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Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714573/assessment-of-the-dna-damaging-potential-of-environmental-chemicals-using-a-quantitative-high-throughput-screening-approach-to-measure-p53-activation
#1
Kristine L Witt, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Menghang Xia, Ruili Huang, Jinghua Zhao, Scott S Auerbach, Junguk Hur, Raymond R Tice
Genotoxicity potential is a critical component of any comprehensive toxicological profile. Compounds that induce DNA or chromosomal damage often activate p53, a transcription factor essential to cell cycle regulation. Thus, within the US Tox21 Program, we screened a library of ∼10,000 (∼8,300 unique) environmental compounds and drugs for activation of the p53-signaling pathway using a quantitative high-throughput screening assay employing HCT-116 cells (p53(+/+) ) containing a stably integrated β-lactamase reporter gene under control of the p53 response element (p53RE)...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714549/increased-level-of-dna-damage-in-some-organs-of-obese-zucker-rats-by-%C3%AE-h2ax-analysis
#2
Alessia Azzarà, Anna Chiaramonte, Erika Filomeni, Barbara Pinto, Stefano Mazzoni, Simona Piaggi, Maria Angela Guzzardi, Fabrizio Bruschi, Patricia Iozzo, Roberto Scarpato
In a recent study, we showed that lymphocytes of obese Italian children/adolescents displayed levels of double strand breaks (DSB), assayed as serine 139-phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), about eightfold higher than normal weight controls, and that 30% of this damage-generated micronuclei. These findings suggested that obese children could be at increased risk of obesity-mediated cancer later in life. We therefore aimed to assess the level of γ-H2AX in a genetic animal model of obesity (Zucker rat) to identify a genotoxic/carcinogenic risk in some organs...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714190/polymorphisms-of-xenobiotic-metabolizing-genes-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-patients-with-lynch-syndrome-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#3
Abram Bunya Kamiza, Jeng-Fu You, Wen-Chang Wang, Reiping Tang, Chun-Yu Chang, Huei-Tzu Chien, Chih-Hsiung Lai, Li-Ling Chiu, Tsai-Ping Lo, Kuan-Yi Hung, Chao A Hsiung, Chih-Ching Yeh
Cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) are crucial for metabolism and clearance of xenobiotics. This study investigated whether CYP, GST, and NAT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with Lynch syndrome. The interaction between these SNPs and cigarette smoking or meat consumption was also explored. We identified 270 patients with Lynch syndrome from the Taiwan Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Consortium...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714172/a-study-of-dna-damage-in-buccal-cells-of-consumers-of-well-and-or-tap-water-using-the-comet-assay-assessment-of-occupational-exposure-to-genotoxicants
#4
Celia Vazquez Boucard, Larisa Lee-Cruz, Laurence Mercier, Martín Ramírez Orozco, Vania Serrano Pinto, Gerardo Anguiano, Linette Cazares, Daniel Díaz
Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714084/applying-the-erythrocyte-pig-a-assay-concept-to-rat-epididymal-sperm-for-germ-cell-mutagenicity-evaluation
#5
Zhiying Ji, Matthew J LeBaron
The Pig-a assay, a recently developed in vivo somatic gene mutation assay, is based on the identification of mutant erythrocytes that have an altered repertoire of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface markers. We hypothesized that the erythrocyte Pig-a assay concept could be applied to rat cauda epididymal spermatozoa (sperm) for germ cell mutagenicity evaluation. We used GPI-anchored CD59 as the Pig-a mutation marker and examined the frequency of CD59-negative sperm using flow cytometry...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646506/three-lessons-for-genetic-toxicology-from-baseball-analytics
#6
EDITORIAL
Stephen D Dertinger
In many respects the evolution of baseball statistics mirrors advances made in the field of genetic toxicology. From its inception, baseball and statistics have been inextricably linked. Generations of players and fans have used a number of relatively simple measurements to describe team and individual player's current performance, as well as for historical record-keeping purposes. Over the years, baseball analytics has progressed in several important ways. Early advances were based on deriving more meaningful metrics from simpler forerunners...
