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International Reviews of Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985675/irf5-mediated-immune-responses-and-its-implications-in-immunological-disorders
#1
Ashwinder Kaur, Learn-Han Lee, Sek-Chuen Chow, Chee-Mun Fang
Transcription factors are gene regulators that activate or repress target genes. One family of the transcription factors that have been extensively studied for their crucial role in regulating gene network in the immune system is the interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). IRFs possess a novel turn-helix turn motif that recognizes a specific DNA consensus found in the promoters of many genes that are involved in immune responses. IRF5, a member of IRFs has recently gained much attention for its role in regulating inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases...
July 9, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927676/developing-effective-vaccines-cues-from-natural-infection
#2
Vishakha Bhurani, Aditi Mohankrishnan, Alexandre Morrot, Sarat Kumar Dalai
The ultimate goal of any vaccine is to generate a heterogeneous and stable pool of memory lymphocytes. Vaccine are designed with the hope to generate antigen specific long-lived T cell responses, as it may be the case in natural infection; however, inducing such response by sub-unit vaccine has been a challenge. Although significant progress has been made, there is lot of scope for designing novel vaccine strategies by taking cues from the natural infection. This review focuses upon the roadblocks and the possible ways to overcome them leading to developing effective vaccines...
June 21, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851534/challenges-related-to-the-immunogenicity-of-parenteral-recombinant-proteins-underlying-mechanisms-and-new-approaches-to-overcome-it
#3
Fatemeh Faraji, Zahra Karjoo, Maryam Vakili Moghaddam, Sahel Heidari, Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza Falak
Immune response elicited by therapeutic proteins is an important safety and efficacy issue for regulatory agencies, drug manufacturers, clinicians, and patients. Administration of therapeutic proteins can potentially induce the production of anti-drug antibodies or cell-mediated immune responses. At first, it was speculated that the immunogenicity is related to the non-human origin of these proteins. Later on, it was confirmed that the human proteins may also show immunogenicity. In this review article, we will focus on a number of factors, which play crucial roles in the human protein immunogenicity...
May 31, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757670/regulatory-t-cell-dynamics-with-abatacept-treatment-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Kane Langdon, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
The progressive damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been linked to an increase in inflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a decrease in number or function of immunomodulatory regulatory T cells (Tregs). Many therapies that are effective in RA are shown to affect Th1/Th17 cells and/or Tregs. One such therapy, abatacept, utilizes a physiologic immunomodulatory molecule called cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) which causes contact-dependent inhibition of inflammatory T-cell activation. Recent advances in CTLA-4 research has uncovered the method by which this occurs physiologically but the actions of the CTLA-4Ig fusion protein are still not fully understood...
May 14, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672174/th9-cells-probable-players-in-ulcerative-colitis-pathogenesis
#5
Mojtaba Shohan, Shokrollah Elahi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Nader Bagheri, Emad Soltani
T lymphocytes represent an important part of adaptive immune system undertaking different functions to regulate immune responses. CD4+ T cells are the most important activator cells in inflammatory conditions. Depending on the type of induced cells and inflamed sites, expression and activity of different subtypes of helper T cells are changed. Recent studies have confirmed the existence of a new subset of helper T lymphocytes called Th9. Naive T cells can differentiate into Th9 subtypes if they are exposed simultaneously by interleukin (IL) 4 and transforming growth factor β and also secondary activation of a complicated network of transcription factors such as interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and Smads which are essential for adequate induction of this phenotype...
