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Viral Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035156/cd4-t-memory-stem-cells-correlate-with-disease-progression-in-chronically-hiv-1-infected-patients
#1
Xiaofan Lu, Bingbing Song, Wenjia Weng, Huan Xia, Bin Su, Hao Wu, Tong Zhang, Wei Li, Yanqing Gao
Recently identified T memory stem (Tscm) cells have stem-cell-like properties, including long lifespan, self-renewal capacity, and multipotency to differentiate into other memory T cell types. In the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, selective depletion of CCR5(+)CD4(+) Tscm cells and the high proliferation rate of these cells are believed to be responsible for the pathogenesis of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Here, we conducted a cohort study to investigate the influence of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on CD4(+) Tscm cell homeostasis, and the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on CD4(+) Tscm cells...
October 16, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028459/viral-diagnostics
#2
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028182/hypothesis-rna-and-dna-viral-sequence-integration-into-the-mammalian-host-genome-supports-long-term-b-cell-and-t-cell-adaptive-immunity
#3
Julia L Hurwitz, Bart G Jones, Emmanuelle Charpentier, David L Woodland
Viral sequence integration into the mammalian genome has long been perceived as a health risk. In some cases, integration translates to chronic viral infection, and in other instances, oncogenic gene mutations occur. However, research also shows that animal cells can benefit from integrated viral sequences (e.g., to support host cell development or to silence foreign invaders). Here we propose that, comparable with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats that provide bacteria with adaptive immunity against invasive bacteriophages, animal cells may co-opt integrated viral sequences to support immune memory...
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028178/zika-virus-immune-evasion-mechanisms-currently-available-therapeutic-regimens-and-vaccines
#4
Arun Asif, Sobia Manzoor, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Muhammad Saalim, Maliha Ashraf, Javeria Ishtiyaq, Madiha Khalid
The sudden emergence of infectious pathogens such as Zika virus (ZIKV) holds global health concerns. Recent dissemination of ZIKV from Pacific to Americas with an upsurge of congenital anomalies and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in adults has created an alarming situation. High-throughput studies are in progress to understand ZIKV's mode of pathogenesis and mechanism of immune escape, yet the pathogenesis remains obscure. Mainly ZIKV's envelope (E) protein and nonstructural proteins (mainly NS1 and NS5) manipulate host cell to support viral immune escape by modulation of the interferon pathway and complement antagonism...
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016246/cognitive-dysfunction-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-persons-a-systematic-review
#5
Tatiana Lins Carvalho, Raul Emídio Lima, Gustavo Henrique Belarmino Góes, Lívio Amaro Pereira, Matheus Santos de Sousa Fernandes, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire Moura, Luydson Richardson Silva Vasconcelos, Carolina Cunha Correia
The aim of this study was to realize a systematic review to identify data reported in the literature involving people infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) with cognitive dysfunctions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The research was realized in six databases and the selection of studies was performed in two stages. Initially, we searched indexed articles from the following electronic databases: SciELO, MEDLINE, PubMed, HighWire, LILACS, and ScienceDirect. Then the articles were completely read and those that did not meet the eligibility criteria were excluded...
October 10, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972455/rubella-seropositivity-in-pregnant-women-after-vaccination-campaign-in-brazil-s-federal-district
#6
Yanna K M Nóbrega, Bruna C de Carvalho, Nadjar Nitz, Tamires E Vital, Franco B Leite, Inês J Sequeira, Elsa E Moreira, Juliana K B de Andrade, Lenora Gandolfi, Riccardo Pratesi, Mariana M Hecht
Rubella is an acute viral disease that usually does not generate sequels; however, in pregnant women the infection can cause serious abnormalities to fetuses, which are collectively called congenital rubella syndrome. In Brazil, population immunization was started in 1992, but few epidemiological studies have been conducted to assess vaccination coverage and seroconversion since then. The aim of this work is to evaluate the seropositivity of pregnant women to rubella virus after vaccination campaign was carried out in 2008...
October 3, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953450/enhanced-immune-response-to-rabies-viruses-by-the-use-of-a-liposome-adjuvant-in-vaccines
#7
Li Miao, Yi Yang, Mingkun Yan, Yanchun Li, Jieshu Zhao, Jieshi Guo, Dong Zheng
Essen regimen, the Thai Red Cross two-site ID regimen, Zagreb schedule, and the eight-site ID regimen are the standard rabies vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, a liposomal rabies vaccine (LipoRV) was developed, which was found to facilitate the production of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) in BALB/c mice. Liposome solution was prepared with hydrogenated soya phosphatide and cholesterol. LipoRV composed of liposome solution and inactivated rabies vaccine (IRV)...
