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Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098728/net-working-for-the-future
#1
EDITORIAL
Ashley Grossman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098727/management-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-the-twenty-first-century
#2
EDITORIAL
Adriana G Ioachimescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098726/the-genesis-of-the-neuroendocrine-tumors-concept-from-oberndorfer-to-2018
#3
REVIEW
Kjell Öberg
The concept of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) began in the 1900s with Oberndorfer's description of carcinoid tumors, followed by specific cytotoxic agents and the identification of somatostatin. NETs diagnosis was confirmed by World Health Organization classification. Histopathology included immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies. Imaging was refined with molecular imaging. Somatostatin is the leading agent for controlling clinical symptoms related to hormone production. Increasing interest in these tumors, previously thought rare, led to increased incidence and prevalence...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098725/lung-and-thymic-carcinoids
#4
REVIEW
Christine L Hann, Patrick M Forde
Carcinoids of the lung and thymus are rare thoracic cancers. In general, lung carcinoid tumors have a favorable prognosis, particularly when diagnosed at an early stage and treated with surgical resection. Thymic neuroendocrine tumors may be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 syndrome, tend to have a more aggressive natural history, and relatively frequently secrete ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone.
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098724/the-problem-of-high-grade-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Halfdan Sorbye, Eric Baudin, Aurel Perren
High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors or poorly differentiated small/large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Distinguishing these entities relies on different genetic backgrounds and resulting different biology. The new classification creates several problems. Almost all clinical treatment data on neuroendocrine neoplasms do not stratify between well and poorly differentiated, providing insufficient help in treatment selection. Treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms should separate between well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and neuroendocrine carcinoma, and depends on primary tumor site, stage, proliferation rate, and clinical course...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098723/carcinoid-heart-disease-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Aimee R Hayes, Joseph Davar, Martyn E Caplin
Carcinoid heart disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with carcinoid syndrome and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. Screening of all patients with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and transthoracic echocardiography is critical for early detection, as early symptoms and signs have low sensitivity for the disease. Cardiac surgery, in appropriate cases, is the only definitive therapy for advanced carcinoid heart disease, and it improves patient symptoms and survival. Management of carcinoid heart disease is complex, and multidisciplinary assessment of cardiac status, hormonal syndrome, and tumor burden is critical in guiding optimal timing of surgery...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098722/the-problem-of-appendiceal-carcinoids
#7
REVIEW
Michail Galanopoulos, Christos Toumpanakis
Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms are uncommon, mostly discovered coincidentally during appendectomy. They usually show a benign clinical course and appendectomy alone is curative. However, some cases may harbor malignant potential; therefore, additional/prophylactic operations, such as right hemicolectomy, are offered. Current international guidelines are based on heterogeneous and retrospective series. Thus, there is lack of robust evidence, mainly in terms of accurate factors, that could identify patients at risk, requiring more extensive surgical treatment...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098721/gastric-carcinoids
#8
REVIEW
Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Anna Angelousi, Eleftherios Chatzellis, Stavros Sougioultzis, Gregory Kaltsas
Gastric carcinoids, formally named gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), are derived from enterochromaffin-like cells of the stomach and are increasingly diagnosed. A majority are designated as type I (related to autoimmune gastritis) and type II (related to gastrinoma) neoplasms that develop secondary to gastrin hypersecretion. Types I and II gastric carcinoids are mostly small-sized (1-2 cm), multiple, low-malignancy potential lesions mainly confined to the gastric mucosa/submucosa. These lesions have an indolent course and low metastatic potential...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098720/surgical-approaches-to-the-management-of-neuroendocrine-liver-metastases
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Frilling, Ashley Kieran Clift
Surgical approaches to hepatic metastases occupy an important role in the management of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms and may have curative or palliative intentions. Resection of hepatic disease with curative intent is the only modality offering potential cure for patients with liver metastases; however, only a minority of patients are eligible. Regardless of resection margin, disease recurrence almost invariably occurs and novel adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapies are mandated to be included within multimodal treatment concepts...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098719/peptide-receptor-radiotherapy-comes-of-age
#10
REVIEW
Taymeyah Al-Toubah, Jonathan Strosberg
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is a form of systemic radiotherapy shown to be effective in treating neuroendocrine tumors expressing somatostatin receptors. The NETTER-1 trial was the first randomized phase III clinical trial evaluating a radiolabeled somatostatin analog, and demonstrated significant improvement in progression-free survival among patients with midgut neuroendocrine tumors treated with 177 Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide. This article discusses the evolution of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, side effects, and potential future treatment approaches...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098718/current-chemotherapy-use-in-neuroendocrine-tumors
#11
REVIEW
David L Chan, Simron Singh
The role of chemotherapy in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has evolved with the development of other effective systemic therapies. At the same time, the evolving classification of NETs by grade has allowed for prognostic stratification. Chemotherapy is not routinely used for grade 1 to 2 NETs, but capecitabine (CAPTEM) or streptozocin-based regimens may be used, particularly for pancreatic NETs. In contrast, poorly differentiated grade 3 NETs are usually treated with platinum doublet chemotherapy. There is no consensus for the treatment of well-differentiated G3 NETs, but platinum doublets or CAPTEM are reasonable options...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098717/gastrinomas-medical-or-surgical-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Norton, Deshka S Foster, Tetsuhide Ito, Robert T Jensen
This article reviews the role of surgical and medical management in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) due to a gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (gastrinoma). It concentrates on the status at present but also briefly reviews the changes over time in treatment approaches. Generally, surgical and medical therapy are complementary today; however, in some cases, such as patients with ZES and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, the treatment approach remains controversial.
