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Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089640/catecholamines-are-produced-by-ascidian-immune-cells-the-involvement-of-pka-and-pkc-in-the-adrenergic-signaling-pathway
#1
Andressa de Abreu Mello, Jéssica Fernandes de Souza, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Silvana Allodi, Cintia Monteiro de Barros
The stress response is a complex mechanism, which includes changes in the immune system to enable organisms to maintain homeostasis. The neurohormones dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenalin are responsible for the physiological modulations that occur during acute stress. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of NA on the immune system specific to nitric-oxide (NO) production by subpopulations of immune cells (hemocytes) of the ascidian Phallusia nigra. We also investigated the capability of immune cells to produce catecholamine (CA)...
January 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089639/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-fatigue-and-genetic-polymorphisms
#2
REVIEW
Tengteng Wang, Jie Yin, Andrew H Miller, Canhua Xiao
Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing symptoms, leading to markedly decreased quality of life among a large subset of patients with a variety of disorders. Susceptibility to fatigue may be influenced by genetic factors including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially in the regulatory regions, of relevant genes. To further investigate the association of SNPs with fatigue in various patient populations, a systematic search was conducted on Pubmed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts Database for fatigue related-terms in combination with polymorphisms or genetic variation-related terms...
January 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089638/the-effects-of-acute-psychological-stress-on-circulating-and-stimulated-inflammatory-markers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Anna L Marsland, Catherine Walsh, Kimberly Lockwood, Neha A John-Henderson
Inflammatory reactivity to acute laboratory stress is thought to reflect individual differences in responsivity to environmental stressors and may confer future health risk. To characterize this response, we conducted a meta-analysis of 34 studies that measured circulating inflammatory markers and 15 studies that measured stimulated production of inflammatory markers before and after exposure to laboratory challenge. Results showed significant stress-related increases in circulating interleukin (IL)-1β (d = 0...
January 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088642/anti-rage-antibody-selectively-blocks-acute-systemic-inflammatory-responses-to-lps-in-serum-liver-csf-and-striatum
#4
Juciano Gasparotto, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Henrique Schaan Fernandes, Alexsander Alves Teixeira, Marcelo Otavio Rodrigues Guasselli, Crepin Aziz Jose O Agani, Natália Cabral Souza, Mateus Grings, Guilhian Leipnitz, Henrique Mautone Gomes, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, Peter R Dunkley, Phillip W Dickson, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
Systemic inflammation induces transient or permanent dysfunction in the brain by exposing it to soluble inflammatory mediators. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) binds to distinct ligands mediating and increasing inflammatory processes. In this study we used an LPS-induced systemic inflammation model in rats to investigate the effect of blocking RAGE in serum, liver, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra). Intraperitoneal injection of RAGE antibody (50 μg/kg) was followed after 1h by a single LPS (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection...
January 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088641/pathophysiological-and-behavioral-effects-of-systemic-inflammation-in-aged-and-diseased-rodents-with-relevance-to-delirium-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Leroy Schreuder, Bart J L Eggen, Knut P H Biber, Regien G Schoemaker, Jon D Laman, Sophia E de Rooij
Delirium is a frequent outcome for aged and demented patients that suffer a systemic inflammatory insult. Animal models that reconstruct these etiological processes have potential to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of delirium. Therefore, we systematically reviewed animal studies in which systemic inflammation was superimposed on aged or diseased animal models. In total, 77 studies were identified. Aged animals were challenged with a bacterial endotoxin in 29 studies, 25 studies superimposed surgery on aged animals, and in 6 studies a bacterial infection, Escherichia coli (E...
