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Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336414/ccr6-th-cells-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-are-dominated-by-pathogenic-non-classic-th1-cells-and-gm-csf-only-secreting-th-cells
#1
S M Restorick, L Durant, S Kalra, G Hassan-Smith, E Rathbone, M R Douglas, S J Curnow
Considerable attention has been given to CCR6(+) IL-17-secreting CD4(+) T cells (Th17) in the pathology of a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, other Th subsets also play important pathogenic roles, including those that secrete IFNγ and GM-CSF. CCR6 expression by Th17 cells allows their migration across the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they are involved in the early phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and in MS these cells are elevated in the CSF during relapses and contain high frequencies of autoreactive cells...
March 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302458/the-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-pretreatment-on-the-pro-and-anti-inflammation-systems-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#2
Hui Rong, Zhibin Zhao, Jiying Feng, Yishan Lei, Hao Wu, Rao Sun, Zuoxia Zhang, Bailing Hou, Wei Zhang, YuE Sun, Xiaoping Gu, Zhengliang Ma, Yue Liu
Excessive inflammatory responses play important roles in the aggravation of secondary damage to an injured spinal cord. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has recently been implied to be neuroprotective in clinical anesthesia, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. As signaling through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs, notably α7nAChR) play important roles in the pro- and anti-inflammation systems in the central nervous system, respectively, this study investigated whether and how they were modulated by DEX pretreatment in a rat model of spinal cord compression...
March 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300618/the-novel-and-potent-anti-depressive-action-of-triptolide-and-its-influences-on-hippocampal-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-depression-comorbidity-of-chronic-pain
#3
Xiaofan Hu, Yulin Dong, Xiaohang Jin, Chunkui Zhang, Ting Zhang, Jie Zhao, Juan Shi, Jinlian Li
Chronic pain and depression frequently coexist in clinical setting, and current clinical treatments for this comorbidity have shown limited efficacy. Triptolide (T10), an active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has been demonstrated to exert strong analgesic activities in experimental pain models, but whether it possesses anti-depressive actions remains unknown. Using a depression comorbidity of chronic pain rat model induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL), we investigated the potency of T10 for the treatment of comorbid depression in comparison with a widely used antidepressant, fluoxetine (FLX)...
March 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286301/immuno-modulator-inter-alpha-inhibitor-proteins-ameliorate-complex-auditory-processing-deficits-in-rats-with-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#4
Steven W Threlkeld, Yow-Pin Lim, Molly La Rue, Cynthia Gaudet, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is recognized as a significant problem in the perinatal period, contributing to life-long language-learning and other cognitive impairments. Central auditory processing deficits are common in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and have been shown to predict language learning deficits in other at risk infant populations. Inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (IAIPs) are a family of structurally related plasma proteins that modulate the systemic inflammatory response to infection and have been shown to attenuate cell death and improve learning outcomes after neonatal brain injury in rats...
March 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268115/resveratrol-regulates-microglia-m1-m2-polarization-via-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-conditions-of-neuroinflammatory-injury
#5
Xiaodong Yang, Shaoqing Xu, Yiwei Qian, Qin Xiao
Microglia are the primary cells that exert immune function in the central nervous system (CNS), and accumulating evidence suggests that microglia act as key players in the initiation of neurodegenerative diseases. It is now well recognized that microglia have functional plasticity and dual phenotypes, proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Inhibiting the M1 phenotype while stimulating the M2 phenotype has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuroinflammation-related diseases...
March 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263786/nlrp3-inflammasome-driven-pathways-in-depression-clinical-and-preclinical-findings
#6
REVIEW
Fernanda N Kaufmann, Ana Paula Costa, Gabriele Ghisleni, Alexandre P Diaz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Hugo Peluffo, Manuella P Kaster
Over the past three decades, an intricate interaction between immune activation, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and changes in brain circuits related to mood and behavior has been described. Despite extensive efforts, questions regarding when inflammation becomes detrimental or how we can target the immune system to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of psychiatric disorders remain unresolved. In this context, novel aspects of the neuroinflammatory process activated in response to stressful challenges have recently been documented in major depressive disorder (MDD)...
March 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263785/nociceptive-neuronal-fc-gamma-receptor-i-is-involved-in-igg-immune-complex-induced-pain-in-the-rat
#7
Haowu Jiang, Xinhua Shen, Zhiyong Chen, Fan Liu, Tao Wang, Yikuan Xie, Chao Ma
Antigen-specific immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by pain and hyperalgesia. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Fc-gamma-receptor type I (FcγRI) is expressed in a subpopulation of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and can be directly activated by IgG immune complex (IgG-IC). In this study we investigated whether neuronal FcγRI contributes to antigen-specific pain in the naïve and rheumatoid arthritis model rats. In vitro calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp recordings in dissociated DRG neurons revealed that only the small-, but not medium- or large-sized DRG neurons responded to IgG-IC...
