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Viral Immunology

David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Viral Immunology
Xing-Hua Shen, Ping Xu, Xi Yu, Hua-Feng Song, Hui Chen, Xue-Guang Zhang, Mei-Ying Wu, Xue-Feng Wang
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that CD8+ CD28- regulatory T cells increase in chronic viral infection as well as tumorigenesis. However, it is still not clear about their characteristics in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In addition, it is not understood whether this regulatory immune subset is distinct from CD4+ CD25high regulatory T cells in the aspect of impact on or relationship to the progression of HBV infection. Hence, we investigated their dynamics and compared their correlations with clinical parameters in the chronic and advanced phases of HBV infection...
August 17, 2018: Viral Immunology
Dominic Skinner, Brett S Marro, Thomas E Lane
Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Following microbial infection, there is often robust chemokine signaling elicited from infected cells, which contributes to both innate and adaptive immune responses that control growth of the invading pathogen. Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by the neuroadapted John Howard Mueller (JHM) strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) provides an excellent example of how chemokines aid in host defense as well as contribute to disease...
August 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Deepak Kumar, Sulgey Gauthami, Madala Uma, Karthika Nagalekshmi, Pavuluri Panduranga Rao, Atanu Basu, Krishna M Ella, Nagendra R Hegde
Ebolavirus (EBOV) is the etiology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). A major EHF outbreak in 2014-2015 in West Africa claimed >11,000 lives. A licensed vaccine is not available for EHF, although several vaccines have undergone clinical trials. We developed a human adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5-based candidate EHF vaccine based on controlled expression of the EBOV (Makona strain) glycoprotein (GP) as the immunogen. Two clones, AdGP72 and AdGP75, and a control Ad515 vector, were generated and tested for protein expression in vitro and immunogenicity in mice...
August 10, 2018: Viral Immunology
Kun Wei, Ben-Chun Jiang, Jing-Hui Guan, Dong-Na Zhang, Meng-Xuan Zhang, Jun-Long Wu, Guang-Ze Zhu
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) not only rapidly inhibited hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication but also modulated innate and adaptive immune response in chronic hepatitis C patients. However, the regulatory activity of DAAs to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulation on CD4+ CD25+ CD127dim/- regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells was not completely understood. In the present study, a total of 23 patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection were enrolled, and blood samples were collected at baseline (treatment naive), end of therapy (EOT), and 12 weeks after EOT (SVR12) with daclatasvir plus asunaprevir therapy...
August 1, 2018: Viral Immunology
Joseph Kim, Justin De La Cruz, Karen Lam, Hwee Ng, Eric S Daar, Arumugam Balamurugan, Otto O Yang
Epitope escape from HIV-1-targeted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses occurs rapidly after acute infection and contributes to the eventual failure of effective immune control of HIV-1 infection. Because the early CTL response is key in determining HIV-1 disease outcome, studying the process of epitope escape is crucial for understanding what leads to failure of immune control in acute HIV-1 infection and will provide important implications for HIV-1 vaccine design. HIV-1-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses against viral epitopes were mapped in six acutely infected individuals, and the magnitudes of these responses were measured longitudinally during acute infection...
July 30, 2018: Viral Immunology
Tony T Wang, Z Galvin Li, Qingde Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Viral Immunology
Rafaella Nascimento Ferreira, Gustavo Moraes Holanda, Eliana Vieira Pinto Silva, Samir Mansour Moraes Casseb, Karla Fabiane Lopes Melo, Carlos Alberto Marques Carvalho, Juliana Abreu Lima, Pedro Fernando Costa Vasconcelos, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae). ZIKV infection is associated with alterations in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and kidneys. Studies on the influence of posttranscriptional control on viral infections have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with different stages of the replicative cycle of several viruses and may influence the disease outcome. To shed light on ZIKV-induced regulation of host miRNA-processing machinery in the above organs, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding key proteins of the miRNA pathway in different ZIKV-infected continuous primate cell lineages (HepG2, A549, and MA104) by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
June 7, 2018: Viral Immunology
Chang-Yu Chang, Fu-Ling Chang, Chen-Wei Chiang, Yan-Ni Lo, Tsai-Yu Lin, Wang-Chuan Chen, Keng-Chang Tsai, Yu-Ching Lee
To understand the mechanism for inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is important. In this study, single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies were generated and directed to the pre-S2 epitope of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). These human scFvs were isolated from a person with history of HBV infection by phage display technology. An evaluation of panning efficiency revealed that the eluted phage titer was increased, indicating that specific clones were enriched after panning. Selected scFvs were characterized with the recombinant HBsAg through Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm the binding ability...
May 30, 2018: Viral Immunology
Archit Kumar, Mini P Singh, Ragini S Kumar, Radha Kanta Ratho
The antiviral and immunomodulatory role of vitamin D has been shown in various viral infections. However, there is scanty literature available about the effect of vitamin D supplementation in herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of two different forms of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) against HSV-1 in HeLa cells. The HeLa cells were supplemented with either 25D3 or 1,25D3 before HSV-1 infection and were studied after 6, 12, and 24 h postinfection (p...
