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International Reviews of Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29257907/the-promising-role-of-monoclonal-antibodies-for-immunotherapy-of-the-hiv-associated-cancer-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#1
Omid Rezahosseini, Sara Hanaei, Mehdi Hamadani, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Nima Rezaei
Association between HIV/AIDS and some of the cancers such as lymphomais is well known. Relative risk for developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) increases 60-200 folds in HIV-infected individuals. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and Plasmablastic Lymphoma (PBL) are among the most frequent subtypes. During the last century, scientists found that the immune system could potentially detect and destroy cancer cells. Therefore, they started a new field of study, which is named immunotherapy...
December 19, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29257906/the-prognostic-value-of-regulatory-t-cells-infiltration-in-her2-enriched-breast-cancer-microenvironment
#2
Bruna K Banin-Hirata, Carlos E C de Oliveira, Roberta Losi-Guembarovski, Patricia M M Ozawa, Glauco A F Vitiello, Felipe C de Almeida, Daniela R Derossi, Nayara D André, Maria A E Watanabe
Breast cancer represents a complex and heterogeneous disease that comprises distinct disease conditions, histological features, and clinical outcome. Since many years, it has been demonstrated as an association between HER2 amplification and poor prognosis, because its overexpression is associated with an aggressive phenotype of breast tumor cells. A significant proportion of cases have developed resistance to the current therapies available. Consequently, new prognostic markers are urgently needed to identify patients who are at the highest risk for developing metastases...
December 19, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231767/high-altitude-induced-alterations-in-gut-immune-axis-a-review
#3
Kunjan Khanna, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Shashi Bala Singh
High-altitude sojourn above 8000 ft is increasing day by day either for pilgrimage, mountaineering, holidaying or for strategic reasons. In India, soldiers are deployed to these high mountains for their duty or pilgrims visit to the holy places, which are located at very high altitude. A large population also resides permanently in high altitude regions. Every year thousands of pilgrims visit Holy cave of Shri Amarnath ji, which is above 15 000 ft. The poor acclimatization to high altitude may cause alteration in immunity...
December 12, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211501/viral-subversion-of-apobec3s-lessons-for-anti-tumor-immunity-and-tumor-immunotherapy
#4
Faezeh Borzooee, Mahdi Asgharpour, Emma Quinlan, Michael D Grant, Mani Larijani
APOBEC3s (A3) are endogenous DNA-editing enzymes that are expressed in immune cells including T lymphocytes. A3s target and mutate the genomes of retroviruses that infect immune tissues such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, A3s were classically defined as host anti-viral innate immune factors. In contrast, we and others showed that A3s can also benefit the virus by mediating escape from adaptive immune recognition and drugs. Crucially, whether A3-mediated mutations help or hinder HIV, is not up to chance...
December 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193992/tlrs-nlrs-shaping-the-landscape-of-host-immunity
#5
Komal Dolasia, Manoj K Bisht, Gourango Pradhan, Atul Udgata, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
Innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogenic organisms. It has a varied and large collection of molecules known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which can tackle the pathogens promptly and effectively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are members of the PRR family that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and play pivotal roles to mediate defense against infections from bacteria, fungi, virus and various other pathogens. In this review, we discuss the critical roles of TLRs and NLRs in the regulation of host immune-effector functions such as cytokine production, phagosome-lysosome fusion, inflammasome activation, autophagy, antigen presentation, and B and T cell immune responses that are known to be essential for mounting a protective immune response against the pathogens...
December 1, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182399/application-of-camelid-heavy-chain-variable-domains-vhhs-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-bacterial-and-viral-infections
#6
Lucas Wilken, Anne McPherson
Camelid heavy-chain variable domains (VHHs) are the smallest, intact, antigen-binding units to occur in nature. VHHs possess high degrees of solubility and robustness enabling generation of multivalent constructs with increased avidity - characteristics that mark their superiority to other antibody fragments and monoclonal antibodies. Capable of effectively binding to molecular targets inaccessible to classical immunotherapeutic agents and easily produced in microbial culture, VHHs are considered promising tools for pharmaceutical biotechnology...
November 28, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106304/role-of-mait-cells-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-diseases-new-players-in-old-game
#7
Vijay Kumar, Ali Ahmad
Current advances in immunology have led to the identification of a population of novel innate immune T cells, called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. The cells in humans express an invariant TCRα chain (Vα7.2-Jα33) paired with a limited subset of TCRβ chains (Vβ2, 13 and 22), are restricted by the MHC class I (MH1)-related (MR)-1, and recognize molecules that are produced in the bacterial riboflavin (vitamin B2) biosynthetic pathway. They are present in the circulation, liver and at various mucosal sites (i...
November 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148863/editorial-board-eov
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148862/in-this-issue-cancer-immunity-and-immunotherapy
#9
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961038/focused-ultrasound-for-immuno-adjuvant-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer-an-emerging-clinical-paradigm-in-the-era-of-personalized-oncotherapy
#10
Ezekiel Maloney, Tanya Khokhlova, Venu G Pillarisetty, George R Schade, Elizabeth A Repasky, Yak-Nam Wang, Lorenzo Giuliani, Matteo Primavera, Joo Ha Hwang
Current clinical treatment regimens, including many emergent immune strategies (e.g., checkpoint inhibitors) have done little to affect the devastating course of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Clinical trials for PDA often employ multi-modal treatment, and have started to incorporate stromal-targeted therapies, which have shown promising results in early reports. Focused ultrasound (FUS) is one such therapy that is uniquely equipped to address local and systemic limitations of conventional cancer therapies as well as emergent immune therapies for PDA...
