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Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801956/mutations-in-apoptotic-genes-and-micronucleus-occurrence-in-vinyl-chloride-exposed-workers-in-china
#1
Nannan Feng, Guoqiao Zheng, Yanhui Hao, Yong Li, Yandan Xu, Xiaowen Xu, Guanghui Zhang, Jinwei Wang, Yongliang Li, Paul Brandt-Rauf, Zhao-Lin Xia
BACKGROUND: Vinyl chloride is an occupational carcinogen which caused micronuclei in human directly. It has recently been demonstrated that micronuclei formation could generate a spectrum of genomic rearrangements and play a key role in the early tumorigenesis process. We aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms in the apoptosis process related genes and micronuclei rate in vinyl chloride-exposed workers in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytokinesis block micronucleus test was performed on 342 vinyl chloride-exposed workers and 107 nonexposed workers to determine chromosomal damage...
November 1, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650663/next-generation-testing-strategy-for-assessment-of-genomic-damage-a-conceptual-framework-and-considerations
#2
Kerry L Dearfield, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, Jeffrey C Bemis, R Daniel Benz, George R Douglas, Rosalie K Elespuru, George E Johnson, David J Kirkland, Matthew J LeBaron, Albert P Li, Francesco Marchetti, Lynn H Pottenger, Emiel Rorije, Jennifer Y Tanir, Veronique Thybaud, Jan van Benthem, Carole L Yauk, Errol Zeiger, Mirjam Luijten
For several decades, regulatory testing schemes for genetic damage have been standardized where the tests being utilized examined mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal damage. This has served the genetic toxicity community well when most of the substances being tested were amenable to such assays. The outcome from this testing is usually a dichotomous (yes/no) evaluation of test results, and in many instances, the information is only used to determine whether a substance has carcinogenic potential or not...
September 21, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862311/the-micro-ames-test-a-direct-comparison-of-the-performance-and-sensitivities-of-the-standard-and-24-well-plate-versions-of-the-bacterial-mutation-test
#3
Raymond Proudlock, Kristie Evans
"Ames" bacterial mutation tests are widely performed for evaluation and registration of new materials including industrial chemicals, agrochemicals, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical impurities and other materials. Tests are used to predict their potential long-term adverse health effects (including carcinogenicity). Given their importance, pre-screening 'miniaturized' versions have been developed which allow higher throughput and use less test material, including the widely-employed 24-well micro-Ames (µAmes) test which uses 20 times less material...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862296/dna-methylation-changes-in-mexican-children-exposed-to-arsenic-from-two-historic-mining-areas-in-san-luis-potos%C3%A3
#4
Jorge Alejandro Alegría-Torres, Leticia Carrizales-Yánez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga, Fernando Rosso-Camacho, Valeria Motta, Letizia Tarantini, Valentina Bollati
Arsenic is a carcinogen and epimutagen that threatens the health of exposed populations worldwide. In this study, we examined the methylation status of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) and their association with levels of urinary arsenic in 84 Mexican children between 6 and 12 years old from two historic mining areas in the State of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Urinary arsenic levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and DNA methylation analysis was performed in peripheral blood leukocytes by bisulfite-pyrosequencing...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859739/transcriptomic-responses-in-the-oral-cavity-of-f344-rats-and-b6c3f1-mice-following-exposure-to-cr-vi-implications-for-risk-assessment
#5
Chad M Thompson, Julia E Rager, Mina Suh, Caroline L Ring, Deborah M Proctor, Laurie C Haws, Rebecca C Fry, Mark A Harris
Exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was previously reported to increase oral tumor incidence in F344 rats. To investigate the mode of action for these tumors, transcriptomic profiles in oral mucosa samples of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were analyzed following exposure to 0.1-180 ppm Cr(VI) for 7 or 90 days. In rats, genome-wide microarray analyses identified no significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at either time point. In mice, 14 and 1 DEGs were respectively identified after 7 and 90 days of exposure...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859631/evaluation-of-the-lacz-reporter-assay-in-cryopreserved-primary-hepatocytes-for-in-vitro-genotoxicity-testing
#6
Mirjam Luijten, Edwin P Zwart, Martijn E T Dollé, Maaike de Pooter, Julie A Cox, Paul A White, Jan van Benthem
Assessment of genotoxic potential is an important step in the safety evaluation of chemical substances. Under most regulatory jurisdictions, the first tier of testing comprises a standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests in bacterial and mammalian cells. However, the mammalian cell tests commonly used exhibit a relatively high rate of misleading positive results, which may lead to unnecessary in vivo testing. We previously established a proof-of-concept for the LacZ reporter assay in proliferating primary hepatocytes as a promising alternative genotoxicity test...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801952/human-t-lymphocytes-bioactivate-heterocyclic-aromatic-amines-by-forming-dna-adducts
