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Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

Chinh Bkrong Nguyen, Surendra Kumar, Manuela Zucknick, Vessela N Kristensen, Johannes Gjerstad, Hilde Nilsen, Vegard Bruun Wyller
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is one of the most important causes of disability among adolescents while limited knowledge exists on genetic determinants underlying disease pathophysiology. METHODS: We analyzed deregulated immune-gene modules using Pathifier software on whole blood gene expression data (29 CFS patients, 18 controls). Deconvolution of immune cell subtypes based on gene expression profile was performed using CIBERSORT. Supervised consensus clustering on pathway deregulation score (PDS) was used to define CFS subgroups...
November 9, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Weiguo Sun, Lingxia Zhang, Lejian Lin, Wei Wang, Yanhu Ge, Yanhua Liu, Bingfen Yang, Jianghou Hou, Xiaoxing Cheng, Xiaogang Chen, Zhongyuan Wang
Germinal centers (GC) are vital to adaptive immunity. BCL6 and miR-155 are implicated in control of GC reaction and lymphomagenesis. FBXO11 causes BCL6 degradation through ubiquitination in B-cell lymphomas. Chronic psychological stress is known to drive immunosuppression. Corticosterone (CORT) is an adrenal hormone expressed in response to stress and can similarly impair immune functions. However, whether GC formation is disrupted by chronic psychological stress and its molecular mechanism remain to be elucidated...
November 8, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Peter M Grace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Alexander L Chu, Jan Stochl, Glyn Lewis, Stan Zammit, Peter B Jones, Golam M Khandaker
BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is associated with depression, but studies of specific symptoms are relatively scarce. Association between inflammatory markers and specific symptoms may provide insights into potential mechanism of inflammation-related depression. Using longitudinal data, we have tested whether childhood serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with specific depressive symptoms in early adulthood. METHODS: In the ALSPAC birth cohort, serum IL-6 and CRP levels were assessed at age 9 years and 19 depressive symptoms were assessed at age 18 years...
November 7, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Pei Zhou, Judith R Homberg, Qiuyuan Fang, Jiaqi Wang, Weizhuo Li, Xianzong Meng, Junqing Shen, Yi Luan, Peng Liao, Dick F Swaab, Ling Shan, Chunqing Liu
The activation of microglial cells is presumed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The activity of microglia is regulated by the histamine-4 receptor (H4 R), thus providing a novel target that may prevent the progression of PD. However, this putative mechanism has so far not been validated. In our previous study, we found that mRNA expression of H4 R was upregulated in PD patients. In the present study, we validated this possible mechanism using the rotenone-induced PD rat model, in which mRNA expression levels of H4 R-, and microglial markers were significantly increased in the Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)...
November 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Andrew Harkin, Declan M McLoughlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Liisa Hantsoo, Eldin Jašarević, Stephanie Criniti, Brendan McGeehan, Ceylan Tanes, Mary D Sammel, Michal A Elovitz, Charlene Compher, Gary Wu, C Neill Epperson
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as abuse or chronic stress, program an exaggerated adult inflammatory response to stress. Emerging rodent research suggests that the gut microbiome may be a key mediator in the association between early life stress and dysregulated glucocorticoid-immune response. However, ACE impact on inflammatory response to stress, or on the gut microbiome, have not been studied in human pregnancy, when inflammation increases risk of poor outcomes...
November 3, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Rocío Saravia, Marc Ten-Blanco, María T Grande, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
Nicotine withdrawal is associated with cognitive deficits including attention, working memory, and episodic memory impairments. These cognitive deficits are a hallmark of nicotine abstinence which could be targeted in order to prevent smoking relapse. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, memory impairment was observed in mice 4 days after the precipitation of nicotine withdrawal by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. The presence of cognitive deficits correlated with microglial activation in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex...
November 1, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Meghana Eswarappa, Thomas C Neylan, Mary A Whooley, Thomas J Metzler, Beth E Cohen
BACKGROUND: Prior research has focused largely on the pro-inflammatory states of PTSD and depression, with few studies evaluating the direction of inflammation's association with these disorders. To clarify whether inflammation plays a role in the development of PTSD or depression, we assessed the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers on the courses of these conditions in a cohort of Veterans. METHODS: This research was part of the Mind Your Heart Study, a prospective cohort study designed to examine PTSD-related health outcomes...
