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Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823617/rushing-to-wholistic-diabetes-care
#1
EDITORIAL
S Sethu K Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823616/diabetes-mellitus
#2
EDITORIAL
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Maria Fleseriu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823615/transcultural-endocrinology-adapting-type-2-diabetes-guidelines-on-a-global-scale
#3
REVIEW
Ramfis Nieto-Martínez, Juan P González-Rivas, Hermes Florez, Jeffrey I Mechanick
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) needs to be prevented and treated effectively to reduce its burden and consequences. White papers, such as evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) and their more portable versions, clinical practice algorithms and clinical checklists, may improve clinical decision-making and diabetes outcomes. However, CPG are underused and poorly validated. Protocols that translate and implement these CPG are needed. This review presents the global dimension of T2D, details the importance of white papers in the transculturalization process, compares relevant international CPG, analyzes cultural variables, and summarizes translation strategies that can improve care...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823614/evidence-based-mobile-medical-applications-in-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Andjela Drincic, Priya Prahalad, Deborah Greenwood, David C Klonoff
This article reviews mobile medical applications that are commercially available in the United States or European Union (EU) and are (1) associated with published data of clinical outcomes in the peer-reviewed literature during the past 5 years, (2) cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States, or (3) a recipient of a CE (Conformité Européenne) mark by the EU. Many of these applications have been shown to positively affect outcomes in the short term, but long-term studies are needed...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823613/understanding-population-health-through-diabetes-population-management
#5
REVIEW
Joanna Mitri, Robert Gabbay
A chronic and progressive illness, diabetes requires early diagnosis, effective coordination of care, and self-management to stem its progression. Population health management strategies hold promise to improve outcomes by focusing on reducing the frequency of acute and chronic complications of chronic disease, lowering the cost per service through an integrated care delivery team approach, and promoting patient engagement. This will ultimately result in a better patient experience. The chronic care model targets fragmentation of our health care delivery system and provides a framework for effective care of diabetes and other chronic diseases...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823612/islet-cell-transplantation-and-alternative-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Betul Hatipoglu
Even though type 2 diabetes rates plateaued, type 1 diabetes continues to increase. Pancreas transplantation is a treatment modality for patients who suffer hypoglycemic unawareness or complications from diabetes. Islet cell transplantation success rates have improved with modification and advances in isolation, transplantation, and new immunosuppression regimens. The new cell sources as well as delivery ways are explored and being tested in human trials.
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823611/bariatric-surgery-pathophysiology-and-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Sidra Azim, Sangeeta R Kashyap
Diabetes mellitus and obesity are closely interrelated and pose a major burden on health care in terms of morbidity and mortality. Weight loss has favorable metabolic benefits for glycemic control and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery (BS) is the most effective treatment for weight loss with durable results as compared to lifestyle modification. BS procedures have been associated with significant reduction in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and glycemic control requiring fewer medications...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823610/utility-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Elena Toschi, Howard Wolpert
A consensus conference of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology held in February 2016 advocated expanding the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the management of diabetes. Based on the data described in this paper, CGM use is shown to improve glucose control and reduce hypoglycemic events, and therefore has the potential to reduce the risk of acute and chronic complications of diabetes. Likely, all of the above would not only improve the quality of life and life expectancy of people with diabetes, but would also have a positive impact on health-related cost...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823609/inpatient-diabetes-management-in-the-twenty-first-century
#9
REVIEW
Natasha B Khazai, Osama Hamdy
In hospitalized patients, both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been associated with poor outcomes. During the inpatient period, hyperglycemia has been associated with increased risk of infection, cardiovascular events, and mortality. It is also associated with longer length of hospital stay. Hypoglycemia has also been associated with an increased risk of mortality. Therefore, current evidence supports avoidance of both conditions among hospitalized patients whether they are admitted to critical care units or noncritical care units...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823608/insulin-making-sense-of-current-options
#10
REVIEW
Alissa R Segal, Tejaswi Vootla, Richard S Beaser
