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Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500406/hybrid-models-were-found-to-be-very-elegant-to-disentangle-longitudinal-within-and-between-subject-relationships
#1
Jos Wr Twisk, Wieke de Vente
OBJECTIVES: The interpretation of a regression coefficient obtained from a longitudinal data analysis is a combination of a within subject part and a between subject part. The hybrid model is used to disentangle the two components. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and discuss the use of the hybrid model in epidemiological studies. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: In the hybrid model, the between subject part of the relationship is obtained by using the individual mean value over time, while the within subject part is obtained by using the deviation score, i...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500405/quality-of-stepped-wedge-trial-reporting-can-be-reliably-assessed-using-an-updated-consort-crowd-sourcing-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
K Hemming, K Carroll, J Thompson, A Forbes, M Taljaard
The Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) extension for the stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial (SW-CRT) is a recently published reporting guideline for SW-CRTs. We assess the quality of reporting of a recent sample of SW-CRTs according to the 26 items in the new guideline using a novel crowd sourcing methodology conducted independently and in duplicate, with random assignment, by 50 reviewers. We assessed reliability of the quality assessments, proposing this as a novel way to assess robustness of items in reporting guidelines...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500404/the-shrinking-scope-of-pragmatic-trials-a-methodological-reflection-on-their-domain-of-applicability
#3
REVIEW
Ray Pawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496875/sample-size-calculations-need-to-be-adequate-and-parsimonious
#4
LETTER
Bruno Mario Cesana, Paolo Antonelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30465873/reply-to-letter-by-b-d-mccullough-regarding-kernan-walter-n-catherine-m-viscoli-robert-w-makuch-lawrence-m-brass-and-ralph-i-horwitz-1999-stratified-randomization-for-clinical-trials-journal-of-clinical-epidemiology-52-1-19-26
#5
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458265/-an-error-in-an-old-paper-illustrates-the-need-for-data-code-archives
#6
LETTER
B D McCullough
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458264/generalizability-of-findings-from-randomized-controlled-trials-is-limited-in-the-leading-general-medical-journals
#7
REVIEW
Antti Malmivaara
OBJECTIVE: To document reporting of study characteristics of RCTs in the four leading general medical journals ; and to appraise the generalizability of the evidence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: All RCTs in BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and NEJM from 1.1.2017 to 30.9.2017 were searched by hand; and data was extracted according to the Benchmarking method. RESULTS: 161 RCTs were found; 67% assessed pharmacological therapy. The percentages of adequate documentation were: patients' path prior to randomisation 3% to 33% of trials; characteristics of the health care settings 0% to 75%; at least two co-morbid conditions 25% to 50%; at least one measure was reported of functioning 42% to 54%, of behavioral factors 25% to 58%, of environmental factors 3% to 25%, and of inequity related factors 28% to 68%; co-interventions 6% to 25%, and reasons for dropping out of follow-up 39% to 100%...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458263/randomised-trial-seeking-to-induce-the-hawthorne-effect-found-no-evidence-for-any-effect-on-self-reported-alcohol-consumption-online
#8
Jim McCambridge, Amanda Wilson, John Attia, Natasha Weaver, Kypros Kypri
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that participants who know the behavioural focus of a study and are thus aware that a particular behaviour is being studied, will modify that behaviour, independently of any possible effect of assessment, thereby dismantling a Hawthorne effect into two putative components. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We undertook a three-arm individually randomised trial online among students: Group A (control) were told they were completing a lifestyle survey; Group B were told the focus of the survey was alcohol consumption; Group C additionally answered 20 questions on their alcohol use and its consequences before answering the same lifestyle questions as Groups A and B...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458262/stratification-by-quality-induced-selection-bias-in-a-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#9
Jennifer Stone, Usha Gurunathan, Kathryn Glass, Zachary Munn, Peter Tugwell, Suhail A R Doi
OBJECTIVE: The inconsistency demonstrated across strata when using different scales has been attributed to quality scores and stratification continues to be done using risk of bias domain judgments. This study examines if restricting primary meta-analyses to studies at low risk of bias or presenting meta-analyses stratified according to risk of bias is indeed the right approach to explore potential methodological bias. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Re-analysis of quality subgroups in an existing meta-analysis based on 25 different scales RESULTS: We demonstrate that quality stratification itself is the problem because it induces a spurious association between effect size and precision within stratum...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458261/systematic-review-showed-that-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomized-trials-often-did-not-reach-their-planned-sample-size
#10
Felizitas A Eichner, Rolf Hh Groenwold, Diederick E Grobbee, Katrien Oude Rengerink