November 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933960/the-mechanisms-of-il-17a-on-promoting-tumor-metastasis
#11
Ling-Ling Xu, Zhi-Jun Li, Xiu-Long Niu, Wei-Min Deng
In recent decades, extensive studies have indicated that IL-17A plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not immediately clear. In this review, we examined the literature from the recent years concerning the study of IL-17A in four kinds of tumor transfer paths, including hematogenous metastasis, lymphatic metastasis, local invasion and transcoelomic metastasis, to summarize the roles and underlying mechanisms of IL-17A on tumor metastasis.
November 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933579/innate-immune-cells-for-immunotherapy-of-autoimmune-and-cancer-disorders
#12
Carolina Schäfer, Gabriel Ascui, Carolina H Ribeiro, Mercedes López, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Pablo A González, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Andrés Baena, Alexis M Kalergis, Leandro J Carreño
Modulation of the immune system has been widely targeted for the treatment of several immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, due to its crucial role in these pathologies. Current available therapies focus mainly on symptomatic treatment and are often associated with undesirable secondary effects. For several years, remission of disease and subsequently recovery of immune homeostasis has been a major goal for immunotherapy. Most current immunotherapeutic strategies are aimed to inhibit or potentiate directly the adaptive immune response by modulating antibody production and B cell memory, as well as the effector potential and memory of T cells...
November 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800262/risk-factors-predisposing-to-the-development-of-hypogammaglobulinemia-and-infections-post-rituximab
#13
Evangelos A A Christou, Giuliana Giardino, Austen Worth, Fani Ladomenou
Rituximab (RTX) is a monoclonal antibody against CD20, commonly used in the treatment of hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. The use of RTX is related to the development of hypogammaglobulinemia and infections. Aim of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting the association of specific risk factors with the development of hypogammaglobulinemia and infections post-RTX. Immunological complications are more common in patients with malignant diseases as compared to non-malignant diseases...
November 2, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028369/toll-like-receptors-significance-ligands-signaling-pathways-and-functions-in-mammals
#14
Mallenahally Kusha Vidya, V Girish Kumar, Veerasamy Sejian, Madiajagan Bagath, Govindan Krishnan, Raghavendra Bhatta
This review attempts to cover the implication of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in controlling immune functions with emphasis on their significance, function, regulation and expression patterns. The tripartite TLRs are type I integral transmembrane receptors that are involved in recognition and conveying of pathogens to the immune system. These paralogs are located on cell surfaces or within endosomes. The TLRs are found to be functionally involved in the recognition of self and non-self-antigens, maturation of DCs and initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune responses as they bridge the innate and adaptive immunity...
October 13, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961037/cns-not-an-immunoprivilaged-site-anymore-but-a-virtual-secondary-lymphoid-organ
#15
Neema Negi, Bimal K Das
The cardinal dogma of central nervous system (CNS) immunology believed brain is an immune privileged site, but scientific evidences gathered so far have overturned this notion proving that CNS is no longer an immune privileged site, but rather an actively regulated site of immune surveillance. Landmark discovery of lymphatic system surrounding the duramater of the brain, made possible by high resolution live imaging technology has given new dimension to neuro-immunology. Here, we discuss the immune privilege status of CNS in light of the previous and current findings, taking into account the differences between a healthy state and changes that occur during an inflammatory response...
September 29, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933967/aid-biology-a-pathological-and-clinical-perspective
#16
Meenal Choudhary, Anubhav Tamrakar, Amit Kumar Singh, Monika Jain, Ankit Jaiswal, Prashant Kodgire
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), primarily expressed in activated mature B lymphocytes in germinal centers, is the key factor in adaptive immune response against foreign antigens. AID is responsible for producing high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies against an infectious agent, through the physiological DNA alteration processes of antibody genes by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) and functions by deaminating deoxycytidines (dC) to deoxyuridines (dU), thereby introducing point mutations and double-stranded chromosomal breaks (DSBs)...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898138/redox-sensitive-transcription-factors-play-a-significant-role-in-the-development-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Scott Le Rossignol, Natkunam Ketheesan, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is associated with significant morbidity. Redox sensitive transcription factors including NF-κB, HIF, AP-1, and Nrf2 are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The treatment of this disease is limited by the elusive nature of the pathogenesis of RA. NF-κB is crucial for the maturation of immune cells as well as production of TNFα and MMPs, which escalate RA. HIF is essential for activation of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and pannus formation in RA...
September 12, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876962/gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-primary-immune-deficiencies-in-children
#18
Naila Nazi, Fani Ladomenou
Primary immune deficiencies (PID) in children are a rare but serious group of genetic disorders of the immune system which apart from the host's defenses, can also affect every system of the human body, including the gastrointestinal tract. In their severe form they can lead to increased susceptibility to serious infections during infancy and even death. In the less severe form, they can present later in childhood or adolescence with subtle signs and symptoms. As PID can often mimic gastrointestinal diseases, children presenting with atypical gastrointestinal disease and/or failure to respond to conventional therapy should be evaluated for an underlying primary immune disorder and initiated appropriate treatment...
September 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135341/in-this-issue-fine-tuners-of-immunity-and-their-role-in-infectious-and-non-infectious-diseases
#19
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976784/analysis-of-host-pathogen-modulators-of-autophagy-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-therapeutic-repercussions
#20
Arshad Khan, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most deadly human pathogens known today in modern world, responsible for about 1.5 million deaths annually. Development of TB disease occurs only in 1 out of 10 individuals exposed to the pathogen which indicates that the competent host defense mechanisms exist in majority of the hosts to control the infection. In the last decade, autophagy has emerged as a key host immune defense mechanism against intracellular M. tuberculosis infection. Autophagy has been demonstrated not only as an effective antimicrobial mechanism for the clearance of M...
September 3, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
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