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Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454030/using-decision-thresholds-for-ranking-treatments-in-network-meta-analysis-results-in-more-informative-rankings
#1
Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Bradley C Johnston, Alejandro R Jadad, George Tomlinson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how the rank probabilities obtained from NMA change with the use of increasingly stringent criteria for the relative effect comparing two treatments that ranks one treatment better than the other. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic survey and re-analysis of published data. We included all systematic reviews (SRs) with NMA from the field of cardiovascular medicine that had trial-level data available, published in Medline up to February 2015...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452223/grade-guidelines-19-assessing-the-certainty-of-evidence-describing-the-relative-importance-of-outcomes-or-values-and-preferences-risk-of-bias-and-indirectness
#2
Yuan Zhang, Pablo Alonso Coello, Gordon Guyatt, Juan Jose Yepes-Nunez, Elie A Akl, Glen Hazlewood, Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Amir Qaseem, John W Williams, Peter Tugwell, Signe Flottorp, Yaping Chang, Yuqing Zhang, Reem A Mustafa, María Ximena Rojas, Holger J Schünemann
OBJECTIVE: The GRADE working group defines patient values and preferences as the relative importance patients place on the main health outcomes. We provide GRADE guidance for assessing the risk of bias and indirectness domains for certainty of evidence about the relative importance of outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied the GRADE domains to rate the certainty of evidence in the importance of outcomes to several systematic reviews, iteratively reviewed draft guidance and consulted GRADE members and other stakeholders for feedback...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452222/essential-medicines-availability-is-still-suboptimal-in-many-countries-a-scoping-review
#3
REVIEW
Mersiha Mahmić-Kaknjo, Antonia Jeličić-Kadić, Ana Utrobičić, Kit Chan, Lisa Bero, Ana Marušić
OBJECTIVE: To identify uses of WHO Model list of essential medicines (EM) and summarize studies examining essential medicines (EM) and national EM lists (NEMLs). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: In this scoping review, we searched PubMed, Scopus, WHO website and WHO Regional Databases for studies on NEMLs, reimbursement medicines lists, and WHO EML, with no date or language restrictions. RESULTS: 3,144 retrieved documents were independently screened by two reviewers; 100 full-text documents were analyzed; 37 contained data suitable for quantitative and qualitative analysis on EMs availability (11 documents), medicines for specific diseases (13 documents), and comparison of WHO EML and NEMLs (13 documents)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452221/a-scoping-review-and-survey-provides-the-rationale-perceptions-and-preferences-for-the-integration-of-randomized-and-non-randomized-studies-in-evidence-syntheses-and-grade-assessments
#4
Carlos A Cuello, Rebecca L Morgan, Jan Brozek, Nancy Santesso, Jos Verbeek, Kris Thayer, Gordon Guyatt, Holger J Schünemann
OBJECTIVES: To review the literature and obtain preferences and perceptions from experts regarding the role of randomized studies (RS) and non-randomized studies (NRS) in systematic reviews of intervention effects. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Scoping review and survey of experts. Using levels of certainty developed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group, experts expressed their preferences about the use of RS and NRS in health syntheses...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452220/methods-for-analyzing-matched-designs-with-double-controls-excess-risk-is-easily-estimated-and-misinterpreted-when-evaluating-traffic-deaths
#5
Donald A Redelmeier, Robert J Tibshirani
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate analytic approaches for matched studies where two controls are linked to each case and events are accumulating counts rather than binary outcomes. A secondary intent is to clarify the distinction between total risk and excess risk (unmatched vs matched perspectives). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We review past research testing whether elections can lead to increased traffic risks. The results are reinterpreted by analyzing both the total count of individuals in fatal crashes and the excess count of individuals in fatal crashes, each time accounting for the matched double controls...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432862/responsible-epidemiologic-research-practice-a-guideline-developed-by-a-working-group-of-the-netherlands-epidemiological-society
#6
Gerard M H Swaen, Miranda Langendam, Joost Weyler, Huibert Burger, Sabine Siesling, Willem Jan Atsma, Lex Bouter