January 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089560/critical-role-of-p2x7-receptors-in-the-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-dysfunction-after-surgery
#6
Bin Zheng, Renchun Lai, Jun Li, Zhiyi Zuo
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction worsens patient outcome after surgery. Neuroinflammation is a critical neuropathological process for it. We determined the role of P2X7 receptors, proteins that participate in inflammatory response, in the neuroinflammation induction after surgery, and whether the choice of volatile anesthetics affects its occurrence. Eight-week old C57BL/6J or P2X7 receptor knockout male mice were subjected to right carotid arterial exposure under anesthesia with 1.8% isoflurane, 2.5% sevoflurane or 10% desflurane...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089559/microglia-derived-neuregulin-expression-in-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Daisuke Ikawa, Manabu Makinodan, Keiko Iwata, Masahiro Ohgidani, Takahiro A Kato, Yasunori Yamashita, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Sohei Kimoto, Michihiro Toritsuka, Takahira Yamauchi, Shin-Ichi Fukami, Hiroki Yoshino, Kazuki Okumura, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Akio Wanaka, Yuji Owada, Masatsugu Tsujii, Toshiro Sugiyama, Kenji Tsuchiya, Norio Mori, Ryota Hashimoto, Hideo Matsuzaki, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Several studies have revealed that neuregulins (NRGs) are involved in brain function and psychiatric disorders. While NRGs have been regarded as neuron- or astrocyte-derived molecules, our research has revealed that microglia also express NRGs, levels of which are markedly increased in activated microglia. Previous studies have indicated that microglia are activated in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, we investigated microglial NRG mRNA expression in multiple lines of mice considered models of ASD...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089558/startle-suppression-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-an-increase-in-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-reactive-gliosis-and-neuronal-loss-in-the-caudal-pontine-reticular-nucleus
#8
Swamini P Sinha, Pelin Avcu, Kevin M Spiegler, Sreeya Komaravolu, Kevin Kim, Tara Cominski, Richard J Servatius, Kevin C H Pang
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can produce somatic symptoms such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, sleep disturbances and sensorimotor dysfunction. Sensorimotor function can be measured by tests such as the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), an evolutionarily conserved defensive response to a brief yet sharp acoustic stimulus. mTBI produces a long-lasting suppression of ASR in rodents and humans; however, the mechanism of this suppression is unknown. The present study examined whether inflammatory processes in the brainstem (particularly the caudal pontine reticular nucleus, PnC) could account for the suppression of ASR after mTBI, because the PnC is an essential nucleus of the ASR circuit...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089557/lower-total-and-regional-grey-matter-brain-volumes-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection-associations-with-hiv-disease-severity-substance-use-and-cognition
#9
C Paula Lewis-De Los Angeles, Paige L Williams, Yanling Huo, Shirlene D Wang, Kristina A Uban, Megan M Herting, Kathleen Malee, Ram Yogev, John G Csernansky, Sharon Nichols, Russell B Van Dyke, Elizabeth R Sowell, Lei Wang
Despite improved survival due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) show cognitive deficits and developmental delay at increased rates. HIV affects the brain during critical periods of development, and the brain may be a persistent reservoir for HIV due to suboptimal blood brain barrier penetration of cART. We conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and cognitive testing in 40 PHIV youth (mean age=16.7 years) recruited from the NIH Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) who are part of the first generation of PHIV youth surviving into adulthood...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069387/leptin-receptor-knockout-induced-depression-like-behaviors-and-attenuated-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise-are-associated-with-stat3-socs3-signaling
#10
Weina Liu, Jiatong Liu, Jie Xia, Xiangli Xue, Hongmei Wang, Zhengtang Qi, Liu Ji
Relatively little has been known about pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms in the context of metabolic syndrome. Impaired leptin signaling activation in db/db mice has been proposed as a potential link between behavioral and metabolic disorders. Our previous studies have shown that exercise has the beneficial effects on a depression-like and insulin-resistant state in mice. The present study aimed to determine whether and how leptin receptor knockout (db/db) induces depression-like behaviors, and to identify the antidepressant effects of swimming exercise in db/db mice...
January 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069386/sleep-influences-the-immune-response-and-the-rejection-process-alters-sleep-pattern-evidence-from-a-skin-allograft-model-in-mice
#11
Francieli Silva Ruiz, Monica Levy Andersen, Camila Guindalini, Leandro Pires Araujo, José Daniel Lopes, Sergio Tufik
INTRODUCTION: Sleep generally regulates immune functions in a supportive manner and can affect parameters that are directly involved in the rejection process. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The first objective was to assess whether sleep deprivation (SD) or sleep restriction (SR) affects the allograft rejection process in mice. The second objective was to investigate whether the rejection process itself modulates the sleep pattern of allografted mice. DESIGN: Adult BALB/c and C57BL/6J male mice were used as the donors and recipients, respectively, except for the syngeneic group (ISOTX), which received skin from mice of the same strain (C57BL/6J)...
January 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041986/insomnia-symptoms-with-objective-short-sleep-duration-are-associated-with-systemic-inflammation-in-adolescents
#12
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Joshua H Baker, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Jordan Gaines, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
Inflammation has been suggested as a potential pathway by which insomnia and short sleep can affect risk of morbidity in adults. However, few studies have examined the association of insomnia with inflammation in adolescents, despite accumulating evidence that pathophysiologic changes may already occur during this critical developmental period. The present study sought to examine the association of insomnia symptoms with systemic inflammation and the role of objective sleep duration in this association. Participants were 378 adolescents (16...
