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Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Peter Sykora, Ylenia Chiari, Andrew Heaton, Nickolas Moreno, Scott Glaberman, Robert W Sobol
DNA damage has been linked to genomic instability and the progressive breakdown of cellular and organismal homeostasis, leading to the onset of disease and reduced longevity. Insults to DNA from endogenous sources include base deamination, base hydrolysis, base alkylation, and metabolism-induced oxidative damage that can lead to single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. Alternatively, exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation or ultra-violet light, can also contribute to exogenously derived DNA damage...
March 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Neal Sondheimer, Brett Kaufman, Martin Picard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Krista L Dobo, Jennifer R Cheung, William C Gunther, Michelle O Kenyon
2-Hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (HOPO) is a useful coupling reagent for synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients. It has been reported to be weakly mutagenic in the Ames assay (Ding W et al. []: J Chromatogr A 1386:47-52). According to the ICH M7 guidance (2014) regarding control of mutagenic impurities to limit potential carcinogenic risk, mutagens require control in drug substances such that exposure not exceeds the threshold of toxicological concern. Given the weak response observed in the Ames assay and the lack of any obvious structural features that could confer DNA reactivity we were interested to determine if the results were reproducible and investigate the role of potentially confounding experimental parameters...
February 26, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Célia Ventura, António Sousa-Uva, João Lavinha, Maria João Silva
The widespread application of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on industrial, biomedical, and consumer products can represent an emerging respiratory occupational hazard. Particularly, their similarity with the fiber-like shape of asbestos have raised a strong concern about their carcinogenic potential. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been supporting this view by pointing to immunotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of some CNT that may conduct to pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, and bronchioloalveolar hyperplasia in rodents...
February 26, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Aiman Q Khan, Jeffrey B Travers, Michael G Kemp
The growing incidence of melanoma is a serious public health issue that merits a thorough understanding of potential causative risk factors, which includes exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Though UVR has been classified as a complete carcinogen and has long been recognized for its ability to damage genomic DNA through both direct and indirect means, the precise mechanisms by which the UVA and UVB components of UVR contribute to the pathogenesis of melanoma have not been clearly defined. In this review, we therefore highlight recent studies that have addressed roles for UVA radiation in the generation of DNA damage and in modulating the subsequent cellular responses to DNA damage in melanocytes, which are the cell type that gives rise to melanoma...
February 21, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Ali Kermanizadeh, Caroline Chauché, David M Brown, Steffen Loft, Peter Møller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Sander Bekeschus, Anke Schmidt, Axel Kramer, Hans-Robert Metelmann, Frank Adler, Thomas von Woedtke, Felix Niessner, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Kristian Wende
Promising cold physical plasma sources have been developed in the field of plasma medicine. An important prerequisite to their clinical use is lack of genotoxic effects in cells. During optimization of one or even different plasma sources for a specific application, large numbers of samples need to be analyzed. There are soft and easy-to-assess markers for genotoxic stress such as phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX) but only few tests are accredited by the OECD with regard to mutagenicity detection. The micronucleus (MN) assay is among them but often requires manual counting of many thousands of cells per sample under the microscope...
February 8, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Si Chen, Zhen Ren, Dianke Yu, Baitang Ning, Lei Guo
Dronedarone, an antiarrhythmic drug, has been marketed as an alternative to amiodarone. The use of dronedarone has been associated with severe liver injury; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the possible mechanisms of dronedarone induced liver toxicity were characterized in HepG2 cells. Dronedarone decreased cells viability and induced apoptosis and DNA damage in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the HepG2 cells with apoptosis inhibitors (caspase-3, -8, and -9) or the necrosis inhibitor (Necrox-5), partially, but significantly, reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase...
February 5, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
N K Chaudhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Ian W H Jarvis, Zachary Enlo-Scott, Eszter Nagy, Ian S Mudway, Teresa D Tetley, Volker M Arlt, David H Phillips
Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, including lung cancer. Ambient PM represents a heterogeneous mixture of chemical classes including transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives such as nitro-PAHs, many of which are classified as putative carcinogens. As the primary site of human exposure to PM is the lungs, we investigated the response of two alveolar epithelial cell lines, the tumour-derived A549 and newly described TT1 cells, to fine and coarse PM collected from background and roadside locations...
January 25, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Susana Pastor, Elisabeth Coll, Lara Rodríguez-Ribera, Elitsa Stoyanova, Zuray F Corredor, Ricard Marcos
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients present high levels of phosphorus and calcium products in serum, which contribute to the development of vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease, and to low iron stores and carnitine deficiency. For these reasons, ESRD patients are generally supplemented with different medicines. Some of the most common treatments include the use of Carnicor, Venofer, and Sevelamer drugs. Carnicor is used as a source of L-carnitine, acting as antioxidant and neuroprotector. Venofer is used to reduce the deficit of iron...
