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Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868735/micronuclei-and-other-erythrocyte-nuclear-abnormalities-in-fishes-from-the-great-lakes-basin-usa
#1
Ryan P Braham, Vicki S Blazer, Cassidy H Shaw, Patricia M Mazik
Biological markers (biomarkers) sensitive to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination in fishes are widely used to identify exposure effects in aquatic environments. The micronucleus assay was incorporated into a suite of indicators to assess exposure to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination at five Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), as well as one non-AOC (reference) site. The assay allowed enumeration of micronuclei as well as other nuclear abnormalities for both site and species comparisons. Erythrocyte abnormality data was also compared to skin and liver tumor prevalence and hepatic transcript abundance...
September 4, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862356/health-survey-and-assessment-of-the-polymorphisms-brca1-p871l-brca1-q356r-and-brca2-n372h-in-female-gas-station-workers-in-rio-de-janeiro
#2
Rafaele T Silvestre, Lucas Delmonico, Maryah Bravo, Fábio Santiago, Luciano R Scherrer, Aline Dos Santos Moreira, Marianne Tabalipa, Ubirani Otero, Maria Helena F Ornellas, Gilda Alves
Gas station workers are exposed to chemicals known to be carcinogenic, especially benzene. The objective was to analyze the health problems of female gas station workers by means of sociodemographic and clinical questionnaires, and laboratorial exams. We performed the genotyping of the polymorphisms BRCA1/P871L and BRCA1/Q356R by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, and of variant allele BRCA2/N372H through direct sequencing. The female workers showed a higher concentration of monocytes (P = 0...
September 1, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862355/time-and-concentration-dependent-genomic-responses-of-the-rat-airway-to-inhaled-nickel-sulfate
#3
A Y Efremenko, J L Campbell, D E Dodd, A R Oller, H J Clewell
While insoluble nickel subsulfide (Ni3 S2 ) was carcinogenic in the lung in a 2-year rat bioassay, soluble nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4* 6H2 O) was not. To investigate whether differences in the cellular responses to these two nickel compounds could underlie their differential activities, we conducted parallel studies to determine the gene expression changes in micro-dissected lung distal airway cells from Fischer 344 rats following inhalation of the two compounds for one and four weeks (6 hr per day, 5 days per week)...
September 1, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856770/genotoxic-effects-of-high-dose-rate-x-ray-and-low-dose-rate-gamma-radiation-in-apc-min-mice
#4
Anne Graupner, Dag M Eide, Dag A Brede, Michele Ellender, Elisabeth Lindbo Hansen, Deborah H Oughton, Simon D Bouffler, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann Karin Olsen
Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in humans are based on epidemiological data largely drawn from the Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies, which received an acute high dose rate (HDR) ionising radiation. Limited knowledge exists about the effects of chronic low dose rate (LDR) exposure, particularly with respect to the application of the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor. As part of a study to investigate the development of colon cancer following chronic LDR vs. acute HDR radiation, this study presents the results of genotoxic effects in blood of exposed mice...
August 30, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843037/performance-of-the-in-vitro-transgene-mutation-assay-in-mutamouse-fe1-cells-evaluation-of-nine-misleading-false-positive-chemicals
#5
Rebecca M Maertens, Alexandra S Long, Paul A White
The screening of chemicals for the protection of human health and the environment requires the assessment of genetic toxicity. However, existing, internationally-accepted in vitro mammalian genotoxicity tests have been criticized for their low specificity (i.e. high frequency of "false" or "misleading" positive results for compounds that are negative in vivo). An in vitro transgene mutation assay has been established that uses a metabolically competent cell line derived from MutaMouse lung (i.e. FE1 cells)...
August 26, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843010/telomerase-activity-telomere-length-and-htert-dna-methylation-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-monozygotic-twins-with-discordant-smoking-habits
#6
Francesca Marcon, Ester Siniscalchi, Cristina Andreoli, Alessandra Allione, Giovanni Fiorito, Emanuela Medda, Simonetta Guarrera, Giuseppe Matullo, Riccardo Crebelli
Increased telomerase expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and, since the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, an association between telomerase reactivation and tobacco smoke has been proposed. In this work an investigation has been performed to assess the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and telomerase activity (TA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy smokers. The methylation status of the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT was concurrently investigated to assess the possible association between epigenetic modifications of hTERT and TA...
August 26, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843007/bcl-2-protects-tk6-cells-against-hydroquinone-induced-apoptosis-through-parp-1-cytoplasm-translocation-and-stabilizing-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#7
Yuting Chen, Shaoyun Chen, Hairong Liang, Hui Yang, Linhua Liu, Kairu Zhou, Longmei Xu, Jiaxian Liu, Lin Yun, Bei Lai, Li Song, Hao Luo, Jianming Peng, Zhidong Liu, Yongmei Xiao, Wen Chen, Huanwen Tang
B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) suppresses apoptosis by binding the BH3 domain of proapoptotic factors and thereby regulating mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). This study aimed to investigate the role of Bcl-2 in controlling the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis during hydroquinone (HQ)-induced TK6 cytotoxicity. In this study, HQ, one metabolite of benzene, decreased the MMP in a concentration-dependent manner and induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activation of the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX, and production of the DNA damage-responsive enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1)...
