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Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441838/in-your-face
#1
Johnathan Caleb Peterson, Carly Jacobs, John Hibbing, Kevin Smith
Research suggests that people can accurately predict the political affiliations of others using only information extracted from the face. It is less clear from this research, however, what particular facial physiological processes or features communicate such information. Using a model of emotion developed in psychology that treats emotional expressivity as an individual-level trait, this article provides a theoretical account of why emotional expressivity may provide reliable signals of political orientation, and it tests the theory in four empirical studies...
February 14, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386075/-new-political-interfaces-in-the-life-sciences
#2
Dietram Scheufele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717966/cass-r-sunstein-s-nudge-science
#3
Ronald F White, Eliah J White, Charles Kroncke, Edward Sankowski, David Vanderburgh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717965/issues-with-choice-architecture-environmental-ethics-and-globalization
#4
Edward Sankowski
Cass R. Sunstein's book The Ethics of Influence appears to have three ideological features notable for purposes of this essay. The book emphasizes choice architecture (and related notions such as nudges and defaults), which should be ethically scrutinized to guard against ethical abuses and to assist us in ethically desirable uses of scientific psychology and behavioral economics. (1) This particular book focuses more on scrutinizing nation-state government than on corporate activities. (2) This book focuses more on domestically directed governmental action than on externally directed governmental action...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717964/an-introduction-to-nudge-science
#5
Ronald F White
Let's begin by addressing the most obvious question: given the vast number of books published on political science every year, why would the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) and its journal Politics and the Life Sciences expend time, energy, and resources publishing a multiple-author analysis of a series of books that contain little (if anything) about the life sciences, Darwin, or evolution? The answer is that Cass R. Sunstein's recent research on "nudge science" provides an excellent opportunity for APLS to expand its commitment to interdisciplinarity, especially its long-standing interest in behavioral economics...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717963/nudging-toward-a-stable-retirement
#6
Charles Kroncke
The classical economics perspective is that public policy should be used to allow, not hinder, economic freedom. In some cases it may be possible for government to gently nudge individuals to change their behavior without hindering freedom. One example is a change from the default on pension program enrollment forms from "not contribute" to "contribute." This is generally viewed as a good nudge that gets people to do what the majority of people view as generally the correct behavior. However, a choice to contribute to a pension fund is not always in the individual's best interest - thus, it is a nudge, not a mandate...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717962/the-problem-of-obesity-and-dietary-nudges
#7
Eliah J White
From a psychological perspective, Cass R. Sunstein's 2016 book The Ethics of Influence is an insightful examination of the ethics of using social and cognitive psychological principles to influence behavior and decision-making. The United States has been experiencing what can only be described as an obesity epidemic. Scientists know that this epidemic has been brought about in part by the prevailing choice architecture, which influences what we eat, how much we eat, and how little we exercise. From a public health perspective, the policy issue centers on how a democracy can employ a combination of bans, mandates, and nudges to reshape our dietary habits to combat obesity...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717961/breast-cancer-screening
#8
David Vanderburgh
Cass R. Sunstein's 2016 book The Ethics of Influence: Government in the Age of Behavioral Science provides an extremely informative introduction to the science and ethics of the exercise of "influence" over others. As a longtime physician employed in both the public and private sectors, I now recognize that most of my formal training has been in the hard sciences, with little, if any, training in the appropriate influence of the decision-making processes of my patients and/or other health care professionals in institutional settings...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717960/handedness-and-the-neurocognitive-foundations-of-public-attitudes-about-international-laws-and-norms
#9
Michael C Grillo, Juris Pupcenoks, Keith B Lyle
Whether Geneva Conventions (GC) rights should apply to terrorists is a contentious question that has received little attention in public opinion research. Both personality and contextual factors may be important. We queried participants' support for applying the GC to alleged terrorists, but first we measured participants' authoritarianism and presented them with a scenario concerning an alleged terrorist. We manipulated whether (1) the scenario contained examples of GC rights and (2) the alleged terrorist's religious affiliation was Muslim or non-Muslim...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717959/what-do-we-know-about-suicide-bombing
#10
Veronica Ward
In this article, the present status of our knowledge about the phenomenon of "suicide" bombing or "martyrdom" operations is identified. A review of many studies located at different levels of analysis is conducted, followed by an analysis and evaluation of the state of the research at each level. In addition, an exploration of the evolution in the characteristics of this tactic and the differences, if any, between subnational and transnational acts is undertaken. The conclusion identifies what we know and what may be appropriate for future research and public policy initiatives...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717958/social-cues-and-ideology
#11
Jordan Mansell
Research shows that individuals with liberal and conservative ideological orientations display different value positions concerning the acceptance of social change and inequality. Research also links the expression of different values to a number of biological factors, including heredity. In light of these biological influences, I investigate whether differences in social values associated with liberal and conservative ideologies reflect alternative strategies to maximize returns from social interactions. Using an American sample of Democrats and Republicans, I test whether information about shared and unshared social values in the form of implicit social attitudes have a disproportionate effect on the willingness of Democrats and Republicans to trust an anonymous social partner...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717957/subduing-attitude-polarization
