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International Reviews of Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060562/pathogen-recognition-and-toll-like-receptor-targeted-therapeutics-in-innate-immune-cells
#1
Sarang Tartey, Osamu Takeuchi
The innate immune system deploys a variety of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors to detect the invasion of pathogens and initiate protective responses. The intercellular and intracellular orchestration of signals from different PRRs, their endogenous or microbial ligands and accessory molecules determine the stimulatory or inhibitory responses. Progressing over the last two decades, considerable research on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions has led to a paradigm shift of our understanding of TLR signaling in the innate immune system...
January 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060559/understanding-the-interaction-between-henipaviruses-and-their-natural-host-fruit-bats-paving-the-way-toward-control-of-highly-lethal-infection-in-humans
#2
François Enchéry, Branka Horvat
Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses, from henipavirus genus, that have emerged in late 1990s in Australia and South-East Asia, respectively. Since their initial identification, numerous outbreaks have been reported, affecting both domestic animals and humans, and multiple rounds of person-to-person NiV transmission were observed. Widely distributed fruit bats from Pteropodidae family were found to be henipavirus natural reservoir. Numerous studies have reported henipavirus seropositivity in pteropid bats, including bats in Africa, thus expanding notably the geographic distribution of these viruses...
January 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929702/editorial-board-eov
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918672/in-this-issue-protein-structure-cellular-metabolism-and-genetics-in-immunity
#4
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119724/the-unfolded-protein-response-in-homeostasis-and-modulation-of-mammalian-immune-cells
#5
Ana Sofia Martins, Inês Alves, Luisa Helguero, Maria Rosário Domingues, Bruno Miguel Neves
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in eukaryotic protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Several exogenous and endogenous cellular sources of stress can perturb ER homeostasis leading to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen. Unfolded protein accumulation triggers a signal-transduction cascade known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive mechanism which aims to protect cells from protein aggregates and to restore ER functions. Further to this protective mechanism, in immune cells, UPR molecular effectors have been shown to participate in a wide range of biological processes such as cell differentiation, survival and immunoglobulin and cytokine production...
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606199/regulators-of-glucose-metabolism-in-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells
#6
Clovis S Palmer, Tabinda Hussain, Gabriel Duette, Thomas J Weller, Matias Ostrowski, Isabel Sada-Ovalle, Suzanne M Crowe
Much like cancer cells, activated T cells undergo various metabolic changes that allow them to grow and proliferate rapidly. By adopting aerobic glycolysis upon activation, T cells effectively prioritize efficiency in biosynthesis over energy generation. There are distinct differences in the way CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells process activation signals. CD8(+) effector T cells are less dependent on Glut1 and oxygen levels compared to their CD4(+) counterparts. Similarly the downstream signaling by TCR also differs in both effector T cell types...
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26186200/divergence-of-vascular-specification-in-visceral-lymphoid-organs-genetic-determinants-and-differentiation-checkpoints
#7
Zoltán Kellermayer, Haruko Hayasaka, Béla Kajtár, Diána Simon, Eloy F Robles, Jose A Martinez-Climent, Péter Balogh
Despite their functional similarities, peripheral lymphoid tissues are remarkably different according to their developmental properties and structural characteristics, including their specified vasculature. Access of leukocytes to these organs critically depends on their interactions with the local endothelium, where endothelial cells are patterned to display a restricted set of adhesion molecules and other regulatory compounds necessary for extravasation. Recent advances in high throughput analyses of highly purified endothelial subsets in various lymphoid tissues as well as the expansion of various transgenic animal models have shed new light on the transcriptional complexities of lymphoid tissue vascular endothelium...
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739924/broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-an-approach-to-control-hiv-1-infection
#8
Mahmoud Mohammad Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud Yaseen, Mohammad Ali Alqudah
Although available antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection to a non-fatal chronic disease, the economic burden of lifelong therapy, severe adverse ART effects, daily ART adherence, and emergence of ART-resistant HIV-1 mutants require prospecting for alternative therapeutic modalities. Indeed, a growing body of evidence suggests that broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (BNAbs) may offer one such feasible alternative. To evaluate their therapeutic potential in established HIV-1 infection, we sought to address recent advances in pre-clinical and clinical investigations in this area of HIV-1 research...
October 14, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682364/renal-transplant-immunology-in-the-last-20-years-a-revolution-towards-graft-and-patient-survival-improvement
#9
Helena Sá, Rita Leal, Manuel Santos Rosa
To deride the hope of progress is the ultimate fatuity, the last word in poverty of spirit and meanness of mind. There is no need to be dismayed by the fact that we cannot yet envisage a definitive solution of our problems, a resting-place beyond which we need not try to go. -P.B. Medawar, 1969* [Formula: see text] Thomas E. Starlz, also known as the Father of Clinical Transplantation, once said that organ transplantation was the supreme exception to the rule that most major advances in medicine spring from discoveries in basic science [Starzl T...
