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Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

Clovis Mariano Faggion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Lisa Strifler, Roberta Cardoso, Jessie McGowan, Elise Cogo, Vera Nincic, Paul A Khan, Alistair Scott, Marco Ghassemi, Heather MacDonald, Yonda Lai, Victoria Treister, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a comprehensive multistage search process from 2000-2016, which included traditional bibliographic database searching, searching using names of theories, models and frameworks, and cited reference searching...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Douglas G Altman, David Moher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Catherine R Lesko, Nicholas C Henderson, Ravi Varadhan
When baseline risk of an outcome varies within a population, the effect of a treatment on that outcome will vary on at least one scale (e.g., additive, multiplicative). This treatment effect heterogeneity is of interest in patient-centered outcomes research. Based on a literature review and solicited expert opinion, we assert: 1) Treatment effect heterogeneity on the additive scale is most interpretable to healthcare providers and patients using effect estimates to guide treatment decision making; heterogeneity reported on the multiplicative scale may be misleading as to the magnitude or direction of a substantively important interaction...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Sakshi Sharma, Mark Oremus
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reporting and methodological quality of systematic reviews (SRs) in health literacy and cancer screening; to investigate factors that may influence overall quality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A review of SRs published between 2009 and 2017. We calculated indices to represent the included SRs' adherence to PRISMA and AMSTAR. To assess possible determinants of SR quality, we regressed the index scores on year and region of publication, journal impact factor, authors' reported use of PRISMA, and presence of funding statements...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Nina Obbarius, Felix Fischer, Alexander Obbarius, Sandra Nolte, Gregor Liegl, Matthias Rose
OBJECTIVES: To develop the first item bank to measure Stress Resilience (SR) in clinical populations. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative item development resulted in an initial pool of 131 items covering a broad theoretical SR concept. These items were tested in n=521 patients at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), as well as other state-of-the-art item analyses and IRT were used for item evaluation and calibration of the final item bank...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Matthew Sunderland, Philip Batterham, Alison Calear, Natacha Carragher, Andrew Baillie, Tim Slade
OBJECTIVE: There is no standardized approach to the measurement of social anxiety. Researchers and clinicians are faced with numerous self-report scales with varying strengths, weaknesses, and psychometric properties. The lack of standardization makes it difficult to compare scores across populations that utilise different scales. Item response theory offers one solution to this problem via equating different scales using an anchor scale to set a standardized metric. This study is the first to equate several scales for social anxiety disorder...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Jason K Gurney, James Stanley, Diana Sarfati
OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is common among those living with diabetes. The purpose of this manuscript was to assess the performance of the recently developed M3 multimorbidity index within a large, well-defined cohort of patients with diabetes. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We compared regression model performance between three morbidity indices (M3, Charlson, Elixhauser) for important adverse outcomes (hospitalisation, amputation, and mortality) among 217,207 patients with diabetes, and compared the real-world applied impact of these indices for modelling these diabetes outcomes against two key exposure variables (ethnicity and deprivation)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Henrique Barros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Maria Olsen, Melissa K Sharp, Patrick M Bossuyt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Jaime Bolzern, Nandi Mnyama, Katharine Bosanquet, David J Torgerson
OBJECTIVES: To assess markers of selection bias risk in a sample of recently-published cluster randomized controlled trials compared with individually randomized trials. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We used OVID Medline and the online archives of the Journal of the American Medical Association to search for cluster randomized trials published between January 2015 and June 2017 from four high-impact journals and compared them to a matched sample of individually randomized trials...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Michel Shamy, Mark Fedyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Min Yao, Sen Zhu, Zi-Rui Tian, Yong-Jia Song, Long Yang, Yong-Jun Wang, Xue-Jun Cui
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross cultural-adaptations of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: English and Chinese databases were searched through December 2017. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties were evaluated using the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures and the Quality Criteria for Psychometric Properties of Health Status Questionnaire. RESULTS: Among 34 studies, there were 31 RMDQ adaptations for 26 different languages/cultures...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Sean Grant, Marika Booth, Dmitry Khodyakov
OBJECTIVE: To empirically demonstrate how undisclosed analytic flexibility provides substantial latitude for data mining and selective reporting of consensus in Delphi processes. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Pooling data across eight online modified-Delphi panels, we first calculated the percentage of items reaching consensus according to descriptive analysis procedures commonly used in health research but selected post hoc in this manuscript. We then examined the variability of items reaching consensus across panels...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Rhiannon K Owen, Nicola J Cooper, Terence J Quinn, Rosalind Lees, Alex J Sutton
OBJECTIVE: Network meta-analyses have extensively been used to compare the effectiveness of multiple interventions for healthcare policy and decision-making. However, methods for evaluating the performance of multiple diagnostic tests are less established. In a decision-making context, we are often interested in comparing and ranking the performance of multiple diagnostic tests, at varying levels of test thresholds, in one simultaneous analysis. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Motivated by an example of cognitive impairment diagnosis following stroke, we synthesized data from 13 studies assessing the efficiency of two diagnostic tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), at two test thresholds: MMSE <25/30 and <27/30, and MoCA <22/30 and <26/30...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Konan Hara, Jun Tomio, Thomas Svensson, Rika Ohkuma, Akiko Kishi Svensson, Tsutomu Yamazaki
OBJECTIVE: Although claims data are widely used in medical research, their ability to identify persons' health-related conditions has not been fully justified. We assessed the validity of claims-based algorithms (CBAs) for identifying people with common chronic conditions in a large population using annual health screening results as the gold standard. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Using a longitudinal claims database (n=523,267) combined with annual health screening results, we defined the people with hypertension, diabetes, and/or dyslipidemia by applying health screening results as their gold standard, and compared them against various CBAs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Andrew Booth, Jane Noyes, Kate Flemming, Ansgar Gehardus, Philip Wahlster, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Kati Mozygemba, Pietro Refolo, Dario Sacchini, Marcia Tummers, Eva Rehfuess
OBJECTIVE: To compare and contrast different methods of qualitative evidence synthesis (QES) against criteria identified from the literature and to map their attributes to inform selection of the most appropriate QES method to answer research questions addressed by qualitative research. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Electronic databases, citation searching and a study register were used to identify studies reporting QES methods. Attributes compiled from 26 methodological papers (2001-2014) were used as a framework for data extraction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Allison Gates, Ben Vandermeer, Lisa Hartling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Livia Puljak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Ignacio Neumann, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Per Olav Vandvik, Thomas Agoritsas, Gemma Mas, Elie A Akl, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Jose Emparanza, Lauren McCullagh, Catherine De Sitio, Thomas McGinn, Hind Almodaimegh, Khalid Almodaimegh, Solange Rivera, Luis Rojas, Jérôme Stirnemann, Jihad Irani, Sani Hlais, Reem Mustafa, Fadi Bdair, Abdelrahman Aly, Annette Kristiansen, Ariel Izcovich, Anggie Ramirez, Jan Brozek, Gordon Guyatt, Holger J Schünemann
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines provide recommendations to assist clinicians in decision-making and to reduce the gap between best current research evidence and clinical practice. However, some argue that providing pre-appraised evidence summaries alone, rather than recommendations, is more appropriate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinicians' preferences, understanding of the evidence and intended course of action in response to evidence summaries with and without recommendations...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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