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Viral Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714781/hatchery-vaccination-against-poultry-viral-diseases-potential-mechanisms-and-limitations
#1
Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Victor Palomino-Tapia, Aruna Amarasinghe, Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Commercial broiler and layer chickens are heavily vaccinated against economically important viral diseases with a view of preventing morbidity, mortality, and production impacts encountered during short production cycles. Hatchery vaccination is performed through in ovo embryo vaccination prehatch or spray and subcutaneous vaccinations performed at the day of hatch before the day-old chickens are being placed in barns with potentially contaminated environments. Commercially, multiple vaccines (e.g., live, live attenuated, and viral vectored vaccines) are available to administer through these routes within a short period (embryo day 18 prehatch to day 1 posthatch)...
July 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686540/replicon-particle-expressing-the-e2-glycoprotein-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-immunization-and-evaluation-of-antibody-response
#2
Mohammad M Hossain, Raymond R Rowland
The objective of this study was to develop a new antigen delivery system using an alphavirus replicon particle (RP) to induce humoral antibody responses against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) recombinant antigen produced from envelope glycoprotein E2. An alphavirus RP expressing the E2 glycoprotein of BVDV was used for immunization of pigs. A fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) has been applied to detect BVDV E2 antigen-specific antibody isotype in pig immunized with alphavirus RP. Full-length BVDV E2 (aa 1-375) was cleaved into several pieces, eight E2 DNA fragments, including full-length DNA, were cloned into expression vector pHUE, and the recombinant proteins expressed in BL-21 (DE3) Escherichia coli...
July 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650722/optimized-dna-vaccine-enhanced-by-adjuvant-il28b-induces-protective-immune-responses-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-in-mice
#3
Yan Zhou, Ziyan Wang, Yongqing Xu, Zeqiang Zhang, Rui Hua, Wei Liu, Chunlai Jiang, Yan Chen, Wenying Yang, Wei Kong
Antigen-specific immune responses determine the efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccines. To optimize the immunogenicity of the antigen gD2, we developed the gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccine encoding HSV-2 glycoprotein D and UL25 gene encoding viral capsid vertex proteins in this study. The gD2 and gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccines were compared with formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV-2), and results showed a greater protective immune response induced by gD2ΔUL25 than by gD2. Therefore, gD2ΔUL25 was chosen to evaluate further using the IL28B adjuvant...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650708/genetic-polymorphisms-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-susceptibility-to-dengue-virus-infection-in-a-mexican-population
#4
Marina Sánchez-Leyva, Jorge Guillermo Sánchez-Zazueta, Juan Fidel Osuna-Ramos, Horacio Rendón-Aguilar, Rafael Félix-Espinoza, Denisse Stephania Becerra-Loaiza, Dulce Carolina Sánchez-García, José Geovanni Romero-Quintana, Hipolito Castillo Ureta, Ismael Velarde-Rodríguez, Jesús Salvador Velarde-Félix
To evaluate the association of the -308 and -238 tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms with clinical manifestations of dengue and TNF-α serum levels in a northwestern Mexican population. The study populations included dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients, and a group of healthy controls (HCs) without history of dengue. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay were performed to determine genotypes and serum concentration of TNF-α, respectively...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622101/hepatitis-c-virus-in-pakistan-community-education-is-an-effective-weapon-against-the-killer
#5
Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618246/adjuvants-for-animal-vaccines
#6
Yulia Burakova, Rachel Madera, Scott McVey, John R Schlup, Jishu Shi
Vaccines are essential tools for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in animals. One of the most important steps in vaccine development is the selection of a suitable adjuvant. The focus of this review is the adjuvants used in vaccines for animals. We will discuss current commercial adjuvants and experimental formulations with attention to mineral salts, emulsions, bacterial-derived components, saponins, and several other immunoactive compounds. In addition, we will also examine the mechanisms of action for different adjuvants, examples of adjuvant combinations in one vaccine formulation, and challenges in the research and development of veterinary vaccine adjuvants...
June 15, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614011/structural-basis-for-cd4-t-cell-epitope-dominance-in-arbo-flavivirus-envelope-proteins-a-meta-analysis
#7
Samuel J Landry, Daniel L Moss, Da Cui, Ryan P Ferrie, Mitchell L Fullerton, Evan A Wells, Lu Yang, Nini Zhou, Thomas Dougherty, Ramgopal R Mettu
A meta-analysis of CD4+ T cell epitope maps reveals clusters and gaps in envelope-protein (E protein) immunogenicity that can be explained by the likelihood of epitope processing, as determined by E protein three-dimensional structures. Differential processing may be at least partially responsible for variations in disease severity among arbo-flaviruses and points to structural features that modulate protection from disease.
