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Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344122/3-d-evidence-network-plot-system-covariate-imbalances-and-effects-in-network-meta-analysis-explored-using-a-new-software-tool
#1
Sarah Batson, Robert Score, Alex J Sutton
OBJECTIVE: To develop the 3-dimensional (3-D) evidence network plot system - a novel web-based interactive 3-D tool to facilitate the visualisation and exploration of covariate distributions and imbalances across evidence networks for network meta-analysis (NMA). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We developed the 3-D evidence network plot system within an AngularJS environment using a third party JavaScript library (Three.js) to create the 3-D element of the application...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342907/active-placebo-control-groups-of-pharmacological-interventions-were-rarely-used-but-merited-serious-consideration-a-methodological-overview
#2
Jakob Solgaard Jensen, Andreas Ørsted Bielefeldt, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson
OBJECTIVES: Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side-effects of the experimental interventions in randomised trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomised clinical drug trials implement active placebo control groups; to provide a catalogue, and a characterisation, of such trials; and to analyse methodological arguments for and against use of active placebo. STUDY DESIGN: An overview consisting of three thematically linked sub-studies...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342906/citation-analysis-a-new-approach-to-assess-the-uptake-of-core-outcome-sets
#3
Karen L Barnes, Jamie J Kirkham, Mike Clarke, Paula R Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate citation analysis as an approach to measuring core outcome set (COS) uptake, by assessing whether the number of citations for a COS report could be used as a surrogate measure of uptake of the COS by clinical trialists. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Citation data were obtained for COS reports published before 2010 in five disease areas (systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, sepsis and critical care, and female sexual dysfunction). Those publications identified as a report of a clinical trial were examined to identify whether or not all outcomes in the COS were measured in the trial...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342905/when-is-a-null-finding-in-register-based-epidemiology-convincing
#4
Lau Caspar Thygesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342904/clinical-heterogeneity-and-risk-of-bias-on-the-placebo-effect-associated-with-sham-surgeries
#5
Xiuxia Li, Yaolong Chen, Kehu Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342903/structural-equation-modeling-based-effect-size-indices-were-used-to-evaluate-and-interpret-the-impact-of-response-shift-effects
#6
M G E Verdam, F J Oort, M A G Sprangers
OBJECTIVE: The investigation of response shift in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is important in both clinical practice and research. Insight into the presence and strength of response shift effects is necessary for a valid interpretation of change. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: When response shift is investigated through structural equation modeling (SEM), observed change can be decomposed into: 1) change due to recalibration response shift, 2) change due to reprioritization and/or reconceptualization response shift, and 3) change due to change in the construct of interest...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342902/spearman-brown-prophecy-formula-and-cronbach-s-alpha-different-faces-of-reliability-and-opportunities-for-new-applications
#7
Henrica C W de Vet, Lidwine B Mokkink, David G Mosmuller, Caroline B Terwee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341367/embedding-researchers-in-health-service-organizations-improves-research-translation-and-health-service-performance-the-australian-hunter-new-england-population-health-example
#8
Luke Wolfenden, Sze Lin Yoong, Christopher Williams, Jeremy Grimshaw, David N Durrheim, Karen Gillham, John Wiggers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341366/transforming-intraclass-correlation-coefficients-with-the-spearman-brown-formula
#9
Matthijs J Warrens
BACKGROUND: De Vet, Mokkink, Mosmuller and Terwee (2017) discovered that the Spearman-Brown formula can be used to transform certain intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for single measurements into the corresponding ICCs for average measurements, without knowledge of the variance components. METHODS AND RESULTS: A formal proof of the discovery by De Vet et al. is presented. It is also proved that, vice versa, the SB-formula can be used to transform certain ICCs for average measurements into the corresponding ICCs for single measurements...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341365/meta-epidemiologic-research-requires-reporting-requirements
#10
Alice P Gu, Chris N Gu, Ahmed T Ahmed, Mohammad H Murad, Zhen Wang, David F Kallmes, Waleed Brinjikji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288916/the-pedro-scale-had-acceptably-high-convergent-validity-construct-validity-and-inter-rater-reliability-in-evaluating-methodological-quality-of-pharmaceutical-trials
#11
Tie Parma Yamato, Chris Maher, Bart Koes, Anne Moseley
INTRODUCTION: The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale has been widely used to investigate methodological quality in physiotherapy randomised controlled trials; however its validity has not been tested for pharmaceutical trials. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and inter-rater reliability of the PEDro scale for pharmaceutical trials. The reliability was also examined for the Cochrane Back and Neck (CBN) Group risk of bias tool. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a previous study...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257927/simple-randomization-did-not-protect-against-bias-in-smaller-trials
#12
Tri-Long Nguyen, Gary S Collins, André Lamy, Philip J Devereaux, Jean-Pierre Daurès, Paul Landais, Yannick Le Manach