October 30, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ryland C Roderick, Amanda C Kentner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Opal V Potter, Megan E Giedraitis, Charles D Johnson, Mackenzie N Cox, Rachel A Kohman
Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a transmembrane receptor that initiates an immune response following a bacterial infection or host derived molecules associated with cellular distress. Beyond triggering inflammation, TLR4 has been implicated in modulating behavior and cognitive processes in a physiologically normal state, as young adult TLR4 deficient mice show learning enhancements in select tasks. Currently unknown is whether these benefits are present in both sexes and persist with aging. The present study evaluated spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior, and central levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in young (4-5 months) and aged (18-19 months) TLR4 deficient (TLR4-/-) and wild-type (WT) male and female mice...
October 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Mingbang Wang, Jiaxiu Zhou, Fusheng He, Chunquan Cai, Hui Wang, Yan Wang, Yin Lin, Han Rong, Guoqiang Cheng, Ruihuan Xu, Wenhao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1% of children and has no cure. Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are common in children with ASD, and although gut microbiota is known to play an important role in ASD through the gut-brain axis, the specific mechanism is unknown. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota may participate in the pathogenesis of ASD through immune- and inflammation-mediated pathways. Here, we identified potentially immunogenic epitopes derived from gut microbiota in stool samples from ASD children with and without GI problems and typically developing (TD) children...
October 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Guilherme Lemos Shimojo, Biju Joseph, Roshan Shah, Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Kátia De Angelis, Luis Ulloa
Physical exercise is one of the most important factors improving quality of life, but it is not feasible for patients with morbidity or limited mobility. Most previous studies focused on high-intensity or long-term exercise that causes metabolic stress or physiological adaption, respectively. Here, we studied how moderate-intensity swimming affects systemic inflammation in 6-8 week old C57BL/6J male mice during endotoxemia. One-hour swimming prevented hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, attenuated serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, increased anti-inflammatory cytokines but affected neither IL6 nor glycemia before or after the endotoxic challenge...
October 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Minxuan Huang, Shaoyong Su, Jack Goldberg, Andrew H Miller, Oleksiy M Levantsevych, Lucy Shallenberger, Pratik Pimple, Bradley Pearce, J Douglas Bremner, Viola Vaccarino
BACKGROUND: The direction of the association between inflammation and depressive symptoms remains inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal relationship between inflammation and depressive symptoms, and to assess the role of genetic factors on this association. METHODS: In this longitudinal cross-lagged twin difference study, we examined 166 (83 pairs) middle-aged male twins recruited from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, who were assessed at baseline and after 7 years of follow-up...
October 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Tomer Illouz, Ravit Madar, Arya Biragyn, Eitan Okun
Down Syndrome (DS), the most common cause of genetic intellectual disability, is characterized by over-expression of the APP and DYRK1A genes, located on the triplicated chromosome 21. This chromosomal abnormality leads to a cognitive decline mediated by Amyloid-β (Aβ) overproduction and tau hyper-phosphorylation as early as the age of 40. In this study, we used the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS to evaluate the beneficial effect of a DNA vaccination against the Aβ1-11 fragment, in ameliorating Aβ-related neuropathology and rescue of cognitive and behavioral abilities...
October 25, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Laura B Zahodne, A Zarina Kraal, Neika Sharifian, Afsara B Zaheed, Ketlyne Sol
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that everyday discrimination is associated with worse episodic memory and partially mediates Black-White disparities in memory aging. The biological mechanisms underlying the link between everyday discrimination and memory are unclear but may involve inflammatory processes. This study aimed to determine whether systemic inflammation, indexed by blood levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), mediates associations between everyday discrimination and episodic memory over six years...
October 24, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Nicole Wetsman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Run Xiao, Stephen M Bergin, Wei Huang, Anthony G Mansour, Xianglan Liu, Ryan T Judd, Kyle J Widstrom, Nicholas J Queen, Ryan K Wilkins, Jason J Siu, Seemaab Ali, Michael A Caligiuri, Lei Cao
Environmental and social factors have profound impacts on immune homeostasis. Our work on environmental enrichment (EE) has revealed a novel anti-obesity and anticancer phenotype associated with enhanced activity of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we investigated how an EE modulated thymus and thymocyte development. EE decreased thymus mass and cellularity, decreased the double positive thymocyte population, increased the proportion of CD8+ T cells, reduced the CD4:CD8 ratio, and downregulated CD69 expression in T cells...
October 1, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Quentin J Pittman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ghanshyam N Pandey, Hooriyah S Rizavi, Runa Bhaumik, Xinguo Ren
Abnormalities of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. Interactions of TLRs with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) initiate signaling through myeloid differentiation primary response-88 (MyD88) and produce cytokines through the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB). We have earlier shown an increase in the protein and mRNA expression of TLR3 and TLR4 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of depressed suicide (DS) subjects compared with normal control (NC) subjects...
September 25, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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