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Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885427/a-methodological-framework-for-model-selection-in-interrupted-time-series-studies
#1
J Lopez Bernal, S Soumerai, A Gasparrini
Interrupted time series is a powerful and increasingly popular design for evaluating public health and health service interventions. The design involves analysing trends in the outcome of interest and estimating the change in trend following an intervention relative to the counterfactual (the expected ongoing trend if the intervention had not occurred). There are two key components to modelling this effect: first, defining the counterfactual; second, defining the type of effect that the intervention is expected to have on the outcome, known as the impact model...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879465/using-bayesian-evidence-synthesis-to-estimate-fracture-risk-associated-with-hormonal-therapy-in-breast-cancer
#2
Ava A John-Baptiste, Taryn Becker, Kinwah Fung, Lorraine L Lipscombe, Peter C Austin, Geoffrey M Anderson
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Bayesian evidence synthesis using commonly available statistical procedures in order to estimate fracture risk for postmenopausal women undergoing hormonal therapy for breast cancer. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Using linked administrative data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of women age 66 or older diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2003 and February 28, 2010. We used data augmentation to perform Bayesian Cox regression of the hazard of a hip, spine or wrist/forearm fracture, adjusting for age, history of fragility fracture, corticosteroid use, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia or diabetes diagnoses...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879464/inadequate-diversity-of-information-resources-searched-in-usa-affiliated-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-2005-2016
#3
Richeek Pradhan, Kyle Garnick, Bikramjit Barkondaj, Harmon S Jordan, Arlene Ash, Hong Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864541/three-risk-of-bias-tools-lead-to-opposite-conclusions-in-observational-research-synthesis
#4
Josep-Maria Losilla, Isabel Oliveras, Juan A Marin-Garcia, Jaume Vives
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the agreement and compare the performance of three different instruments in assessing risk of bias (RoB) of comparative cohort studies included in a health psychology meta-analysis. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Three tools were applied to 28 primary studies included in the selected meta-analysis: the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), Quality of Cohort studies (Q-Coh), and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864540/abbreviated-literature-searches-were-viable-alternatives-to-comprehensive-searches-a-meta-epidemiological-study
#5
B Nussbaumer-Streit, I Klerings, G Wagner, T L Heise, A I Dobrescu, S Armijo-Olivo, J M Stratil, Emma Persad, S K Lhachimi, M G Van Noord, T Mittermayr, H Zeeb, L Hemkens, G Gartlehner
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of abbreviated literature searches on evidence syntheses conclusions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We randomly selected 60 Cochrane reviews of clinical interventions and repeated literature searches using 14 abbreviated approaches (combinations of MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL with and without searches of reference lists). If abbreviated searches missed included studies, we re-calculated meta-analyses. Cochrane authors determined whether the new evidence base would change conclusions...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864539/pre-specification-of-statistical-analysis-approaches-in-published-clinical-trial-protocols-was-inadequate
#6
Lauren Greenberg, Vipul Jairath, Rupert Pearse, Brennan C Kahan
BACKGROUND: Results from randomized trials can depend upon the statistical analysis approach used. It is important to pre-specify the analysis approach in the trial protocol to avoid selective reporting of analyses based on which provides the most favourable results. We undertook a review of published trial protocols to assess how often the statistical analysis of the primary outcome was adequately pre-specified. METHODS: We searched protocols of randomized trials indexed in PubMed in November 2016...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859242/patient-preferences-for-personalized-n-of-1-trials-a-conjoint-analysis
#7
Nathalie Moise, Dallas Wood, Ying Kuen K Cheung, Naihua Duan, Tara St Onge, Joan Duer-Hefele, Tiffany Pu, Karina W Davidson, Ian M Kronish
OBJECTIVE: Despite their promise for increasing treatment precision, Personalized Trials (i.e., N-of-1 trials) have not been widely adopted. We aimed to ascertain patient preferences for Personalized Trials. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We recruited 501 adults with ≥2 common chronic conditions from Harris Poll Online. We used Sawtooth Software to generate 45 plausible Personalized Trial designs comprised of combinations of 8 key attributes (treatment selection, treatment type, clinician involvement, blinding, time commitment, self-monitoring frequency, duration, cost) at different levels...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852251/the-smallest-worthwhile-effect-of-primary-care-physiotherapy-did-not-differ-across-musculoskeletal-pain-sites
#8
David H Christiansen, Nils-Bo de Vos Andersen, Per H Poulsen, Raymond W Ostelo
OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare estimates of the smallest worthwhile effect (SWE) for physiotherapy in neck, shoulder and low back patients, and to investigate the influence of socio-demographic, clinical and psychological factors on these estimates. METHODS: A structured telephone interview was conducted before treatment was commenced in 160 patients referred for primary care physiotherapy. The benefit-harm trade-off method was used to estimate the SWE of physiotherapy for the following outcomes; pain, disability and time to recovery, compared with the improvement achieved without any treatment (natural course)...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803759/relationships-between-abstract-features-and-methodological-quality-explained-variations-of-social-media-activity-derived-from-systematic-reviews-about-psoriasis-interventions
#9
