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Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390823/the-coming-of-age-of-hypoparathyroidism-novel-insights-into-causation-innovative-options-for-management
#1
EDITORIAL
Michael A Levine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390822/hypoparathyroidism
#2
EDITORIAL
Adriana G Ioachimescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390821/new-directions-in-treatment-of-hypoparathyroidism
#3
REVIEW
Gaia Tabacco, John P Bilezikian
The history of parathyroid hormone (PTH) replacement therapy for hypoparathyroidism begins in 1929. In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration approved recombinant human PTH(1-84) [rhPTH(1-84)] as a treatment for hypoparathyroidism. Long-term studies of rhPTH(1-84), up to 6 years, have demonstrated continued efficacy of this replacement agent. Approaches to optimize PTH treatment in hypoparathyroidism include subcutaneous pump delivery systems, long-lived carrier molecules, and long-acting PTH analogues that show promise to prolong efficacy...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390820/conventional-treatment-of-hypoparathyroidism
#4
REVIEW
Muriel Babey, Maria-Luisa Brandi, Dolores Shoback
Conventional therapy of hypoparathyroidism consists of oral calcium and either activated vitamin D or vitamin D supplements at varying doses. Although adjusting dosing of calcium and/or activated vitamin D or vitamin D itself, the serum calcium should be obtained weekly or monthly depending on the clinical situation. Calcium supplementation in hypoparathyroidism usually consists of calcium carbonate because it is 40% elemental calcium by weight. However, calcium citrate (21% elemental calcium) is indicated for patients with achlorhydria and proton pump inhibitor therapy...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390819/pseudohypoparathyroidism
#5
REVIEW
Agnès Linglart, Michael A Levine, Harald Jüppner
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) refers to a heterogeneous group of uncommon, yet related metabolic disorders that are characterized by impaired activation of the Gsα/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other hormones that interact with Gsa-coupled receptors. Proximal renal tubular resistance to PTH and thus hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, frequently in presence of brachydactyly, ectopic ossification, early-onset obesity, or short stature are common features of PHP. Registries and large cohorts of patients are needed to conduct clinical and genetic research, to improve the still limited knowledge regarding the underlying disease mechanisms, and allow the development of novel therapies...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390818/quality-of-life-in-hypoparathyroidism
#6
REVIEW
Tamara J Vokes
Patients with hypoparathyroidism have a multitude of physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints consistent with reduced quality of life (QOL). Impaired QOL in patients treated with conventional therapy with calcium and active vitamin D has been documented in epidemiologic (registry) studies, case-controlled studies, and surveys, and at baseline in clinical trials of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Treatment with PTH has been shown to improve QOL in some but not all studies.
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390817/hypoparathyroidism-and-the-kidney
#7
REVIEW
Munro Peacock
Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are the pathognomonic biochemical features of hypoparathyroidism, and result directly from lack of parathyroid hormone (PTH) action on the kidney. In the absence of PTH action, the renal mechanisms transporting calcium and phosphate reabsorption deregulate, resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Circulating calcium negatively regulates PTH secretion. Hypocalcemia causes neuromuscular disturbances ranging from epilepsy and tetany to mild paresthesia. Circulating phosphate concentration does not directly regulate PTH secretion...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390816/skeletal-manifestations-of-hypoparathyroidism
#8
REVIEW
Mishaela R Rubin
Chronic parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency has a marked effect on the skeleton, leading to characteristic decreases in bone remodeling and increases in bone mass. Numerous lines of evidence using biochemical, imaging, and histomorphometric methodologies have demonstrated that the skeleton is altered when PTH is absent and that these abnormalities might be reversed with PTH treatment. More evidence is needed to determine whether fracture risk is altered in hypoparathyroidism.
