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Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology

Yang Yang, Ben-Quan Wu, Yan-Hong Wang, Yun-Feng Shi, Jin-Mei Luo, Jun-Hui Ba, Hui Liu, Tian-Tuo Zhang
Macrophages play an important role in inflammatory responses; however, miRNA-mediated repolarization of macrophages is essential for fulfilling this function. To clarify a series of changes at the RNA level in alveolar macrophages under normal and inflammatory conditions, bronchial alveolar lavage liquid (BALF) was collected from healthy volunteers or patients with pneumonia. This approach, which differs from that used in previously, provides more accurate information about the states of macrophages in different lung microenvironments...
October 18, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Feng Xu, Taoqun Wen, Feng Wang, Wentao Sang, Nan Zeng
CONTEXT: Several pharmacological studies have shown that cinnamicaldehyde (CA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects, but no data show the effects of CA on the endotoxin poisoning. OBJECTIVE: In this work, the protective effect of CA in LPS-induced endotoxin poisoning mice was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into normal, LPS, LPS +5 mg/kg dexamethasone (DEX), LPS +0.132 g/kg CA, and LPS +0.264 g/kg CA group...
October 18, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Paulina Płoszaj, Andrzej Regiec, Stanisław Ryng, Agnieszka Piwowar, Marian L Kruzel
The 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide (HIX) is a synthetic isoxazole derivative with a potential for development as an anti-inflammatory drug candidate. The goal of this study was to explore in vitro autoimmune and inflammatory gene modulation by HIX in human Caco-2 cultured cells. The effect of low dose of HIX was tested on the expression level of RNA in 24h Caco-2 cultures using the QIAGEN Th17 for Autoimmunity & Inflammation RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. We choose the PCR technology as the most reliable and sensitive gene expression profiling method for analyzing specific gene regulatory networks...
October 17, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Ping Gao, Chunhua Zhang, Xiaoxia Bian, Yanjun Guo, Yueguang Wei, Li Zhang, Zhaoyang Liu, Xiuying Wang, Shumin Huang
The present study aimed to determine the effect of recombinant DNA vaccine-based human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and Interleukin 12 (IL-12) on the development of colonic carcinoma in mice and the potential immune mechanisms involved. Recombinant plasmids pVAX1-HER2, pVAX1-IL-12 and pVAX1-HER2-IL-12 were constructed, and injected into female mice intramuscularly (i.m.) followed by an electric pulse. The humoral and cellular immune responses after immunization were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT), respectively...
September 23, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Bartholomew Okechukwu Ibeh, Yasuhide Furuta, Josiah Bitrus Habu, Lucy Ogbadu
Humanized mouse models currently have seen improved development and have received wide applications. Its usefulness is observed in cell and tissue transplant involving basic and applied human disease research. In this article, the development of a new generation of humanized mice was discussed as well as their relevant application in HIV disease. Furthermore, current techniques employed to overcome the initial limitations of mouse model were reviewed. Highly immunodeficient mice which support cell and tissue differentiation and do not reject xenografts are indispensable for generating additional appropriate models useful in disease study, this phenomenom deserves emphases, scientific highlight and a definitive research focus...
September 23, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Reza Rahimian, Mohammad Reza Zirak, Mojtaba Keshavarz, Nahid Fakhraei, Ahmad Mohammadi-Farani, Hanan Hamdi, Kazem Mousavizadeh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Tropisetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is highly used to counteract chemotherapy-induced emesis. Previous studies revealed the anti-inflammatory properties of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) receptor in the protective effect of tropisetron in an animal model of ulcerative colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by a single intra-colonic instillation of 4% (V/V) acetic acid in male rats...
September 20, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
C Maerckx, C Lombard, T Tondreau, M Najimi, P Wallemacq, E M Sokal
Cyclosporine A, a potent calcineurin inhibitor, has been widely used in organ transplantation and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. It has however been shown to induce serious renal and hepatic side effects. The drug is also used in preclinical studies, but with little published information on the optimal dose and route of administration in rodents. Objectives of this study were to identify efficient and safe doses of cyclosporine A in rodent and to assess its effects on hepatic and renal functions. For this purpose, we tested the effects of different doses and administration routes of cyclosporine A (5, 2...
September 7, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Enhui Zha, Li Dandan, Xue Bai, Tiezhong Zhou, Yongong Li, Gao Shenyang, Xiqing Yue
CONTEXT: Velvet antler (VA) is recognized as one of the most important Chinese traditional medical herbs. To date, the immunoactivity of the single component of VA is rarely studied though its compound extracts have been well analyzed. OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant polypeptide (rVAP32) based on the VA of the sika deer by comparison with its natural counterpart (nVAP32). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Splenocytes proliferation and NK-cell cytotoxicity assay was evaluated by the WST-8 colorimetric method...
September 7, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Su-Hyeon Eun, Su-Min Lim, Se-Eun Jang, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
To understand the anti-colitic effects of probiotics that up-regulate interleukin (IL)-10 expression in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, we isolated Lactobacillus sakei K17, which potently induced IL-10 expression in DCs and peritoneal macrophages in vitro, among the lactic acid bacteria strains collected from kimchi and investigated its anti-inflammatory effect in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of K17 (2 × 10(9) CFU·mouse(-1)·day(-1)) in mice with TNBS-induced colitis suppressed colon shortening and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as infiltration of CD86(+) cells into the colon...
