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International Reviews of Immunology

Pernille Koefoed-Nielsen, Bjarne Kuno Møller
The detection of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) is a cornerstone in the immunological risk assessment prior to organ transplantation. The detection methods have developed rapidly during the last decade, and the evidence for clinical interpretation of results obtained by solid phase immunoassays (SPI) is slowly accumulating. Nevertheless, technical limitations and theoretical concerns still mean that "expert opinions" govern clinical decision-making when results of bead-based arrays are applied in immunological risk assessment prior to transplantation...
November 20, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Antonis S Manolis, Theodora A Manolis, Helen Melita, Antonis S Manolis
Psoriasis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease, with its most common coexisting condition, psoriatic arthritis, seem to be more than just a local skin or joint disease, as evidence has accumulated over the years that it is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may confer an increased cardiovascular event and death rate. The data come mostly from observational studies and meta-analyses and indicate a potential pathogenetic link between these two systemic diseases, however definite proof of this detrimental relationship awaits further prospective studies...
November 20, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Himanshu Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Qi Hao Looi, Jhi Biau Foo, May Teng Lim, Cheng Foh Le, Pau Loke Show
Despite of ongoing research programs and numerous clinical trials, seasonal influenza epidemics remain a major concern globally. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent influenza infection. However, current flu vaccines have several limitations, including limited vaccine capacity, long production times, inconsistence efficacy in certain populations, and lack of a "universal" solution. Different next-generation approaches such as cell line-based culture, reverse genetics, and virus expression technology are currently under development to address the aforementioned challenges in conventional vaccine manufacture pipeline...
September 25, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Masoumeh Bagheri, Azadeh Zahmatkesh
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known for their essential roles in promotion of innate immunity and induction of adaptive immunity through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). TLR genes are excellent models for the study of the selective pressure enforced by microorganisms on the host genome. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that interactions between pathogens and immune systems have changed during evolution. Selective pressure for maintenance of specific pathogen recognition has led to evolution of TLRs under both positive and purifying selection...
September 12, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
D Ducloux, J Bamoulid, E Daguindau, J M Rebibou, C Courivaud, P Saas
T cell depletion by polyclonal antithymocyte globulins (ATG) has been used for many years in both organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation as an induction and rejection therapy. Nevertheless, its use remains largely empirical and many clinical questions, such as the determination of an individualized dose, therapeutic relevance of nondepletive effects, or prediction of long-term effects, are still unresolved. This review evaluates the evidence-based knowledge and the uncertainties concerning ATG, and suggests perspectives and opportunities for modern use of this old drug...
August 6, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Ashwinder Kaur, Learn-Han Lee, Sek-Chuen Chow, Chee-Mun Fang
Transcription factors are gene regulators that activate or repress target genes. One family of the transcription factors that have been extensively studied for their crucial role in regulating gene network in the immune system is the interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). IRFs possess a novel turn-helix turn motif that recognizes a specific DNA consensus found in the promoters of many genes that are involved in immune responses. IRF5, a member of IRFs has recently gained much attention for its role in regulating inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases...
July 9, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Vishakha Bhurani, Aditi Mohankrishnan, Alexandre Morrot, Sarat Kumar Dalai
The ultimate goal of any vaccine is to generate a heterogeneous and stable pool of memory lymphocytes. Vaccine are designed with the hope to generate antigen specific long-lived T cell responses, as it may be the case in natural infection; however, inducing such response by sub-unit vaccine has been a challenge. Although significant progress has been made, there is lot of scope for designing novel vaccine strategies by taking cues from the natural infection. This review focuses upon the roadblocks and the possible ways to overcome them leading to developing effective vaccines...
June 21, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Fatemeh Faraji, Zahra Karjoo, Maryam Vakili Moghaddam, Sahel Heidari, Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza Falak
Immune response elicited by therapeutic proteins is an important safety and efficacy issue for regulatory agencies, drug manufacturers, clinicians, and patients. Administration of therapeutic proteins can potentially induce the production of anti-drug antibodies or cell-mediated immune responses. At first, it was speculated that the immunogenicity is related to the non-human origin of these proteins. Later on, it was confirmed that the human proteins may also show immunogenicity. In this review article, we will focus on a number of factors, which play crucial roles in the human protein immunogenicity...
May 31, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Kane Langdon, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
The progressive damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been linked to an increase in inflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a decrease in number or function of immunomodulatory regulatory T cells (Tregs). Many therapies that are effective in RA are shown to affect Th1/Th17 cells and/or Tregs. One such therapy, abatacept, utilizes a physiologic immunomodulatory molecule called cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) which causes contact-dependent inhibition of inflammatory T-cell activation. Recent advances in CTLA-4 research has uncovered the method by which this occurs physiologically but the actions of the CTLA-4Ig fusion protein are still not fully understood...
