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International Reviews of Immunology

Mahmoud Mohammad Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud Yaseen, Mohammad Ali Alqudah
Although available antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection to a non-fatal chronic disease, the economic burden of lifelong therapy, severe adverse ART effects, daily ART adherence, and emergence of ART-resistant HIV-1 mutants require prospecting for alternative therapeutic modalities. Indeed, a growing body of evidence suggests that broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (BNAbs) may offer one such feasible alternative. To evaluate their therapeutic potential in established HIV-1 infection, we sought to address recent advances in pre-clinical and clinical investigations in this area of HIV-1 research...
October 14, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Helena Sá, Rita Leal, Manuel Santos Rosa
To deride the hope of progress is the ultimate fatuity, the last word in poverty of spirit and meanness of mind. There is no need to be dismayed by the fact that we cannot yet envisage a definitive solution of our problems, a resting-place beyond which we need not try to go. -P.B. Medawar, 1969* [Formula: see text] Thomas E. Starlz, also known as the Father of Clinical Transplantation, once said that organ transplantation was the supreme exception to the rule that most major advances in medicine spring from discoveries in basic science [Starzl T...
September 28, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Uzma Malik, Aneela Javed
Mammalian immune system is a complex amalgam of diverse cellular and noncellular components such as cytokines, receptors and co-receptors. FAM26F (family with sequence similarity 26, member F) is a recently identified tetraspanin-like membrane glycoprotein which is predicted to make homophilic interactions and potential synapses between several immune cells including CD4(+), CD8(+), NK, dendritic cells and macrophages. Various whole transcriptome analyses have demonstrated the differential expression of FAM26F in several bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, in certain pathophysiological conditions such as liver and heart transplantation, and in various cancers...
September 19, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Karolina Okła, Iwona Wertel, Grzegorz Polak, Justyna Surówka, Anna Wawruszak, Jan Kotarski
Cancers are complex masses of malignant cells and nonmalignant cells that create the tumor microenvironment (TME). Non-transformed cells of the TME such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been observed in the TME of ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Although these subsets may contribute to each step of carcinogenesis and are commonly associated with poor prognosis, still little is known about creation of the protumor microenvironment in OC. In this review, we focused on the nature and prognostic significance of TAMs and MDSCs in OC patients...
September 19, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Adrian Bot, Himanshu Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Jiemiao Hu, Jun Yan, Ganesh Rao, Khatri Latha, Willem W Overwijk, Amy B Heimberger, Shulin Li
Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl2), a member of the fibrinogen family, can be expressed as a membrane-associated protein with coagulation activity or in a secreted form possessing unique immune suppressive functions. The biological importance of Fgl2 is evident within viral-induced fibrin depositing inflammatory diseases and malignancies and provides a compelling rationale for Fgl2 expression to not only be considered as a disease biomarker but also as a therapeutic target. This article will provide a comprehensive review of the currently known biological properties of Fgl2 and clarifies future scientific directives...
July 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Amin Zakeri, Hassan Borji, Alireza Haghparast
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system. They play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, especially asthma. Since TLRs significantly orchestrate innate and adaptive immune response, their manipulation has widely been considered as a potential approach to control asthma symptoms. It is well established that helminths have immunoregulatory effects on host immune responses, especially innate immunity. They release bioactive molecules such as excretory-secretory (ES) products manipulating TLRs expression and signaling...
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Yali Ren, Yiyang Guo, Li Feng, Tongyang Li, Yukai Du
Hepatitis B, a serious infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), remains a worldwide social and public health problem. Hepatitis B has a particularly high incidence rate in the world, whereas approximately 35-50% HBV carriers are infected through vertical transmission. Even after newborn immunoprophylaxis, vertical transmission still accounts for 5-10% in China according to plenty of literature in Chinese language. For these reasons, it is important to determine how to effectively intervene in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)...
