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International Reviews of Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333574/cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensors-and-innate-immune-regulation
#1
Daisuke Ori, Motoya Murase, Taro Kawai
During viral and bacterial infections, pathogen-derived cytosolic nucleic acids are recognized by the intracellular RNA sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I and melanoma-differentiated gene 5 and intracellular DNA sensors, including cyclic-di-GMP-AMP synthase, absent in melanoma 2, interferon (IFN)-gamma inducible protein 16, polymerase III, and so on. Binding of intracellular nucleic acids to these sensors activates downstream signaling cascades, resulting in the production of type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines to induce appropriate systematic immune responses...
March 23, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333564/in-this-issue-innate-immunity-and-infectious-diseases-an-update
#2
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272924/imprinting-of-maternal-thyroid-hormones-in-the-offspring
#3
María Cecilia Opazo, Henny Haensgen, Karen Bohmwald, Luis F Venegas, Helene Boudin, Alvaro A Elorza, Felipe Simon, Carlos Fardella, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis, Claudia A Riedel
Thyroid hormones (THs) during pregnancy contribute significantly to cellular differentiation and development in several tissues of the offspring, principally the central nervous system (CNS). TH deficiencies, such as hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia, are highly frequent during pregnancy worldwide and known to be detrimental for the development of the fetus. The function of CNS in the offspring gestated under TH deficiency will be irreversible impaired, causing low intellectual quotient, attention deficit, and mental retardation...
March 8, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272907/emerging-avian-influenza-infections-current-understanding-of-innate-immune-response-and-molecular-pathogenesis
#4
Anamika Mishra, Periyasamy Vijayakumar, Ashwin Ashok Raut
The highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause severe disease in gallinaceous poultry species, domestic ducks, various aquatic and terrestrial wild bird species as well as humans. The outcome of the disease is determined by complex interactions of multiple components of the host, the virus, and the environment. While the host-innate immune response plays an important role for clearance of infection, excessive inflammatory immune response (cytokine storm) may contribute to morbidity and mortality of the host...
March 8, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282218/immunotoxins-in-cancer-therapy-review-and-update
#5
Bahman Akbari, Safar Farajnia, Shiva Ahdi Khosroshahi, Fatemeh Safari, Mohammadreza Yousefi, Hassan Dariushnejad, Leila Rahbarnia
Immunotoxins are a novel class of cancer therapeutics that contains a cytotoxic agent fused to a targeting moiety. Various toxic agents from different sources are used in immunotoxin development, including bacterial, plant and human origin cytotoxic elements. Although bacterial and plant-derived toxins are highly toxic and commonly used in immunotoxins, their immunogenicity for human restricted their application in cancer therapy. Here, we discuss the advantages and limitations of bacterial toxins such as Pseudomonas and Diphtheria toxins, plant toxins such as ricin and gelonin, and some endogenous protein of human origin such as RNases and Granzymes...
March 1, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060562/pathogen-recognition-and-toll-like-receptor-targeted-therapeutics-in-innate-immune-cells
#6
Sarang Tartey, Osamu Takeuchi
The innate immune system deploys a variety of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors to detect the invasion of pathogens and initiate protective responses. The intercellular and intracellular orchestration of signals from different PRRs, their endogenous or microbial ligands and accessory molecules determine the stimulatory or inhibitory responses. Progressing over the last two decades, considerable research on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions has led to a paradigm shift of our understanding of TLR signaling in the innate immune system...
January 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060559/understanding-the-interaction-between-henipaviruses-and-their-natural-host-fruit-bats-paving-the-way-toward-control-of-highly-lethal-infection-in-humans
#7
François Enchéry, Branka Horvat
Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses, from henipavirus genus, that have emerged in late 1990s in Australia and South-East Asia, respectively. Since their initial identification, numerous outbreaks have been reported, affecting both domestic animals and humans, and multiple rounds of person-to-person NiV transmission were observed. Widely distributed fruit bats from Pteropodidae family were found to be henipavirus natural reservoir. Numerous studies have reported henipavirus seropositivity in pteropid bats, including bats in Africa, thus expanding notably the geographic distribution of these viruses...
January 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215101/in-this-issue-antibodies-in-pathogenesis-and-management-of-diseases
#8
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215100/targeting-baff-and-april-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-other-antibody-associated-diseases
#9
Eileen Samy, Stephen Wax, Bertrand Huard, Henry Hess, Pascal Schneider
The B cell-stimulating molecules, BAFF (B cell activating factor) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), are critical factors in the maintenance of the B cell pool and humoral immunity. In addition, BAFF and APRIL are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human autoimmune diseases, with elevated levels of these cytokines detected in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), IgA nephropathy, Sjögren's syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, both molecules are rational targets for new therapies in B cell-driven autoimmune diseases, and several inhibitors of BAFF or BAFF and APRIL together have been investigated in clinical trials...
January 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102734/fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-dependent-effector-molecules-as-a-critical-mediator-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-current-status-and-future-directions
#10
Ramamoorthi Ganesan, Mahaboobkhan Rasool
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic-autoimmune-mediated disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and progressive destruction of joint. Currently available biological agents and inhibitor therapy that specifically target tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, T cells, B cells, and subcellular molecules (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and janus kinase) cannot facilitate complete remission in all patients and are unable to cure the disease. Therefore, further potent therapeutic targets need to be identified for effective treatment and successful clinical outcomes in patients with RA...
