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Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080648/vitamin-d-mechanisms-of-action-and-clinical-applications
#1
EDITORIAL
J Christopher Gallagher, Daniel D Bikle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080647/vitamin-d-hormone-where-do-we-stand-where-are-we-heading
#2
EDITORIAL
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Maria Fleseriu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080646/the-use-of-vitamin-d-metabolites-and-analogues-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Ladan Zand, Rajiv Kumar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are associated with abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism, known as CKD-bone mineral disorder. CKD and ESRD cause skeletal abnormalities characterized by hyperparathyroidism, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, and frequently enhanced vascular and ectopic calcification. Hyperparathyroidism and mixed uremic osteodystrophy are the most common manifestations due to phosphate retention, reduced concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, intestinal calcium absorption, and negative calcium balance...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080645/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-bariatric-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Marlene Chakhtoura, Maya Rahme, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan
Hypovitaminosis D is common in obese patients and persists after roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Several societies recommend screening for vitamin D deficiency before bariatric surgery, and replacement doses of 3000 IU/d and up to 50,000 IU 1 to 3 times per week, in case of deficiency, with periodic monitoring. These regimens are mostly based on expert opinion. Large trials are needed to assess the vitamin D dose response, by type of bariatric surgery, and evaluate the effect on surrogate markers of skeletal outcomes...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080644/vitamin-d-effect-on-bone-mineral-density-and-fractures
#5
REVIEW
Ian R Reid
One hundred years ago, vitamin D was identified as the cause and cure of osteomalacia. This role remains firmly established. Vitamin D influences skeletal mineralization principally through the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. It has been proposed that vitamin D has direct beneficial effects on bone (besides the prevention of osteomalacia), but these have been difficult to establish in clinical trials. Meta-analyses of vitamin D trials show no effects on bone density or fracture risk when the baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D is >40 nmol/L...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080643/effect-of-vitamin-d-on-falls-and-physical-performance
#6
REVIEW
Ruban Dhaliwal, John F Aloia
Recent understanding has highlighted the importance of extraskeletal role of vitamin D. Despite numerous observational and interventional studies over the last two decades, the apparent divergent clinical findings have intensified the controversy regarding this role of vitamin D in older adults. This article reviews the existing literature and summarizes the current knowledge of vitamin D status and vitamin D supplementation on falls and physical performance, describes the putative mechanisms underlying this association, and reflects on the controversy surrounding vitamin D recommendations in older adults...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080642/current-controversies-are-free-vitamin-metabolite-levels-a-more-accurate-assessment-of-vitamin-d-status-than-total-levels
#7
REVIEW
Daniel D Bikle, Sofie Malmstroem, Janice Schwartz
The free hormone hypothesis postulates that only the nonbound fraction (the free fraction) of hormones that otherwise circulate in blood bound to their carrier proteins is able to enter cells and exert their biologic effects. For the vitamin D metabolites less than 1% (0.4% for 1,25(OH)2D and 0.03% for 25(OH)D) is free, with more than 99% bound to the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and albumin (approximately 85% and 15%, respectively). Assays to measure the free vitamin D metabolite levels have been developed, and initial studies indicated their value in subjects with altered DBP levels...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080641/toward-clarity-in-clinical-vitamin-d-status-assessment-25-oh-d-assay-standardization
#8
REVIEW
Neil Binkley, Graham D Carter
Widespread variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assays continues to compromise efforts to develop clinical and public health guidelines regarding vitamin D status. The Vitamin D Standardization Program helps alleviate this problem. Reference measurement procedures and standard reference materials have been developed to allow current, prospective, and retrospective standardization of 25(OH)D results. Despite advances in 25(OH)D measurement, substantial variability in clinical laboratory 25(OH)D measurement persists...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080640/dietary-vitamin-d-intake-for-the-elderly-population-update-on-the-recommended-dietary-allowance-for-vitamin-d
#9
REVIEW
Lynette M Smith, J Christopher Gallagher
Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency can be diagnosed with measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). Most vitamin D is derived from sunlight (80%), so serum 25OHD levels are lowest in late winter and early spring. Dietary vitamin D in North America is small, about 100 to 200 IU daily. A recent review of the literature shows many association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency to several diseases. Large randomized trials of vitamin D are underway and soon there may be answers as to whether vitamin D is clinically effective and what level of serum 25OHD is necessary...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080639/global-overview-of-vitamin-d-status
#10
REVIEW
Natasja van Schoor, Paul Lips
Vitamin D deficiency occurs all over the world, mainly in the Middle East, China, Mongolia, and India. This article focuses on the vitamin D status in adults. Risk groups include older persons, pregnant women, and non-Western immigrants. Adequate vitamin D status, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D greater than 50 nmol/L, is present in less than 50% of the world population, at least in winter. Preventative strategies, such as increasing fish consumption, fortification of foods, use of vitamin D supplements, and advice for moderate sunlight exposure, are warranted...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080638/biology-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-the-vitamin-d-hormone
