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Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612367/association-between-genetic-variants-in-the-promoter-region-of-a-novel-antisense-long-noncoding-rna-rp11-392p7-6-and-colorectal-cancer-risk
#1
Mingjuan Jin, Simeng Gu, Ding Ye, Yingjun Li, Fangyuan Jing, Qilong Li, Kun Chen
There is a widespread occurrence of antisense transcripts' regulation on cancer-related genes in cancer biology. RP11-392P7.6 is antisense to the coding region of cancer-related gene GPRC5D, which has been found recently. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of tagSNPs in the promoter region of RP11-392P7.6 with the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a two-stage case-control study, with a discovery set (320 cases and 319 controls) and a validation set (501 cases and 538 controls). Four tagSNPs (rs1531970, rs1642199, rs4763903, and rs10845671) were selected based on 1000 Genomes Project data and genotyped by using the Sequenom MassARRAY genotyping platform...
June 14, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573657/safety-assessment-and-global-regulatory-requirements-for-genetic-toxicity-evaluations-of-medical-devices
#2
REVIEW
Robert T Przygoda
Medical devices have the potential to leach substances which, depending on the contact category of the device, can directly contact the human body. Hence, appropriate evaluation for genetic toxicity as part of the biocompatibility risk assessment is critical. The biocompatibility risk assessment of medical devices is guided by the ISO 10993 series of standards. The recently revised ISO 10993-3 (2014) provides guidance on evaluating the genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity potential of medical devices...
June 2, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561379/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-131-i-and-60-co-in-follicular-thyroid-cancer-cell-wro-with-and-without-recombinant-human-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-treatment
#3
Flávia Gomes Silva Valgôde, Márcia Augusta da Silva, Daniel Perez Vieira, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto Ribela, Paolo Bartolini, Kayo Okazaki
Normally, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) tends to be biologically indolent, highly curable and has an excellent prognosis. However, the treatment may fail when the cancer has lost radioiodine avidity. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of (131) I and (60) Co and radioiodine uptake in WRO cells, derived from DTC, harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation. WRO cells showed a relatively slow cell cycle of 96.3 h with an unstable karyotype containing various double minutes...
May 31, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556360/association-of-cytochrome-p450-1b1-haplotypes-with-head-and-neck-cancer-risk
#4
Tridiv Katiyar, Shailendra S Maurya, Feza Hasan, Arvind P Singh, Anwar J Khan, Rahat Hadi, Sudhir Singh, Madan L B Bhatt, Devendra Parmar
Genetic polymorphisms have been reported in several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, including CYP1B1 which metabolically activates procarcinogens present in tobacco to carcinogenic intermediates. This study used a case-control approach in North Indian population to determine associations between genetic variants in CYP1B1 and risk of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). We examined the genotype and haplotype frequencies at various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including SNPs previously reported in the promoter region and intron 1 of CYP1B1 in Caucasians...
May 28, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556291/prenatal-phthalate-exposure-and-altered-patterns-of-dna-methylation-in-cord-blood
#5
Olivia Solomon, Paul Yousefi, Karen Huen, Robert B Gunier, Maria Escudero-Fung, Lisa F Barcellos, Brenda Eskenazi, Nina Holland
Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors with ubiquitous exposures in the general population including pregnant women, and they have been linked with a number of adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between in utero phthalate exposure and altered patterns of cord blood DNA methylation in 336 Mexican-American newborns. Concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in maternal urine samples collected at 13 and 26 weeks gestation as a measure of fetal exposure...
May 28, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556235/genotoxicity-testing-approaches-for-the-safety-assessment-of-substances-used-in-food-contact-materials-prior-to-their-authorization-in-the-european-union
#6
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Anna F Castoldi, Riccardo Crebelli, Eric Barthélémy, Daniela Maurici, Detlef Wölfle, Katharina Volk, Laurence Castle
Food contact materials are all materials and articles intended to come directly or indirectly into contact with food. Before being included in the positive European "Union list" of authorized substances (monomers, other starting substances and additives) for plastic food contact materials, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) must assess their safety "in use". If relevant for risk, the safety of the main impurities, reaction and degradation products originating from the manufacturing process is also evaluated...
May 28, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543740/global-regulatory-requirements-for-mutagenicity-assessment-in-the-registration-of-industrial-chemicals
#7
REVIEW
Zhiying Ji, Nicholas S Ball, Matthew J LeBaron
Mutagenicity is an important toxicological endpoint that requires thorough evaluation during the industrial chemical registration process. Regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in registration of industrial chemicals vary in geographic regions (and in some cases by intended application). Here we compile the mutagenicity testing requirements for registration of industrial chemicals from representative geographic regions (in alphabetical order), that is Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union (EU), India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and United States (US)...