September 28, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645024/fam26f-an-enigmatic-protein-having-a-complex-role-in-the-immune-system
#10
Uzma Malik, Aneela Javed
Mammalian immune system is a complex amalgam of diverse cellular and noncellular components such as cytokines, receptors and co-receptors. FAM26F (family with sequence similarity 26, member F) is a recently identified tetraspanin-like membrane glycoprotein which is predicted to make homophilic interactions and potential synapses between several immune cells including CD4(+), CD8(+), NK, dendritic cells and macrophages. Various whole transcriptome analyses have demonstrated the differential expression of FAM26F in several bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, in certain pathophysiological conditions such as liver and heart transplantation, and in various cancers...
September 19, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925494/in-this-issue-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-orchestrating-the-innate-immunity-during-infectious-and-non-infectious-disease
#11
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644763/tumor-associated-macrophages-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-as-immunosuppressive-mechanism-in-ovarian-cancer-patients-progress-and-challenges
#12
Karolina Okła, Iwona Wertel, Grzegorz Polak, Justyna Surówka, Anna Wawruszak, Jan Kotarski
Cancers are complex masses of malignant cells and nonmalignant cells that create the tumor microenvironment (TME). Non-transformed cells of the TME such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been observed in the TME of ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Although these subsets may contribute to each step of carcinogenesis and are commonly associated with poor prognosis, still little is known about creation of the protumor microenvironment in OC. In this review, we focused on the nature and prognostic significance of TAMs and MDSCs in OC patients...
September 2, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128144/vagal-modulation-of-the-inflammatory-response-in-sepsis
#13
Da-Wei Wang, Yi-Mei Yin, Yong-Ming Yao
The vagus nerve can sense peripheral inflammation and transmit action potentials from the periphery to the brainstem. Vagal afferent signaling is integrated in the brainstem, and efferent vagus nerves carry outbound signals that terminate in spleen and other organs. Stimulation of efferent vagus nerve leads to the release of acetylcholine in these organs. In turn, acetylcholine interacts with members of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family, particularly with the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is expressed by macrophages and other cytokine-producing cells...
September 2, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606328/stat1-and-irf8-in-vascular-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-disease-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-potential
#14
Stefan Chmielewski, Anna Piaszyk-Borychowska, Joanna Wesoly, Hans A R Bluyssen
Inflammation importantly contributes to the pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)1 operates at the frontier of innate and adaptive immunity and its involvement in CVD has been widely appreciated. A unique role of STAT1 in cross-talk between the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFNγ and TLR4 activators (TLR4-A) has been uncovered in immune as well as vascular cells increasing inflammation. Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)8 whose expression was initially identified in immune cells, controls development and differentiation in close connection with PU...
September 2, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26222510/innate-lymphoid-cells-a-promising-new-regulator-in-fibrotic-diseases
#15
Yi Zhang, Jun Tang, Zhiqiang Tian, Jennifer C van Velkinburgh, Jianxun Song, Yuzhang Wu, Bing Ni
Fibrosis is a consequence of chronic inflammation and the persistent accumulation of extracellular matrix, for which the cycle of tissue injury and repair becomes a predominant feature. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems play key roles in the progress of fibrosis. The recently identified subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are mainly localize to epithelial surfaces, have been characterized as regulators of chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling, representing a functional bridge between the innate and adaptive immunity...
September 2, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25793750/distinct-strategies-employed-by-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-in-restricting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-different-philosophies-but-same-desire
#16
Nargis Khan, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Susanta Pahari, Javed N Agrewala
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Mϕs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that can efficiently phagocytose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB). It is quite interesting to mention here that DCs and Mϕs use distinct strategies to combat and eliminate Mtb. Similarly, Mtb employs different mechanisms to counteract the action of DCs and Mϕs. Mϕs are evolved with specialized, innate, defensive machinery to restrict growth of Mtb at the initial phase of infection...
September 2, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797621/in-this-issue-translational-opportunities-for-antibodies-therapeutics-biomarkers-and-novel-targets
#17
Adrian Bot, Himanshu Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25259408/the-duality-of-fgl2-secreted-immune-checkpoint-regulator-versus-membrane-associated-procoagulant-therapeutic-potential-and-implications
#18
Jiemiao Hu, Jun Yan, Ganesh Rao, Khatri Latha, Willem W Overwijk, Amy B Heimberger, Shulin Li
Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl2), a member of the fibrinogen family, can be expressed as a membrane-associated protein with coagulation activity or in a secreted form possessing unique immune suppressive functions. The biological importance of Fgl2 is evident within viral-induced fibrin depositing inflammatory diseases and malignancies and provides a compelling rationale for Fgl2 expression to not only be considered as a disease biomarker but also as a therapeutic target. This article will provide a comprehensive review of the currently known biological properties of Fgl2 and clarifies future scientific directives...
July 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636907/in-this-issue-at-the-interaction-between-the-immune-system-and-microbes
#19
Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120222/interaction-between-helminths-and-toll-like-receptors-possibilities-and-potentials-for-asthma-therapy
#20
Amin Zakeri, Hassan Borji, Alireza Haghparast
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system. They play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, especially asthma. Since TLRs significantly orchestrate innate and adaptive immune response, their manipulation has widely been considered as a potential approach to control asthma symptoms. It is well established that helminths have immunoregulatory effects on host immune responses, especially innate immunity. They release bioactive molecules such as excretory-secretory (ES) products manipulating TLRs expression and signaling...
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
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