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Revue Scientifique et Technique

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917989/cost-effective-control-strategies-for-animal-and-zoonotic-diseases-in-pastoralist-populations
#1
J Zinsstag, M F Abakar, M Ibrahim, R Tschopp, L Crump, B Bonfoh, E Schelling
Animal diseases and zoonoses abound among pastoralist livestock, which is composed of cattle, sheep, goats, yak, camels, llamas, reindeer, horses and donkeys. There is endemic and, periodically, epidemic transmission of highly contagious viral and bacterial diseases in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Pastoralist livestock is often multiparasitised with endo- and ectoparasites, as well as being affected by vectorborne viral and protozoal diseases. Pastoral livestock can be a reservoir of such diseases and can also, conversely, be at risk from exposure to wildlife reservoirs...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917988/preface-the-future-of-pastoralism
#2
M Eloit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917987/the-future-of-pastoralism-an-introduction
#3
J Zinsstag, E Schelling, B Bonfoh, L Crump, S KrÄtli
Two-thirds of the agricultural land on planet Earth is grassland on which no other crops can be grown, either because of limited rainfall, high altitude or mountainous conditions. Most of these semi-arid and high-altitude pastoral ecosystems are used by livestock husbandry systems with various forms of mobility and are not in competition with crop production for human nutrition. By devoting an issue of its Scientific and Technical Review to pastoralism, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is encouraging debate on this important topic and helping to shape the future of pastoralists and their livestock...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917986/the-cultural-heritage-of-pastoralism-local-knowledge-state-identity-and-the-global-perspective-the-example-of-local-breeds-in-morocco
#4
Y Ben Hounet, A-M Brisebarre, S Guinand
Over the past few decades, the heritage designation process has come to impact on the way of life of many nomadic pastoralists across the world. Since the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted in 1972, policies for the conservation of protected areas have been implemented under the aegis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), especially in countries of the South, with a varying impact on the practices and perceptions of pastoral communities...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917985/towards-sustainability-in-the-extensive-and-intensive-livestock-sectors
#5
M Niamir-Fuller
An increase in both human population and economic growth has been accompanied by rising per capita demand for animal products. The livestock industry is under pressure to meet this demand, but its current patterns of production are not environmentally sustainable, causing negative health impacts on humans and raising welfare concerns for animals. With little regulation of the intensive livestock sector in most countries, animal products are available at cheaper prices on consumer markets, undercutting more sustainable production systems, such as those used by pastoralists and organic farmers...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917984/the-futures-of-pastoralism-in-the-horn-of-africa-pathways-of-growth-and-change
#6
A Catley, J Lind, I Scoones
This paper reviews pastoralism in the Horn of Africa region with reference to the basic socio-economics of pastoralism, and the use of mobile livestock production to generate income and food for human consumption. The paper also examines long-term trends in pastoralist areas which, at first sight, appear to be contradictory. The first trend is the growth of a substantial domestic and export trade in livestock and meat across the region, driven largely by supplies from pastoralist areas and local and international demand...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917983/conflicts-security-and-marginalisation-institutional-change-of-the-pastoral-commons-in-a-glocal-world
#7
T Haller, H Van Dijk, M Bollig, C Greiner, N Schareika, C Gabbert
This paper argues that pastoral commons are under increasing pressure not just from overuse by pastoralists themselves, but from land management policies. Since colonial times, these have been based on a persistent misconception of the nature of pastoral economies and combined with increasing land alienation and fragmentation through government policies and covert privatisation of pastures. The paper focuses especially on pastoral populations in African drylands and is based on long-term research by independent researchers summarising some of their experiences in western, eastern and southern Africa...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917982/climate-change-and-pastoralism-impacts-consequences-and-adaptation
#8
M Herrero, J Addison, C Bedelian, E Carabine, P Havlík, B Henderson, J Van De Steeg, P K Thornton
The authors discuss the main climate change impacts on pastoralist societies, including those on rangelands, livestock and other natural resources, and their extended repercussions on food security, incomes and vulnerability. The impacts of climate change on the rangelands of the globe and on the vulnerability of the people who inhabit them will be severe and diverse, and will require multiple, simultaneous responses. In higher latitudes, the removal of temperature constraints might increase pasture production and livestock productivity, but in tropical arid lands, the impacts are highly location specific, but mostly negative...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917981/the-role-of-pastoralism-in-regulating-ecosystem-services
#9
M A Seid, N J Kuhn, T Z Fikre
Pastoralism is rarely viewed as a major future form of land use, because of well-documented cases of rangeland degradation, attributed to irrational overstocking by pastoralists, and the subsequent losses of ecosystem services. However, pastoralists were actually encouraged to settle and adopt such strategies, copied from rangelands with higher and more reliable rainfall. This curtailed mobility resulted in a shift from opportunistic and extensive land use to more intensive and settled forms of use. The purpose of this review is to examine the link between pastoralism and the provision of ecosystem services by rangelands, focusing on biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917980/diversity-in-livestock-resources-in-pastoral-systems-in-africa
#10
B A Kaufmann, M A Lelea, C G Hulsebusch
Pastoral systems are important producers and repositories of livestock diversity. Pastoralists use variability in their livestock resources to manage high levels of environmental variability in economically advantageous ways. In pastoral systems, human-animal-environment interactions are the basis of production and the key to higher productivity and efficiency. In other words, pastoralists manage a production system that exploits variability and keeps production costs low. When differentiating, characterising and evaluating pastoral breeds, this context-specific, functional dimension of diversity in livestock resources needs to be considered...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917979/ecology-mobility-and-labour-dynamic-pastoral-herd-management-in-an-uncertain-world