OBJECTIVES: to develop a guideline on responsible epidemiologic research practice that will increase value and transparency, will increase the accountability of the epidemiologists and will reduce research waste. SETTING: A working group of the Netherland Epidemiological Society was given the task of developing a guideline that would meet these objectives. Several publications about the need to prevent Detrimental Research Practices triggered this work. Among these were a series in the Lancet on research waste and a subsequent series on transparency in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432861/commentary-is-providing-uncertainty-intervals-in-treatment-ranking-helpful-in-a-network-meta-analysis
#7
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sharon E Straus, Gerta Rücker, Andrea C Tricco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432860/larger-effect-sizes-in-non-randomized-studies-are-associated-with-higher-rates-of-ema-licensing-approval
#8
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Paul Glasziou, Farina A Klocksieben, Tea Reljic, Magali VanDenBergh, Rahul Mhaskar, John P A Ioannidis, Iain Chalmers
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate how often the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has authorized drugs based on non-randomized studies and whether there is an association between treatment effects and EMA preference for further testing in RCTs. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We reviewed all initial marketing authorizations in the EMA database on human medicines between 1995 and 2015 and included authorizations granted without randomized data. We extracted data on treatment effects and EMA preference for further testing in RCTs...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432859/pragmatic-trials-revisited-applicability-is-about-individualization
#9
José A Sacristán, Tatiana Dilla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432858/grade-guidelines-18-how-robins-i-and-other-tools-to-assess-risk-of-bias-in-non-randomized-studies-should-be-used-to-rate-the-certainty-of-a-body-of-evidence
#10
Holger J Schünemann, Carlos Cuello, Elie A Akl, Reem A Mustafa, Jörg J Meerpohl, Kris Thayer, Rebecca L Morgan, Gerald Gartlehner, Regina Kunz, S Vittal Katikireddi, Jonathan Sterne, Julian Pt Higgins, Gordon Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on how systematic review authors, guideline developers, and health technology assessment practitioners should approach the use of the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool as part of GRADE's certainty rating process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Iterative discussions, testing in systematic reviews, presentation at GRADE working group meetings with feedback from the GRADE Working Group. RESULTS: We describe where to start the initial assessment of a body of evidence with the use of ROBINS-I, and where one would anticipate the final rating would end up...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432857/a-joint-frailty-model-provides-for-risk-stratification-of-hiv-infected-patients-based-on-unobserved-heterogeneity
#11
Tae Hyun Jung, Tassos Kyriakides, Mark Holodniy, Denise Esserman, Peter Peduzzi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between recurrent AIDS-defining events and a semi-competing risk of death in patients with advanced, multi-drug resistant HIV infection and to identify individuals at increased risk for these events using a joint frailty model. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 368 patients with antiretroviral treatment failure in the OPTIMA Trial randomized to two antiretroviral treatment strategies using a 2x2 factorial design, intensive vs. standard and interruption vs...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428873/re-randomization-increased-recruitment-and-provided-similar-treatment-estimates-as-parallel-designs-in-trials-of-febrile-neutropenia
#12
Brennan C Kahan, Tim P Morris, Erica Harris, Rupert Pearse, Richard Hooper, Sandra Eldridge
BACKGROUND: Re-randomization trials allow patients to be re-enrolled for multiple treatment episodes. However, it remains uncertain to what extent re-randomization improves recruitment compared to parallel group designs, or whether treatment estimates might be affected. METHODS: We evaluated trials included in a recent Cochrane review of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors for patients with febrile neutropenia. We assessed the recruitment benefits of re-randomization trials; compared treatment effect estimates between re-randomization and parallel group designs; and assessed whether re-randomization led to higher rates of non-compliance and loss-to-follow-up in subsequent episodes...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428872/the-win-ratio-approach-did-not-alter-study-conclusions-and-may-mitigate-concerns-regarding-unequal-composite-endpoints-in-kidney-transplant-trials
#13
Nicholas A Fergusson, Tim Ramsay, Michaël Chassé, Shane W English, Greg A Knoll
OBJECTIVE: Determine the impact of using the win ratio approach and investigate whether this approach alters the interpretations or conclusions of a randomized trial in kidney transplantation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We present an application of the win ratio approach in a kidney transplant trial that assessed the clinical effectiveness of ramipril treatment versus placebo. The primary composite outcome included the time to death, kidney transplant failure, or doubling of serum creatinine...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408344/non-corresponding-authors-in-the-era-of-meta-analyses
