects of IDO on viral replication. Influenza infection resulted in prominent elevations of transcripts encoding IDO, interferon (IFN)-β, and segment 8 of the virus in NIH-3T3 cells...
April 12, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537534/elevated-plasma-growth-arrest-specific-6-protein-levels-are-associated-with-the-severity-of-disease-during-hantaan-virus-infection-in-humans
#18
Chunmei Zhang, Kang Tang, Yusi Zhang, Ying Ma, Ran Zhuang, Xuyang Zheng, Boquan Jin, Yun Zhang
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is caused by Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Seoul virus infection in Asia. The clinical manifestation of HFRS is characterized by the rapid loss of renal function (acute kidney injury) and thrombocytopenia. The specific immune mechanisms that cause thrombocytopenia in HFRS are not well described. The growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) protein and TAM (Tyro3, Axl and Mer) receptors have been recently shown to play prominent roles in immune regulation, and high plasma levels of Gas6 may predict the severity of diseases...
June 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504591/theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus
#19
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453414/innate-immune-gene-transcript-level-associated-with-the-infection-of-macrophages-with-ectromelia-virus-in-two-different-mouse-strains
#20
Patryk Dolega, Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Magdalena Bossowska, Matylda Mielcarska, Zuzanna Nowak, Felix N Toka
Poxviruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid the immune response of the infected host, and many of these mechanisms have not been fully described. Here, we studied the transcriptional response of innate immune genes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 peritoneal macrophages following infection with the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-Mos) with the aim of delineating innate immune genes that contribute to the difference between susceptibility and resistance to lethal infection. We show a generalized downregulation of many genes in four categories (toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and type I interferon signaling) of antiviral innate immune receptors, downstream signaling pathways, and responsive components...
June 2017: Viral Immunology
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