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Viral Immunology

Jianhua Zhang, Huiqi Huang, Lian Xu, Chaonan Lou, Mi Pan
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) has attracted widespread attention in the past decade because of its higher neurotropicity in addition to causing hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Mapping epitopes of viral proteins may promote our understanding of antiviral humoral immunity, and is useful for clinical application. In this study, the linear B cell epitopes within nonstructural proteins of EV-A71 were identified using bioinformatics methods combined with peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty epitopes were predicted and located at 2ABC (7), 3ABC (5), and 3D (8) protein, respectively...
December 6, 2018: Viral Immunology
David Verhoeven
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very frequent viral respiratory pathogen of the young (<5 years old) with a significant portion of young toddlers having been infected before 2 years of age. Although we understand that some of the morbidity associated with RSV in neonates is due to immunological maturation that favors immunosuppression over antiviral innate and/or adaptive immune responses, the rapid development of the immune system right after birth suggests that each age group (newborn, early infant, older infant, toddler, and older) may respond to the virus in different ways...
November 30, 2018: Viral Immunology
Manohar Lal Choudhary, Kalichamy Alagarasu, Urmila Chaudhary, Samruddhi Kawale, Prachi Malasane, Yogesh K Gurav, Vikram Padbidri, Deelip Kadam, Shashikala A Sangle, Sonali Salvi, Ashish R Bavdekar, Pradeep D'costa, Mandeep S Chadha
Susceptibility to severe influenza A/H1N1pdm09 virus is multifactorial. The present study was carried out in 246 patients infected with A/H1N1pdm09 virus to find out whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes coding for proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are associated with disease severity. Among the cases, 129 had mild disease, whereas 117 had severe disease. There were 27 fatal cases. TNFA rs1800629, IFNG rs2430561, IL10 rs1800872, IL10 rs1800896, and CCL2 rs1024611 SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-based methods...
November 28, 2018: Viral Immunology
Fei Gao, Jun-Chi Xu, Li Zhu, Hui Chen, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Xin-Ran You, Shu-Xiang Li, Chen-Lu Zhu, Chen Yang, Chuan-Wu Zhu, Ping Xu
B7-H3, one of the costimulatory members participating in checkpoint pathway, has been shown to be upregulated after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To further explore the clinical significance of dynamic B7-H3 expression during the progression of HBV infection, we systematically investigated the expression pattern of B7-H3 and the correlation of B7-H3 expression with the ratio of T lymphocyte subsets and clinical parameters at different stages in the course of the disease. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay data showed that soluble form of B7-H3 (sB7-H3) was positively correlated with the frequency of Treg cells in acute hepatitis B (AHB), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and hepatocellular carcinoma patients with HBV infection (HBV-HCC)...
November 27, 2018: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2018: Viral Immunology
Maria Malm, Kirsi Tamminen, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Majority of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks and sporadic infections in the past 20 years have been caused by GII.4 variants. In 2014, NoV GII.17 genotype replaced GII.4 strains in several Asian countries and major outbreaks were reported in other continents. As GII.17 is a recently evolved NoV strain, there is a gap especially in immunogenicity data. In this study, we investigated GII.17 virus-like particle (VLP) binding to various cellular ligands, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), using human saliva, pig gastric mucin, and synthetic oligosaccharides as HBGA sources...
November 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Brunda Tumala, Kathleen R Phelps, Stephanie Zhang, Somashubhra Bhattacharya, Laurie P Shornick
During respiratory viral infection, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) take up antigen and migrate to the draining lymph nodes to present viral antigen and activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes; however, regulation of cDC activation and migration may be age dependent. In this study, we used a mouse model of paramyxoviral infection (Sendai virus) and demonstrated that cDCs, which have migrated from lungs to the draining lymph nodes, are delayed in expressing activation markers in neonatal mice compared with adults...
November 7, 2018: Viral Immunology
Yu-Jih Su, Wen-Chan Chiu, Ho-Chang Kuo
This longitudinal study focused on the relationship between lupus activity and the levels of intracellular proteins, phosphorylated interferon regulatory factor 7 (pIRF7), caspase-9 and -10, and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5). Ten patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were followed at clinics, and their disease activity indexes (SLEDAIs) were determined. Correlation analysis was used to test the influence of changes in intracellular markers on changes in SLEDAI score at two time points...
November 3, 2018: Viral Immunology
Manisha N Chandwani, Patrick S Creisher, Lauren A O'Donnell
Viral infections of the central nervous system are accompanied by the expression of cytokines and chemokines that can be critical for the control of viral replication in the brain. The outcomes of cytokine/chemokine signaling in neural cells vary widely, with cell-specific effects on cellular activity, proliferation, and survival. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are often altered during viral infections, through direct infection by the virus or by the influence of immune cell activity or cytokine/chemokine signaling...
October 10, 2018: Viral Immunology
Hennadii Mokhort, Alina Kovalchuk, Olga Sokolovska, Stephen Higgs
Our work presents an epidemiological analysis of the dynamics and structure of the annual indicators such as Cumulative Incidence, Mortality Rate (MR), and Case Fatality Rate for infections preventable by vaccines (vaccine-preventable infections-VPIs) in Ukraine between 1944 and 2015 compared to the same indicators for infections not preventable by vaccines (nonvaccine-preventable infections-non-VPIs). In 1965, the proportion of all infectious diseases in the context of mortality (7.47%), and especially of VPI (3...