September 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953449/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-extrahepatic-manifestations-in-lung-and-heart-and-antiviral-therapy-related-cardiopulmonary-toxicity
#8
Syeda Zainab Ilyas, Rabia Tabassum, Haroon Hamed, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ishtiaq Qadri
Besides liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). HCV exhibits lymphotropism that is responsible for various EHM. An important characteristic of HCV is escape from the immune system, which enables it to produce chronic infections and autoimmune disorders along with accumulation of circulating immune complexes. These EHMs have large spectrum, because they affect many organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, brain, thyroid, and skin...
September 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949818/polymerase-chain-reaction-based-detection-method-is-suitable-for-dengue-infection-during-epidemics
#9
Kashif Iqbal, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Muhammad Idrees, Sadeem Shahzad, Zareen Fatima
Over the years, dengue fever has become a significant infectious disease in different parts of the world. Medical and public health services have been unable to deal with infection as there is no vaccine available for the prevention of this infection. With dengue, effective treatments are not available due to which severe symptoms may develop. To deal with this challenge, a sensitive and specific technique is required for its early diagnosis along with the knowledge of dengue serotype to increase the specificity of diagnosis and treatment...
September 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945170/fowl-aviadenovirus-9-dutpase-plays-a-role-in-regulation-of-the-host-immune-response
#10
Li Deng, Bryan D Griffin, Yanlong Pei, David Leishman, Betty-Anne McBey, Shayan Sharif, Éva Nagy
Fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) are distributed worldwide in poultry farms. Some FAdVs are the causative agents of inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome that cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry. In contrast with human adenovirus, the study of the molecular biology of FAdV is still far behind. We previously showed that FAdV-9 open reading frame 1 (ORF1) is a dUTPase enzyme that contributes to the upregulation of type I interferons and is not required for virus replication in vitro...
September 25, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945165/dengue-virus-and-its-relation-to-human-glycoprotein-iib-iiia-revealed-by-fluorescence-microscopy-and-flow-cytometry
#11
Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Yaowalak U-Pratya, Panthipa Supraditaporn, Chanchao Lorthongpanich, Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Surapol Issaragrisil
Understanding dengue virus (DENV)-induced hemorrhage remains a challenging jigsaw puzzle with many pieces missing to understand the complex interactions between DENV and blood coagulation system. To use flow cytometry studying the interactions between DENV and human platelet aggregation receptor, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpIIb/IIIa), directly conjugated fluorochrome monoclonal antibody (mAb) is essential to facilitate multifluorochrome immunostaining. However, the obstacle was that no directly conjugated fluorochrome-anti-DENV mAb had been commercially available...
September 25, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937957/whole-blood-based-multiplex-immunoassays-for-the-evaluation-of-human-biomarker-responses-to-emerging-viruses-in-resource-limited-regions
#12
Jessica R Harmon, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, Anita K McElroy
Many emerging viruses such as Ebola and Lassa occur in resource-limited areas of the world. The advent of multiplex immunoassays has facilitated the study of biomarkers of disease since only small amounts of clinical material are required; however, such assays are designed and validated for only plasma or serum. This is a significant impediment when studying infectious diseases in the context of an outbreak in a developing nation. Plasma or serum can be difficult to obtain in the field due to the need for additional processing of infectious materials...
September 22, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933652/response-to-joob-and-wiwanitkit-re-genetic-polymorphisms-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-susceptibility-to-dengue-virus-infection-in-a-mexican-population
#13
Jesús Salvador Velarde-Félix, Juan Fidel Osuna-Ramos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910198/re-genetic-polymorphisms-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-susceptiblity-to-dengue-virus-infection-in-a-mexican-population-by-s%C3%A3-nchez-leyva-et-al-viral-immunol-2017-epub-ahead-of-print-doi-10-1089-vim-2017-0029
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910194/chikungunya-virus-induced-arthritis-role-of-host-and-viral-factors-in-the-pathogenesis
#15
Sarika Amdekar, Deepti Parashar, Kalichamy Alagarasu
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of Alphavirus genus, is responsible for chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by the presence of fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Reemergence of CHIKV has become a significant public health concern in Asian and African countries and is newly emerging in the Middle East, Pacific, American, and European countries. Cytokines, innate (monocytes, natural killer cells) and adaptive immune response (role of B cells and T cells i.e. CD4(+) and CD8(+)), and/or viral factors contribute to CHIKV-induced arthritis...