Newer insulin products have advanced the evolution of insulin replacement options to more accurately mimic natural insulin action. There are new, modified, and concentrated insulins; administration devices calibrated for both increased concentrations and administration accuracy to improve adherence and safety; and inhaled insulin. There are new combinations of longer-acting basal insulin and rapid-acting insulin or glucagon like protein-1 receptor agonists. Existing insulin replacement designs and methods can be updated using these tools to improve efficacy and safety...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823607/metformin-from-research-to-clinical-practice
#11
REVIEW
Meng H Tan, Hussain Alquraini, Kara Mizokami-Stout, Mark MacEachern
Metformin is the recommended first-line oral glucose-lowering drug initiated to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It acts in the liver, small intestines, and skeletal muscles with its major effect on decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis. It is safe, inexpensive, and weight neutral and can be associated with weight loss. It can reduce microvascular complication risk and its use is associated with a lower cardiovascular mortality compared with sulfonylurea therapy. It is also used to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in treating gestational diabetes, and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823606/nutrition-in-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Osama Hamdy, Mohd-Yusof Barakatun-Nisak
Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823605/lipodystrophy-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Iram Hussain, Abhimanyu Garg
Lipodystrophies are heterogeneous disorders characterized by varying degrees of body fat loss and predisposition to insulin resistance and its metabolic complications. They are subclassified depending on degree of fat loss and whether the disorder is genetic or acquired. The two most common genetic varieties include congenital generalized lipodystrophy and familial partial lipodystrophy; the two most common acquired varieties include acquired generalized lipodystrophy and acquired partial lipodystrophy. Highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced lipodystrophy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and drug-induced localized lipodystrophy are common subtypes...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823604/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-new-complication-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
REVIEW
Fernando Bril, Kenneth Cusi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with an estimated prevalence of 60% to 80%. The relationship of NAFLD and T2DM is complex, with each condition negatively affecting the other. Although NAFLD is associated with more metabolic and cardiovascular complications and worse hyperglycemia, T2DM accelerates the progression of liver disease in NAFLD. Despite the high prevalence and serious clinical implications, NAFLD is usually overlooked in clinical practice...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823603/prediabetes-a-worldwide-epidemic
#15
REVIEW
Catherine M Edwards, Kenneth Cusi
Prediabetes, defined by blood glucose levels between normal and diabetic levels, is increasing rapidly worldwide. This abnormal physiologic state reflects the rapidly changing access to high-calorie food and decreasing levels of physical activity occurring worldwide, with resultant obesity and metabolic consequences. This is particularly marked in developing countries. Prediabetes poses several threats; there is increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and there are risks inherent to the prediabetes state, including microvascular and macrovascular disease...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823602/evolving-to-personalized-medicine-for-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
S Sethu K Reddy
Type 2 diabetes is an expensive public health problem threatening society at many levels. Despite many advances in classification of diabetes, we're still in early stages of developing an etio-pathologic ontology of diabetes. Recognizing the various biologic and social determinants of disease outcomes, precision medicine applies to medical interventions as well as psychosocial measures, nutrition, and exercise that may also affect individuals differently. Using this highly personalized approach, one hopes to achieve cost-effective care...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519142/obesity-guidelines-best-practices-new-research
#17
EDITORIAL
Caroline M Apovian, Nawfal W Istfan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519141/obesity
#18
EDITORIAL
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Maria Fleseriu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519140/energy-and-nutrient-timing-for-weight-control-does-timing-of-ingestion-matter
#19
REVIEW
Megan A McCrory, Ayla C Shaw, Joy A Lee
Over the past 40 years, meal skipping and snacking in US adults have increased, and currently most eating occasions occur later in the day than previously. Whether these changes have played a causal role in the obesity epidemic is poorly understood. Observational studies are largely inconclusive due to methodological limitations. Experimental evidence does not support a causal role for eating frequency or breakfast skipping in weight control. Emerging evidence suggests that eating irregularity and eating later in the day may be detrimental for weight control, but more studies are needed...
September 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519139/the-psychosocial-burden-of-obesity
#20
REVIEW
David B Sarwer, Heather M Polonsky
Obesity is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and several forms of cancer. Obesity and its comorbidities also come with a significant psychosocial burden, impacting numerous areas of psychosocial functioning. The evaluation of psychosocial functioning is an important part of the assessment and treatment planning for the patient with obesity. This article provides an overview of the psychosocial burden of obesity. The article also describes the psychological changes typically seen with weight loss...
September 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
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