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Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

Robin Nance, Joseph Delaney, John W McEvoy, Michael J Blaha, Gregory Burke, Ana Navas-Acien, Joel D Kaufman, Elizabeth C Oelsner, Robyn L McClelland
OBJECTIVE: Smoking as an epidemiological exposure can be quantified in many ways including duration, intensity, pack-years, recency, and age at initiation. However it is not clear which of these are most important for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and how they should be modeled. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, Cox models for time to incident CVD adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education category, and income category were compared which included various characterizations of smoking history...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Fernando Lanas, Pamela Serón, Sergio Muñoz, Paula Margozzini, Teresa Puig
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, the optimal measure and cutoffs in Latin America are not defined. We sought to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with risk factor prevalence and estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and to assess if recommended cutoffs apply to the Chilean population. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from 2,200 men and 3,216 women from the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Nathalie Charpak, Juan Gabriel Ruiz
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a human-based care intervention devised to complement neonatal care for low birth weight and premature infants. Kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest) offers thermal regulation, physiological stability, appropriate stimulation and enhances bonding and breastfeeding. Kangaroo nutrition is based on breastfeeding and kangaroo discharge policy relies on family empowerment and early discharge in kangaroo position with close ambulatory follow-up. We describe how the evidence has been developed, and how it has been put into practice by means of direct preterm infants care and dissemination of the method, including training of KMC excellence centers in many countries not only in Latin America but worldwide...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
F Lanas, C Castro, C Vallejos, L Bustos, C de La Puente, M Velasquez, C Zaror
: Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke and systemic embolism. New oral anticoagulants are currently available. OBJECTIVE: to assess the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) for apixaban versus acenocoumarol in patients treated in Chile's public health system. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We assessed cost-utility from the payer perspective with a lifetime Markov model. Epidemiologic characteristics, costs, and utilities were obtained from a Chilean cohort; data were completed with information from international literature...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Xavier Bonfill, Gerard Urrútia, Marta Roqué, María José Martínez, Hector Pardo-Hernández, Dimelza Osorio, Jordi Pardo, Pamela Seron, Maroussia Tzanova, Ivan Solà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Holger J Schünemann, Wojtek Wiercioch, Jan Brozek, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Reem A Mustafa, Veena Manja, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Ignacio Neumann, Maicon Falavigna, Waleed AlHazzani, Nancy Santesso, Yuan Zhang, Jörg J Meerpohl, Rebecca L Morgan, Bram Rochwerg, Andrea Darzi, Maria Ximenas Rojas, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Yaser Adi, Zulfa AlRayees, John Riva, Claudia Bollig, Ainsley Moore, Juan José Yepes-Nuñez, Carlos Cuello, Reem Waziry, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Guideline developers can: 1) adopt existing recommendations from others; 2) adapt existing recommendations to their own context; or 3) create recommendations de novo. Monetary and non-monetary resources, credibility, maximization of uptake, as well as logical arguments should guide the choice of the approach and processes. OBJECTIVE: To describe a potentially efficient model for guideline production based on adoption, adaptation and/or de novo development of recommendations utilizing the GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Theresa Aves, Tamara Kredo, Vivian Welch, Sara Mursleen, Stephanie Ross, Babalwa Zani, Nkengafac Villyen Motaze, Leah Quinlan, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
OBJECTIVE: To describe and summarize equity reporting in HIV systematic reviews and explore the extent to which equity issues are addressed and reported in HIV reviews using the PROGRESS Plus framework. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Application of the PROGRESS Plus framework to a bibliometric analysis of HIV reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. RESULTS: The analysis included 103 reviews published as of March 2014, with a median of 5 studies per review (first quartile; Q1 = 2; third quartile; Q3 = 11)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Zafira Bhaloo, Denise Adams, Yali Liu, Namrata Hansraj, Lisa Hartling, Caroline B Terwee, Sunita Vohra
OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review of pediatric randomized controlled trials published in high impact journals to assess the reporting of primary outcomes and the psychometric properties of their measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review with screening and simultaneous data extraction conducted by two independent reviewers. Electronic searches of six general medicine and four pediatric journals were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Isabelle Bray, Sian Noble, Ross Robinson, Lynn Molloy, Kate Tilling
OBJECTIVE: Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomised controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Eligible participants were young people in the ALSPAC study (born 01/04/91-31/12/92 in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomised...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
John R Hughes, Thomas R Fanshawe, Lindsay F Stead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
T D Stanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
H W Donkers, M J L Graff, M J Vernooij-Dassen, M W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, S Teerenstra
