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Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341892/premature-aging-in-behavior-and-immune-functions-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-haploinsufficient-female-mice-a-longitudinal-study
#1
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339319/treatment-with-the-noradrenaline-re-uptake-inhibitor-atomoxetine-alone-and-in-combination-with-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist-idazoxan-attenuates-loss-of-dopamine-and-associated-motor-deficits-in-the-lps-inflammatory-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Justin D Yssel, Eoin O'Neill, Yvonne M Nolan, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
The impact of treatment with the noradrenaline (NA) re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine and the α2-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonist idazoxan in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed. Concurrent systemic treatment with atomoxetine and idazoxan, a combination which serves to enhance the extra-synaptic availability of NA, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects following delivery of an inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the substantia nigra. Lesion-induced deficits in motor function (akinesia, forelimb-use asymmetry) and striatal dopamine (DA) loss were rescued to varying degrees depending on the treatment...
January 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339318/dietary-patterns-body-mass-index-and-inflammation-pathways-to-depression-and-mental-health-problems-in-adolescents
#3
Wendy H Oddy, Karina L Allen, Georgina S A Trapp, Gina L Ambrosini, Lucinda J Black, Rae-Chi Huang, Peter Rzehak, Kevin C Runions, Feng Pan, Lawrence J Beilin, Trevor A Mori
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that dietary patterns may impact mental health outcomes, although biologically plausible pathways are yet to be tested. We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents. METHODS: Data were provided from 843 adolescents participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at 14 and 17 years (y) of age...
January 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291934/corrigendum-to-systemic-tak-242-prevents-intrathecal-lps-evoked-hyperalgesia-in-male-but-not-female-mice-and-prevents-delayed-allodynia-following-intraplantar-formalin-in-both-male-and-female-mice-the-role-of-tlr4-in-the-evolution-of-a-persistent-pain-state
#4
S A Woller, S B Ravula, F C Tucci, G Beaton, M Corr, R R Isseroff, A M Soulika, M Chigbrow, K A Eddinger, T L Yaksh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289663/identification-of-the-antigenic-epitopes-of-maternal-autoantibodies-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Elizabeth Edmiston, Karen L Jones, Tam Vu, Paul Ashwood, Judy Van de Water
Several groups have described the presence of fetal brain-reactive maternal autoantibodies in the plasma of some mothers whose children have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously identified seven autoantigens targeted by these maternal autoantibodies, each of which is expressed at significant levels in the developing brain and has demonstrated roles in typical neurodevelopment. To further understand the binding repertoire of the maternal autoantibodies, as well as the presence of any meaningful differences with respect to the recognition and binding of these ASD- specific autoantibodies to each of these neuronal autoantigens, we utilized overlapping peptide microarrays incubated with maternal plasma samples obtained from the Childhood Autism Risk from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) Study...
December 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289662/th17-t-regulator-cell-balance-and-nk-cell-numbers-in-relation-to-psychosis-liability-and-social-stress-reactivity
#6
J Counotte, H A Drexhage, J M Wijkhuijs, R Pot-Kolder, V Bergink, H W Hoek, W Veling
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders are characterized by a deranged immune system, including altered number and function of Natural Killer (NK) and T cells. Psychotic disorders arise from an interaction between genetic vulnerability and exposure to environmental risk factors. Exposure to social adversity during early life is particularly relevant to psychosis risk and is thought to increase reactivity to subsequent minor daily social stressors. Virtual reality allows controlled experimental exposure to virtual social stressors...
December 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289661/notch-signaling-is-impaired-during-inflammation-in-a-lunatic-fringe-dependent-manner
#7
Claudio Derada Troletti, Melissa A Lopes Pinheiro, Marc Charabati, Elizabeth Gowing, Bert van Het Hof, Susanne M A van der Pol, Dirk Geerts, Alexandre Prat, Ruud D Fontijn, Wendy W Unger, Helga E de Vries
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) assures brain homeostasis through the specialized function of brain endothelial cells (BECs). Dysfunction of the BBB due to inflammatory processes is associated with several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Understanding the mechanisms that underlie these processes may ultimately lead to new therapeutic strategies to restore BBB function, thereby fighting disease progression. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a critical role of the Notch signaling pathway in the function of the BBB under resting and inflammatory conditions...