June 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598267/interaction-of-immunoglobulin-with-cytomegalovirus-infected-cells
#8
Nobuyasu Aiba, Atsuko Shiraki, Misako Yajima, Yukari Oyama, Yoshihiro Yoshida, Ayumu Ohno, Hiroshi Yamada, Masaya Takemoto, Tohru Daikoku, Kimiyasu Shiraki
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used to treat or prevent severe viral infection, especially cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. IVIG was characterized to understand its interaction with CMV-infected cells. IVIG retarded CMV spread and reduced virus yields depending on the neutralizing (NT) antibody titer. Immediate early protein synthesis was reduced by IVIG in 3 to 15 h, and IVIG specifically reduced the ratio of 66/68k protein synthesis among immediate early proteins in an NT antibody-dependent manner between 4 and 8 h after infection, indicating that antigenic modulation of CMV-infected cells by IVIG reduced viral protein synthesis and virus production...
June 9, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594599/genetic-variants-in-the-il-4-il-13-pathway-influence-measles-vaccine-responses-and-vaccine-failure-in-children-from-mozambique
#9
Holly D Clifford, Catherine M Hayden, Siew-Kim Khoo, Denise Naniche, Inacio M Mandomando, Guicheng Zhang, Peter Richmond, Peter N Le Souëf
Despite effective measles vaccines, measles still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The Th2 pathway involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 cytokines, and their receptor IL-4Rα, play important roles in the Th1/Th2 balance and antibody production. A Th2 skewing of the cytokine milieu may affect vaccine responses. We investigated IL-4, IL-13, and IL-4Rα polymorphisms and their impact on measles IgG responses and measles vaccine failure, in two separate cohorts: 12-month-old Australian children immunized with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (n = 137) and a case/control cohort of children aged 6 months-14 years from Mozambique, Africa (n = 89), some of whom were vaccinated, but still contracted measles (vaccine failure)...
June 8, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574756/sod2-facilitates-the-antiviral-innate-immune-response-by-scavenging-reactive-oxygen-species
#10
Wan Wang, Yufei Jin, Ningxiang Zeng, Qingwei Ruan, Feng Qian
Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is essential in radical scavenging, which balances the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The dysfunction of SOD2 is associated with increasing incidence of various human diseases, including cancer, neuron diseases, and myocardial defects. However, the connections between SOD2-mediated oxidative homeostasis and innate immune response remain unclear. In this study, we report that SOD2 is a crucial regulator of antiviral signaling. Depletion of SOD2 impairs RNA virus-induced type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokine production, resulting in enhanced viral replication...
June 2, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530508/influence-of-transmitted-virus-on-the-host-s-immune-response-a-case-study
#11
Shahzma Merani, Michaela Lucas, Pooja Deshpande, Katja Pfafferott, Abha Chopra, Don Cooper, Shay Leary, Fabio Luciani, Silvana Gaudieri
Host hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cell responses and the ability of the virus to escape this response are important correlates of infection outcome. Understanding this host-viral interplay has been difficult given the often asymptomatic nature of acute HCV infection. We studied a recent transmission case to determine whether adapted viral strains can be transmitted and influence the recipient's anti-HCV T cell response. The diversity of viral populations was examined using next-generation sequencing, and HCV-specific T cell interferon (IFN)-γ responses were assessed using a peptide panel representing the autologous viruses...
May 22, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514189/effects-of-vaccination-with-the-c-strain-vaccine-on-immune-cells-and-cytokines-of-pigs-against-classical-swine-fever-virus
#12
Lu Xu, Xue-Zheng Fan, Qi-Zu Zhao, Zheng-Xing Zhang, Kai Chen, Yi-Bao Ning, Qian-Yi Zhang, Xing-Qi Zou, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Cui Li, Yu-Jie Zhang, Qin Wang
The attenuated C-strain vaccine against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of the safest and most effective attenuated vaccines. However, little is known of the host immune response after vaccination with the C-strain vaccine. Blood samples from vaccinated pigs were collected to evaluate the number of immune cells, the level of specific CSFV antibody, and related cytokines induced by the vaccination of C-strain vaccine. The C-strain nucleic acid was gradually removed and specific antibody to vaccine kept increasing; the amount of the lymphocyte, Tc cell, and Th cell increased; some inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α mainly showed downregulated trends, but IL-6 and IL-8 were upregulated greatly; IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12p40, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-I, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) kept high expression level after 28 days postvaccination (dpv); IFN-γ was upregulated slightly at 5 and 9 dpv, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453403/high-rate-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigenemia-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-kakuri-kaduna-state-north-west-nigeria
#13
Cornelius Arome Omatola, Bernard Anyebe Onoja, Temitope Thomas
Globally, increased incidence of liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. This is because both viruses share common routes of transmission. We determined prevalence of HBV-HIV coinfection and the influence of some risk factors on concomitant infection among people living with HIV in a treatment center in Kakuri, Kaduna State. Two hundred consenting individuals with HIV infection participated in the study...