December 30, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041985/associations-between-inflammation-related-biomarkers-and-depressive-symptoms-in-individuals-with-recently-diagnosed-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
Christian Herder, Jan-Felix Fürstos, Bettina Nowotny, Alexander Begun, Klaus Strassburger, Karsten Müssig, Julia Szendroedi, Andrea Icks, Michael Roden
Depressive disorders represent a frequent comorbidity of both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inflammation-related processes have been implicated in the development of both diabetes and depression. This study aimed to investigate whether biomarkers of subclinical inflammation were associated with depressive symptoms in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes and if such associations differed by diabetes type. This cross-sectional study was based on 295 individuals with T2D (67% men, mean age 53years) and 139 individuals with T1D (60% men, mean age 36years) of the German Diabetes Study...
December 29, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040434/corrigendum-to-chronic-restraint-stress-triggers-dopaminergic-and-noradrenergic-neurodegeneration-possible-role-of-chronic-stress-in-the-onset-of-parkinson-s-disease-brain-behav-immun-51-2016-39-46
#14
Shuei Sugama, Kazunari Sekiyama, Tohru Kodama, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Takato Takenouchi, Makoto Hashimoto, Bruno Conti, Yoshihiko Kakinuma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034626/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-is-associated-with-upregulated-nadph-oxidase-expression-in-peripheral-t-cells-of-children-with-autism
#15
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Saleh A Bakheet, Naif O Al-Harbi, Laila Y Al-Ayadhi, Sabry M Attia, Khairy M A Zoheir
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect millions of children worldwide, and are characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication, and specific repetitive behavioral patterns. Growing evidence highlights a role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of ASD. Specifically, TLR-4 activation has been shown to be associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as autistic symptoms in offspring. NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have also been shown to play pathogenic role under inflammatory conditions...
December 27, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027927/prenatal-stress-affects-placental-cytokines-and-neurotrophins-commensal-microbes-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-female-offspring-abbreviated-title-prenatal-stress-and-microbiome
#16
Tamar L Gur, Lena Shay, Aditi Vadodkar Palkar, Sydney Fisher, Vanessa A Varaljay, Scot Dowd, Michael T Bailey
Recent studies demonstrate that exposure to stress changes the composition of the intestinal microbiota, which is associated with development of stress-induced changes to social behavior, anxiety, and depression. Stress during pregnancy has also been related to the emergence of these disorders; whether commensal microbes are part of a maternal intrauterine environment during prenatal stress is not known. Here, we demonstrate that microbiome changes are manifested in the mother, and also found in female offspring in adulthood, with a correlation between stressed mothers and female offspring...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027926/early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-amyloid-pathology-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#17
Lianne Hoeijmakers, Silvie R Ruigrok, Anna Amelianchik, Daniela Ivan, Anne-Marie van Dam, Paul J Lucassen, Aniko Korosi
Exposure to stress during the sensitive period of early-life increases the risk to develop cognitive impairments and psychopathology later in life. In addition, early-life stress (ES) exposure, next to genetic causes, has been proposed to modulate the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however evidence for this hypothesis is currently lacking. We here tested whether ES modulates progression of AD-related neuropathology and assessed the possible contribution of neuroinflammatory factors in this...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027925/impact-of-prebiotics-on-metabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025071/th17-cells-correlate-positively-to-the-structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-brain-in-bipolar-depression-and-healthy-controls
#19
Sara Poletti, Harm de Wit, Elena Mazza, Annemarie J M Wijkhuijs, Clara Locatelli, Veronica Aggio, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti, Hemmo A Drexhage
: Abnormalities of T cell-mediated immune activation, in the absence of active somatic immune diseases, have consistently been reported in mood disorders. Apart from being important players in the regulation of cells of the immune system, T cells are essential for normal brain development. We here report studies on the relationship between circulating levels of T helper cells and structural and functional brain imaging in depressed bipolar patients. Since the CCL20-CCR6 axis is an important entry to the brain we differentiated the various T helper cell subpopulations on the basis of their chemokine receptor expression...
December 23, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017648/non-invasive-pet-imaging-of-brain-inflammation-at-disease-onset-predicts-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-reflects-comorbidities
#20
Daniele Bertoglio, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Eva Santermans, Halima Amhaoul, Elisabeth Jonckers, Leonie Wyffels, Annemie Van Der Linden, Niel Hens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
Brain inflammation is an important factor in the conversion of a healthy brain into an epileptic one, a phenomenon known as epileptogenesis, offering a new entry point for prognostic tools. The development of anti-epileptogenic therapies to treat before or at disease onset is hampered by our inability to predict the severity of the disease outcome. In a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy we aimed to assess whether in vivo non-invasive imaging of brain inflammation at disease onset was predictive of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency and severity of depression-like and sensorimotor-related comorbidities...
December 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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