December 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288802/increasing-extracellular-cgmp-in-cerebellum-in-vivo-reduces-neuroinflammation-gabaergic-tone-and-motor-in-coordination-in-hyperammonemic-rats
#8
Andrea Cabrera-Pastor, Tiziano Balzano, Vicente Hernández-Rabaza, Michele Malaguarnera, Marta Llansola, Vicente Felipo
Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to cognitive impairment and motor in-coordination in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation mediates the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. Intracerebral administration of extracellular cGMP restores some but not all types of cognitive impairment. Motor in-coordination, is mainly due to increased GABAergic tone in cerebellum. We hypothesized that extracellular cGMP would restore motor coordination in hyperammonemic rats by normalizing GABAergic tone in cerebellum and that this would be mediated by reduction of neuroinflammation...
December 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278751/correlation-between-gut-microbiota-and-personality-in-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Han-Na Kim, Yeojun Yun, Seungho Ryu, Yoosoo Chang, Min-Jung Kwon, Juhee Cho, Hocheol Shin, Hyung-Lae Kim
Personality affects fundamental behavior patterns and has been related with health outcomes and mental disorders. Recent evidence has emerged supporting a relationship between the microbiota and behavior, referred to as brain-gut relationships. Here, we first report correlations between personality traits and gut microbiota. This research was performed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the sequencing data of the 16S rRNA gene in 672 adults. The diversity and the composition of the human gut microbiota exhibited significant difference when stratified by personality traits...
December 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269321/development-of-glucocorticoid-resistance-over-one-year-among-mothers-of-children-newly-diagnosed-with-cancer
#10
Catherine P Walsh, Linda J Ewing, Jennifer L Cleary, Alina D Vaisleib, Chelsea H Farrell, Aidan G C Wright, Katarina Gray, Anna L Marsland
Chronic distress associates with peripheral release of cortisol and a parallel upregulation of innate inflammation. Typically, cortisol functions to down-regulate inflammatory processes. However, in the context of chronic stress, it is hypothesized that glucocorticoid receptors within immune cells become less sensitive to the anti-inflammatory effects of cortisol, resulting in increased systemic inflammation. Caring for a child newly diagnosed with cancer is a particularly provocative chronic stressor. Here, we examine evidence for the development of cellular resistance to glucocorticoids among 120 mothers (Aged 18-56yrs; 86% Caucasian) across the 12 months following their child's new diagnosis with cancer...
December 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258921/the-choroid-plexus-epithelium-as-a-novel-player-in-the-stomach-brain-axis-during-helicobacter-infection
#11
N Gorlé, C Blaecher, E Bauwens, C Vandendriessche, S Balusu, J Vandewalle, C Van Cauwenberghe, E Van Wonterghem, G Van Imschoot, C Liu, R Ducatelle, C Libert, F Haesebrouck, A Smet, R E Vandenbroucke
Several studies suggest a link between shifts in gut microbiota and neurological disorders. Recently, we reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter suis (H. suis) in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of gastric H. suis infection on the brain in mice. One month of infection with H. suis resulted in increased brain inflammation, reflected in activation of microglia and cognitive decline. Additionally, we detected choroid plexus inflammation and disruption of the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier upon H...
December 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253574/metformin-treatment-prevents-amyloid-plaque-deposition-and-memory-impairment-in-app-ps1-mice
#12
Zhenri Ou, Xuejian Kong, Xiangdong Sun, Xiaosong He, Le Zhang, Zhuo Gong, Jingyi Huang, Biao Xu, Dahong Long, Jianhua Li, Qingqing Li, Liping Xu, Aiguo Xuan
Alzheimer'sdisease(AD) is characterized by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ)plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, andneuronal loss, accompaniedbyneuroinflammation. Neuroinflammatoryprocesses are thought to contribute toAD pathophysiology. Metformin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory efficacy. However, whether metformin is responsible for the anti-neuroinflammationand neuroprotection on APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mice remains unclear. Here we showed that metformin attenuated spatial memory deficit, neuron loss in the hippocampus and enhanced neurogenesis in APP/PS1 mice...