May 14, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Omid Rezahosseini, Sara Hanaei, Mehdi Hamadani, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Nima Rezaei
Association between HIV/AIDS and some of the cancers such as lymphomais is well known. Relative risk for developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) increases 60-200 folds in HIV-infected individuals. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and Plasmablastic Lymphoma (PBL) are among the most frequent subtypes. During the last century, scientists found that the immune system could potentially detect and destroy cancer cells. Therefore, they started a new field of study, which is named immunotherapy...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Bruna K Banin-Hirata, Carlos E C de Oliveira, Roberta Losi-Guembarovski, Patricia M M Ozawa, Glauco A F Vitiello, Felipe C de Almeida, Daniela R Derossi, Nayara D André, Maria A E Watanabe
Breast cancer represents a complex and heterogeneous disease that comprises distinct disease conditions, histological features, and clinical outcome. Since many years, it has been demonstrated as an association between HER2 amplification and poor prognosis, because its overexpression is associated with an aggressive phenotype of breast tumor cells. A significant proportion of cases have developed resistance to the current therapies available. Consequently, new prognostic markers are urgently needed to identify patients who are at the highest risk for developing metastases...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Faezeh Borzooee, Mahdi Asgharpour, Emma Quinlan, Michael D Grant, Mani Larijani
APOBEC3s (A3) are endogenous DNA-editing enzymes that are expressed in immune cells including T lymphocytes. A3s target and mutate the genomes of retroviruses that infect immune tissues such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, A3s were classically defined as host anti-viral innate immune factors. In contrast, we and others showed that A3s can also benefit the virus by mediating escape from adaptive immune recognition and drugs. Crucially, whether A3-mediated mutations help or hinder HIV, is not up to chance...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Scott Le Rossignol, Natkunam Ketheesan, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is associated with significant morbidity. Redox sensitive transcription factors including NF-κB, HIF, AP-1, and Nrf2 are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The treatment of this disease is limited by the elusive nature of the pathogenesis of RA. NF-κB is crucial for the maturation of immune cells as well as production of TNFα and MMPs, which escalate RA. HIF is essential for activation of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and pannus formation in RA...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Mojtaba Shohan, Shokrollah Elahi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Nader Bagheri, Emad Soltani
T lymphocytes represent an important part of adaptive immune system undertaking different functions to regulate immune responses. CD4+ T cells are the most important activator cells in inflammatory conditions. Depending on the type of induced cells and inflamed sites, expression and activity of different subtypes of helper T cells are changed. Recent studies have confirmed the existence of a new subset of helper T lymphocytes called Th9. Naive T cells can differentiate into Th9 subtypes if they are exposed simultaneously by interleukin (IL) 4 and transforming growth factor β and also secondary activation of a complicated network of transcription factors such as interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and Smads which are essential for adequate induction of this phenotype...
April 19, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
E Athanasopoulos, I Kalaitzidou, G Vlachaki, S Stefanaki, A Tzagkaraki, G Niotakis, I Tritou, F Ladomenou
Among the neurological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), chorea is rare, presenting in less than 7% of the pediatric SLE patients. It can appear early in the onset of SLE, be the first or even the sole clinical feature of the illness and has strongly been associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. We report on the case of a 13-year old boy, admitted with acute onset chorea and finally diagnosed with SLE. Subsequently, we present a short review of the literature on the epidemiology, suggested pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of this rare presentation of SLE...
March 29, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Qing Yu, Anna Jia, Yan Li, Yujing Bi, Guangwei Liu
Microbiota is a group of microbes coexisting and co-evolving with the immune system in the host body for millions of years. There are mutual interaction between microbiota and the immune system. Immune cells can shape the populations of microbiota in the gut of animals and humans, and the presence of microbiota and the microbial products can regulate the development and function of the immune cells in the host. Although microbiota resides mainly at the mucosa, the effect of microbiota on the immune system can be both local at the mucosa and systemic through the whole body...
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Kunjan Khanna, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Shashi Bala Singh
High-altitude sojourn above 8000 ft is increasing day by day either for pilgrimage, mountaineering, holidaying or for strategic reasons. In India, soldiers are deployed to these high mountains for their duty or pilgrims visit to the holy places, which are located at very high altitude. A large population also resides permanently in high altitude regions. Every year thousands of pilgrims visit Holy cave of Shri Amarnath ji, which is above 15 000 ft. The poor acclimatization to high altitude may cause alteration in immunity...
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
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