OBJECTIVES: By removing systematic differences across treatment groups, simple randomization is assumed to protect against bias. However, random differences may remain if the sample size is insufficiently large. We sought to determine the minimal sample size required to eliminate random differences, thereby allowing an unbiased estimation of the treatment effect. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We reanalyzed two published multicenter, large, and simple trials: the International Stroke Trial (IST) and the Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Off- or On-Pump Revascularization Study (CORONARY)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249722/clinical-trials-and-systematic-reviews-addressing-similar-interventions-for-the-same-condition-do-not-consider-similar-outcomes-to-be-important-a-case-study-in-hiv-aids
#13
Ian J Saldanha, Tianjing Li, Cui Yang, Jill Owczarzak, Paula R Williamson, Kay Dickersin
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of clinical trials and systematic reviews is compromised when they report different outcomes. We compared outcomes in reviews of HIV/AIDS and the trials included in the reviews. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We examined all Cochrane reviews of HIV/AIDS (as of June 2013) that included ≥1 trial, and the trials that the reviews included. We compared outcomes within subgroups defined by type of intervention: clinical management, biomedical prevention, behavioral prevention, and health services...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242481/protocol-registration-of-systematic-reviews-published-in-high-impact-factor-journals-a-meta-epidemiological-study
#14
Yasushi Tsujimoto, Hiraku Tsujimoto, Yuki Kataoka, Miho Kimachi, Sayaka Shimizu, Tatsuyoshi Ikenoue, Shingo Fukuma, Yosuke Yamamoto, Shunichi Fukuhara
OBJECTIVES: To describe the registration of systematic review (SR) protocols and examine whether or not registration reduced the outcome reporting bias in high-impact journals. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched MEDLINE via PubMed to identify SRs of randomized controlled trials of interventions. We included SRs published between August 2009 and June 2015 in the 10 general and internal medicinal journals with the highest impact factors in 2013. We examined the proportion of SR protocol registration and investigated the relationship between registration and outcome reporting bias using multivariable logistic regression...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238789/the-significance-of-the-trial-outcome-was-associated-with-publication-rate-and-time-to-publication
#15
Seung Yeon Song, Dong-Hoe Koo, Sun-Young Jung, Won Ku Kang, Eun Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comprehensively assess the publication of clinical trial results and factors associated with their publication. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Phase II and phase III trials of advanced breast cancer registered on ClinicalTrials.gov between October 1, 2000, and September 30, 2012 were identified. Publications were searched by using PubMed and reviewing those listed on the registry site. The main outcomes were publication rate, public availability of results, and time to publication...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238788/childhood-vaccination-communication-outcomes-unpacked-and-organised-in-a-taxonomy-to-facilitate-core-outcome-establishment
#16
Jessica Kaufman, Rebecca Ryan, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Yuri Cartier, Julie Cliff, Angela Oyo-Ita, Heather Ames, Artur Manuel Muloliwa, Afiong Oku, Gabriel Rada, Sophie Hill
OBJECTIVE: We present a comprehensive taxonomy of outcomes for childhood vaccination communication interventions. Adding to our earlier map of trial outcomes, we aimed to: 1) identify relevant outcomes not measured in trials; 2) identify outcomes from stakeholder focus groups; and 3) organise outcomes into a taxonomy. STUDY DESIGN: We identified additional outcomes from non-vaccination health communication literature and through parent and healthcare professional focus groups...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214550/improving-the-reporting-of-randomized-pilot-and-feasibility-trials
#17
Peter Craig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188899/trends-in-studies-of-pharmacologic-interventions-published-in-high-impact-medical-journals-2004-2013
#18
Laura L Hester, Charles Poole, Elizabeth A Suarez, Jane S Der, Olivia G Anderson, Kathryn G Almon, Avanti V Shirke, M Alan Brookhart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188898/rating-of-included-trials-on-the-efficacy-effectiveness-spectrum-rites-development-of-a-new-tool-for-systematic-reviews
#19
L Susan Wieland, Brian M Berman, Douglas G Altman, Jürgen Barth, Lex M Bouter, Christopher R D'Adamo, Klaus Linde, David Moher, C Daniel Mullins, Shaun Treweek, Sean Tunis, Danielle A van der Windt, Merrick Zwarenstein, Claudia Witt
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials may be designed to provide evidence more strongly related to efficacy or effectiveness of an intervention. When systematic reviews are used to inform clinical or policy decisions, it is important to know the efficacy-effectiveness nature of the included trials. OBJECTIVE: To develop a tool to characterize randomized trials included in a systematic review on an efficacy-effectiveness continuum. METHODS: We extracted rating domains and descriptors from existing tools, and used a modified Delphi procedure to condense the domains and develop a new tool...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188897/survival-biases-lead-to-flawed-conclusions-in-observational-treatment-studies-of-influenza-patients
#20
Martin Wolkewitz, Martin Schumacher
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several observational studies reported that Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) reduced mortality in infected and hospitalized patients. Because of the restriction of observation to hospital stay and time-dependent treatment assignment, such findings were prone to common types of survival bias (length, time-dependent and competing risk bias). METHODS: British hospital data from the Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN) study group were used which included 1,391 patients with confirmed pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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