June 24, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640454/direct-quantification-of-gamma-h2ax-by-cell-based-high-throughput-screening-for-evaluation-of-genotoxicity-of-pesticides-in-a-human-thyroid-cell-lines
#7
Jerome M Hershman, Bryan France, Kevin Hon, Robert Damoiseaux
Genotoxicity is thought to be the cause of many cancers. Genotoxicity due to environmental toxins may be partly responsible for the dramatic increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer over the past two decades. Here, we present a fully automatable assay platform that directly quantifies the phosphorylation of nuclear histone gamma H2AX (γH2AX), a specific cellular marker for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) via immunohistochemistry and laser scanning cytometry. It multiplexes γH2AX with total cell number measured as propidium iodide and calculates the percentage of cells with DSBs...
June 22, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612367/association-between-genetic-variants-in-the-promoter-region-of-a-novel-antisense-long-noncoding-rna-rp11-392p7-6-and-colorectal-cancer-risk
#8
Mingjuan Jin, Simeng Gu, Ding Ye, Yingjun Li, Fangyuan Jing, Qilong Li, Kun Chen
There is a widespread occurrence of antisense transcripts' regulation on cancer-related genes in cancer biology. RP11-392P7.6 is antisense to the coding region of cancer-related gene GPRC5D, which has been found recently. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of tagSNPs in the promoter region of RP11-392P7.6 with the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a two-stage case-control study, with a discovery set (320 cases and 319 controls) and a validation set (501 cases and 538 controls). Four tagSNPs (rs1531970, rs1642199, rs4763903, and rs10845671) were selected based on 1000 Genomes Project data and genotyped by using the Sequenom MassARRAY genotyping platform...
June 14, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573657/safety-assessment-and-global-regulatory-requirements-for-genetic-toxicity-evaluations-of-medical-devices
#9
REVIEW
Robert T Przygoda
Medical devices have the potential to leach substances which, depending on the contact category of the device, can directly contact the human body. Hence, appropriate evaluation for genetic toxicity as part of the biocompatibility risk assessment is critical. The biocompatibility risk assessment of medical devices is guided by the ISO 10993 series of standards. The recently revised ISO 10993-3 (2014) provides guidance on evaluating the genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity potential of medical devices...
June 2, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561379/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-131-i-and-60-co-in-follicular-thyroid-cancer-cell-wro-with-and-without-recombinant-human-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-treatment
#10
Flávia Gomes Silva Valgôde, Márcia Augusta da Silva, Daniel Perez Vieira, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto Ribela, Paolo Bartolini, Kayo Okazaki
Normally, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) tends to be biologically indolent, highly curable and has an excellent prognosis. However, the treatment may fail when the cancer has lost radioiodine avidity. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of (131) I and (60) Co and radioiodine uptake in WRO cells, derived from DTC, harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation. WRO cells showed a relatively slow cell cycle of 96.3 h with an unstable karyotype containing various double minutes...
May 31, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556360/association-of-cytochrome-p450-1b1-haplotypes-with-head-and-neck-cancer-risk
#11
Tridiv Katiyar, Shailendra S Maurya, Feza Hasan, Arvind P Singh, Anwar J Khan, Rahat Hadi, Sudhir Singh, Madan L B Bhatt, Devendra Parmar
Genetic polymorphisms have been reported in several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, including CYP1B1 which metabolically activates procarcinogens present in tobacco to carcinogenic intermediates. This study used a case-control approach in North Indian population to determine associations between genetic variants in CYP1B1 and risk of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). We examined the genotype and haplotype frequencies at various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including SNPs previously reported in the promoter region and intron 1 of CYP1B1 in Caucasians...
May 28, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556291/prenatal-phthalate-exposure-and-altered-patterns-of-dna-methylation-in-cord-blood
#12
Olivia Solomon, Paul Yousefi, Karen Huen, Robert B Gunier, Maria Escudero-Fung, Lisa F Barcellos, Brenda Eskenazi, Nina Holland
Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors with ubiquitous exposures in the general population including pregnant women, and they have been linked with a number of adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between in utero phthalate exposure and altered patterns of cord blood DNA methylation in 336 Mexican-American newborns. Concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in maternal urine samples collected at 13 and 26 weeks gestation as a measure of fetal exposure...