May 24, 2018: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Ayesha Zafar, Muhammad Imran, Sarmad Zahoor, Zaheer Hussain Shah, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sohail Afzal
In Pakistan, around 11 million people are infected with, at least, six circulating genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The viral burden is still on rise. HCV genotype determination is necessary to devise appropriate antiviral therapy. Previous reports highlight the prevalence circulating untypable (in diagnostic perspectives) HCV subtype in local Pakistani patients. Present study was designed to investigate the epidemiological distribution of genotypes in different districts of Punjab, Pakistan and focuses on prevalence of diagnostically untypable subtype and its possible antiviral therapy...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Joshua M Klonoski, Trevor Watson, Thomas E Bickett, Joshua M Svendsen, Tonia J Gau, Alexandra Britt, Jeff T Nelson, Evelyn H Schlenker, Michael S Chaussee, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple, Victor C Huber
Influenza virus infections can be complicated by bacterial superinfections, which are medically relevant because of a complex interaction between the host, the virus, and the bacteria. Studies to date have implicated several influenza virus genes, varied host immune responses, and bacterial virulence factors, however, the host-pathogen interactions that predict survival versus lethal outcomes remain undefined. Previous work by our group showed that certain influenza viruses could yield a survival phenotype (A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98-H3N2, TX98), whereas others were associated with a lethal phenotype (A/Puerto Rico/8/34-H1N1, PR8)...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Shayan Sharif, Eva Nagy, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 signaling pathway is known to induce type 1 interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory mediators leading to antiviral response against many viral infections. Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) has been shown to act as a ligand for TLR3 and, as such, has been a focus as a potential antiviral agent in many host-viral infection models. Yet, its effectiveness and involved mechanisms as a mediator against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have not been investigated adequately...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Saharat Jantaratrirat, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Kanyarat Ruangrung, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Prasert Auewarakul
Microparticles (MPs) are vesicles that are released by budding from plasma membrane of living cells. Recently, the role of MPs in antiviral activity has been proposed. We investigated quantity and anti-influenza activity of MPs from human alveolar epithelial cells A549, human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B, human colon adenocarcinoma cells HT-29, and the human lung fibroblast cells MRC-5. MPs were found from all four cell lines. However, anti-influenza activity against an H1N1 influenza virus was found only from MPs of A549 and BEAS-2B...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Weifang Jing, Jinrun Zhou, Chunyang Wang, Jianhua Qiu, Huijun Guo, Hongmei Li
This study focuses on preparing the secretory recombinant J subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) gp85 protein using Pichia pastoris and evaluating its immunoprotection as vaccine antigen combining with CpG-ODN adjuvant. The secretory recombinant plasmid pPIC9-gp85 containing ALV-J gp85 gene was designed and was transfected into the genome of P. pastoris (GS115) cells. The recombinant plasmid was expressed under the induction of methanol. The expressed products in the medium of the cells were purified and identified with endoglycosidase digestion assay and western blot mediated with monoclonal antibody (MAb) JE9...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Komal Saleem, Braira Wahid, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Zara Naz, Sana Usman, Muhammad Idrees
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been proved as potent agents in the new era of Hepatitis C therapeutics. DAA has evolved to prove highly efficacious treatment rates and sustained virological response in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-treated patients and has shown minimal side effects, but in this study, we reported five cases that showed unusual response toward the use of DAA. The diagnosis was an unusual response of abruptly high viral titers and liver function tests (LFTs) in patients who received DAA combination therapy...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Ibnu A Ariyanto, Riwanti Estiasari, Shelley Waters, Endah A T Wulandari, Sonia Fernandez, Silvia Lee, Patricia Price
Altered T cell profiles have been linked with metrics of persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in healthy aging and older HIV patients stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we use CMV DNA to identify active infections, and levels of CMV-reactive antibody to assess the persistent burden of CMV in a longitudinal study of 78 young adult patients beginning ART in Jakarta, Indonesia, with <200 CD4 T cells/μL. CMV antibodies, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], soluble interferon-α/β receptor) and T cell phenotypes were assessed before ART (V0) and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months (V1-V12)...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Sean Roberts, Dennis W Metzger, Steven M Szczepanek
Influenza infection is associated with enhanced pathology in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD). Despite being a high priority group for annual influenza vaccination, little is known about long-term responses to influenza vaccination in this patient population. To model flu vaccination, we inoculated SCD and wild type (WT) littermate mice with the seasonal flu vaccine [containing pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) antigen], bled the mice before and after vaccination, and intranasally challenged them with a high dose (400 PFU) of pH1N1 12 weeks later...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
Zhi-Hong Zhang, Ben-Chun Jiang, Xiao-Hong Liu, Meng-Xuan Zhang, Zhen-Sheng-Nan Li, Guang-Ze Zhu
Signaling through interleukin (IL)-7 is essential and required for development, differentiation, proliferation, and homeostasis of T cells. However, the role of IL-7 in regulation of CD4+ T cells in chronic viral infections was not fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of IL-7 to T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and its contribution to pathogenesis of chronic HCV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A total of 47 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 19 normal controls were enrolled...
July 2018: Viral Immunology
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