#11
B Butt
In this review, the author discusses how pastoralism, and its many constituent components, is increasingly being recognised as in tune with the changing political and ecological nature of rangelands. He describes ways in which the literature reflects this changing attitude, outlines how rangelands respond to changes in climate and explores the evolving use of livestock resources. In addition, he describes the growing recognition of factors other than livestock density that affect rangeland vegetation (i.e. density-independent relationships)...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917978/pastoralism-and-wildlife-historical-and-current-perspectives-in-the-east-african-rangelands-of-kenya-and-tanzania
#12
F Lankester, A Davis
The relationship between pastoralists, their livestock, wildlife and the rangelands of East Africa is multi-directional, complex and long-standing. The tumultuous events of the past century, however, have rewritten the nature of this relationship, reshaping the landscapes that were created, and relied upon, by both pastoralists and wildlife. Presently, much of the interaction between wildlife and pastoralists takes place in and around protected areas, the most contentious occurring in pastoral lands surrounding national parks...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917977/discontinuity-in-pastoral-development-time-to-update-the-method
#13
S KrÄtli
Most off-the-shelf basic methodological tools currently used in pastoral development (e.g. technical definitions and conventional scales of observation) retain underlying assumptions about stability and uniformity being the norm (i.e. 'equilibrium thinking'). Such assumptions reflect a theoretical framework which had been questioned since the 1970s and was openly disproved in scientific circles during the 1990s, when it was shown to be fundamentally inadequate. Today, lingering equilibrium assumptions in the methodological legacy of pastoral development get in the way of operationalising state-of-the-art understanding of pastoral systems and drylands...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917976/institutional-development-and-policy-frameworks-for-pastoralism-from-local-to-regional-perspectives
#14
B Bonfoh, G Fokou, L Crump, J Zinsstag, E Schelling
Pastoralists are among the most politically and economically marginalised communities in the world. They have less and less access to the natural resources on which their livelihoods depend and very limited access to basic socio-economic services and infrastructure. This paper builds on a number of studies carried out in the Sahel, the Horn of Africa, Central Asia and the Swiss Alps to address the institutional dynamics required for sustainable pastoralism. Specifically, the authors question the way in which institutions and policies are currently shaped and suggest that reforming these could contribute to new avenues for pastoralism...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917975/central-asia-kyrgyzstan-and-the-learning-experience-in-the-design-of-pastoral-institutions
#15
U Kasymov, A Undeland, A Dörre, A Mackinnon
The authors analyse the nature of policy development to understand the reasons for institutional change in pasture management in Kyrgyzstan. They use the concept of intentional institutional change, emphasising its incremental nature and the important relationship between belief systems and institutions. The paper explores the relationship between the perceptions and beliefs of policy-makers, the policy interventions they undertake, and the consequences for pastoral migration and practices. The study reveals the gap between the intentions behind such policies and their outcomes, the persistence and importance of pastoral migration, and the learning process that policy-makers undergo...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917974/the-chinese-perspective-on-pastoral-resource-economics-a-vision-of-the-future-in-a-context-of-socio-ecological-vulnerability
#16
L Yu, K N Farrell
This paper reviews institutional changes in pastureland use in China over the last 30 years and discusses their impacts on pastoral communities, drawing evidence from case studies of two agro-pastoralist and two pastoralist communities. Those who rely directly on pastureland for their livelihood are vulnerable to the joint effects of pastureland degradation and climate change. The authors argue that a 'top-down' governance structure with no participation from local communities and a 'one size fits all' institutional solution are a poor fit for pastoralism management...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917973/institutional-development-from-legal-pluralism-to-institutional-bricolage-in-west-african-pastoralism
#17
G Fokou, B Bonfoh
Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917972/pastoralism-in-the-drylands-of-latin-america-argentina-chile-mexico-and-peru
#18
J M Grünwaldt, G Castellaro, E R Flores, C R Morales-Nieto, R D Valdez-Cepeda, J C Guevera, E G Grünwaldt
This article discusses various aspects of pastoralism in the Latin American countries with the largest dryland areas. The topics covered include: social, economic and institutional issues; grasslands and their carrying capacity; production systems and productivity rates; competition for forage resources between domestic livestock and wildlife; and the health status of livestock and wildlife. Most grasslands exhibit some degree of degradation. The percentage of offspring reaching weaning age is low: 47-66% of calves and 40-80% of lambs...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917971/pastoralism-in-europe-characteristics-and-challenges-of-highland-lowland-transhumance
#19
K Liechti, J-P Biber
Transhumant pastoralism remains a prevalent form of land use across Europe, especially in mountain areas. Besides generating food and other products, it provides a range of public goods and services that are often highly valued by broader society. But transhumance faces structural challenges associated with life in remote mountain areas, including economic pressures, lack of services, low prestige, and ageing populations. These threaten its future. The decline of transhumant systems leads to ecological, economic, and socio-cultural losses, e...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917970/enhancing-the-economic-viability-of-pastoralism-the-need-to-balance-interventions
#20
H Rueff, I Rahim
Extensive mobile pastoral systems do not follow conventional marketing optimisation models, since they must deal with the factors of mobility, erratic environments, dependency on natural resources, seasonality, and distance to markets. While pastoralist systems contribute substantially to national economies, government investment to support pastoralism remains limited or non-existent. Pastoralists are becoming increasingly integrated into larger market systems and therefore need investment and specially adapted policies to supply a growing demand for livestock products and to support their livelihoods...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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