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Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045808/kaplan-meier-survival-analysis-overestimates-cumulative-incidence-of-health-related-events-in-the-presence-of-competing-risks-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Sarah Lacny, Todd Wilson, Fiona Clement, Derek J Roberts, Peter Faris, William A Ghali, Deborah A Marshall
OBJECTIVE: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis may overestimate cumulative incidence in competing risks (CR) settings. The clinical significance of this overestimation has been questioned and CR methods are infrequently used. This meta-analysis compares the Kaplan-Meier method to the cumulative incidence function (CIF), a CR method. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science (1992-2016), and article bibliographies for studies estimating cumulative incidence using the Kaplan-Meier method and CIF...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045807/evidence-reversal-when-new-evidence-contradicts-current-claims-a-systematic-overview-review
#2
REVIEW
Desirée Sutton, Riaz Qureshi, Janet Martin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the terminology and definitions surrounding the phenomenon of Evidence Reversal - which occurs when an existing claim is tested and the original evidence is contradicted by new and stronger evidence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: For this overview systematic review, multiple medical and grey literature databases were systematically searched from inception to 2016 as well as hand searches of relevant journals, websites, blogs, article bibliographies, citing articles, and related articles...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042327/research-regulatory-and-clinical-decision-making-the-importance-of-scientific-integrity
#3
Joshua D Wallach, Gregg Gonsalves, Joseph S Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037888/preferred-reporting-items-for-overviews-of-systematic-reviews-including-harms-checklist-a-pilot-tool-to-be-used-for-balanced-reporting-of-benefits-and-harms
#4
REVIEW
Konstantinos I Bougioukas, Aris Liakos, Apostolos Tsapas, Evangelia Ntzani, Anna-Bettina Haidich
OBJECTIVE: An Overview of Systematic Reviews (OoSRs) is a study designed to synthesize multiple evidence from existing systematic reviews on a specific domain. The aim of this paper was to offer a pilot version checklist with Preferred Reporting Items for OoSRs (PRIO-harms) in order to promote a more balanced reporting of benefits and harms in OoSRs of healthcare interventions. METHODS: The included items were developed by combining key features from healthcare OoSRs designs with recommendations from statements of other relevant checklists and pertinent methodological review articles...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032245/a-simple-technique-investigating-baseline-heterogeneity-helped-to-eliminate-potential-bias-in-meta-analyses
#5
Amy Hicks, Caroline Fairhurst, David Torgerson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017811/a-randomised-trial-comparing-three-delphi-feedback-strategies-found-no-evidence-of-a-difference-in-a-setting-with-high-initial-agreement
#6
Steven MacLennan, Jamie Kirkham, Thomas B L Lam, Paula R Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of different feedback strategies on 1) subsequent agreement and 2) variability in Delphi studies. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A two-round Delphi survey, with a list of outcomes generated from the results of a systematic review and interviews, was undertaken whilst developing a core outcomes set for prostate cancer including two stakeholder groups (health professionals and patients). Seventy-nine outcomes were scored on a scale of one (not important) to nine (critically important)...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988959/decision-making-frameworks-and-considerations-for-informing-coverage-decisions-for-healthcare-interventions-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis
#7
Rebecca L Morgan, Leah Kelley, Gordon Guyatt, Ana Johnson, John N Lavis
OBJECTIVE: To guide decision-making about whether or not to pay for a new healthcare intervention, a number of existing frameworks systematically weigh scientific evidence, cost, and social and ethical values. Each framework has strengths and limitations. This study aims to review and summarize available frameworks, and generate an integrated framework, if and where applicable, highlighting particular issues faced with expensive but effective and desirable healthcare interventions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a critical interpretive synthesis to inform decision-making about healthcare interventions...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986242/rethinking-optimization-methods-identified-optimal-risk-thresholds-for-preventive-treatment-an-illustration-in-coronary-heart-disease
#8
A van Giessen, G A de Wit, K G M Moons, J A N Dorresteijn, H Koffijberg
INTRODUCTION: Treatment thresholds based on risk predictions can be optimized by considering various health (economic) outcomes and performing marginal analyses, but this is rarely performed. We demonstrate a general approach to identify treatment thresholds optimizing individual health (economic) outcomes, illustrated for statin treatment based on 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk predicted by the Framingham risk score. METHODS: Creating a health economic model for a risk-based prevention strategy, risk thresholds can be evaluated on several outcomes of interest...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951108/controversy-and-debate-on-clinical-genomics-sequencing-paper-4-clinical-genome-wide-sequencing-response-to-wilson-miller-and-rousseau
#9
Shelin Adam, Jan M Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951111/registry-based-randomized-controlled-trials-merged-the-strength-of-randomized-controlled-trials-and-observational-studies-and-give-rise-to-more-pragmatic-trials
#10
Tim Mathes, Stefanie Buehn, Peggy Prengel, Dawid Pieper