OBJECTIVE: To determine, how often stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trials reach their planned sample size, and what reasons are reported for choosing a stepped wedge trial design. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a PubMed literature search (period 2012 to 2017) and included papers describing the results of a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial. We calculated the percentage of studies reaching their pre-specified number of participants and clusters, and we summarized the reasons for choosing the stepped-wedge trial design as well as difficulties during enrollment...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30453039/analyzing-excess-risk-from-matched-designs-with-double-controls-author-response
#11
LETTER
Donald Redelmeier, Robert J Tibshirani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30447260/issues-in-interpreting-and-estimating-the-excess-risk-in-case-of-count-data
#12
LETTER
Federico Tedeschi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30445166/the-methodological-quality-of-dose-response-meta-analyses-needed-substantial-improvement-a-cross-sectional-survey-and-proposed-recommendations
#13
Chang Xu, Yu Liu, Peng-Li Jia, Ling Li, Tong-Zu Liu, Liang-Liang Cheng, Ke Deng, A S M Borhan, Lehana Thabane, Xin Sun
OBJECTIVES: To investigate methodological quality of published dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) and explore study characteristics associated with the quality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched three databases for published DRMAs, and used a modified AMSTAR (15 items) checklist to assess the methodological quality. We summarized the compliance of those DRMAs to the AMSTAR items and used multivariable regression analysis to explore the association between pre-specified study characteristics with the overall methodological quality...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30439545/the-trip-database-showed-most-acute-respiratory-infections-questions-were-already-addressed-by-cochrane-reviews
#14
Justin Clark, Matt Carter, Anna Mae Scott, Jon Brassey, Chris Del Mar
OBJECTIVE: Cochrane systematic reviews require more methodological support from Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs) than is customary in journals, CRGs must prioritise reviews to conserve resources. The TRIP database provided a dataset of questions to guide prioritization for the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) CRG. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We extracted the ARI searches from the TRIP database (2010 to 2017) that contained at least one disease and one clinical management term, (defined as a 'search'), and tabulated these by frequency...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30439544/randomised-trials-involving-surgery-did-not-routinely-report-considerations-of-learning-and-clustering-effects
#15
Elizabeth J Conroy, Anna Rosala-Hallas, Jane M Blazeby, Girvan Burnside, Jonathan A Cook, Carrol Gamble
OBJECTIVE: To establish current practice of the management of learning and clustering effects, by treating centre and surgeon, in the design and analysis of randomised surgical trials. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The need for more surgical randomised trials is well recognised, and in recent years conduct has grown. Rigorous design, conduct and analyses of such studies is important. Two methodological challenges are clustering effects, by centre or surgeon, and surgical learning on trial outcomes...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423377/model-based-economic-evaluations-of-diagnostic-point-of-care-tests-were-rarely-fit-for-purpose
#16
Katie Breheny, Andrew J Sutton, Jonathan J Deeks
OBJECTIVE: Linked evidence models are recommended to predict health benefits and cost-effectiveness of diagnostic tests. We considered how published models accounted for changes in patient pathways that occur with point of care tests (POCTs), and their impact of on patient health and costs. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Model based evaluations of diagnostic POCTs published from 2004-2017 were identified from searching six databases. For each model we assessed the outcomes considered, and whether reduced time to diagnosis and increased access to testing affected patient health and costs...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423376/-only-itt-analysis-provides-information-about-the-actual-effects-of-a-health-policy
#17
LETTER
Lars Bruun Larsen, Trine Thilsing, Jens Sondergaard, Anne-Louise Bjerregaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423375/marginal-structural-models-and-other-analyses-allow-multiple-estimates-of-treatment-effects-in-randomized-clinical-trials-meta-epidemiological-analysis
#18
Hannah Ewald, Benjamin Speich, Aviv Ladanie, Heiner C Bucher, John Pa Ioannidis, Lars G Hemkens
OBJECTIVE: To determine how marginal structural models (MSMs), which are increasingly used to estimate causal effects, are used in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and compare their results with those from intention-to-treat (ITT) or other analyses. DESIGN: and Setting: We searched PubMed, Scopus, citations of key references, and Clinicaltrials.gov. Eligible RCTs reported clinical effects based on MSMs and at least one other analysis. RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs reporting 138 analyses for 24 clinical questions...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423374/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-only-itt-analysis-provides-information-about-the-actual-effects-of-a-health-policy
#19
LETTER
Anne Mette Bender, Charlotta Pisinger, Torben Jørgensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423373/a-cross-sectional-bibliometric-study-showed-suboptimal-journal-endorsement-rates-of-strobe-and-its-extensions
#20
Melissa K Sharp, Ružica Tokalić, Guadalupe Gómez, Elizabeth Wager, Douglas G Altman, Darko Hren
OBJECTIVE: The STrengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement provides guidance on reporting observational studies. Many extensions have been created for specialized methods or fields. We determined endorsement prevalence and typology by journals in extension-related fields. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A published protocol defined search strategies to identify journals publishing observational studies (2007 - 2017) across seven fields relating to STROBE extensions...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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