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Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205273/in-vitro-responses-to-known-in-vivo-genotoxic-agents-in-mouse-germ-cells
#1
Khaled Habas, Martin H Brinkworth, Diana Anderson
Genotoxic compounds have induced DNA damage in male germ cells and have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes including enhanced risks for maternal, paternal and offspring health. DNA strand breaks represent a great threat to the genomic integrity of germ cells. Such integrity is essential to maintain spermatogenesis and prevent reproduction failure. The Comet assay results revealed that the incubation of isolated germ cells with n-ethyl-n-nitrosourea (ENU), 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) led to increase in length of Olive tail moment and % tail DNA when compared with the untreated control cells and these effects were concentration-dependent...
February 16, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195382/contribution-of-atm-and-atr-kinase-pathways-to-p53-mediated-response-in-etoposide-and-methyl-methanesulfonate-induced-dna-damage
#2
Bin Sun, Susan M Ross, Sean Rowley, Yeyejide Adeleye, Rebecca A Clewell
p53 is a key integrator of cellular response to DNA damage, supporting post-translational repair and driving transcription-mediated responses including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and repair. DNA damage sensing kinases recognize different types of DNA damage and initiate specific responses through various post-translational modifications of p53. This study evaluated chemical specificity of the p53 pathway response by manipulating p53 or its upstream kinases and assessing the effect on DNA damage and cellular responses to prototype chemicals: etoposide (ETP, topoisomerase II inhibitor) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, alkylating agent)...
February 14, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181297/induction-of-oxidative-stress-by-bisphenol-a-and-its-pleiotropic-effects
#3
REVIEW
Natalie R Gassman
Bisphenol A (BPA) has become a target of intense public scrutiny since concerns about its association with human diseases such as obesity, diabetes, reproductive disorders, and cancer have emerged. BPA is a highly prevalent chemical in consumer products, and human exposure is thought to be ubiquitous. Numerous studies have demonstrated its endocrine disrupting properties and attributed exposure with cytotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects; however, the results of these studies are still highly debated and a consensus about BPA's safety and its role in human disease has not been reached...
February 9, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181292/tumor-associated-ape1-variant-exhibits-reduced-complementation-efficiency-but-does-not-promote-cancer-cell-phenotypes
#4
Jennifer L Illuzzi, Daniel R McNeill, Paul Bastian, Boris Brenerman, Robert Wersto, Helen R Russell, Fred Bunz, Peter J McKinnon, Kevin G Becker, David M Wilson
Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for coping with most forms of endogenous DNA damage, and defects in the process have been associated with carcinogenesis. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a central participant in BER, functioning as a critical endonuclease in the processing of noncoding abasic sites in DNA. Evidence has suggested that APE1 missense mutants, as well as altered expression or localization of the protein, can contribute to disease manifestation. We report herein that the tumor-associated APE1 variant, R237C, shows reduced complementation efficiency of the methyl methanesulfonate hypersensitivity and impaired cell growth exhibited by APE1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
February 9, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079927/developmental-programming-interaction-between-prenatal-bpa-and-postnatal-overfeeding-on-cardiac-tissue-gene-expression-in-female-sheep
#5
L A Koneva, A K Vyas, R C McEachin, M Puttabyatappa, H-S Wang, M A Sartor, V Padmanabhan
Epidemiologic studies and studies in rodents point to potential risks from developmental exposure to BPA on cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly evident that the manifestation and severity of adverse outcomes is the result of interaction between developmental insults and the prevailing environment. Consistent with this premise, recent studies in sheep found prenatal BPA treatment prevented the adverse effects of postnatal obesity in inducing hypertension. The gene networks underlying these complex interactions are not known...
January 12, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079919/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-and-copper-sulphate-act-as-antigenotoxic-agents-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Mohamed Alaraby, Alba Hernández, Ricard Marcos
The biological reactivity of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials is attributed to their redox properties, which would explain their pro- or anti-cancer properties depending on exposure circumstances. In this sense, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONP) have been proposed as a potential anti-tumoral agent. The aim of this study was to assess if CuONP can exert antigenotoxic effects using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. Genotoxicity was induced by two well-known genotoxic compounds, namely potassium dichromate (PD) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)...
January 12, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996157/high-pesticide-exposure-events-and-dna-methylation-among-pesticide-applicators-in-the-agricultural-health-study
#7
Jennifer A Rusiecki, Laura E Beane Freeman, Matthew R Bonner, Melannie Alexander, Ligong Chen, Gabriella Andreotti, Kathryn H Barry, Lee E Moore, Hyang-Min Byun, Freya Kamel, Michael Alavanja, Jane A Hoppin, Andrea Baccarelli
Pesticide exposure has been associated with acute and chronic adverse health effects. DNA methylation (DNAm) may mediate these effects. We evaluated the association between experiencing unusually high pesticide exposure events (HPEEs) and DNAm among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective study of applicators from Iowa and North Carolina. DNA was extracted from whole blood from male AHS pesticide applicators (n = 695). Questionnaire data were used to ascertain the occurrence of HPEEs over the participant's lifetime...
