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Viral Immunology

Ayesha Zafar, Muhammad Imran, Sarmad Zahoor, Zaheer Hussain Shah, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sohail Afzal
In Pakistan, around 11 million people are infected with, at least, six circulating genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The viral burden is still on rise. HCV genotype determination is necessary to devise appropriate antiviral therapy. Previous reports highlight the prevalence circulating untypable (in diagnostic perspectives) HCV subtype in local Pakistani patients. Present study was designed to investigate the epidemiological distribution of genotypes in different districts of Punjab, Pakistan and focuses on prevalence of diagnostically untypable subtype and its possible antiviral therapy...
June 19, 2018: Viral Immunology
Tony T Wang, Z Galvin Li, Qingde Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Viral Immunology
Rafaella Nascimento Ferreira, Gustavo Moraes Holanda, Eliana Vieira Pinto Silva, Samir Mansour Moraes Casseb, Karla Fabiane Lopes Melo, Carlos Alberto Marques Carvalho, Juliana Abreu Lima, Pedro Fernando Costa Vasconcelos, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae). ZIKV infection is associated with alterations in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and kidneys. Studies on the influence of posttranscriptional control on viral infections have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) interfere with different stages of the replicative cycle of several viruses and may influence the disease outcome. To shed light on ZIKV-induced regulation of host miRNA-processing machinery in the above organs, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding key proteins of the miRNA pathway in different ZIKV-infected continuous primate cell lineages (HepG2, A549, and MA104) by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
June 7, 2018: Viral Immunology
Joshua M Klonoski, Trevor Watson, Thomas E Bickett, Joshua M Svendsen, Tonia J Gau, Alexandra Britt, Jeff T Nelson, Evelyn H Schlenker, Michael S Chaussee, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple, Victor C Huber
Influenza virus infections can be complicated by bacterial superinfections, which are medically relevant because of a complex interaction between the host, the virus, and the bacteria. Studies to date have implicated several influenza virus genes, varied host immune responses, and bacterial virulence factors, however, the host-pathogen interactions that predict survival versus lethal outcomes remain undefined. Previous work by our group showed that certain influenza viruses could yield a survival phenotype (A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98-H3N2, TX98), whereas others were associated with a lethal phenotype (A/Puerto Rico/8/34-H1N1, PR8)...
June 5, 2018: Viral Immunology
Chang-Yu Chang, Fu-Ling Chang, Chen-Wei Chiang, Yan-Ni Lo, Tsai-Yu Lin, Wang-Chuan Chen, Keng-Chang Tsai, Yu-Ching Lee
To understand the mechanism for inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is important. In this study, single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies were generated and directed to the pre-S2 epitope of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). These human scFvs were isolated from a person with history of HBV infection by phage display technology. An evaluation of panning efficiency revealed that the eluted phage titer was increased, indicating that specific clones were enriched after panning. Selected scFvs were characterized with the recombinant HBsAg through Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm the binding ability...
May 30, 2018: Viral Immunology
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Shayan Sharif, Eva Nagy, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 signaling pathway is known to induce type 1 interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory mediators leading to antiviral response against many viral infections. Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) has been shown to act as a ligand for TLR3 and, as such, has been a focus as a potential antiviral agent in many host-viral infection models. Yet, its effectiveness and involved mechanisms as a mediator against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have not been investigated adequately...
May 29, 2018: Viral Immunology
Archit Kumar, Mini P Singh, Ragini S Kumar, Radha Kanta Ratho
The antiviral and immunomodulatory role of vitamin D has been shown in various viral infections. However, there is scanty literature available about the effect of vitamin D supplementation in herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of two different forms of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) against HSV-1 in HeLa cells. The HeLa cells were supplemented with either 25D3 or 1,25D3 before HSV-1 infection and were studied after 6, 12, and 24 h postinfection (p...
May 24, 2018: Viral Immunology
Saharat Jantaratrirat, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Kanyarat Ruangrung, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Prasert Auewarakul
Microparticles (MPs) are vesicles that are released by budding from plasma membrane of living cells. Recently, the role of MPs in antiviral activity has been proposed. We investigated quantity and anti-influenza activity of MPs from human alveolar epithelial cells A549, human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B, human colon adenocarcinoma cells HT-29, and the human lung fibroblast cells MRC-5. MPs were found from all four cell lines. However, anti-influenza activity against an H1N1 influenza virus was found only from MPs of A549 and BEAS-2B...
May 21, 2018: Viral Immunology
David L Woodland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Viral Immunology
Weifang Jing, Jinrun Zhou, Chunyang Wang, Jianhua Qiu, Huijun Guo, Hongmei Li
This study focuses on preparing the secretory recombinant J subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) gp85 protein using Pichia pastoris and evaluating its immunoprotection as vaccine antigen combining with CpG-ODN adjuvant. The secretory recombinant plasmid pPIC9-gp85 containing ALV-J gp85 gene was designed and was transfected into the genome of P. pastoris (GS115) cells. The recombinant plasmid was expressed under the induction of methanol. The expressed products in the medium of the cells were purified and identified with endoglycosidase digestion assay and western blot mediated with monoclonal antibody (MAb) JE9...
April 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
Komal Saleem, Braira Wahid, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Zara Naz, Sana Usman, Muhammad Idrees
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been proved as potent agents in the new era of Hepatitis C therapeutics. DAA has evolved to prove highly efficacious treatment rates and sustained virological response in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-treated patients and has shown minimal side effects, but in this study, we reported five cases that showed unusual response toward the use of DAA. The diagnosis was an unusual response of abruptly high viral titers and liver function tests (LFTs) in patients who received DAA combination therapy...