#7
Medjda Bellamri, Ludovic Le Hegarat, Laurent Vernhet, Georges Baffet, Robert J Turesky, Sophie Langouët
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are formed in cooked meat, poultry and fish but also arise in tobacco smoke and exhaust gases. HAA are potential human carcinogens, which require metabolic activation to exert their genotoxicity. Human tissues can bioactivate HAA to produce reactive intermediates that bind to DNA. HAA DNA adduct formation occurs in human hepatocytes; however, the potential of HAA to form DNA adducts has not been investigated in human T lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the ability of human T lymphocytes activated with PMA/Ionomycin or CD3/CD28 to express functional CYP1 activity and bioactivate three major HAA: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) to form DNA adducts...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770464/in-vivo-pig-a-gene-mutation-assay-guidance-for-3rs-friendly-implementation
#8
Marian Raschke, Bernd-W Igl, Julia Kenny, Joanne Collins, Stephen D Dertinger, Carson Labash, Javed A Bhalli, Cameron C M Tebbe, Kylie M McNeil, Andreas Sutter
The rodent Pig-a assay is an in vivo method for the detection of gene mutation, where lack of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins on the surface of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) serves as a reporter for Pig-a gene mutation. In the case of rats, the frequency of mutant phenotype RBCs is measured via fluorescent anti-CD59 antibodies and flow cytometry. The Pig-a assay meets the growing expectations for novel approaches in animal experimentation not only focusing on the scientific value of the assay but also on animal welfare aspects (3Rs principles), for example, amenable to integration into pivotal rodent 28-day general toxicology studies...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739633/diet-induced-obesity-increases-the-frequency-of-pig-a-mutant-erythrocytes-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Stephen D Dertinger, Dorothea K Torous, Svetlana L Avlasevich, Bridget R Simon-Friedt, Mark J Wilson
Obesity increases the risk of a number of chronic diseases in humans including several cancers. Biological mechanisms responsible for such increased risks are not well understood at present. Increases in systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, endogenous production of mutagenic metabolites, altered signaling in proliferative pathways, and increased sensitivity to exogenous mutagens and carcinogens are some of the potential contributing factors. We hypothesize that obesity creates an endogenously mutagenic environment in addition to increasing the sensitivity to environmental mutagens...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696552/remembering-heinrich-malling
#10
George R Hoffmann, Michael D Shelby, Errol Zeiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671983/effects-of-occupational-exposure-to-carbon-black-on-peripheral-white-blood-cell-counts-and-lymphocyte-subsets
#11
Yufei Dai, Yong Niu, Huawei Duan, Bryan A Bassig, Meng Ye, Xiao Zhang, Tao Meng, Ping Bin, Xiaowei Jia, Meili Shen, Rong Zhang, Wei Hu, Xiaofa Yang, Roel Vermeulen, Debra Silverman, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan, Shanfa Yu, Yuxin Zheng
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified carbon black (CB) as a possible (Group 2B) human carcinogen. Given that most CB manufacturing processes result in the emission of various types of chemicals, it is uncertain if the adverse health effects that have been observed in CB-exposed workers are related to CB specifically or are due to other exposures. To address this issue, we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China of 106 male factory workers who were occupationally exposed to pure CB and 112 unexposed male workers frequency-matched by age and smoking status from the same geographic region...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669663/chlorpyrifos-exposure-affects-fgf8-sox9-and-bmp4-expression-required-for-cranial-neural-crest-morphogenesis-and-chondrogenesis-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos
#12
Margherita Tussellino, Raffaele Ronca, Rosa Carotenuto, Maria M Pallotta, Maria Furia, Teresa Capriglione
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used primarily to control foliage and soil-borne insect pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce dose-related abnormalities such as slower brain growth and cerebral cortex thinning. In lower vertebrates, for example, fish and amphibians, teratogenic activity of this compound is correlated with several anatomical alterations. Little is known about the effects of CPF on mRNA expression of genes involved in early development of the anatomical structures appearing abnormal in embryos...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601323/transcriptional-benchmark-dose-modeling-exploring-how-advances-in-chemical-risk-assessment-may-be-applied-to-the-radiation-field
#13
Vinita Chauhan, Byron Kuo, James P McNamee, Ruth C Wilkins, Carole L Yauk
Recent advances in "-omics" technologies have simplified capacity to concurrently assess expression profiles of thousands of targets in a cellular system. However, compilation and analysis of "omics" data in support of human health protection remains a challenge. Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling is currently being employed in chemical risk assessment to estimate acceptable levels of exposure. Although typically applied to conventional endpoints, newer software has enabled this application to be extended to transcriptomic datasets...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581231/a-population-study-using-the-human-erythrocyte-pig-a-assay