April 28, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436755/modes-of-action-for-mucosal-vaccine-adjuvants
#14
Taiki Aoshi
Vaccine adjuvants induce innate immune responses and the addition of adjuvants to the vaccine helps to induce protective immunity in the host. Vaccines utilizing live attenuated or killed whole pathogens usually contain endogenous adjuvants, such as bacterial cell wall products and their genomic nucleic acids, which act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are sufficient to induce adaptive immune responses. However, purified protein- or antigen-based vaccines, including component or recombinant vaccines, usually lose these endogenous innate immune stimulators, so the addition of an exogenous adjuvant is essential for the success of these vaccine types...
July 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436740/major-immunodominant-region-of-hepatitis-b-virus-core-antigen-as-a-delivery-vector-to-improve-the-immunogenicity-of-the-fusion-antigen-rop2-sag1-multiepitope-from-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice
#15
Wenhuan Wang, Fangfang Feng, Jinhui Lv, Zixin Xie, Jun Chen, Lifang Zhang, Wenshu Li
To prepare the dominant multiepitope fusion antigen ROP2-SAG1 (RSmultiepitope) from Toxoplasma gondii in a prokaryotic system, the major immunodominant region (MIR) of the human hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg(MIR)) was used as a delivery vector. The gene encoding the RSmultiepitope was inserted into HBcAg(MIR), and rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope was prepared, purified, and administered to BALB/c mice through intradermal injection. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis based on a multiepitope peptide facilitated the specific differentiation of sera obtained from mice immunized with the rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope protein, and high titers (greater than 1:6,400) of specific anti-RSmultiepitope antibodies were obtained...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661720/adaptive-b-cell-responses-to-influenza-virus-infection-in-the-lung
#16
Yoshimasa Takahashi, Taishi Onodera, Yu Adachi, Manabu Ato
Adaptive B cell response is a key arm of protective immunity against influenza viruses. Owing to the acutely infectious and cytopathic nature of these viruses, efficient containment of viral spread relies on the prompt provision of protective antibodies to the site of virus infection, the respiratory tract (RT). To accelerate the protective antibody response, B cell responses can be ectopically induced, maintained, and reactivated in the lungs after primary and secondary infection, thereby providing an anatomical advantage in supplying neutralizing antibodies against reinfecting viruses with faster kinetics...
July 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654310/unique-infectious-strategy-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-is-governed-by-the-acid-destabilized-property-of-hemagglutinin
#17
Tomo Daidoji, Yohei Watanabe, Yasuha Arai, Junichi Kajikawa, Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus emerged in 1997 as a zoonotic disease in Hong Kong. It has since spread to Asia and Europe and is a serious threat to both the poultry industry and human health. For effective surveillance and possible prevention/control of HPAI H5N1 viruses, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanism underlying HPAI H5N1 pathogenesis. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza A viruses (IAVs) is one of the major determinants of host adaptation, transmissibility, and viral virulence...
July 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650274/intranasal-administration-of-whole-inactivated-influenza-virus-vaccine-as-a-promising-influenza-vaccine-candidate
#18
Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki, Shin-Ichi Tamura, Hideki Hasegawa
The effect of the current influenza vaccine, an inactivated virus vaccine administered by subcutaneous/intramuscular injection, is limited to reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with seasonal influenza outbreaks. Intranasal vaccination, by contrast, mimics natural infection and induces not only systemic IgG antibodies but also local secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies found on the surface of the mucosal epithelium in the upper respiratory tract. S-IgA antibodies are highly effective at preventing virus infection...
July 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650258/helper-t-cell-responses-to-respiratory-viruses-in-the-lung-development-virus-suppression-and-pathogenesis
#19
Kosuke Miyauchi
The lung is an important line of defense that is exposed to respiratory infectious pathogens, including viruses. Lung epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages are initially targeted by respiratory viruses. Once respiratory viruses invade the cells of the lung, innate immunity is activated to inhibit viral replication. Innate immune signaling also activates virus-specific adaptive immune responses. The helper T cells play pivotal roles in the humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. Helper T cells are categorized into several distinct subsets (e...
July 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609255/regional-immune-responses-in-the-lung-after-respiratory-virus-infections
#20
Shiki Takamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Viral Immunology
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