October 9, 2018: Viral Immunology
Chang Liu, Liting Zhang, Rui Xu, Hui Zheng
microRNAs have been reported to play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor genesis, and viral infections. miR-26b has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple tumors, however, little is known about the role it plays in innate immune responses. In this study, we report that miR-26b is able to induce type-I interferon (IFN) expression, which was supported by both quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and luciferase reporter assays...
September 28, 2018: Viral Immunology
Elizabeth C Delery, Andrew G MacLean
Viral infection in the brain can be acute or chronic, with the responses often producing foci of increasingly cytotoxic inflammation. This can lead to effects beyond the central nervous system (CNS). To stimulate discussion, this commentary addresses four questions: What drives the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders, does the phenotype of macrophages in the CNS spur development of HIV encephalitis (HIVE), does continual activation of astrocytes drive the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders/subclinical disease, and neuroinflammation: friend or foe? A unifying theory that connects each question is the issue of continued activation of glial cells, even in the apparent absence of simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV in the CNS...
September 27, 2018: Viral Immunology
Victoria E Thaney, Marcus Kaul
Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 continues to cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders despite combined antiretroviral therapy. Interferons (IFNs) are important for any antiviral immune response, but the lasting production of IFNα causes exhaustive activation leading eventually to progression to AIDS. Expression of IFNα in the HIV-exposed central nervous system has been linked to cognitive impairment and inflammatory neuropathology. In contrast, IFNβ exerts anti-inflammatory effects, appears to control, at least temporarily, lentiviral infection in the brain and provides neuroprotection...
September 27, 2018: Viral Immunology
Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
Activated CD8+ lymphocytes infiltrate the brain in response to many viral infections; where some remain stationed long term as memory T cells. Brain-resident memory T cells (bTRM ) are positioned to impart immediate defense against recurrent or reactivated infection. The cytokine and chemokine milieu present within a tissue is critical for TRM generation and retention; and reciprocal interactions exist between brain-resident glia and bTRM . High concentrations of TGF-β are found within brain and this cytokine has been shown to induce CD103 (integrin αeβ7) expression...
September 18, 2018: Viral Immunology
Kelsey E Lesteberg, John David Beckham
West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA flavivirus and is a major cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. Experimental models of WNV infection in mice are commonly used to define acute neuroinflammatory responses in the brain. Alpha-synuclein (Asyn) is a protein of primarily neuronal origin and is a major cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons. Both WNV and PD pathologies are largely mediated by inflammation of the central nervous system (neuroinflammation) and have overlapping inflammatory pathways...
September 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Mihyun Hwang, Cornelia C Bergmann
A variety of viruses can induce central nervous system (CNS) infections and neurological diseases, although the incidence is rare. Similar to peripheral infections, IFNα/β induction and signaling constitutes a first line of defense to limit virus dissemination. However, CNS-resident cells differ widely in their repertoire and magnitude of both basal and inducible components in the IFNα/β pathway. While microglia as resident myeloid cells have been implicated as prominent sentinels of CNS invading pathogens or insults, astrocytes are emerging as key responders to many neurotropic RNA virus infections...
September 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Shouping Hu, Qiang Liu, Sufang Zang, Zhuo Zhang, Jingfei Wang, Xuehui Cai, Xijun He
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) can spread along the peripheral nerves near the site of infection in the animals, and gradually migrates into the central nervous system, where it leads to the development of brain lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of microglia after PRV inoculation. A mouse model inoculated with PRV was established to study the interactions between PRV and microglia, microglial recruitment, and polarization effects. The mice were subcutaneously inoculated with different doses of PRV-Bartha K61 vaccine strain...
November 2018: Viral Immunology
Yerly Magnolia Useche, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Berta-Nelly Restrepo, Doris Martha Salgado, Carlos Fernando Narváez, Omer Campo, Efrén Avendaño, Catalina Martínez, Juan Camilo Chacon-Duque, Gabriel Bedoya
Functional immunological evidence supports the impact that the host genetic variability has on the susceptibility to develop asymptomatic or symptomatic dengue infection. Children are more prone to develop severe dengue. Thus, we have evaluated possible associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in immune genes and the development of symptomatic dengue in children from two Colombian populations with differences in genetic backgrounds and geographical features. We genotyped 15 SNPs (in 12 genes) in 298 symptomatic children and 648 healthy controls...
November 2018: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Viral Immunology
Muneba Aziz, Hafsa Aziz, Yasir Waheed, Muzaffar Latif Gill
Hepatitis B is a clinically important public health issue. Infection leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, patients need antiviral therapy for prolonged period to prevent the complication of the disease. Data concerning chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with high hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA are limited. The aim of the study was to check the efficacy of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir) in terms of suppression of HBV DNA. The secondary end point in the study is to evaluate trends of predictive variables that predict outcome of treatment...
November 2018: Viral Immunology
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