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Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131141/an-introduction-to-the-bone-disorders-issue
#1
EDITORIAL
Albert Shieh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131140/erratum
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131139/foreword
#3
EDITORIAL
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Maria Fleseriu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131138/primary-hyperparathyroidism-effects-on-bone-health
#4
REVIEW
Kyle A Zanocco, Michael W Yeh
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of chronic hypercalcemia. With the advent of routine calcium screening, the classic presentation of renal and osseous symptoms has been largely replaced with mild, asymptomatic disease. In hypercalcemia caused by PHPT, serum parathyroid hormone levels are either high, or inappropriately normal. A single-gland adenoma is responsible for 80% of PHPT cases. Less frequent causes include 4-gland hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma. Diminished bone mineral density and nephrolithiasis are the major current clinical sequelae...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131137/diabetes-and-bone-disease
#5
REVIEW
G Isanne Schacter, William D Leslie
The World Health Organization estimates that diabetes mellitus occurs in more than 415 million people; this number could double by the year 2040. Epidemiologic data have shown that the skeletal system may be a target of diabetes-mediated damage, leading to the development of diabetes-induced osteoporosis. T1D and T2D have been associated with an increased risk of fracture. Bone mineral density and fracture risk prediction tools developed for the general population capture some of the risk associated with diabetes...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131136/endothelin-signaling-in-bone
#6
REVIEW
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Rafia Afzal, Robert D Blank
The endothelin (ET) system includes 3 small peptide hormones and a pair of G-protein-coupled receptors. This review first outlines the ET signaling pathway and ET metabolism. Next, it summarizes the role of ET1 signaling in craniofacial development. Then, it discusses observations relating ET signaling to osteoblastic and other osteosclerotic processes in cancer. Finally, it describes recent work in our laboratory that points to endothelin signaling as an upstream mediator of WNT signaling, promoting bone matrix synthesis and mineralization...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131135/bone-fat-interaction
#7
REVIEW
Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Clifford J Rosen
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a recently identified endocrine organ capable of modulating a host of responses. Given its intimate proximity to the bone microenvironment, the impact marrow adipocytes exert on bone has attracted much interest and scientific inquiry. Although many questions and controversies remain about marrow adipocytes, multiple conditions/disease states in which alterations occur have provided clues about their function. The consensus is that MAT is associated inversely with bone density and quality...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131134/novel-therapies-for-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#8
REVIEW
Leonardo Bandeira, John P Bilezikian
Recently discovered mechanisms have assisted in developing new therapies for osteoporosis. New classes of drugs have been developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although there have been numerous advances over the past 2 decades, the search for newer therapies continues.
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131133/combined-pharmacologic-therapy-in-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#9
REVIEW
Yang Shen, Dona L Gray, Dorothy S Martinez
Antiresorptive agents for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis include selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), bisphosphonates and denoumab. Teriparatide is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved anabolic agent. Synergistic effects of combining teriparatide with an antiresorptive agent have been proposed and studied. This article reviews the trial designs and the outcomes of combination therapies. Results of the combination therapy for teriparatide and bisphosphonates were mixed; while small increases of bone density were observed in the combination therapy of teriparatide and estrogen/SERM and that of teriparatide and denosumab...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131132/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-mediated-bone-disease
#10
REVIEW
Anda R Gonciulea, Suzanne M Jan De Beur
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an important regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism and its excessive or insufficient production leads to a wide variety of skeletal disorders. This article reviews the FGF23-α-Klotho signaling pathway, highlighting the latest developments in FGF23 regulation and action, and describes the disorders associated with FGF23 excess or deficiency.