August 26, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843004/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-rs911160-in-aurka-and-rs2289590-in-aurkb-mitotic-checkpoint-genes-contribute-to-gastric-cancer-susceptibility
#8
Aner Mesic, Ela Markocic, Marija Rogar, Robert Juvan, Petra Hudler, Radovan Komel
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mitotic checkpoint genes could confer increased susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC). We investigated the association of Aurora kinase A (AURKA), Aurora kinase B (AURKB), Aurora kinase C (AURKC), Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and Budding uninhibited by benzimidazol 3, yeast (BUB3) gene polymorphisms with GC risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotyping of 6 SNPs in AURKA (rs911160 and rs8173), AURKB (rs2289590), AURKC (rs11084490), PLK1 (rs42873), and BUB3 (rs7897156) was performed using TaqMan genotyping assays...
August 26, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833575/in-vivo-pig-a-and-micronucleus-study-of-the-prototypical-aneugen-vinblastine-sulfate
#9
Svetlana L Avlasevich, Carson Labash, Dorothea K Torous, Jeffrey C Bemis, James T MacGregor, Stephen D Dertinger
The Pig-a assay is being used in regulatory studies to evaluate the potential of agents to induce somatic cell gene mutations and an OECD test guideline is under development. A working group involved with establishing the guideline recently noted that representative aneugenic agents had not been evaluated, and to help fill this data gap Pig-a mutant phenotype and micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies were measured in an integrated study design to assess the mutagenic and cytogenetic damage responses to vinblastine sulfate exposure...
August 19, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833526/perinatal-lead-pb-exposure-results-in-sex-and-tissue-dependent-adult-dna-methylation-alterations-in-murine-iap-transposons
#10
L Montrose, C Faulk, J Francis, D C Dolinoy
Epidemiological and animal data suggest that adult chronic disease is influenced by early-life exposure-induced changes to the epigenome. Previously, we observed that perinatal lead (Pb) exposure results in persistent murine metabolic- and activity-related effects. Using phylogenetic and DNA methylation analysis, we have also identified novel intracisternal A particle (IAP) retrotransposons exhibiting regions of variable methylation as candidate loci for environmental effects on the epigenome. Here, we now evaluate brain and kidney DNA methylation profiles of four representative IAPs in adult mice exposed to human physiologically relevant levels of Pb two weeks prior to mating through lactation...
August 19, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833525/dna-damage-in-kidney-transplant-patients-role-of-organ-origin
#11
Zuray Corredor, Lara Rodríguez-Ribera, Elisabet Coll, Irene Silva, Juan Manuel Díaz, José Ballarín, Ricard Marcos, Susana Pastor
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are characterized by elevated levels of genomic damage. This damage increases when kidney function decreases being maximum in hemodialysis patients. As kidney transplantation improves renal function, and it is related with better survival, the aim of our study was to evaluate potential changes in DNA damage levels after kidney transplantation, and comparing living donor recipients with cadaveric donor recipients. The alkaline comet assay was used to determine DNA breaks and oxidative damaged DNA; and the micronucleus assay was used to determine chromosomal breakage and/or aneuploidy...
August 19, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833505/aberrant-levels-of-suv39h1-and-suv39h2-methyltransferase-are-associated-with-genomic-instability-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#12
Juliana Carvalho Alves-Silva, Doralina do Amaral Rabello, Martha Oliveira Bravo, Antônio Roberto Lucena-Araujo, Diego Madureira de Oliveira, Fábio Morato de Oliveira, Eduardo Magalhaes Rego, Fábio Pittella-Silva, Felipe Saldanha-Araujo
Chromosomal alterations are commonly detected in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and impact disease pathogenesis, prognosis, and progression. Telomerase expression (hTERT), its activity and the telomere length are other important predictors of survival and multiple outcomes in CLL. SUV39H and SUV420H enzymes are histone methyltransferases (HMTases) involved in several cellular processes, including regulation of telomere length, heterochromatin organization, and genome stability. Here, we investigated whether SUV39H1, SUV39H2, SUV420H1, SUV420H2, and hTERT are associated with genomic instability of CLL...