#12
Eulàlia P Abril
Researchers have sought to understand the effects of like-minded versus contrary news exposure on attitude polarization, which can be a threat to democracy. The online news environment offers opportunities for exposure to both types of news, albeit unequally. This study tests the effects of exposure to heterogeneous partisan news bundles (both like-minded and contrary news) on attitude polarization. Because media exposure can lead to bias, attitude polarization is tested as a direct and indirect effect via hostile media perceptions...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717956/smiles-turnout-candidates-and-the-winning-of-district-seats
#13
Masahiko Asano, Dennis P Patterson
Research has shown that a candidate's appearance affects the support he or she receives in elections. We extend this research in this article in three ways. First, we examine this relationship further in a non-Western context using 2015 local elections in Japan. Next, we show that this positive relationship is more complicated depending on the characteristics of the election under consideration. Specifically, we distinguished election contests by levels of turnout and found that despite a positive relationship between turnout and the extent to which smiling increases a candidate's support levels, the marginal increase in support declined as turnout increased and, in fact, became negative when some high-turnout threshold was crossed...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355475/communities-ready-for-takeoff
#14
Sanne A M Rijkhoff, Season A Hoard, Michael J Gaffney, Paul M Smith
Although much of the social science literature supports the importance of community assets for success in many policy areas, these assets are often overlooked when selecting communities for new infrastructure facilities. Extensive collaboration is crucial for the success of environmental and economic projects, yet it often is not adequately addressed when making siting decisions for new projects. This article develops a social asset framework that includes social, creative, and human capital to inform site-selection decisions...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355474/the-chicken-and-egg-development-of-political-opinions
#15
Peter Beattie
Twin studies have revealed political ideology to be partially heritable. Neurological research has shown that ideological differences are reflected in brain structure and response, suggesting a direct genotype-phenotype link. Social and informational environments, however, also demonstrably affect brain structure and response. This leads to a "chicken-and-egg" question: do genes produce brains with ideological predispositions, causing the preferential absorption of consonant information and thereby forming an ideology, or do social and informational environments do most of the heavy lifting, with genetic evidence the spurious artifact of outdated methodology? Or are both inextricably intertwined contributors? This article investigates the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to ideological development using a role-play experiment investigating the development of opinions on a novel political issue...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355105/neuropolitics-twenty-years-later
#16
Darren Schreiber
Neuropolitics is the intersection of neuroscience and political science, and it has the interdisciplinary goal of transforming both disciplines. This article reviews the past 20 years of work in the field, identifying its roots, some overarching themes-reactions to political attitudinal questions and candidates faces, identification of political ideology based on brain structure or reactivity to nonpolitical stimuli, and racial attitudes-and obstacles to its progress. I then explore the methodological and analytical advances that point the way forward for the future of neuropolitics...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355104/effects-of-physical-attractiveness-on-political-beliefs
#17
Rolfe Daus Peterson, Carl L Palmer
Physical attractiveness is an important social factor in our daily interactions. Scholars in social psychology provide evidence that attractiveness stereotypes and the "halo effect" are prominent in affecting the traits we attribute to others. However, the interest in attractiveness has not directly filtered down to questions of political behavior beyond candidates and elites. Utilizing measures of attractiveness across multiple surveys, we examine the relationship between attractiveness and political beliefs...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355103/conservatism-and-liberalism-predict-performance-in-two-nonideological-cognitive-tasks
#18
Rodolpho Talaisys Bernabel, Amâncio Oliveira
Intuitive thinking would argue that political or ideological orientation does not correlate with nonpolitical decisions, and certainly not with nonideological cognitive tasks. However, that is what happens in some cases. Previous neuropolitics studies have found that liberals are more adept at dealing with novel information than conservatives. This finding suggests that conservatives and liberals possess different cognitive skills. For the purposes of this article, two studies were executed to test whether this difference remained in alternative environmental settings...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355102/the-biological-roots-of-political-extremism
#19
Justin Robert Keene, Heather Shoenberger, Collin K Berke, Paul D Bolls
Recent research has revealed the complex origins of political identification and the possible effects of this identification on social and political behavior. This article reports the results of a structural equation analysis of national survey data that attempts to replicate the finding that an individual's negativity bias predicts conservative ideology. The analysis employs the Motivational Activation Measure (MAM) as an index of an individual's positivity offset and negativity bias. In addition, information-seeking behavior is assessed in relation to traditional and interactive media sources of political information...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355101/displays-of-emotion-and-citizen-support-for-merkel-and-gysi
#20
Oscar W Gabriel, Lena Masch
Emotional appeals have always been an important instrument in the mobilization of political support in modern societies. As found in several experimental studies from the United States, the emotions displayed by leading politicians in their televised public appearances have an impact on the political attitudes and behaviors of the public. Positive emotions such as joy or happiness, pride, and amusement elicit a more positive assessment of politicians, whereas showing negative emotions such as anger or outrage often diminishes the public's support...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
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