April 25, 2018: Viral Immunology
Ibnu A Ariyanto, Riwanti Estiasari, Shelley Waters, Endah A T Wulandari, Sonia Fernandez, Silvia Lee, Patricia Price
Altered T cell profiles have been linked with metrics of persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in healthy aging and older HIV patients stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we use CMV DNA to identify active infections, and levels of CMV-reactive antibody to assess the persistent burden of CMV in a longitudinal study of 78 young adult patients beginning ART in Jakarta, Indonesia, with <200 CD4 T cells/μL. CMV antibodies, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], soluble interferon-α/β receptor) and T cell phenotypes were assessed before ART (V0) and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months (V1-V12)...
April 24, 2018: Viral Immunology
Sean Roberts, Dennis W Metzger, Steven M Szczepanek
Influenza infection is associated with enhanced pathology in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD). Despite being a high priority group for annual influenza vaccination, little is known about long-term responses to influenza vaccination in this patient population. To model flu vaccination, we inoculated SCD and wild type (WT) littermate mice with the seasonal flu vaccine [containing pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) antigen], bled the mice before and after vaccination, and intranasally challenged them with a high dose (400 PFU) of pH1N1 12 weeks later...
April 24, 2018: Viral Immunology
Zhi-Hong Zhang, Ben-Chun Jiang, Xiao-Hong Liu, Meng-Xuan Zhang, Zhen-Sheng-Nan Li, Guang-Ze Zhu
Signaling through interleukin (IL)-7 is essential and required for development, differentiation, proliferation, and homeostasis of T cells. However, the role of IL-7 in regulation of CD4+ T cells in chronic viral infections was not fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of IL-7 to T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and its contribution to pathogenesis of chronic HCV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A total of 47 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 19 normal controls were enrolled...
April 19, 2018: Viral Immunology
Uday S Khopkar, Murlidhar Rajagopalan, Anahita R Chauhan, Smita Kothari-Talwar, Puneet K Singhal, Karen Yee, Amit Kulkarni, Nuria Lara, Montserrat Roset, Anna R Giuliano, Suzanne M Garland
The prevalence of genital warts (GW) and self-reported human papillomavirus (HPV) as well as disease-related psychosocial impact among male and female patients aged 18-60 years in India were assessed. GW prevalence was estimated using a 2-week daily log of patients examined from June 7-September 22, 2011 by 200 participating physicians in 6 regions of India. Psychosocial impact was estimated using one-time, self-administered surveys, including HPV Impact Profile (HIP), Cuestionario Específico para Condiloma Acuminado ([Spanish] CECA; "Specific questionnaire for Condylomata Acuminata") and EuroQol-5 Dimension survey...
June 2018: Viral Immunology
Vasileios G Papatsiros, Serafeim C Chaintoutis, Dimitra Psalla, Georgios G Maragkakis, Georgios Christodoulopoulos, Chrysostomos I Dovas
The purpose of this case report is to describe for the first time concurrent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) infections in a commercial farrow-to-finish pig farm in Albania, as well as the phylogenetical analysis of isolated PRRSV strain. The present study reports on a farrow-to-finish commercial pig farm, located in South Albania. In a percentage of about 40% of weaners in each batch (60-70 piglets per batch), clinical signs, including fever, severe respiratory signs, wasting, jaundice, rough hairy coat, palpable inguinal lymphadenopathy, and high mortality rate, were performed...
June 2018: Viral Immunology
Xiaojuan Wu, Zhenzhen Su, Bei Cai, Lin Yan, Yamei Li, Weihua Feng, Lanlan Wang
Follicular helper T cells (TFH) and follicular regulatory T cells (TFR), subsets of T cells, co-regulate the reactions of germinal center (GC) B cells. TFH provide help to the GC response, while the TFR suppress those processes. Nevertheless, the role of circulating TFR (cTFR) and circulating TFH (cTFH) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains limited. Twenty healthy controls (HCs), 24 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 23 with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), and 18 with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in our study between October 2015 and September 2016...
June 2018: Viral Immunology
Geunha Park, Joo Young Lee, Soo Young Lee, Jong-Hyun Kim, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are among the major causes of respiratory infections in children, worldwide, including in Korea. There are four types of HPIVs, each with different epidemiological characteristics. HPIV3 is the most frequently circulating HPIV type, while the epidemiology of HPIV4 remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the age-stratified seropositivity rates of HPIV types 1-4 among children in Korea. These data will be useful to determine vaccine requirements. This study included 245 participants categorized into four age groups: 6-11 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3-5 years...
June 2018: Viral Immunology
Giuseppe Colucci, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Enrico Galmozzi, Marco Maggioni, Stella De Nicola, Alessio Aghemo, Massimo Colombo
Total or partial inactivation of the chemokine 5 (CC5) pathway, as caused by the CC5 receptor Δ32 deletion (CCR5Δ32), may result in a profound manipulation of immune surveillance with significant consequences on the course and response to therapy of diverse human infections, including HIV. It has been postulated that in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), such a deregulation of CC5 pathway may compromise T cell-dependent antiviral immune responses, which in turn may favor viral persistence. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a cohort of 100 patients with CHC in whom 12 heterozygous and 1 homozygous CCR5Δ32 mutations were detected compared to 8 and none in 98 healthy controls (13% vs...
June 2018: Viral Immunology
Marlinang Diarta Siburian, Ivet Marita Suriapranata, Septelia Inawati Wanandi
A cross-sectional study on hepatitis B patients in Indonesia showed association of pre-S2 start codon mutation (M120 V) with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which was dissimilar from studies from other populations where pre-S2 deletion mutation was more prevalent. Different mutation patterns were attributed to different hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotypes in each population study. HBV surface proteins are reported to induce the activation of NF-κB, a transcriptional factor known to play an important role in the development of liver disease...
June 2018: Viral Immunology
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