August 19, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833460/genomic-damage-induced-by-1-mhz-ultrasound-in-vitro
#13
Ion Udroiu, Jessica Marinaccio, Angelico Bedini, Claudia Giliberti, Raffaele Palomba, Antonella Sgura
Genotoxic effects of therapeutic ultrasound are poorly documented, when compared with the wide use of this physical agent. The aim of this work was to investigate the clastogenic and aneugenic potential of 1 MHz ultrasound, employing intensities (200 and 300 mW/cm(2) ) above the cavitational threshold, but in the range of those normally used in therapeutics. Both normal fibroblasts (AG01522) and tumoral cells (MCF-7) were sonicated. While no effects on viability were noted, significant increases of CREST-negative micronuclei (indicative of clastogenesis) and CREST-positive micronuclei (indicative of aneuploidy) were detected...
August 19, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766757/sesamol-ameliorates-radiation-induced-dna-damage-in-hematopoietic-system-of-whole-body-%C3%AE-irradiated-mice
#14
Arun Kumar, Sandeep Choudhary, Jawahar S Adhikari, Nabo K Chaudhury
Ionizing radiation exposure is harmful and at high doses can lead to acute hematopoietic radiation syndrome. Therefore, agents that can protect hematopoietic system are important for development of radioprotector. Sesamol is a potential molecule for development of radioprotector due to its strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. In the present study, sesamol was evaluated for its role in DNA damage and repair in hematopoietic system of γ-irradiated CB57BL/6 mice and compared with amifostine...
August 2, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714190/polymorphisms-of-xenobiotic-metabolizing-genes-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-patients-with-lynch-syndrome-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#15
Abram Bunya Kamiza, Jeng-Fu You, Wen-Chang Wang, Reiping Tang, Chun-Yu Chang, Huei-Tzu Chien, Chih-Hsiung Lai, Li-Ling Chiu, Tsai-Ping Lo, Kuan-Yi Hung, Chao A Hsiung, Chih-Ching Yeh
Cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) are crucial for metabolism and clearance of xenobiotics. This study investigated whether CYP, GST, and NAT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with Lynch syndrome. The interaction between these SNPs and cigarette smoking or meat consumption was also explored. We identified 270 patients with Lynch syndrome from the Taiwan Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Consortium...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714172/a-study-of-dna-damage-in-buccal-cells-of-consumers-of-well-and-or-tap-water-using-the-comet-assay-assessment-of-occupational-exposure-to-genotoxicants
#16
Celia Vazquez Boucard, Larisa Lee-Cruz, Laurence Mercier, Martín Ramírez Orozco, Vania Serrano Pinto, Gerardo Anguiano, Linette Cazares, Daniel Díaz
Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843051/environmental-mutagenesis-and-genomics-society-48th-annual-meeting
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766826/the-tgx-28-65-biomarker-online-application-for-analysis-of-transcriptomics-data-to-identify-dna-damage-inducing-chemicals-in-human-cell-cultures
#18
Marcus A Jackson, Longlong Yang, Isabel Lea, Asif Rashid, Byron Kuo, Andrew Williams, Carole Lyn Yauk, Jennifer Fostel
The TGx-28.65 biomarker is a 65-gene expression profile generated from testing 28 model chemicals (13 that cause DNA damage and 15 that do not) in human TK6 cells. It is used to predict whether a chemical induces DNA damage or not. We expanded availability to the biomarker by developing the online TGx-28.65 biomarker application for predicting the DNA damage inducing (DDI) potential of suspect toxicants tested in p53-proficient human cells and assessing putative mode(s) of action (MOA). Applications like this that analyse gene expression data to predict the hazard potential of test chemicals hold great promise for risk assessment paradigms...
August 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755461/variation-in-organ-specific-pik3ca-and-kras-mutant-levels-in-normal-human-tissues-correlates-with-mutation-prevalence-in-corresponding-carcinomas
#19
Barbara L Parsons, Karen L McKim, Meagan B Myers
Large-scale sequencing efforts have described the mutational complexity of individual cancers and identified mutations prevalent in different cancers. As a complementary approach, allele-specific competitive blocker PCR (ACB-PCR) is being used to quantify levels of hotspot cancer driver mutations (CDMs) with high sensitivity, to elucidate the tissue-specific properties of CDMs, their occurrence as tumor cell subpopulations, and their occurrence in normal tissues. Here we report measurements of PIK3CA H1047R mutant fraction (MF) in normal colonic mucosa, normal lung, colonic adenomas, colonic adenocarcinomas, and lung adenocarcinomas...
August 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755435/the-development-and-validation-of-epicomet-chip-a-modified-high-throughput-comet-assay-for-the-assessment-of-dna-methylation-status
#20
Todd A Townsend, Marcus C Parrish, Bevin P Engelward, Mugimane G Manjanatha
DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation status are associated with multiple human diseases and are frequently correlated with clinically relevant information. Therefore, assessing DNA damage and epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, is critical for predicting human exposure risk of pharmacological and biological agents. We previously developed a higher-throughput platform for the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, CometChip, to assess DNA damage and genotoxic potential...
August 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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