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390815/genetic-disorders-of-parathyroid-development-and-function
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca J Gordon, Michael A Levine
Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and is due to insufficient levels of circulating parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism may be an isolated condition or a component of a complex syndrome. Although genetic disorders are not the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism, molecular analyses have identified a growing number of genes that when defective result in impaired formation of the parathyroid glands, disordered synthesis or secretion of parathyroid hormone, or postnatal destruction of the parathyroid glands...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390814/medical-hypoparathyroidism
#10
REVIEW
Namrah Siraj, Yasser Hakami, Aliya Khan
Hypoparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and inadequate levels of or function of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The authors review the nonsurgical or medical causes of hypoparathyroidism. The most common of the nonsurgical causes is autoimmune destruction of the parathyroid. Magnesium deficiency or excess can cause a functional hypoparathyroidism. Genetic conditions result in hypoparathyroidism as part of a syndrome or in isolation. Pseudohypoparathyroidism reflects a resistance to PTH...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390813/surgical-hypoparathyroidism
#11
REVIEW
Hadiza S Kazaure, Julie Ann Sosa
Surgical hypoparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism and the result of intentional or inadvertent extirpation, trauma, or devascularization of the parathyroid glands. Surgical hypoparathyroidism may present as a medical emergency. Pediatric patients, those with Graves disease, and those undergoing extensive neck dissections or reoperative neck surgery are at particular risk for this complication. Extensive surgical expertise, immediate or delayed autotransplantation, and prophylactic and postoperative calcium/vitamin D supplementation in select patients are associated with a reduction in the risk of surgical hypoparathyroidism...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390812/epidemiology-and-complications-of-hypoparathyroidism
#12
REVIEW
Bart L Clarke
Until recently, very few studies have described the epidemiology of this rare disorder. Several large population-based studies have recently been published describing the prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism in various countries. Some of these studies have described the epidemiology of both postsurgical and nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism. In addition, a number of studies have now been published describing the prevalence of complications of this disorder. This article summarizes the published medical literature regarding the prevalence and incidence of this disorder, and the risk of known complications of hypoparathyroidism...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390811/signs-and-symptoms-of-hypoparathyroidism
#13
REVIEW
Natalie E Cusano, John P Bilezikian
Hypoparathyroidism is associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations in the acute and chronic settings, from mild to debilitating. Although the acute symptoms of hypocalcemia are primarily due to neuromuscular irritability, the chronic manifestations of hypoparathyroidism may be due to the disease itself or to complications of therapy or to both. The chronic complications of hypoparathyroidism can affect multiple organ systems, including the renal, neurologic, neuropsychiatric, skeletal, and immune systems...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390810/physiology-of-parathyroid-hormone
#14
REVIEW
David Goltzman
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the major secretory product of the parathyroid glands, and in hypocalcemic conditions, can enhance renal calcium reabsorption, increase active vitamin D production to increase intestinal calcium absorption, and mobilize calcium from bone by increasing turnover, mainly but not exclusively in cortical bone. PTH has therefore found clinical use as replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism. PTH also may have a physiologic role in augmenting bone formation, particularly in trabecular and to some extent in cortical bone...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390809/embryology-of-the-parathyroid-glands
#15
REVIEW
Kristen Peissig, Brian G Condie, Nancy R Manley
The parathyroid glands are essential for regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. The genetic programs that control parathyroid fate specification, morphogenesis, differentiation, and survival are only beginning to be delineated, but are all centered around a key transcription factor, GCM2. Mutations in the Gcm2 gene as well as in several other genes involved in parathyroid organogenesis have been found to cause parathyroid disorders in humans. Therefore, understanding the normal development of the parathyroid will provide insight into the origins of parathyroid disorders...
December 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098728/net-working-for-the-future
#16
EDITORIAL
Ashley Grossman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098727/management-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-the-twenty-first-century
#17
EDITORIAL
Adriana G Ioachimescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098726/the-genesis-of-the-neuroendocrine-tumors-concept-from-oberndorfer-to-2018
#18
REVIEW
Kjell Öberg
The concept of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) began in the 1900s with Oberndorfer's description of carcinoid tumors, followed by specific cytotoxic agents and the identification of somatostatin. NETs diagnosis was confirmed by World Health Organization classification. Histopathology included immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies. Imaging was refined with molecular imaging. Somatostatin is the leading agent for controlling clinical symptoms related to hormone production. Increasing interest in these tumors, previously thought rare, led to increased incidence and prevalence...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098725/lung-and-thymic-carcinoids
#19
REVIEW
Christine L Hann, Patrick M Forde
Carcinoids of the lung and thymus are rare thoracic cancers. In general, lung carcinoid tumors have a favorable prognosis, particularly when diagnosed at an early stage and treated with surgical resection. Thymic neuroendocrine tumors may be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 syndrome, tend to have a more aggressive natural history, and relatively frequently secrete ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone.
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098724/the-problem-of-high-grade-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
Halfdan Sorbye, Eric Baudin, Aurel Perren
High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors or poorly differentiated small/large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Distinguishing these entities relies on different genetic backgrounds and resulting different biology. The new classification creates several problems. Almost all clinical treatment data on neuroendocrine neoplasms do not stratify between well and poorly differentiated, providing insufficient help in treatment selection. Treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms should separate between well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and neuroendocrine carcinoma, and depends on primary tumor site, stage, proliferation rate, and clinical course...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
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