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Anne Gnauck, Roger G Lentle, Marlena C Kruger
Cross-talk between enteral microbiota and human host is essential for the development and maintenance of the human gastrointestinal and systemic immune systems. The presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) lysed from the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria in the gut lumen is thought to promote the development of a balanced gut immune response whilst the entry of the same LPS into systemic circulation may lead to a deleterious pro-inflammatory systemic immune response. Recent data suggest that chronically low levels of circulating LPS may be associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease...
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Fiona Long Yan Fong, Nagendra P Shah, Pirkka Kirjavainen, Hani El-Nezami
Immunomodulation has been shown to be one of the major functions of probiotic bacteria. This review is presented to provide detailed information on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in various animal models and clinical practices. Probiotics can regulate helper T (Th) responses and release of cytokines in a strain-specific manner. For example, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can induce beneficial Th1 immunomodulatory effect in infants with cow's milk allergy and relieve intestinal inflammation in atopic children by promoting IL-10 generation...
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Enrico D'Amelio, Simonetta Salemi, Raffaele D'Amelio
A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed...
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Da-Wei Wang, Yi-Mei Yin, Yong-Ming Yao
The vagus nerve can sense peripheral inflammation and transmit action potentials from the periphery to the brainstem. Vagal afferent signaling is integrated in the brainstem, and efferent vagus nerves carry outbound signals that terminate in spleen and other organs. Stimulation of efferent vagus nerve leads to the release of acetylcholine in these organs. In turn, acetylcholine interacts with members of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family, particularly with the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is expressed by macrophages and other cytokine-producing cells...
April 29, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Daniele Focosi
Immunological risk stratification has a central role in determining both the feasibility of solid organ transplantation and the type (and amount) of induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Currently there is poor consensus on how to exactly estimate the global immunological risk, and most transplant centers adopt complicated internal guidelines for risk stratification. Here we systematically review published evidences that should drive appropriateness in risk stratification, focusing on donor-specific antibodies against HLA and other antigens...
April 27, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Mahsa Eskian, Amal H Assa'ad, Carlos A Camargo, Nima Rezaei
Nonresponders to maximal guideline-based therapies of asthma account for most of the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden of the disease. Because eosinophils are key effector cells in asthmatic airway inflammation, blocking IL-5, the main cytokine responsible for its survival and activation, seems to be a rational strategy. While previous monoclonal antibodies against the IL-5 ligand resulted in inconsistent improvements in asthma outcomes, benralizumab has shown promise. Benralizumab is a monoclonal antibody against IL-5 receptor, and has an enhanced antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity function...
April 27, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Ana Sofia Martins, Inês Alves, Luisa Helguero, Maria Rosário Domingues, Bruno Miguel Neves
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in eukaryotic protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Several exogenous and endogenous cellular sources of stress can perturb ER homeostasis leading to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen. Unfolded protein accumulation triggers a signal-transduction cascade known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive mechanism which aims to protect cells from protein aggregates and to restore ER functions. Further to this protective mechanism, in immune cells, UPR molecular effectors have been shown to participate in a wide range of biological processes such as cell differentiation, survival and immunoglobulin and cytokine production...
April 27, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Ilan Volovitz, Susanne Melzer, Sarah Amar, József Bocsi, Merav Bloch, Sol Efroni, Zvi Ram, Attila Tárnok
Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent and versatile antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. DC have an exceptional ability to comprehend the immune context of a captured antigen based on molecular signals identified from its vicinity. The analyzed information is then conveyed to other immune effector cells. Such capability enables DC to play a pivotal role in mediating either an immunogenic response or immune tolerance towards an acquired antigen. This review summarizes current knowledge on DC in the context of human tumors...
2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Reza Yazdani, Hassan Abolhassani, Nima Rezaei, Gholamreza Azizi, Lennart Hammarström, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease, associated with defective antibody production and recurrent infections. Several defective signaling-associated molecules related to B-cell receptor, T-cell receptor, toll-like receptor, and other immune cell-associated receptors have been identified so far. In this review, defects of cell signaling associated molecules at three levels of surface cytoplasmic, and nuclear molecules are highlighted in patients who primarily diagnosed as CVID...
2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Reviews of Immunology
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