OBJECTIVE: In randomised controlled trials two endpoints may be necessary to capture the multidimensional concept of the intervention and the objectives of the study adequately. We show how to calculate sample size when defining success of a trial by combinations of superiority and/or non-inferiority aims for the endpoints. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The RCT design of the Social Fitness study uses two primary endpoints, which can be combined into five different scenarios for defining success of the trial...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Matthew Gittins, Roseanne McNamee, Fiona Holland, Lesley-Anne Carter
OBJECTIVE: Accurate estimation of the true incidence of ill-health is a goal of many surveillance systems. In surveillance schemes including zero reporting to remove ambiguity with non-response, reporter fatigue might increase the likelihood of a false zero case report in turn underestimating the true incidence rate and creating a biased downward trend over time. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models were fitted to incidence case reports of three surveillance schemes running between 1996 and 2012 in the UK...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Annie Robitaille, Amanda Kelly, Boo Johansson, Scott Hofer, Andrea Piccinin
OBJECTIVE: Given theoretical and methodological advances that propose hypothesis about change in one or multiple processes, analytical methods for longitudinal data have been developed that provide researchers with various options for analyzing change over time. In this paper, we revisit several latent growth curve models that may be considered to answer questions about repeated measures of continuous variables, which may be operationalised as time varying covariates or outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: To illustrate each of the models discussed and how to interpret parameter estimates, we present examples of each method discussed using cognitive and blood pressure measures from a longitudinal study of ageing, the OCTO Twin Study...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
V M B Jordan, S F Lensen, C M Farquhar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the consistency in risk of bias (RoB) judgements across Cochrane reviews for studies appearing in more than one Cochrane review in the field of subfertility STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We retrieved any study that had been used more than once in systematic reviews present on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in the area of subfertility. We then retrieved the recorded risk of bias assessments for these studies and looked at the consistency of judgements made between different authoring teams on the same trials...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Esther Kwong, Nick Black
OBJECTIVE: The unpredictability of the occurrence of illnesses and injuries leading to most emergency admissions to hospital makes it impossible prospectively to collect pre-admission patient reported outcome measures (PROMs). Our aims were to review the evidence for using retrospective PROMs to determine pre-event health status and the validity of using general population norms instead of retrospective PROMs. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Global Health, and Health Management information...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Reem Alturki, Stefan Schandelmaier, Kelechi Kalu Olu, Belinda von Niederhäusern, Arnav Agarwal, Roy Frei, Neera Bhatnagar, Lotty Hooft, Erik von Elm, Matthias Briel
BACKGROUND: One quarter of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are prematurely discontinued and frequently remain unpublished. Trial registries can document whether a trial is ongoing, suspended, discontinued, or completed and therefore represent an important source for trial status information. The accuracy of this information is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the accuracy of completion status and reasons for discontinuation documented in trial registries as compared to corresponding publications of discontinued RCTs (reference standard), and to investigate potential predictors for accurate trial status information in registries...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Chantelle M Garritty, Susan L Norris, David Moher
OBJECTIVES: We describe newly established guidance for guideline developers at the World Health Organization (WHO) on the process and procedures for developing a rapid advice guideline in the context of a public health emergency (e.g., the 2014 Ebola epidemic). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We based our approach on established rapid review methods, which were incorporated into existing WHO guideline development processes. Guidance was further informed by in-depth discussions of issues related to rapid guideline development with WHO staff (n = 6), who oversee the Organization's response to emergencies...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Marlous F Kortekaas, Marie-Louise E L Bartelink, Esther de Groot, Helen Korving, Niek J de Wit, Diederick E Grobbee, Arno W Hoes
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge on clinical epidemiology is crucial to practice evidence-based medicine. We describe the development and validation of the Utrecht questionnaire on knowledge on Clinical epidemiology for Evidence-based Practice (U-CEP); an assessment tool to be used in the training of clinicians. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The U-CEP was developed in two formats: two sets of 25 questions and a combined set of 50. The validation was performed among postgraduate general practice (GP) trainees, hospital trainees, GP supervisors, and experts...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Siw Waffenschmidt, Tatjana Hermanns, Andreas Gerber-Grote, Sarah Mostardt
OBJECTIVES: To determine a suitable approach to a systematic search for epidemiologic publications in bibliographic databases. For this purpose, suitable sensitive, precise, and optimized filters were to be selected for MEDLINE searches. In addition, the relevance of bibliographic databases was determined. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Epidemiologic systematic reviews (SRs) retrieved in a systematic search and company dossiers were screened to identify epidemiologic publications (primary studies and SRs) published since 2007...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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