March 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257825/association-between-c-reactive-protein-crp-with-depression-symptom-severity-and-specific-depressive-symptoms-in-major-depression
#8
Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Henriette N Buttenschøn, Katherine E Tansey, Wolfgang Maier, Joanna Hauser, Mojca Zvezdana Dernovsek, Neven Henigsberg, Daniel Souery, Anne Farmer, Marcella Rietschel, Peter McGuffin, Katherine J Aitchison, Rudolf Uher, Ole Mors
INTRODUCTION: Population-based studies have associated inflammation, particularly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), with depressive severity, but clinical trials in major depressive disorder were rather non-specific without examining the role of gender. We aimed to investigate the association between CRP and overall depression severity including specific depressive symptoms and to examine potential gender differences. METHODS: We included 231 individuals with major depressive disorder from the Genome-Based Therapeutics Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study...
March 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249802/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-in-multiple-sclerosis-role-in-neuroinflammation
#9
REVIEW
Herena Eixarch, Laura Calvo-Barreiro, Xavier Montalban, Carmen Espejo
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that represent the largest subgroup of signalling ligands of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Their participation in the proliferation, survival and cell fate of several cell types and their involvement in many pathological conditions are now well known. BMP expression is altered in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, suggesting that BMPs have a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. MS is a demyelinating and neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS)...
February 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237710/extended-access-methamphetamine-self-administration-elicits-neuroinflammatory-response-along-with-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown
#10
Joana Gonçalves, Ricardo A Leitão, Alejandro Higuera-Matas, María Amparo Assis, Santiago M Coria, Carlos Fontes-Ribeiro, Emilio Ambrosio, Ana Paula Silva
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that can lead to neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. Several studies have explored the central impact of METH use, but the mechanism(s) underlying blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and associated neuroinflammatory processes after chronic METH consumption are still unclear. Important findings in the field are mainly based on in vitro approaches and animal studies using an acute METH paradigm, and not much is known about the neurovascular alterations under a chronic drug use...
February 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238951/oral-administration-of-the-nitroxide-radical-tempol-exhibits-immunomodulatory-and-therapeutic-properties-in-multiple-sclerosis-models
#11
Sarah Neil, Jaebong Huh, Victoria Baronas, Xinhui Li, Henry F McFarland, Murali Cherukuri, James B Mitchell, Jacqueline A Quandt
Therapies with both immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties are thought to have the greatest promise in reducing the severity and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Several reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are implicated in inflammatory-mediated damage to the central nervous system (CNS) in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) is a stable nitroxide radical with potent antioxidant activity...
February 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237711/pharmacological-inhibition-of-faah-modulates-tlr-induced-neuroinflammation-but-not-sickness-behaviour-an-effect-partially-mediated-by-central-trpv1
#12
Rebecca J Henry, Daniel M Kerr, Lisa E Flannery, Marykate Killilea, Edel M Hughes, Louise Corcoran, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Aberrant activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), key components of the innate immune system, has been proposed to underlie and exacerbate a range of central nervous system disorders. Increasing evidence supports a role for the endocannabinoid system in modulating inflammatory responses including those mediated by TLRs, and thus this system may provide an important treatment target for neuroinflammatory disorders. However, the effect of modulating endocannabinoid tone on TLR-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and associated behavioural changes is largely unknown...
February 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232173/moderate-blast-exposure-results-in-increased-il-6-and-tnf%C3%AE-in-peripheral-blood
#13
Jessica Gill, Vida Motamedi, Nicole Osier, Kristine Dell, Lindsay Arcurio, Walter Carr, Peter Walker, Stephen Ahlers, Mathew LoPresti, Angela Yarnell
A unique cohort of military personnel exposed to isolated blast was studied to explore acute peripheral cytokine levels, with the aim of identifying blast-specific biomarkers. Several cytokines, including interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been linked to pre-clinical blast exposure, but remained unstudied in clinical blast exposure. To address this gap, blood samples from 62 military personnel were obtained at baseline, and daily, during a 10-day blast-related training program; changes in the peripheral concentrations of IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα were evaluated using an ultrasensitive assay...