December 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249637/corrigendum-to-moderate-blast-exposure-results-in-increased-il-6-and-tnfa-in-peripheral-blood-brain-behav-immun-65-2017-90-94
#13
Jessica Gill, Vida Motamedi, Nicole Osier, Kristine Dell, Lindsay Arcurio, Walter Carr, Peter Walker, Stephen Ahlers, Matthew Lopresti, Angela Yarnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246456/scavenger-receptor-a-deficiency-impairs-immune-response-of-microglia-and-astrocytes-potentiating-alzheimer-s-disease-pathophysiology
#14
Francisca Cornejo, Marianne Vruwink, Claudia Metz, Paola Muñoz, Nicole Salgado, Joaquín Poblete, María Estela Andrés, Jaime Eugenín, Rommy von Bernhardi
Late onset Alzheimer disease's (LOAD) main risk factor is aging. Although it is not well known which age-related factors are involved in its development, evidence points out to the involvement of an impaired amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance in the aged brain among possible causes. Glial cells are the main scavengers of the brain, where Scavenger Receptor class A (SR-A) emerges as a relevant player in AD because of its participation in Aβ uptake and in the modulation of glial cell inflammatory response. Here, we show that SR-A expression is reduced in the hippocampus of aged animals and APP/PS1 mice...
December 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241670/glia-and-tissue-specific-changes-in-the-kynurenine-pathway-after-treatment-of-mice-with-lipopolysaccharide-and-dexamethasone
#15
Carlos R Dostal, Nicolaus S Gamsby, Marcus A Lawson, Robert H McCusker
Behavioral symptoms associated with mood disorders have been intimately linked with immunological and psychological stress. Induction of immune and stress pathways is accompanied by increased tryptophan entry into the Kynurenine (Kyn) Pathway as governed by the rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (DO's: Ido1, Ido2, Tdo2). Indeed, elevated DO expression is associated with inflammation- and stress-related depression symptoms. Here we examined central (brain, astrocyte and microglia) and peripheral (lung, liver and spleen) DO expression in mice treated intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dexamethasone (DEX) to model the response of the Kyn Pathway to inflammation and glucocorticoids...
December 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241669/cytokine-contributions-to-alterations-of-the-volatile-metabolome-induced-by-inflammation
#16
Patrick Millet, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K Beauchamp, Bruce A Kimball
Several studies demonstrate that inflammation affects body odor. Volatile signals associated with inflammation induced by pyrogens like LPS are detectable both by conspecifics and chemical analyses. However, little is known about the mechanisms which translate detection of a foreign molecule or pathogen into a unique body odor, or even how unique that odor may be. Here, we utilized C57BL/6J trained mice to identify the odor of LPS-treated conspecifics to investigate potential pathways between LPS-induced inflammation and changes in body odor, as represented by changes in urine odor...
December 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233751/differential-binding-of-antibodies-in-pandas-patients-to-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-striatum
#17
Luciana Frick, Maximiliano Rapanelli, Kantiya Jindachomthong, Paul Grant, James F Leckman, Susan Swedo, Kyle Williams, Christopher Pittenger
Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus, or PANDAS, is a syndrome of acute childhood onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and other neuropsychiatric symptoms in the aftermath of an infection with Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS). Its pathophysiology remains unclear. PANDAS has been proposed to result from cross-reactivity of antibodies raised against GABHS with brain antigens, but the targets of these antibodies are unclear and may be heterogeneous. We developed an in vivo assay in mice to characterize the cellular targets of antibodies in serum from individuals with PANDAS...
December 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221855/toll-like-receptor-4-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-darpp-32-phosphorylation
#18
T Femenia, Y Qian, T Arentsen, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in early innate immune responses to inflammatory agents and pathogens. In the brain, some members of the TLR family are expressed in glial cells and neurons. In particular, TLR4 has been involved in learning and memory processes, stress-induced adaptations, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of TLR4 in emotional behaviors and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 in emotional and social behavior by using different behavioral approaches, and assessed potential molecular alterations in important brain areas involved in emotional responses...
December 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221854/from-non-adaptive-depression-to-general-distress
#19
LETTER
Adam Wa Geraghty, Berend Terluin, Tony Kendrick, Michael Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203425/tgf%C3%AE-1-transduction-enhances-immunomodulatory-capacity-of-neural-stem-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Chong Xie, Xing Li, Xiajun Zhou, Zezhi Li, Yuan Zhang, Li Zhao, Yong Hao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Yangtai Guan
Bone marrow-derived neural stem cells (BM-NSCs) have therapeutic effect on EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, the beneficial effect is suboptimal due to the limited immunomodulatory capacity of these cells. In this study, we engineered BM-NSCs with inducible TGFβ1, a potent immunosuppressive cytokine, to enhance their anti-inflammatory capacity. We found that i.v. injected TGFβ1-BM-NSCs more effectively suppressed clinical severity, inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system of EAE mice...
December 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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