December 20, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116766/a-longitudinal-study-of-atrazine-and-2-4-d-exposure-and-oxidative-stress-markers-among-iowa-corn-farmers
#8
Catherine C Lerro, Laura E Beane Freeman, Lützen Portengen, Daehee Kang, Kyoungho Lee, Aaron Blair, Charles F Lynch, Berit Bakke, Anneclaire J De Roos, Roel C H Vermeulen
Reactive oxygen species, potentially formed through environmental exposures, can overwhelm an organism's antioxidant capabilities resulting in oxidative stress. Long-term oxidative stress is linked with chronic diseases. Pesticide exposures have been shown to cause oxidative stress in vivo. We utilized a longitudinal study of corn farmers and non-farming controls in Iowa to examine the impact of exposure to the widely used herbicides atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on markers of oxidative stress...
January 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862311/the-micro-ames-test-a-direct-comparison-of-the-performance-and-sensitivities-of-the-standard-and-24-well-plate-versions-of-the-bacterial-mutation-test
#9
Raymond Proudlock, Kristie Evans
"Ames" bacterial mutation tests are widely performed for evaluation and registration of new materials including industrial chemicals, agrochemicals, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical impurities and other materials. Tests are used to predict their potential long-term adverse health effects (including carcinogenicity). Given their importance, pre-screening 'miniaturized' versions have been developed which allow higher throughput and use less test material, including the widely-employed 24-well micro-Ames (µAmes) test which uses 20 times less material...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862296/dna-methylation-changes-in-mexican-children-exposed-to-arsenic-from-two-historic-mining-areas-in-san-luis-potos%C3%A3
#10
Jorge Alejandro Alegría-Torres, Leticia Carrizales-Yánez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga, Fernando Rosso-Camacho, Valeria Motta, Letizia Tarantini, Valentina Bollati
Arsenic is a carcinogen and epimutagen that threatens the health of exposed populations worldwide. In this study, we examined the methylation status of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) and their association with levels of urinary arsenic in 84 Mexican children between 6 and 12 years old from two historic mining areas in the State of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Urinary arsenic levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and DNA methylation analysis was performed in peripheral blood leukocytes by bisulfite-pyrosequencing...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859739/transcriptomic-responses-in-the-oral-cavity-of-f344-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-following-exposure-to-cr-vi-implications-for-risk-assessment
#11
Chad M Thompson, Julia E Rager, Mina Suh, Caroline L Ring, Deborah M Proctor, Laurie C Haws, Rebecca C Fry, Mark A Harris
Exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was previously reported to increase oral tumor incidence in F344 rats. To investigate the mode of action for these tumors, transcriptomic profiles in oral mucosa samples of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were analyzed following exposure to 0.1-180 ppm Cr(VI) for 7 or 90 days. In rats, genome-wide microarray analyses identified no significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at either time point. In mice, 14 and 1 DEGs were respectively identified after 7 and 90 days of exposure...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859631/evaluation-of-the-lacz-reporter-assay-in-cryopreserved-primary-hepatocytes-for-in-vitro-genotoxicity-testing
#12
Mirjam Luijten, Edwin P Zwart, Martijn E T Dollé, Maaike de Pooter, Julie A Cox, Paul A White, Jan van Benthem
Assessment of genotoxic potential is an important step in the safety evaluation of chemical substances. Under most regulatory jurisdictions, the first tier of testing comprises a standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests in bacterial and mammalian cells. However, the mammalian cell tests commonly used exhibit a relatively high rate of misleading positive results, which may lead to unnecessary in vivo testing. We previously established a proof-of-concept for the LacZ reporter assay in proliferating primary hepatocytes as a promising alternative genotoxicity test...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801952/human-t-lymphocytes-bioactivate-heterocyclic-aromatic-amines-by-forming-dna-adducts
#13
Medjda Bellamri, Ludovic Le Hegarat, Laurent Vernhet, Georges Baffet, Robert J Turesky, Sophie Langouët
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are formed in cooked meat, poultry and fish but also arise in tobacco smoke and exhaust gases. HAA are potential human carcinogens, which require metabolic activation to exert their genotoxicity. Human tissues can bioactivate HAA to produce reactive intermediates that bind to DNA. HAA DNA adduct formation occurs in human hepatocytes; however, the potential of HAA to form DNA adducts has not been investigated in human T lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the ability of human T lymphocytes activated with PMA/Ionomycin or CD3/CD28 to express functional CYP1 activity and bioactivate three major HAA: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) to form DNA adducts...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770464/in-vivo-pig-a-gene-mutation-assay-guidance-for-3rs-friendly-implementation
#14