February 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232171/dopamine-modulates-astroglial-and-microglial-activity-via-glial-renin-angiotensin-system-in-cultures
#14
Antonio Dominguez-Meijide, Ana I Rodriguez-Perez, Carmen Diaz-Ruiz, Maria J Guerra, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
Dopamine is an immunomodulatory molecule that acts on immune effector cells both in the CNS and peripheral tissues. However, the role of changes in dopamine levels in the neuroinflammatory response is controversial. The local/paracrine renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in inflammatory processes in peripheral tissues and brain. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of the brain RAS in the effects of dopamine on the glial inflammatory responses. Astrocytes are the major source of the precursor protein angiotensinogen and angiotensin II (AII) in the brain...
February 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232172/activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-by-cholesterol-crystalsin-alcohol-consumption-induces-atherosclerotic-lesions
#15
P M Abdul-Muneer, Saleena Alikunju, Vikas Mishra, Heather Schuetz, Adam M Szlachetka, Ellen L Burnham, James Haorah
Epidemiological studies showed a strong association between alcoholism and incidence of stroke, for which the underlying causative mechanisms remain to be understood. Here we found that infiltration of immune cellsanddeposition of cholesterol at the site of brain artery/capillary injury induced atherosclerosis in chronic alcohol (ethanol) consumption in the presence or absence of high-fat diet. Conversion of cholesterol into sharp edges of cholesterol crystals (CCs)in alcohol intake was key to activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, induction of cerebral atherosclerosis, and development of neuropathy around the atherosclerotic lesions...
February 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219803/maintaining-unperturbed-cerebral-blood-flow-is-key-in-the-study-of-brain-metastasis-and-its-interactions-with-stress-and-inflammatory-responses
#16
Benbenishty Amit, Segev-Amzaleg Niva, Shaashua Lee, Melamed Rivka, Ben-Eliyahu Shamgar, Blinder Pablo
Blood-borne brain metastases are associated with poor prognosis, but little is known about the interplay between cerebral blood flow, surgical stress responses, and the metastatic process. The intra-carotid inoculation approach, traditionally used in animal studies, involves permanent occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA). Herein we introduced a novel intra-carotid inoculation approach that avoids CCA ligation, namely - assisted external carotid artery inoculation (aECAi) - and compared it to the traditional approach in C57/BL6 mice, assessing cerebral blood flow; particle distribution; blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity; stress, inflammatory and immune responses; and brain tumor retention and growth...
February 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216087/neural-consequences-of-post-exertion-malaise-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#17
Dane B Cook, Alan R Light, Kathleen C Light, Gordon Broderick, Morgan R Shields, Ryan J Dougherty, Jacob D Meyer, Stephanie VanRiper, Aaron J Stegner, Laura D Ellingson, Suzanne D Vernon
Post exertion malaise is one of the most debilitating aspects of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, yet the neurobiological consequences are largely unexplored. The objective of the study was to determine the neural consequences of acute exercise using functional brain imaging. Fifteen female Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients and 15 healthy female controls completed 30min of submaximal exercise (70% of peak heart rate) on a cycle ergometer. Symptom assessments (e.g...
February 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216088/sex-differences-in-the-neuro-immune-consequences-of-stress-focus-on-depression-and-anxiety
#18
REVIEW
Mandakh Bekhbat, Gretchen N Neigh
Women appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of inflammation than men. Chronic stress, one of the most pertinent risk factors of depression and anxiety, is known to induce behavioral and affective-like deficits via neuroimmune alterations including activation of the brain's immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and subsequent changes in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity within stress-related neural circuitry. Despite well-established sexual dimorphisms in the stress response, immunity, and prevalence of stress-linked psychiatric illnesses, much of current research investigating the neuroimmune impact of stress remains exclusively focused on male subjects...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216086/a-new-role-for-placental-il-6-signalling-in-determining-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#19
Gerard W O'Keeffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212884/desipramine-decreases-expression-of-human-and-murine-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenases
#20
Alexandra K Brooks, Tiffany M Janda, Marcus A Lawson, Jennifer L Rytych, Robin A Smith, Cecilia Ocampo-Solis, Robert H McCusker
Abundant evidence connects depression symptomology with immune system activation, stress and subsequently elevated levels of kynurenine. Anti-depressants, such as the tricyclic norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor desipramine (Desip), were developed under the premise that increasing extracellular neurotransmitter level was the sole mechanism by which they alleviate depressive symptomologies. However, evidence suggests that anti-depressants have additional actions that contribute to their therapeutic potential...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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