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Revue Scientifique et Technique

D P Sponenberg, J Beranger, A M Martin, C R Couch
The genetic diversity of domesticated species is contained within breeds, with the result that conserving breeds conserves this diversity. Breeds are predictable genetic resources that allow a match of animals with different environments and production goals. Breeds were developed through a process involving foundation, isolation and selection. Breed types that qualify as genetic resources include 'landraces' (local breeds), standardised breeds, commercial production breeds and feral livestock that have returned to a free-living state...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
M Eloit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
T Grandin
Animals contribute to the lives of humans in developed and developing countries in numerous ways. Here, the focus is on how grazing animals can contribute to human lives and on the many ways in which dogs are of benefit to humans. Grazing is a sustainable practice which allows uncultivable land to be used for the production of food, prevents the degradation of land, and does not lead to the depletion of groundwater, thus contributing to food security. Dogs provide help during rescues, companionship, and support for livelihoods...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
L L Iannotti
One in five children across the globe experience stunted growth and underdevelopment due to malnutrition. Animal-source foods (ASFs) offer the opportunity to address this problem and make significant progress towards achieving the World Health Assembly nutrition targets. Eggs and milk are among nature's first foods, providing holistic packages of nutrients and bioactive factors to support healthy growth. They are also affordable and accessible to lowresource, vulnerable populations. Biological and evolutionary rationale argues for the use of ASFs during the complementary feeding period when children are most at risk from infectious diseases and malnutrition...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
A M Salter
Meat represents an important source of high-quality dietary protein for a large proportion of the global population. In addition, red meat, in particular, significantly contributes to the intake of a wide range of micronutrients, including iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin D and vitamin B12. While these nutrients can be supplied in sufficient amounts by consumption of a range of fruit and vegetables, in many developing countries, where the availability of such foods may be limited, access to meat often protects against malnutrition and improves child cognitive development...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
E N Ponnampalam, D L Hopkins, J L Jacobs
This review discusses the importance of red meat from ruminants as a source of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) for human life in the context of the contribution of animals to human welfare. Red meat is a valuable food commodity for human life because it is naturally rich in key nutrients such as protein, trace elements, vitamins and essential FAs. In developed countries and high socio-economic groups from developing countries, red meat intake is greater than that of oily fish, owing to availability, preference and affordability...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
E Friedman, C A Krause-Parello
There is ample evidence that human-animal interaction (HAI) is associated with health. Studies encompass three general categories: those that compare companion animal owners with individuals who do not own companion animals, those examining brief, 'one-off' contacts with animals, and those that review animal-assisted interventions. The health benefits demonstrated typically include reductions in depression and loneliness, while enhancing social interaction or social skills, and decreasing anxiety and arousal...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
N L Selokar, W A Kues
The contribution of farm animals to human health and welfare cannot be properly addressed without reflecting on the impact that animal domestication has had upon human civilisation. About 14,000 years ago, the Neolithic revolution started with the domestication of animals and plants, resulting in the emergence of the main agricultural breeds of livestock and crops. In contrast, the breeding of new animal species for biomedical research, such as small rodents and other model species, is a relatively recent activity...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
A L Van Eenennaam
For centuries, animal breeders have intentionally selected the parents of the next generation based on their concept of the 'ideal' animal. The dramatic differences seen in the appearance and productivity of different breeds show the power of such selection on DNA sequence variations. Unfortunately, the global furore over the use of modern biotechnologies to introduce desired genetic variations into animal breeding programmes, and the regulatory uncertainty associated with these recombinant DNA techniques, has effectively precluded the use of these technologies in food animal breeding programmes...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
L Scobie, C Galli, P Gianello, E Cozzi, H-J Schuurman
The main benefit of xenotransplantation is its potential to overcome the worldwide organ shortage experienced in allotransplantation. Allogeneic transplantation is the only successful therapy for several life-threatening diseases, with cell, tissue or organ donation only partially meeting the demand and many patients dying while waiting for treatment. With supply falling short of demand, it is foreseen that the use of porcine material may at some stage overcome the existing gap between organ availability and clinical need...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
D Shaw, W Dondorp, G De Wert
In this paper, the authors provide an analysis of the ethical issues surrounding the transplantation of organs from animals into humans. The main objections to xenotransplantation relate to safety concerns for the recipient; public health concerns about new viruses spreading from animals to humans; the possibility of animals developing human features; concerns about human dignity; and the fact that animals must be sacrificed so humans can benefit from their organs. Despite these objections, the urgency of the organ shortage situation is such that xenotransplantation may be justified, if further advances make it a realistic possibility...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