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the features of registry-based randomized trials (rRCT). STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched PubMed for rRCTs. Study selection was performed independently by two reviewers. We extracted all data in standardized tables and prepared descriptive summary statistics. RESULTS: The search resulted in 1202 hits. We included 71 rRCTs. Most rRCTs were from Denmark and Sweden. Chronic conditions were considered in 82.2%. A preventive intervention was examined in 45...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951110/n-of-1-trials-for-assessing-the-effects-of-deprescribing-medications-on-short-term-clinical-outcomes-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Alexander J Clough, Sarah N Hilmer, Sharon L Naismith, Luke Kardell, Danijela Gnjidic
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of using the N-of-1 method for deprescribing trials in older adults. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review identifying any human studies conducted in older adults (≥ 50 years), deprescribing any long-term treatment over less than a year using the N-of-1 trial method. Two authors independently reviewed all articles for eligibility and extracted data. The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951109/validation-of-a-questionnaire-measuring-transitional-patient-safety-climate-indicated-differences-in-transitional-patient-safety-climate-between-primary-and-secondary-care
#12
Marije A van Melle, Henk F van Stel, Judith M Poldervaart, Niek J de Wit, Dorien Lm Zwart
BACKGROUND: This study describes the development and validation of the TRAnsitional patient safety Climate Evaluation (TRACE) questionnaire, measuring transitional patient safety climate from the perspective of general practitioners and hospital physicians. Patient safety climate reflects the professionals' perception of the organizational patient safety culture. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: In the development of the TRACE we adjusted existing questionnaires on patient safety culture...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951107/study-design-classification-of-registry-based-studies-in-systematic-reviews
#13
Tim Mathes, Dawid Pieper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943379/investigating-heterogeneity-of-effects-and-associations-using-interaction-terms
#14
Evangelos Kontopantelis, Matthew Sperrin, Mamas Mamas, Iain Buchan
Effect heterogeneity, the variability of an association or exposure across subgroups, usually warrants further investigation. The aim of this deeper analysis is to identify effect modifiers (or moderators) and quantify their relationship with the exposure. We explain why it is better to harness interaction effects within a single analytic model than to use separate models to analyse each subgroup. Using examples, we demonstrate a practical approach to modelling and interpretation with interaction terms from various measurement scales (categorical by categorical; categorical by continuous; and continuous by continuous)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943378/predicted-burden-could-replace-predicted-risk-in-preventive-strategies-for-cardiovascular-disease
#15
G R Lagerweij, G A de Wit, K G M Moons, W M M Verschuren, J Boer, H Koffijberg
OBJECTIVES: To explore the extent of the differences in definitions of composite endpoints and assess how these differences influence estimates of CVD burden. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: s: Data from a Dutch cohort study (n=19484) were used to calculate 10-year risks according to four CVD risk prediction models: ATP-III, Framingham (FRS), Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) and SCORE. Health loss was estimated based on the impact of event types included in the corresponding composite endpoints...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943377/interpretation-of-epidemiological-studies-very-often-lacked-adequate-consideration-of-confounding
#16
Lars G Hemkens, Hannah Ewald, Florian Naudet, Aviv Ladanie, Jonathan G Shaw, Gautam Sajeev, John P A Ioannidis
BACKGROUND: Confounding bias is a most pervasive threat to validity of observational epidemiological research. METHODS: We assessed whether authors of observational epidemiological studies consider confounding bias when interpreting the findings. We randomly selected 120 cohort or case-control studies published in 2011 and 2012 by the general medical, epidemiological, and specialty journals with the highest impact factors. We used Web of Science to assess citation metrics through January 2017...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919463/decision-making-about-healthcare-related-tests-and-diagnostic-strategies-series-paper-1-testing-to-improve-people-s-health-a-new-series
#17
Holger J Schünemann, Reem Mustafa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919462/cumulative-incidence-estimates-in-the-presence-of-competing-risks
#18
Samantha Morais, Luís Antunes, Maria José Bento, Nuno Lunet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919461/comparative-effectiveness-medicines-research-cannot-assess-efficacy
#19
LETTER
Rafael Dal-Ré, Antonio J Carcas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919460/a-likelihood-based-approach-to-p-value-interpretation-provided-a-novel-plausible-and-clinically-useful-research-study-metric
#20
Nicholas G Adams, Gerard O'Reilly
OBJECTIVES: Interpretation of clinical research findings using the paradigm of null hypothesis significance testing has a number of limitations. These include arbitrary dichotomization of results, lack of incorporation of study power and prior probability, and the confusing use of conditional probability. This study aimed to describe a novel method of P-value interpretation that would address these limitations. STUDY SETTING AND DESIGN: Published clinical research was re-interpreted using the delta likelihood ratio...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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