January 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102718/vitamin-d-status-aeroallergen-sensitization-and-allergic-rhinitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Zahra Aryan, Nima Rezaei, Carlos A Camargo
PURPOSE: The role of vitamin D status in the etiology of allergic diseases is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of vitamin D status with risk of two main outcomes: aeroallergen sensitization and allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: We performed a systematic review of Medline, Scopus, Science Citation Index, and Google Scholar databases. Studies were included if they reported on prevalent or incident cases of aeroallergen sensitization or AR according to vitamin D status...
January 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739924/broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-an-approach-to-control-hiv-1-infection
#12
Mahmoud Mohammad Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud Yaseen, Mohammad Ali Alqudah
Although available antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection to a non-fatal chronic disease, the economic burden of lifelong therapy, severe adverse ART effects, daily ART adherence, and emergence of ART-resistant HIV-1 mutants require prospecting for alternative therapeutic modalities. Indeed, a growing body of evidence suggests that broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (BNAbs) may offer one such feasible alternative. To evaluate their therapeutic potential in established HIV-1 infection, we sought to address recent advances in pre-clinical and clinical investigations in this area of HIV-1 research...
January 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918672/in-this-issue-protein-structure-cellular-metabolism-and-genetics-in-immunity
#13
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119724/the-unfolded-protein-response-in-homeostasis-and-modulation-of-mammalian-immune-cells
#14
Ana Sofia Martins, Inês Alves, Luisa Helguero, Maria Rosário Domingues, Bruno Miguel Neves
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in eukaryotic protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Several exogenous and endogenous cellular sources of stress can perturb ER homeostasis leading to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen. Unfolded protein accumulation triggers a signal-transduction cascade known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive mechanism which aims to protect cells from protein aggregates and to restore ER functions. Further to this protective mechanism, in immune cells, UPR molecular effectors have been shown to participate in a wide range of biological processes such as cell differentiation, survival and immunoglobulin and cytokine production...
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606199/regulators-of-glucose-metabolism-in-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells
#15
Clovis S Palmer, Tabinda Hussain, Gabriel Duette, Thomas J Weller, Matias Ostrowski, Isabel Sada-Ovalle, Suzanne M Crowe
Much like cancer cells, activated T cells undergo various metabolic changes that allow them to grow and proliferate rapidly. By adopting aerobic glycolysis upon activation, T cells effectively prioritize efficiency in biosynthesis over energy generation. There are distinct differences in the way CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells process activation signals. CD8(+) effector T cells are less dependent on Glut1 and oxygen levels compared to their CD4(+) counterparts. Similarly the downstream signaling by TCR also differs in both effector T cell types...
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26186200/divergence-of-vascular-specification-in-visceral-lymphoid-organs-genetic-determinants-and-differentiation-checkpoints
#16
Zoltán Kellermayer, Haruko Hayasaka, Béla Kajtár, Diána Simon, Eloy F Robles, Jose A Martinez-Climent, Péter Balogh
Despite their functional similarities, peripheral lymphoid tissues are remarkably different according to their developmental properties and structural characteristics, including their specified vasculature. Access of leukocytes to these organs critically depends on their interactions with the local endothelium, where endothelial cells are patterned to display a restricted set of adhesion molecules and other regulatory compounds necessary for extravasation. Recent advances in high throughput analyses of highly purified endothelial subsets in various lymphoid tissues as well as the expansion of various transgenic animal models have shed new light on the transcriptional complexities of lymphoid tissue vascular endothelium...
November 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682364/renal-transplant-immunology-in-the-last-20-years-a-revolution-towards-graft-and-patient-survival-improvement
#17
Helena Sá, Rita Leal, Manuel Santos Rosa
To deride the hope of progress is the ultimate fatuity, the last word in poverty of spirit and meanness of mind. There is no need to be dismayed by the fact that we cannot yet envisage a definitive solution of our problems, a resting-place beyond which we need not try to go. -P.B. Medawar, 1969* [Formula: see text] Thomas E. Starlz, also known as the Father of Clinical Transplantation, once said that organ transplantation was the supreme exception to the rule that most major advances in medicine spring from discoveries in basic science [Starzl T...
September 28, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645024/fam26f-an-enigmatic-protein-having-a-complex-role-in-the-immune-system
#18
Uzma Malik, Aneela Javed
Mammalian immune system is a complex amalgam of diverse cellular and noncellular components such as cytokines, receptors and co-receptors. FAM26F (family with sequence similarity 26, member F) is a recently identified tetraspanin-like membrane glycoprotein which is predicted to make homophilic interactions and potential synapses between several immune cells including CD4(+), CD8(+), NK, dendritic cells and macrophages. Various whole transcriptome analyses have demonstrated the differential expression of FAM26F in several bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, in certain pathophysiological conditions such as liver and heart transplantation, and in various cancers...
September 19, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925494/in-this-issue-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-orchestrating-the-innate-immunity-during-infectious-and-non-infectious-disease
#19
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644763/tumor-associated-macrophages-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-as-immunosuppressive-mechanism-in-ovarian-cancer-patients-progress-and-challenges
#20
Karolina Okła, Iwona Wertel, Grzegorz Polak, Justyna Surówka, Anna Wawruszak, Jan Kotarski
Cancers are complex masses of malignant cells and nonmalignant cells that create the tumor microenvironment (TME). Non-transformed cells of the TME such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been observed in the TME of ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Although these subsets may contribute to each step of carcinogenesis and are commonly associated with poor prognosis, still little is known about creation of the protumor microenvironment in OC. In this review, we focused on the nature and prognostic significance of TAMs and MDSCs in OC patients...
September 2, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
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