Marian Raschke, Bernd-W Igl, Julia Kenny, Joanne Collins, Stephen D Dertinger, Carson Labash, Javed A Bhalli, Cameron C M Tebbe, Kylie M McNeil, Andreas Sutter
The rodent Pig-a assay is an in vivo method for the detection of gene mutation, where lack of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins on the surface of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) serves as a reporter for Pig-a gene mutation. In the case of rats, the frequency of mutant phenotype RBCs is measured via fluorescent anti-CD59 antibodies and flow cytometry. The Pig-a assay meets the growing expectations for novel approaches in animal experimentation not only focusing on the scientific value of the assay but also on animal welfare aspects (3Rs principles), for example, amenable to integration into pivotal rodent 28-day general toxicology studies...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739633/diet-induced-obesity-increases-the-frequency-of-pig-a-mutant-erythrocytes-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Stephen D Dertinger, Dorothea K Torous, Svetlana L Avlasevich, Bridget R Simon-Friedt, Mark J Wilson
Obesity increases the risk of a number of chronic diseases in humans including several cancers. Biological mechanisms responsible for such increased risks are not well understood at present. Increases in systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, endogenous production of mutagenic metabolites, altered signaling in proliferative pathways, and increased sensitivity to exogenous mutagens and carcinogens are some of the potential contributing factors. We hypothesize that obesity creates an endogenously mutagenic environment in addition to increasing the sensitivity to environmental mutagens...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801956/mutations-in-apoptotic-genes-and-micronucleus-occurrence-in-vinyl-chloride-exposed-workers-in-china
#16
Nannan Feng, Guoqiao Zheng, Yanhui Hao, Yong Li, Yandan Xu, Xiaowen Xu, Guanghui Zhang, Jinwei Wang, Yongliang Li, Paul Brandt-Rauf, Zhao-Lin Xia
BACKGROUND: Vinyl chloride is an occupational carcinogen which caused micronuclei in human directly. It has recently been demonstrated that micronuclei formation could generate a spectrum of genomic rearrangements and play a key role in the early tumorigenesis process. We aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms in the apoptosis process related genes and micronuclei rate in vinyl chloride-exposed workers in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytokinesis block micronucleus test was performed on 342 vinyl chloride-exposed workers and 107 nonexposed workers to determine chromosomal damage...
November 1, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696552/remembering-heinrich-malling
#17
George R Hoffmann, Michael D Shelby, Errol Zeiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671983/effects-of-occupational-exposure-to-carbon-black-on-peripheral-white-blood-cell-counts-and-lymphocyte-subsets
#18
Yufei Dai, Yong Niu, Huawei Duan, Bryan A Bassig, Meng Ye, Xiao Zhang, Tao Meng, Ping Bin, Xiaowei Jia, Meili Shen, Rong Zhang, Wei Hu, Xiaofa Yang, Roel Vermeulen, Debra Silverman, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan, Shanfa Yu, Yuxin Zheng
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified carbon black (CB) as a possible (Group 2B) human carcinogen. Given that most CB manufacturing processes result in the emission of various types of chemicals, it is uncertain if the adverse health effects that have been observed in CB-exposed workers are related to CB specifically or are due to other exposures. To address this issue, we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China of 106 male factory workers who were occupationally exposed to pure CB and 112 unexposed male workers frequency-matched by age and smoking status from the same geographic region...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669663/chlorpyrifos-exposure-affects-fgf8-sox9-and-bmp4-expression-required-for-cranial-neural-crest-morphogenesis-and-chondrogenesis-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos
#19
Margherita Tussellino, Raffaele Ronca, Rosa Carotenuto, Maria M Pallotta, Maria Furia, Teresa Capriglione
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used primarily to control foliage and soil-borne insect pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce dose-related abnormalities such as slower brain growth and cerebral cortex thinning. In lower vertebrates, for example, fish and amphibians, teratogenic activity of this compound is correlated with several anatomical alterations. Little is known about the effects of CPF on mRNA expression of genes involved in early development of the anatomical structures appearing abnormal in embryos...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601323/transcriptional-benchmark-dose-modeling-exploring-how-advances-in-chemical-risk-assessment-may-be-applied-to-the-radiation-field
#20
Vinita Chauhan, Byron Kuo, James P McNamee, Ruth C Wilkins, Carole L Yauk
Recent advances in "-omics" technologies have simplified capacity to concurrently assess expression profiles of thousands of targets in a cellular system. However, compilation and analysis of "omics" data in support of human health protection remains a challenge. Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling is currently being employed in chemical risk assessment to estimate acceptable levels of exposure. Although typically applied to conventional endpoints, newer software has enabled this application to be extended to transcriptomic datasets...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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