September 7, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Qiong Yi, Yu-Kun Wang, Jiang Feng, Yu-Hao Wei, Lu Wang
Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) play an important role in immune responses and inflammatory diseases such as mastitis, which is mainly attributed to the activation of Toll-like receptors and the release of cytokines. However, the overall change of gene expression and biological pathways of MECs to microbial factors stimulation remains unknown. Here, we analyzed the gene expression profile in mouse MECs treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. Microarray analysis revealed that about 1548 genes differentially expressed, these genes mainly involved in 346 gene ontology terms and 128 molecular pathways, and particularly, some innate immune-associated pathways were significant...
August 29, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Mona A M Helal, Noura E M Shaheen, Fatma A Abu Zahra
CONTEXT: Cell therapy technique with stem cells is a very attractive strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of local transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which could contribute to skeletal muscle healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female rats were divided into three equal groups as the following: group 1, the negative control group (untreated group), group 2, sham-treated group, rats with muscle injuries involving volumetric muscle loss (VML) of adductor brevis muscle and injected locally with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) 0...
August 25, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Heiko Schenk, Detlef Neumann, Christina Kloth
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The modulation of antigen uptake and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) by histamine may function as a regulator of inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of histamine on antigen uptake by and activation of murine DCs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DCs from spleen and lung were either identified by flow cytometry or were immunomagnetically enriched. Cells were stimulated with histamine, and the regulation of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecule expression (CD80, CD86, and ICOS-L) and antigen uptake were quantified by flow cytometry...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Shuiling Chen, Kentaro Sugiyama, Mariko Inamura, Sachiko Tanaka, Kenji Onda, Huijun Yin, Toshihiko Hirano
CONTEXT: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of chronic renal failure. Immunosuppressive efficacies of glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, and mycophenolic acid are possibly affected by insulin after renal transplantation in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of insulin on responses of mitogen-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to several immunosuppressive drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antiproliferative efficacies of prednisolone, hydrocortisone, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and mycophenolic acid against concanavalin A-stimulated PBMCs were evaluated in the presence of physiological (5 μunits/mL) and super physiological (50 μunits/mL) concentrations of insulin...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Solomon Oladapo Rotimi, Goodness Esther Bankole, Isaacson Bababode Adelani, Oluwakemi Anuoluwapo Rotimi
CONTEXT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major trigger of septic shock resulting in multiple organ damage through excessive stimulation of the host's immune cells resulting in the release of cytokines. Previous studies have shown that hesperidin has several beneficial properties against inflammation and oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: The influence of hesperidin on endotoxemia, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress was investigated using a murine model of sepsis...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Natalia Garay-Lugo, Aarón Domínguez-Lopez, Angel Miliar García, Eliud Aguilar Barrera, Modesto Gómez López, Alejandro Gómez Alcalá, Maria de Los Angeles Martínez Godinez, Eleazar Lara-Padilla
CONTEXT: There is evidence that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs) can inhibit mTORC1, which should potentiate autophagy and eliminate NLRP3 inflammasome activity. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of a high-fat or high-fat/fructose diet with and without n-3-PUFAs on hepatic gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the mRNA expression by RT-PCR of Mtor, Nlrp3, and other 22 genes associated with inflammation in rats livers after a 9-week diet...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Marcus Vinicius Pereira Dos Santos Nascimento, Fábio Arruda-Silva, Ana Beatriz Gobbo Luz, Bruna Baratto, Dalila Venzke, Beatriz Garcia Mendes, Tânia Silvia Fröde, Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti, Eduardo Monguilhott Dalmarco
Natural products have long been used worldwide as therapeutic agents, but it is only recently, in response to the new challenges posed by global population aging, that interest in research into potentially therapeutic natural products has reemerged. In this context, coumarins, chemical compounds found in plants that have known anti-inflammatory activity, are promising candidates for the development of new drugs. In this study we test the effect of scopoletin, a coumarin found in several plant species, on carrageenan-induced inflammation in the mouse model of pleurisy...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Seung Ho Baek, Dongwoo Nam, Won-Seok Chung, Seok-Geun Lee, Junhee Lee, Woong Mo Yang, Jae-Young Um, Kwang Seok Ahn
Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently observed and closely linked with proliferation, survival, metastasis and angiogenesis of various cancer cells, and thus its inhibition can be considered a potential therapeutic strategy. We found that 3-formylchromone (3FC) inhibited both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Besides the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation, 3FC also abrogated constitutive activity and nuclear translocation of STAT3...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Hee-Yun Kim, Sun-Young Nam, Shi-Young Yang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Shuang Gao, Wencai Li, Guochao Lin, Guangrong Liu, Wenjuan Deng, Chuntao Zhai, Chunliang Bian, Gaiying He, Zhenlin Hu
CONTEXT: The nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors, essential for T-cell activation. Norisoboldine (NOR), an isoquinoline alkaloid from Radix linderae, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory activity. OBJECTIVE: This study examines NOR's effect on NFAT activation and its therapeutic potential for atopic dermatitis (AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The transcriptional activity of NFAT was examined with luciferase reporter assay, using K562-luc cells, stimulated with 20 ng/mL PMA plus 1 μM ionomycin...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Ji-Yoon Choi, Su Jin Jeon, Kun Ho Son, Young In Park, Mi-Sook Dong
Cimicifugae rhizoma has been widely used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat inflammation and menopausal symptoms. In this study, we found that some of the triterpenoidal saponins purified from the ethanol extract of Cimicifugae rhizoma dramatically induced histamine release. The structure-related induction of mast cell degranulation by them and the mechanism of action were determined. β-Hexosaminidase release in HMC-1 cells was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, with maximal 6.5- and 8.5-fold increases, by 200 μg/mL 24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-xyloside (comp 1) and cimigenol 3-O-beta-d-xyloside (comp 4) compared with those treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and A23187 (PMACI), respectively...
October 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
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