May 25, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543436/prenatal-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-increases-allergic-asthma-risk-with-methylation-changes-in-mice
#8
Sonja Christensen, Zeina Jaffar, Elizabeth Cole, Virginia Porter, Maria Ferrini, Britten Postma, Kent E Pinkerton, Mihi Yang, Yang Jee Kim, Luke Montrose, Kevan Roberts, Andrij Holian, Yoon Hee Cho
Allergic asthma remains an inadequately understood disease. In utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been identified as an environmental exposure that can increase an individual's asthma risk. To improve our understanding of asthma onset and development, we examined the effect of in utero ETS exposure on allergic disease susceptibility in an asthmatic phenotype using a house dust mite (HDM) allergen-induced murine model. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or ETS during gestation, and their offspring were further exposed to HDM at 6-7 weeks old to induce allergic inflammation...
May 25, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485542/use-of-genetic-toxicity-data-in-ghs-mutagenicity-classification-and-labeling-of-substances
#9
Nicholas S Ball, Heli M Hollnagel
One of the key outcomes of testing the potential genotoxicity or mutagenicity of a substance is the conclusion on whether the substance should be classified as a germ cell mutagen and the significance of this for other endpoints such as carcinogenicity. The basis for this conclusion are the criteria presented in classification and labelling systems such as the Globally Harmonized System for classification and labeling (GHS). This article reviews the classification criteria for germ cell mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and how they are applied to substances with evidence of mutagenicity...
May 9, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436560/development-of-a-high-throughput-genotoxicity-assay-using-umu-test-strains-expressing-human-cytochrome-p450s-and-nadph-p450-reductase-and-bacterial-o-acetyltransferase
#10
Hisako Hori, Daisuke Hirata, Wataru Fujii, Yoshimitsu Oda
Umu test is one of the in vitro genotoxicity test that has been used widely. It was developed as a high-throughput test system using the 96-well microplate. We have previously constructed new umu test strains for the evaluation of genotoxicity of procarcinogenic metabolic products formed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In this study, a highly sensitive high-throughput genotoxicity test was developed using four umu test strains (OY1002/1A1, OY1002/1B1, OY1002/1A2, and OY1002/3A4) that express human CYPs and NADPH-P450 reductase...
April 24, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621032/applied-genetic-toxicology-from-principles-to-practice
#11
EDITORIAL
Catherine F Gibbons, Matthew J LeBaron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485537/mechanisms-of-dna-damage-repair-and-mutagenesis
#12
REVIEW
Nimrat Chatterjee, Graham C Walker
Living organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of DNA damaging agents that can impact health and modulate disease-states. However, robust DNA repair and damage-bypass mechanisms faithfully protect the DNA by either removing or tolerating the damage to ensure an overall survival. Deviations in this fine-tuning are known to destabilize cellular metabolic homeostasis, as exemplified in diverse cancers where disruption or deregulation of DNA repair pathways results in genome instability. Because routinely used biological, physical and chemical agents impact human health, testing their genotoxicity and regulating their use have become important...
June 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650663/next-generation-testing-strategy-for-assessment-of-genomic-damage-a-conceptual-framework-and-considerations
#13
REVIEW
Kerry L Dearfield, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, Jeffrey C Bemis, R Daniel Benz, George R Douglas, Rosalie K Elespuru, George E Johnson, David J Kirkland, Matthew J LeBaron, Albert P Li, Francesco Marchetti, Lynn H Pottenger, Emiel Rorije, Jennifer Y Tanir, Veronique Thybaud, Jan van Benthem, Carole L Yauk, Errol Zeiger, Mirjam Luijten
For several decades, regulatory testing schemes for genetic damage have been standardized where the tests being utilized examined mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal damage. This has served the genetic toxicity community well when most of the substances being tested were amenable to such assays. The outcome from this testing is usually a dichotomous (yes/no) evaluation of test results, and in many instances, the information is only used to determine whether a substance has carcinogenic potential or not...
June 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444994/induction-of-micronuclei-and-cell-cycle-arrest-by-some-tri-and-tetrachlorobiphenyls-in-mammalian-cells-deficient-in-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes
#14
Haiyan Wang, Liwen Wei, Yifan Wu, Hansi Jia, Hao Jiang, Yungang Liu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with continued public health concerns. The lower chlorinated biphenyls are supposed to be mutagenic following metabolic activation. However, in a preliminary study, we recently observed induction of micronuclei by several PCBs in a subclone of Chinese hamster V79 cell line, V79-Mz, which is deficient in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities. In this study, metabolism-free genotoxicity of PCBs was investigated, using 10 tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls, in V79, V79-Mz, and human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines...