#14
Yiyi Cao, Li Yang, Nannan Feng, Oumin Shi, Jing Xi, Xinyue You, Chunrong Yin, Huan Yang, Katsuyoshi Horibata, Masamitsu Honma, Biyun Qian, Wei Weng, Yang Luan
Erythrocyte-based PIG-A assay is sensitive and reliable in detecting exposure to mutagenetic agents in animal studies, but there are few data from human populations. In this study, we employed a method for detecting CD59 phenotypic variants, resulting from mutation in the PIG-A gene, in human red blood cells (RBCs), and determined the CD59-deficient RBC (RBC(CD59-) ) frequencies in 217 subjects from general population. The majority of subjects had a relatively low mutant frequencies (MFs) (average, 5.25 ± 3...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545269/novel-statistical-approach-for-evaluating-flow-cytometric-in-vitro-micronucleus-data
#15
J P Wojciechowski, C R Gleason, D J Roberts, L L Custer
Statistical methods currently recommended for analysis of in vitro micronucleus data are based on small sample sizes. The tests are designed to evaluate linear trends and differences between treated and control samples. When using flow cytometric analysis, >5 times the number of cells are easily evaluated, and the variance estimates from these large samples are small. Application of these recommended tests to large samples resulted in statistically significant outcomes which were not considered to be biologically meaningful...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530864/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-adverse-effects-on-folliculogenesis-that-cannot-be-neglected
#16
Teng Zhang, Wei Shen, Massimo De Felici, Xi-Feng Zhang
Primordial follicle formation and the subsequent transition of follicles through primary and secondary stages constitute crucial events of oogenesis. In particular, in mammals, defects in the processes that precede and accompany the formation of the primordial follicle pool can affect the size of this population significantly, while alterations in follicle activation, growth and maturation can result in premature depletion of the follicle reserve or cause follicle arrest at immature stages. Over the last decade, in vitro and in vivo approaches have been used to provide evidence that exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DEHP), the most widely used plasticizer, has a deleterious effect on various stages of folliculogenesis in rodents...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539270/environmental-mutagenesis-and-genomics-society-47th-annual-meeting
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473530/oral-exposure-to-commercially-available-coal-tar-based-pavement-sealcoat-induces-murine-genetic-damage-and-mutations
#18
Alexandra S Long, Margaret Watson, Volker M Arlt, Paul A White
Coal tar (CT) is a thick black liquid produced as a by-product of coal carbonization to produce coke or manufactured gas. It is comprised a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic compounds, including a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are genotoxic and carcinogenic. CT is used in some pavement sealants (also known as sealcoat), which are applied to pavement in order to seal and beautify the surface. Human exposure is known to occur not only during application, but also as a result of the weathering process, as elevated levels of PAHs have been found in settled house dust in residences adjacent to CT-sealed surfaces...
August 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452341/mitochondrial-compromise-in-3-year-old-patas-monkeys-exposed-in-utero-to-human-equivalent-antiretroviral-therapies
#19
Yongmin Liu, Eunwoo Shim Park, Alexander T Gibbons, Eric D Shide, Rao L Divi, Ruth A Woodward, Miriam C Poirier
Antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, given during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), induces fetal mitochondrial dysfunction in some children. However, the persistence/reversibility of that dysfunction is unclear. Here we have followed Erythrocebus patas (patas) monkey offspring for up to 3 years of age (similar in development to a 15-year old human) after exposure of the dams to human-equivalent in utero ARV exposure protocols. Pregnant patas dams (3-5/exposure group) were given ARV drug combinations that included zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC)/abacavir (ABC), or AZT/3TC/nevirapine (NVP), for the last 10 weeks (50%) of gestation...
August 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432114/the-rs6983267-snp-and-long-non-coding-rna-carlo-5-are-associated-with-endometrial-carcinoma
#20
Xiwa Zhao, Xurui Wei, Lianmei Zhao, Li Shi, Jianxin Cheng, Shan Kang, Hui Zhang, Jun Zhang, Li Li, Haibo Zhang, Wei Zhao
The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6983267 and cancer-associated region long non-coding RNA (CARLo-5) are associated with various human cancers. This study aimed to investigate the expression of CARLo-5 in endometrial carcinoma (EC) and its relationship with clinicopathological features and patient survival. The association of the rs6983267 SNP with EC risk and its involvement in the regulation of CARLo-5 expression in EC were investigated. The rs6983267 SNP was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase detection reaction in 543 EC patients and 584 controls...
August 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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