J Ruano, M Aguilar-Luque, B Isla-Tejera, P Alcalde-Mellado, J Gay-Mimbrera, José Luis Hernandez-Romero, J L Sanz-Cabanillas, B Maestre-López, M González-Padilla, P J Carmona-Fernández, F Gómez-García, A Vélez García-Nieto
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship among abstract structure, readability, and completeness, and how these features may influence social media activity and bibliometric results, considering systematic reviews (SRs) about interventions in psoriasis classified by methodological quality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic literature searches about psoriasis interventions were undertaken on relevant databases. For each review, methodological quality was evaluated using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802936/a-third-perspective-on-the-effects-of-general-health-checks-may-provide-a-less-biased-estimate-letter-commenting-j-clin-epidemiol-2016-71-120-2
#10
LETTER
Lars Bruun Larsen, Trine Thilsing, Jens Sondergaard, Anne-Louise Bjerregaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802935/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-a-third-perspective-on-the-effects-of-general-health-checks-may-provide-a-less-biased-estimate
#11
LETTER
Anne Mette Bender, Charlotta Pisinger, Torben Jørgensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800690/cochrane-acute-respiratory-infections-group-s-stakeholder-engagement-project-identified-systematic-review-priority-areas
#12
Anna Mae Scott, Justin Clark, Liz Dooley, Ann Jones, Mark Jones, Chris Del Mar
OBJECTIVE: Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for treatment and prevention of ARIs. We report the results of a prioritisation project, aiming to identify highest priority systematic review topics. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: The project consisted of 2 Phases. Phase 1 analysed the gap between existing RCTs and Cochrane Systematic Reviews (reported previously). Phase 2 (reported here) consisted of a two-round survey...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800689/applying-grade-to-a-network-meta-analysis-of-antidepressants-led-to-more-conservative-conclusions
#13
Ashley Bonner, Paul E Alexander, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Toshi A Furukawa, Reed A Siemieniuk, Yuan Zhang, Wojtek Wiercioch, Ivan D Florez, Yutong Fei, Arnav Agarwal, Juan José Yepes-Nuñez, Joseph Beyene, Holger Schünemann, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of applying the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence in a published network meta-analysis (NMA) of antidepressant therapies. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: We applied the GRADE approach to rate the certainty of the evidence for two outcomes, efficacy and acceptability, in each of the 66 paired comparisons within a previously published NMA assessing the relative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800688/the-authors-respond
#14
LETTER
Aviv Ladanie, Lars G Hemkens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800687/grade-guidelines-20-assessing-the-certainty-of-evidence-in-the-importance-of-outcomes-or-values-and-preferences-inconsistency-imprecision-and-other-domains
#15
Yuan Zhang, Pablo Alonso Coello, Gordon Guyatt, Juan Jose Yepes-Nuñez, Elie A Akl, Glen Hazlewood, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Amir Qaseem, John W Williams, Peter Tugwell, Signe Flottorp, Yaping Chang, Yuqing Zhang, Reem A Mustafa, María Ximena Rojas, Feng Xie, Holger J Schünemann
OBJECTIVE: To provide GRADE guidance for assessing inconsistency, imprecision, and other domains for the certainty of evidence about the relative importance of outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied the GRADE domains to rate the certainty of evidence in the importance of outcomes to several systematic reviews, iteratively reviewed draft guidance and consulted GRADE members and other stakeholders for feedback. RESULTS: We describe the rationale for considering the remaining GRADE domains when rating the certainty in a body of evidence for the relative importance of outcomes...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793009/evidence-on-the-measurement-properties-of-health-related-quality-of-life-instruments-is-largely-missing-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Alessandro Chiarotto, Caroline B Terwee, Steven J Kamper, Maarten Boers, Raymond W Ostelo
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the measurement properties of five health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments [Short Form 36 (SF-36), Short Form 12 (SF-12), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), PROMIS Global Health (PROMIS-GH-10)] in patients with low back pain (LBP). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, Google Scholar) were searched (July 2017). Studies assessing any measurement property in non-specific LBP patients were included...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793008/qualitative-research-is-a-fundamental-scientific-process
#17
Joanna E M Sale, Stephen Thielke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793007/minimum-clinically-important-differences-in-chronic-pain-vary-considerable-by-baseline-pain-and-methodological-factors-systematic-review-of-empirical-studies
#18
REVIEW
Mette Frahm Olsen, Eik Bjerre, Maria Damkjær Hansen, Britta Tendal, Jørgen Hilden, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson
BACKGROUND: The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is used to interpret the relevance of treatment effects, e.g. when developing clinical guidelines, evaluating trial results or planning sample sizes. There is currently no agreement on an appropriate MCID in chronic pain and little is known about which contextual factors cause variation. METHODS: Systematic review. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Eligible studies determined MCID for chronic pain based on a one-dimensional pain scale, a patient-reported transition scale of perceived improvement; and either a mean change analysis (mean difference in pain among minimally improved patients) or a threshold analysis (pain reduction associated with best sensitivity and specificity for identifying minimally improved patients)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793006/pre-data-likelihood-ratios-and-bayes-factor-upper-bounds-a-comment-on-adams-o-reilly-2017
#19
LETTER
Patrick S Phelan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793005/response-to-letter-from-patrick-s-phelan
#20
LETTER
Nicholas Adams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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