#14
Andrea Manca, Lucia Cugusi, Zeevi Dvir, Franca Deriu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409913/ahrq-epc-methods-provide-guidance-on-prioritization-and-selection-of-harms-in-systematic-reviews
#15
REVIEW
Roger Chou, William L Baker, Lionel L Bañez, Suchitra Iyer, Evan R Myers, Sydne Newberry, Laura Pincock, Karen A Robinson, Lyndzie Sardenga, Nila Sathe, Stacey Springs, Timothy J Wilt
OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews should provide balanced assessments of benefits and harms, while focusing on the most important outcomes. Selection of harms to be reviewed can be a challenge due to the potential for large numbers of diverse harms. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING / METHODS: A workgroup of methodologists from Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) developed consensus-based guidance on selection and prioritization of harms in systematic reviews. Recommendations were informed by a literature scan, review of EPC reports, and interviews with experts in conducting reviews or assessing harms and persons representing organizations that commission or use systematic reviews RESULTS: Ten recommendations were developed on selection and prioritization of harms, including: routinely focusing on serious as well as less serious but frequent or bothersome harms; routinely engaging stakeholders and using literature searches and other data sources to identify important harms; using a prioritization process (formal or less formal) to inform selection decisions; and describing the methods used to select and prioritize harms...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378305/choice-of-time-period-to-identify-confounders-for-propensity-score-matching-affected-the-estimate-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-drug-effectiveness-in-asthmatic-children
#16
Osemeke U Osokogu, Javeed Khan, Swabra Nakato, Daniel Weibel, Maria de Ridder, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom, Katia Verhamme
PURPOSE: To control for confounding by indication in comparative (drug) effectiveness studies, propensity scores (PS) methods may be utilized. Since childhood diseases or outcomes often present as acute events, we compared the effect of using different look back periods in electronic health care data, to construct PSs. This was applied in our research on the effect of a combination of inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-2-agonists (ICS+LABA), either as fixed combination or used as loose combination (2 separate inhaler devices) in the prevention of severe asthma exacerbations...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360559/a-mapping-of-115-000-randomized-trials-revealed-a-mismatch-between-research-effort-and-health-needs-in-non-high-income-regions
#17
Ignacio Atal, Ludovic Trinquart, Philippe Ravaud, Raphaël Porcher
BACKGROUND: Concerns exist as to whether the allocation of resources in clinical research is aligned with public health needs. We evaluated the alignment between the effort of clinical research through the conduct of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and health needs measured as the burden of diseases for all regions and a broad range of diseases. METHODS: We grouped countries into 7 regions and diseases into 27 groups. We mapped all RCTs initiated between 2006 and 2015 that were registered at the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to regions and diseases...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352995/assessing-risk-of-bias-in-studies-that-evaluate-health-care-interventions-recommendations-in-the-misinformation-age
#18
Matthew J Page, Isabelle Boutron, Camilla Hansen, Douglas G Altman, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson
Methods to assess risk of bias in a way that is reliable, reproducible and transparent to readers, have evolved over time. Viswanathan et al. recently provided updated recommendations for assessing risk of bias in systematic reviews of health care interventions. We comment on their recommendations, and discuss new tools in development that we, as co-convenors and coordinators of the Cochrane Bias Methods Group, are leading, which complement the methods recommended.
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339215/registration-in-prospero-of-systematic-review-protocols-was-associated-with-increased-review-quality
#19
Sofia Sideri, Spyridon N Papageorgiou, Theodore Eliades
OBJECTIVES: A priori registration of systematic review protocols in PROSPERO can help increase transparency and thereby the review's credibility. Aim of this study was to assess the influence of a priori registration of orthodontic systematic reviews in PROSPERO on the reviews' quality with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Seven databases were searched for systematic reviews with/without meta-analysis in orthodontics published between 2012-2016...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329677/living-systematic-reviews-not-only-for-clinical-placebo-research
#20
Paul Enck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
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