May 28, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556235/genotoxicity-testing-approaches-for-the-safety-assessment-of-substances-used-in-food-contact-materials-prior-to-their-authorization-in-the-european-union
#13
REVIEW
Claudia Bolognesi, Anna F Castoldi, Riccardo Crebelli, Eric Barthélémy, Daniela Maurici, Detlef Wölfle, Katharina Volk, Laurence Castle
Food contact materials are all materials and articles intended to come directly or indirectly into contact with food. Before being included in the positive European "Union list" of authorized substances (monomers, other starting substances and additives) for plastic food contact materials, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) must assess their safety "in use". If relevant for risk, the safety of the main impurities, reaction and degradation products originating from the manufacturing process is also evaluated...
May 28, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543740/global-regulatory-requirements-for-mutagenicity-assessment-in-the-registration-of-industrial-chemicals
#14
REVIEW
Zhiying Ji, Nicholas S Ball, Matthew J LeBaron
Mutagenicity is an important toxicological endpoint that requires thorough evaluation during the industrial chemical registration process. Regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in registration of industrial chemicals vary in geographic regions (and in some cases by intended application). Here we compile the mutagenicity testing requirements for registration of industrial chemicals from representative geographic regions (in alphabetical order), that is Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union (EU), India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and United States (US)...
May 25, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485542/use-of-genetic-toxicity-data-in-ghs-mutagenicity-classification-and-labeling-of-substances
#15
Nicholas S Ball, Heli M Hollnagel
One of the key outcomes of testing the potential genotoxicity or mutagenicity of a substance is the conclusion on whether the substance should be classified as a germ cell mutagen and the significance of this for other endpoints such as carcinogenicity. The basis for this conclusion are the criteria presented in classification and labelling systems such as the Globally Harmonized System for classification and labeling (GHS). This article reviews the classification criteria for germ cell mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and how they are applied to substances with evidence of mutagenicity...
May 9, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714194/erratum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640505/associations-between-arsenic-3-oxidation-state-methyltransferase-as3mt-and-n-6-adenine-specific-dna-methyltransferase-1-n6amt1-polymorphisms-arsenic-metabolism-and-cancer-risk-in-a-chilean-population
#17
Rosemarie de la Rosa, Craig Steinmaus, Nicholas K Akers, Lucia Conde, Catterina Ferreccio, David Kalman, Kevin R Zhang, Christine F Skibola, Allan H Smith, Luoping Zhang, Martyn T Smith
Inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism have been linked to arsenic-related disease risks. Arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the primary enzyme involved in arsenic metabolism, and we previously demonstrated in vitro that N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) also methylates the toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA), to the less toxic dimethylarsonic acid (DMA). Here, we evaluated whether AS3MT and N6AMT1 gene polymorphisms alter arsenic methylation and impact iAs-related cancer risks...
July 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543436/prenatal-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-increases-allergic-asthma-risk-with-methylation-changes-in-mice
#18
Sonja Christensen, Zeina Jaffar, Elizabeth Cole, Virginia Porter, Maria Ferrini, Britten Postma, Kent E Pinkerton, Mihi Yang, Yang Jee Kim, Luke Montrose, Kevan Roberts, Andrij Holian, Yoon Hee Cho
Allergic asthma remains an inadequately understood disease. In utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been identified as an environmental exposure that can increase an individual's asthma risk. To improve our understanding of asthma onset and development, we examined the effect of in utero ETS exposure on allergic disease susceptibility in an asthmatic phenotype using a house dust mite (HDM) allergen-induced murine model. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or ETS during gestation, and their offspring were further exposed to HDM at 6-7 weeks old to induce allergic inflammation...
July 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621032/applied-genetic-toxicology-from-principles-to-practice
#19
EDITORIAL
Catherine F Gibbons, Matthew J LeBaron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485537/mechanisms-of-dna-damage-repair-and-mutagenesis
#20
REVIEW
Nimrat Chatterjee, Graham C Walker
Living organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of DNA damaging agents that can impact health and modulate disease-states. However, robust DNA repair and damage-bypass mechanisms faithfully protect the DNA by either removing or tolerating the damage to ensure an overall survival. Deviations in this fine-tuning are known to destabilize cellular metabolic homeostasis, as exemplified in diverse cancers where disruption or deregulation of DNA repair pathways results in genome instability. Because routinely used biological, physical and chemical agents impact human health, testing their genotoxicity and regulating their use have become important...
June 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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