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098716/new-treatments-for-the-carcinoid-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Paul Benjamin Loughrey, Dongyun Zhang, Anthony P Heaney
Neuroendocrine tumors, including carcinoids, are rare and insidiously growing tumors. Related to their site of origin, tumors can be functional, causing various forms of the carcinoid syndrome, owing to the overproduction of serotonin, histamine, or other bioactive substances. They often invade adjacent structures or metastasize to the liver and elsewhere. Treatment includes multimodal approaches, including cytoreductive surgery, locoregional embolization, cytotoxic therapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and various targeted therapies with goals of symptom relief and control of tumor growth...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098715/when-and-how-to-use-somatostatin-analogues
#14
REVIEW
Wouter W de Herder
Long-acting depot formulations of the currently available somatostatin analogues are considered the first-line treatment for control of hormonal excess by hormone-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. These drugs are currently also considered the first-line treatment for tumor control of both hormone-producing and non-hormone-producing neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. These drugs need coupling and interaction with specific somatostatin receptor subtypes, which are expressed on the cells of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098714/molecular-genetic-studies-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-new-therapeutic-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Mark Stevenson, Kate E Lines, Rajesh V Thakker
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) arise sporadically or as part of familial syndromes. Genetic studies of hereditary syndromes and whole exome sequencing analysis of sporadic NETs have revealed the roles of some genes involved in PNET tumorigenesis. The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene is most commonly mutated. Its encoded protein, menin, has roles in transcriptional regulation, genome stability, DNA repair, protein degradation, cell motility and adhesion, microRNA biogenesis, cell division, cell cycle control, and epigenetic regulation...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098713/novel-functional-imaging-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#16
REVIEW
Anders Sundin
Somatostatin receptor imaging constitutes an integral part in neuroendocrine tumor visualization and should, because of its vastly superior performance, use 68 Ga-DOTA-somatostatin analogue-PET/computed tomography rather than scintigraphy; it is particularly valuable for detecting metastases to lymph nodes, bone, peritoneum, and liver, which may be missed by morphologic imaging. 18 FDG-PET/computed tomography is better suited for G3 and high-G2 neuroendocrine tumors. 18 FDG-PET/computed tomography provides prognostic information...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098712/the-netest-the-clinical-utility-of-multigene-blood-analysis-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
REVIEW
Irvin M Modlin, Mark Kidd, Anna Malczewska, Ignat Drozdov, Lisa Bodei, Somer Matar, Kyung-Min Chung
The neuroendocrine neoplasms test (NETest) is a multianalyte liquid biopsy that measures neuroendocrine tumor gene expression in blood. This unique signature precisely defines the biological activity of an individual tumor in real time. The assay meets the 3 critical requirements of an optimal biomarker: diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value, and predictive therapeutic assessment. NETest performance metrics are sensitivity and specificity and in head-to-head comparison are 4-fold to 10-fold more accurate than chromogranin A...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098711/liquid-biopsies-for-neuroendocrine-tumors-circulating-tumor-cells-dna-and-micrornas
#18
REVIEW
Francesca Maria Rizzo, Tim Meyer
Effective management of neuroendocrine tumors depends on early diagnosis, personalized risk stratification, and monitoring response to therapy. During cancer progression, tumors shed circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, and microRNAs into the bloodstream. Analysis of these biomarkers offers the prospect of a liquid biopsy to predict/monitor therapeutic responses, assess drug resistance, and quantify residual disease. Compared with single-site biopsies, these entities have the potential to inform intratumor heterogeneity and tumor evolution in a reproducible and less invasive way...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098710/the-new-world-health-organization-classification-for-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasia
#19
REVIEW
Frediano Inzani, Gianluigi Petrone, Guido Rindi
Based on the 2010 version, the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO 2017) classification is for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNEN). The WHO 2017 classification introduces the novel well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of high grade (NET G3). A sharp distinction between NET and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is emphasized to highlight substantial biological differences. Further changes comprise the definition of mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN), to accommodate all grades of both neoplasm components, and the abolition of preneoplastic lesions given their rarity in the pancreas...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754645/cushing-s-syndrome-2018-best-practices-and-looking-ahead
#20
EDITORIAL
Adriana G Ioachimescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
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