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131131/drug-related-adverse-events-of-osteoporosis-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Moin Khan, Angela M Cheung, Aliya A Khan
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with microarchitectural deterioration and increased risk of fracture. Osteoporosis therapy effectively reduces the risk of vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fracture and has been associated with increased survival. Currently approved treatments for osteoporosis include bisphosphonates, denosumab, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. This article reviews the adverse events of therapy associated with these medical interventions. Hormone replacement therapy is not included, because it is no longer indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in all countries...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131130/trabecular-bone-score-a-new-dxa-derived-measurement-for-fracture-risk-assessment
#12
REVIEW
Barbara C Silva, William D Leslie
Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel method that assesses skeletal texture from spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. TBS improves fracture-risk prediction beyond that provided by DXA bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors, and can be incorporated to the Word Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment tool (FRAX®) to enhance fracture prediction. There is insufficient evidence that TBS can be used to monitor treatment with bisphosphonates. TBS may be particularly helpful to assess fracture risk in diabetes...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131129/assessing-vitamin-d-status-in-african-americans-and-the-influence-of-vitamin-d-on-skeletal-health-parameters
#13
REVIEW
Albert Shieh, John F Aloia
In the United States, there is a significant disparity in vitamin D status among individuals of African versus European descent. Despite having lower total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared with white Americans, African Americans have higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. This article reviews classical and nonclassical vitamin D physiology, describes whether total versus free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is a better marker of vitamin D status in African Americans, and summarizes the influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D supplementation on markers of vitamin D bioactivity (intestinal calcium absorption, parathyroid hormone secretion, bone mineral density, fracture) in African Americans...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131128/premenopausal-osteoporosis
#14
REVIEW
Adi Cohen
Most premenopausal women with low trauma fracture(s) or low bone mineral density have a secondary cause of osteoporosis or bone loss. Where possible, treatment of the underlying cause should be the focus of management. Premenopausal women with an ongoing cause of bone loss and those who have had, or continue to have, low trauma fractures may require pharmacologic intervention. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits of bisphosphonates and teriparatide for bone mineral density in several types of premenopausal osteoporosis, but studies are small and do not provide evidence regarding fracture risk reduction...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131127/the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-bone-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Naina Sinha Gregory
Most metabolic effects following bariatric surgery are favorable. One area in which the consequences seem to be detrimental is on skeletal health. Mechanisms that have been cited include malabsorption of calcium and vitamin D, decrease in mechanical loading, and changes in gastrointestinal and fat-derived hormone levels. It is important that the impact of these procedures on bone metabolism is closely examined. The significance of the bone loss that occurs, and its possible effect on future fracture risk, should also be evaluated...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131126/the-role-of-the-osteocyte-in-bone-and-nonbone-disease
#16
REVIEW
Lynda F Bonewald
When normal physiologic functions go awry, disorders and disease occur. This is universal; even for the osteocyte, a cell embedded within the mineralized matrix of bone. It was once thought that this cell was simply a placeholder in bone. Within the last decade, the number of studies of osteocytes has increased dramatically, leading to the discovery of novel functions of these cells. With the discovery of novel physiologic functions came the discoveries of how these cells can also be responsible for not only bone diseases and disorders, but also those of the kidney, heart, and potentially muscle...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823617/rushing-to-wholistic-diabetes-care
#17
EDITORIAL
S Sethu K Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823616/diabetes-mellitus
#18
EDITORIAL
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Maria Fleseriu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823615/transcultural-endocrinology-adapting-type-2-diabetes-guidelines-on-a-global-scale
#19
REVIEW
Ramfis Nieto-Martínez, Juan P González-Rivas, Hermes Florez, Jeffrey I Mechanick
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) needs to be prevented and treated effectively to reduce its burden and consequences. White papers, such as evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) and their more portable versions, clinical practice algorithms and clinical checklists, may improve clinical decision-making and diabetes outcomes. However, CPG are underused and poorly validated. Protocols that translate and implement these CPG are needed. This review presents the global dimension of T2D, details the importance of white papers in the transculturalization process, compares relevant international CPG, analyzes cultural variables, and summarizes translation strategies that can improve care...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823614/evidence-based-mobile-medical-applications-in-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Andjela Drincic, Priya Prahalad, Deborah Greenwood, David C Klonoff
This article reviews mobile medical applications that are commercially available in the United States or European Union (EU) and are (1) associated with published data of clinical outcomes in the peer-reviewed literature during the past 5 years, (2) cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, or (3) a recipient of a CE (Conformité Européenne) mark by the EU. Many of these applications have been shown to positively affect outcomes in the short term, but long-term studies are needed...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
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