September 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873020/assessing-the-detection-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-igg-in-suspected-and-proven-cases-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection
#16
Abdulkarim Alhetheel, Haifa Altalhi, Ahmed Albarrag, Zahid Shakoor, Deqa Mohamed, Malak El-Hazmi, Ali Somily, Mazin Barry, Muhammed Bakhrebah, Majed Nassar
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease with significant mortality. Two testing methods are currently used for MERS-CoV diagnostics: nucleic acid detection (the gold standard) and serological analysis. In this study, we evaluated the detection of MERS-CoV-IgG in suspected and proven cases of MERS-CoV infection. We enrolled 174 patients: 113 had respiratory symptoms/suspected MERS-CoV infection, 31 had confirmed influenza A or B infection, 23 had a recent confirmed MERS-CoV infection, and 7 had confirmed MERS-CoV infection 1 year before...
September 5, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829241/construction-and-immunogenicity-analysis-of-whole-gene-mutation-dna-vaccine-of-aleutian-mink-virus-isolated-virulent-strain
#17
Dongxu Liu, Jianming Li, Kun Shi, Fanli Zeng, Ying Zong, Xue Leng, Huijun Lu, Rui Du
Aleutian mink disease (AD) is a chronic viral infection that causes autoimmune disorders in minks and presents a significant economic burden on mink farming. Despite the substantial challenges presented by AD, no effective vaccine is available and only partial protection has been achieved. We constructed a whole-gene nucleic acid vaccine from an isolated virulent Aleutian mink disease virus (ADV) strain (pcDNA3.1-ADV). Based on this whole-gene nucleic acid vaccine, we generated truncated mutant constructs by removing portions of the ADV VP2 gene using overlap extension polymerase chain reaction...
August 22, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817375/effect-of-maternal-antibody-transfer-on-antibody-dynamics-and-control-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-offspring
#18
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Brian J Payne, Jessica L Seate, Michael P Murtaugh
Sow immunity plays an important role in preventing viral infection and disease in newborn piglets. Vertical transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may perpetuate porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in newborn and growing pigs. Hence, the immunological effects of maternal immunoglobulin transfer of PCV2-specific antibodies on PCV2 viremia and immune response in piglets in commercial swine herds were evaluated. Sow vaccination has been shown to reduce viral shedding and viremia, and increases the neutralizing antibody (NA) titers...
August 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783456/effect-of-booster-vaccination-with-inactivated-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-on-neutralizing-antibody-response-in-mammary-secretions
#19
Thomas Gillespie, Qinye Song, Megan Inskeep, Suzanne Stone, Michael P Murtaugh
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, dehydration in pigs, and high mortality rates in piglets <3 weeks of age. Maternal immunity protects piglets, but information on vaccination before or after natural infection in endemically exposed sow herds is limited. Currently, the recovery goal in sow units infected with PEDV is to become fully naive again or use natural virus infection to develop immune gilts through a feedback program before introduction into the sow herd. Since neutralizing antibodies in the gut are critical for protection against enteric viral infections such as PEDV, we evaluated the effect of a conditionally licensed, adjuvanted inactivated PEDV vaccine on neutralizing antibody levels in milk and colostrum in both naive and previously naturally exposed sow herds...
August 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759334/b-cell-tetramer-development-for-veterinary-vaccinology
#20
Michael C Rahe, Kevin L Gustafson, Michael P Murtaugh
Immunological memory is elicited after either vaccination or natural exposure to a pathogen and is essential for protection against re-exposure. Despite its critical importance, the ability to interrogate the veterinary animal memory immune response has long been hindered by a paucity of tools to assess immunological memory. As a result, the evaluation and analysis of protective immune responses that predict immune protection in food and fiber animals and facilitate vaccine development are obstructed. To fill this gap in knowledge in swine, we created a B cell tetramer to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7) to efficiently and effectively investigate the memory B cell response, a hallmark of anti-viral immunity...
July 31, 2017: Viral Immunology
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