#11
REVIEW
J Wesley Pike, Sylvia Christakos
The central role of hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is to regulate calcium and phosphorus homeostasis via actions in intestine, kidney, and bone. These and other actions in many cell types not involved in mineral metabolism are mediated by the vitamin D receptor. Recent studies using genome-wide scale techniques have extended fundamental ideas regarding vitamin D-mediated control of gene expression while simultaneously revealing a series of new concepts. This article summarizes the current view of the biological actions of the vitamin D hormone and focuses on new concepts that drive the understanding of the mechanisms through which vitamin D operates...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080637/genetic-and-racial-differences-in-the-vitamin-d-endocrine-system
#12
REVIEW
Roger Bouillon
Twin studies indicate that genetic factors may explain about 50% of the variation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). Polymorphisms of 3 genes, delta-7-sterol-reductase, CYP2R1, and DBP/GC (and maybe CYP24A1) combined, can explain about 5% to 10% of the variation in serum 25OHD. These polymorphisms are found in nearly all populations. The variation in serum 25OHD found in different areas and populations in the world is mainly due to environmental and lifestyle factors, not truly dependent on racial differences...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080636/genetic-diseases-of-vitamin-d-metabolizing-enzymes
#13
REVIEW
Glenville Jones, Marie Laure Kottler, Karl Peter Schlingmann
Vitamin D metabolism involves 3 highly specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (25-hydroxylase, 1α-hydroxylase, and 24-hydroxylase) involved in the activation of vitamin D3 to the hormonal form, 1,25-(OH)2D3, and the inactivation of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to biliary excretory products. Mutations of the activating enzymes CYP2R1 and CYP27B1 cause lack of normal 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis and result in rickets whereas mutations of the inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 cause build-up of excess 1,25-(OH)2D3 and result in hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080635/regulation-of-immune-function-by-vitamin-d-and-its-use-in-diseases-of-immunity
#14
REVIEW
An-Sofie Vanherwegen, Conny Gysemans, Chantal Mathieu
Evidence exists for a role for vitamin D and its active metabolites in modulating immune functions. In animal models, vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk for autoimmunity in genetically predisposed subjects and increases in susceptibility to infections. In addition, high-dose vitamin D can improve immune health, prevent autoimmunity, and improve defense against infections. In humans, evidence exists on associations between vitamin D deficiency and impaired immune function, leading to autoimmunity in genetically predisposed people and increased risk for infections; data on therapeutic immune effects of vitamin D supplementation when vitamin D levels are already sufficient are lacking...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080634/role-of-vitamin-d-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Vikrant Rai, Devendra K Agrawal
Vitamin D is critical in mineral homeostasis and skeletal health and plays a regulatory role in nonskeletal tissues. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and obesity, both strong risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, cardiac fibrosis, heart failure, aneurysm, peripheral arterial disease, hypertension, and atherosclerosis, are major causes of morbidity and mortality...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080633/vitamin-d-receptor-signaling-and-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Moray J Campbell, Donald L Trump
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds the secosteroid hormone 1,25(OH)2D3 with high affinity and regulates gene programs that control a serum calcium levels, as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. A significant focus has been to exploit the VDR in cancer settings. Although preclinical studies have been strongly encouraging, to date clinical trials have delivered equivocal findings that have paused the clinical translation of these compounds. However, it is entirely possible that mining of genomic data will help to refine precisely what are the key anticancer actions of vitamin D compounds and where these can be used most effectively...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760241/the-current-status-and-evolution-of-hormone-testing-in-the-digital-age
#17
EDITORIAL
Richard J Auchus, Barry D Pressman, Adina F Turcu, Alan D Waxman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760240/latest-innovations-in-biochemical-and-imaging-diagnostics-in-endocrinology
#18
EDITORIAL
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Maria Fleseriu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760239/imaging-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-indications-interpretations-limits-and-pitfalls
#19
REVIEW
Run Yu, Ashley Wachsman
Imaging is critical in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). NETs share common imaging features, but each type exhibits unique features. Computed tomography scans or MRI of the abdomen is used to assess tumor burden routinely. Functional imaging with octreotide scan or gallium-68 somatostatin analog PET is used selectively to confirm diagnosis and guide therapy. Clinicians and radiologists should be familiar with the indications and interpretations of imaging modalities. Novel functional imaging modalities likely will be developed to detect small NETs, predict prognosis, guide therapeutic choices, and design novel therapies...
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760238/selected-controversies-of-radioiodine-imaging-and-therapy-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Douglas Van Nostrand
This article discusses the more controversial areas of the management of differentiated thyroid cancer, namely, the utility of pretherapy staging radioiodine scans; the prescribed activity for iodine-131 remnant ablation, adjuvant treatment, and distant metastases; preparation with thyroid hormone withdrawal versus recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone; and the classification of radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. The author reviews various aspects of the controversies, such as the recommendations of the 2015 guidelines of the American Thyroid Association, arguments for and against the various controversies, and selected references...
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
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