L-M Houdebine
Proteins are involved in a majority of the biochemical events that take place in all living organisms. Protein synthesis is directed by genes. All genes contain two major DNA regions. The region containing the genetic message proper (the 'coding region') is preceded by a regulatory region ('the promoter'), which determines when and in which organs a given gene must produce the corresponding protein. The techniques of genetic engineering allow the association of the coding region from one gene with the regulatory region from another gene...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
A H Fine
Over the past 20 years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the psychological and physiological impact that animals have on the lives of people with disabilities. The focus of this paper is to demystify the mechanisms that are affected as a consequence of these interactions as well as to describe the value of various types of therapeutic working animals. For human-animal interactions to become more legitimised, more rigorous empirical research needs to be undertaken to demonstrate the value of such interactions as well as the need for changes in the public policy impacting them...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
K M Evans, T W Lewis
Skeletal and neurological problems consistently rank among the top health conditions necessitating the withdrawal or retirement of guide dogs and other working dogs from their service roles. Management practices such as weight management and physical conditioning may help to reduce the incidence of such conditions. However, where there is at least partial genetic aetiology, selective breeding strategies are the only way to produce a lasting reduction in their incidence in future generations. The management of single gene disorders is relatively simple through the judicious use of DNA test results...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
A J Worth, N J Cave
Domesticated dogs are widely used for farm work, law enforcement, military service and in assistance roles. Farm dogs assist farmers by guarding or moving stock, reducing the requirement for human workers and enabling steep terrain to be productive. Working and service dogs are subject to illness and injury, depending on their breed characteristics, activities and the environment in which they work. There are limited data in the veterinary literature on the causes of loss and early retirement of working dogs, and targeted research is required to better determine factors that affect their incidence...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
J E Romero, J Cepeda, P Quinn, S C Underwood
One of the most traumatic events that a person can ever experience in their lifetime is being detained. The prison dog programmes are the most successful prison rehabilitation programmes in the United States of America and consist of detainees training service dogs for other people to assist with different types of disability. It is a typical win-win system: inmates win as they connect with their deepest feelings of affection and solidarity while acquiring a concrete skill for their future release; people with disabilities win because they receive a dog to support their day-to-day activities; the dogs win (especially adopted street dogs) because their lot in life is improved; institutions win because they are enabled to meet their objective more fully; and society wins because they gain a concrete tool to aid the social rehabilitation of detainees...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
C F Villareal, J U Rojas, M X Ochoa
As part of national and international cooperation to fight the drug-trafficking system, the Colombian National Police (PNC) has created institutional operational synergy to combat organised armed groups. To this end, it uses police service dog and handler teams which are distributed across Colombia in 75 canine units and which are specialised in different policing tasks. The focus of canine teams is to counter actions that undermine peaceful co-existence and citizen security by checking for explosive substances around coca, marijuana and poppy fields...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
L E Gordon
As a species, dogs are particularly suited to working with as well as working for humankind on a variety of tasks, including searching for victims of natural disasters. Their abilities are deeply seated within their genetic make-up and their domestication over thousands of years. Dogs display not only a natural ability to find people, but also to aid and protect them. Military organisations throughout the ages have recognised these traits and shaped canine behaviour to help them in their endeavours on and off the battlefield...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
K Thompson
More than half of the world's households are thought to contain at least one companion animal. Animals can affect how humans are impacted by natural disasters, how they respond to such events and how well they can recover from them. For this reason alone, there is a real need to keep animals safe before, during and after natural disasters, and to do so in ways that contribute to, rather than compromise, human safety. This paper outlines the negative implications of failing to account for animals in disaster plans and/or to accommodate them in shelters...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
S C Underwood, K Guerschberg, N Chiesa, J Puente
Animal-assisted interventions refer to any intervention that intentionally includes or incorporates animals as part of a therapeutic, palliative, educational, psychoeducational or recreational process or milieu. The Faculty of Veterinary Science of the University of Buenos Aires began work on this issue in 1996 and gradually incorporated outreach, research and teaching projects, undertaking several stages of institutionalisation and reconceptionalisation that led, in 2014, to the creation of an open chair in animal-assisted interventions...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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