May 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444993/comparative-tumor-promotion-assessment-of-e-cigarette-and-cigarettes-using-the-in-vitro-bhas-42-cell-transformation-assay
#15
Damien Breheny, Oluwatobiloba Oke, Kamala Pant, Marianna Gaça
In vitro cell transformation assays (CTA) are used to assess the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and complex mixtures and can detect nongenotoxic as well as genotoxic carcinogens. The Bhas 42 CTA has been developed with both initiation and promotion protocols to distinguish between these two carcinogen classes. Cigarette smoke is known to be carcinogenic and is positive in in vitro genotoxicity assays. Cigarette smoke also contains nongenotoxic carcinogens and is a tumour promoter and cocarcinogen in vivo...
May 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436563/an-in-vitro-system-for-measuring-genotoxicity-mediated-by-human-cyp3a4-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Michael Fasullo, Julian Freedland, Nicholas St John, Cinzia Cera, Patricia Egner, Matthew Hartog, Xinxin Ding
P450 activity is required to metabolically activate many chemical carcinogens, rendering them highly genotoxic. CYP3A4 is the most abundantly expressed P450 enzyme in the liver, accounting for most drug metabolism and constituting 50% of all hepatic P450 activity. CYP3A4 is also expressed in extrahepatic tissues, including the intestine. However, the role of CYP3A4 in activating chemical carcinogens into potent genotoxins is unclear. To facilitate efforts to determine whether CYP3A4, per se, can activate carcinogens into potent genotoxins, we expressed human CYP3A4 in the DNA-repair mutant (rad4 rad51) strain of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tested the novel, recombinant yeast strain for ability to report CYP3A4-mediated genotoxicity of a well-known genotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 )...
May 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436537/error-prone-replication-bypass-of-the-imidazole-ring-opened-formamidopyrimidine-deoxyguanosine-adduct
#17
Yan Sha, Irina G Minko, Chanchal K Malik, Carmelo J Rizzo, R Stephen Lloyd
Addition of hydroxyl radicals to the C8 position of 2'-deoxyguanosine generates an 8-hydroxyguanyl radical that can be converted into either 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine or N-(2-deoxy-d-pentofuranosyl)-N-(2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine) (Fapy-dG). The Fapy-dG adduct can adopt different conformations and in particular, can exist in an unnatural α anomeric configuration in addition to canonical β configuration. Previous studies reported that in 5'-TGN-3' sequences, Fapy-dG predominantly induced G → T transversions in both mammalian cells and Escherichia coli, suggesting that mutations could be formed either via insertion of a dA opposite the 5' dT due to primer/template misalignment or as result of direct miscoding...
May 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370325/mutagenicity-and-oxidative-damage-induced-by-an-organic-extract-of-the-particulate-emissions-from-a-simulation-of-the-deepwater-horizon-surface-oil-burns
#18
David M DeMarini, Sarah H Warren, Katelyn Lavrich, Alexis Flen, Johanna Aurell, William Mitchell, Dale Greenwell, William Preston, Judith E Schmid, William P Linak, Michael D Hays, James M Samet, Brian K Gullett
Emissions from oil fires associated with the "Deepwater Horizon" explosion and oil discharge that began on April 20, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed chemically to only a limited extent at the time but were shown to induce oxidative damage in vitro and in mice. To extend this work, we burned oil floating on sea water and performed extensive chemical analyses of the emissions (Gullett et al., Marine Pollut Bull, in press, ). Here, we examine the ability of a dichloromethane extract of the particulate material with an aerodynamic size ≤ 2...
April 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370324/investigation-of-toxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-cold-atmospheric-argon-plasma
#19
T Maisch, A K Bosserhoff, P Unger, J Heider, T Shimizu, J L Zimmermann, G E Morfill, M Landthaler, S Karrer
Cold atmospheric argon plasma is recognized as a new contact free approach for the decrease of bacterial load on chronic wounds in patients. So far very limited data are available on its toxicity and mutagenicity on eukaryotic cells. Thus, the toxic/mutagenic potential of cold atmospheric argon plasma using the MicroPlaSter β(®) , which has been used efficiently in humans treating chronic and acute wounds, was investigated using the XTT assay in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and the HGPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) assay with V79 Chinese hamster cells...
April 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370323/recombinant-cells-in-the-lung-increase-with-age-via-de-novo-recombination-events-and-clonal-expansion
#20
Takafumi Kimoto, Jennifer E Kay, Na Li, Bevin P Engelward
Homologous recombination (HR) is a critical DNA repair pathway, which is usually error-free, but can sometimes lead to cancer-promoting mutations. Despite the importance of HR as a driver of mutations, the spontaneous frequency of such mutations has proven difficult to study. To gain insight to location, cell type, and subsequent proliferation of mutated cells, we used the Rosa26 Direct Repeat (RaDR) mice for in situ detection and quantification of recombinant cells in the lung. We developed a method for automated enumeration of recombinant cells in lung tissue using the Metafer 4 slide-scanning platform...
April 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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