January 23, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Sidney Green, Dan D Levy, Ronald J Lorentzen, Errol Zeiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Svetlana L Avlasevich, Sumee Khanal, Priyanka Singh, Dorothea K Torous, Jeffrey C Bemis, Stephen D Dertinger
The current report describes a newly devised method for automatically scoring the incidence of rat hepatocyte micronuclei (MNHEP) via flow cytometry, with concurrent assessments of hepatocyte proliferation-frequency of Ki-67-positive nuclei, and the proportion of polyploid nuclei. Proof-of-concept data are provided from experiments performed with 6-week old male Crl:CD(SD) rats exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or quinoline (QUIN) for 3 or 14 consecutive days. Non-perfused liver tissue was collected 4 days after cessation of treatment in the case of 3-day studies, or 1 day after last administration in the case of 14-day studies for processing and flow cytometric analysis...
January 22, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Brett A Kaufman, Martin Picard, Neal Sondheimer
The inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from mother to child is complicated by differences in the stability of the mitochondrial genome. Although the germ line mtDNA is protected through the minimization of replication between generations, sequence variation can occur either through mutation or due to changes in the ratio between distinct genomes that are present in the mother (known as heteroplasmy). Thus, the unpredictability in transgenerational inheritance of mtDNA may cause the emergence of pathogenic mitochondrial and cellular phenotypes in offspring...
January 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Xiaoyan Liu, Zheng-Wen Nie, Ying-Ying Gao, Li Chen, Shu-Yuan Yin, Xia Zhang, Cuifang Hao, Yi-Liang Miao
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a medicine to prevent tooth decay; however, excessive NaF could cause a pathological damage to the health. Recent studies showed that NaF impaired mouse oocyte maturation, included of abnormal spindle configuration, actin cap formation, cortical granule-free domain formation, and the following development after fertilization. However, few studies used large animals as models to study the toxicology of NaF on oocytes maturation. We proposed a hypothesis that NaF would affect the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes and DNA methylation pattern of imprinted genes in oocytes...
December 29, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Pedro Aurio Maia Filho, Tarcísio Paulo de Almeida Filho, Caroline de Fátima Aquino Moreina-Nunes, Rommel Rodriguez Burbano, José Alexandre Rodrigues de Lemos, Edivaldo Herculano Correa de Oliveira, Bruno Coêlho Cavalcanti, Jamilly Florêncio Pereira, Maritza Cavalcante Barbosa, Fernando Barroso Duarte, Marilena Facundo de Castro, Acy Telles de Souza Quixadá, Romélia Pinheiro Gonçalves Lemes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Bridgett Knox, Yong Wang, Lora J Rogers, Jiekun Xuan, Dianke Yu, Huaijin Guan, Jiwei Chen, Tieliu Shi, Baitang Ning, Susan A Kadlubar
The transporter associated with antigen processing 2 (TAP2) is involved in the development of multidrug resistance and the etiology of immunological diseases. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of TAP2 can be perturbed by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the gene via interactions with microRNAs. Using a series of in silico assays, we selected the candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) with the potential to interact with functional SNPs of TAP2. The SNP rs241456-located in the 3'-UTR of TAP2-resides in a potential binding site for hsa-miR-1270 and hsa-miR-620...
March 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
P David Josephy, Joban Dhanoa, George Elzawy, Kayla Heney, Laurenne Petrie, Chantel Senis
2,6-Dicyano-4-nitroaniline and 2-cyano-4-nitroaniline (CNNA; 2-amino-5-nitrobenzonitrile) are potent mutagens in the Ames test, even though unsubstituted nitroanilines (NAs) are no more than weak mutagens. These compounds are putative reduction products of many commercial azo dyes, including Disperse Blue 165, Disperse Blue 337, Disperse Red 73, Disperse Red 82, Disperse Violet 33, and Disperse Violet 63. We have examined the mutagenicity in strains TA98 and YG1024 of a series of commercially-available isomers of CNNA, and some related compounds, to probe the relationship between structure and genotoxic activity in this class of compounds...
March 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Emma Åkerlund, Francesca Cappellini, Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Shafiqul Islam, Sara Skoglund, Remco Derr, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Giel Hendriks, Hanna L Karlsson
Nickel (Ni) compounds are classified as carcinogenic to humans but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Furthermore, effects related to nanoparticles (NPs) of Ni have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Ni and NiO NPs and compare the effect to soluble Ni from NiCl2 . We employed different models; i.e., exposure of (1) human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) followed by DNA strand break analysis (comet assay and γ-H2AX staining); (2) six different mouse embryonic stem (mES) reporter cell lines (ToxTracker) that are constructed to exhibit fluorescence upon the induction of various pathways of relevance for (geno)toxicity and cancer; and (3) mES cells followed by mutagenicity testing (Hprt assay)...
December 15, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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