April 19, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733768/in-this-issue-role-of-immune-cells-and-molecules-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-pathogenesis-and-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29257907/the-promising-role-of-monoclonal-antibodies-for-immunotherapy-of-the-hiv-associated-cancer-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#7
Omid Rezahosseini, Sara Hanaei, Mehdi Hamadani, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Nima Rezaei
Association between HIV/AIDS and some of the cancers such as lymphomais is well known. Relative risk for developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) increases 60-200 folds in HIV-infected individuals. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and Plasmablastic Lymphoma (PBL) are among the most frequent subtypes. During the last century, scientists found that the immune system could potentially detect and destroy cancer cells. Therefore, they started a new field of study, which is named immunotherapy...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29257906/the-prognostic-value-of-regulatory-t-cells-infiltration-in-her2-enriched-breast-cancer-microenvironment
#8
Bruna K Banin-Hirata, Carlos E C de Oliveira, Roberta Losi-Guembarovski, Patricia M M Ozawa, Glauco A F Vitiello, Felipe C de Almeida, Daniela R Derossi, Nayara D André, Maria A E Watanabe
Breast cancer represents a complex and heterogeneous disease that comprises distinct disease conditions, histological features, and clinical outcome. Since many years, it has been demonstrated as an association between HER2 amplification and poor prognosis, because its overexpression is associated with an aggressive phenotype of breast tumor cells. A significant proportion of cases have developed resistance to the current therapies available. Consequently, new prognostic markers are urgently needed to identify patients who are at the highest risk for developing metastases...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211501/viral-subversion-of-apobec3s-lessons-for-anti-tumor-immunity-and-tumor-immunotherapy
#9
Faezeh Borzooee, Mahdi Asgharpour, Emma Quinlan, Michael D Grant, Mani Larijani
APOBEC3s (A3) are endogenous DNA-editing enzymes that are expressed in immune cells including T lymphocytes. A3s target and mutate the genomes of retroviruses that infect immune tissues such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, A3s were classically defined as host anti-viral innate immune factors. In contrast, we and others showed that A3s can also benefit the virus by mediating escape from adaptive immune recognition and drugs. Crucially, whether A3-mediated mutations help or hinder HIV, is not up to chance...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898138/redox-sensitive-transcription-factors-play-a-significant-role-in-the-development-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Scott Le Rossignol, Natkunam Ketheesan, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is associated with significant morbidity. Redox sensitive transcription factors including NF-κB, HIF, AP-1, and Nrf2 are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The treatment of this disease is limited by the elusive nature of the pathogenesis of RA. NF-κB is crucial for the maturation of immune cells as well as production of TNFα and MMPs, which escalate RA. HIF is essential for activation of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis and pannus formation in RA...
May 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595356/chorea-revealing-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-a-13-year-old-boy-a-case-report-and-short-review-of-the-literature
#11
E Athanasopoulos, I Kalaitzidou, G Vlachaki, S Stefanaki, A Tzagkaraki, G Niotakis, I Tritou, F Ladomenou
Among the neurological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), chorea is rare, presenting in less than 7% of the pediatric SLE patients. It can appear early in the onset of SLE, be the first or even the sole clinical feature of the illness and has strongly been associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. We report on the case of a 13-year old boy, admitted with acute onset chorea and finally diagnosed with SLE. Subsequently, we present a short review of the literature on the epidemiology, suggested pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of this rare presentation of SLE...
March 29, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558285/in-this-issue-effect-of-gut-microbiome-on-mucosal-immunity-and-enteric-diseases
#12
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425062/microbiota-regulate-the-development-and-function-of-the-immune-cells
#13
Qing Yu, Anna Jia, Yan Li, Yujing Bi, Guangwei Liu
Microbiota is a group of microbes coexisting and co-evolving with the immune system in the host body for millions of years. There are mutual interaction between microbiota and the immune system. Immune cells can shape the populations of microbiota in the gut of animals and humans, and the presence of microbiota and the microbial products can regulate the development and function of the immune cells in the host. Although microbiota resides mainly at the mucosa, the effect of microbiota on the immune system can be both local at the mucosa and systemic through the whole body...
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231767/high-altitude-induced-alterations-in-gut-immune-axis-a-review
#14
Kunjan Khanna, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Shashi Bala Singh
High-altitude sojourn above 8000 ft is increasing day by day either for pilgrimage, mountaineering, holidaying or for strategic reasons. In India, soldiers are deployed to these high mountains for their duty or pilgrims visit to the holy places, which are located at very high altitude. A large population also resides permanently in high altitude regions. Every year thousands of pilgrims visit Holy cave of Shri Amarnath ji, which is above 15 000 ft. The poor acclimatization to high altitude may cause alteration in immunity...
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106304/role-of-mait-cells-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-inflammatory-diseases-new-players-in-old-game
#15
Vijay Kumar, Ali Ahmad
Current advances in immunology have led to the identification of a population of novel innate immune T cells, called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. The cells in humans express an invariant TCRα chain (Vα7.2-Jα33) paired with a limited subset of TCRβ chains (Vβ2, 13 and 22), are restricted by the MHC class I (MH1)-related (MR)-1, and recognize molecules that are produced in the bacterial riboflavin (vitamin B2) biosynthetic pathway. They are present in the circulation, liver and at various mucosal sites (i...
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876962/gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-primary-immune-deficiencies-in-children
#16
Naila Nazi, Fani Ladomenou
Primary immune deficiencies (PID) in children are a rare but serious group of genetic disorders of the immune system which apart from the host's defenses, can also affect every system of the human body, including the gastrointestinal tract. In their severe form they can lead to increased susceptibility to serious infections during infancy and even death. In the less severe form, they can present later in childhood or adolescence with subtle signs and symptoms. As PID can often mimic gastrointestinal diseases, children presenting with atypical gastrointestinal disease and/or failure to respond to conventional therapy should be evaluated for an underlying primary immune disorder and initiated appropriate treatment...
March 4, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393730/in-this-issue-role-of-specific-and-non-specific-immunity-in-disease
#17
Himanshu Kumar, Adrian Bot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193992/tlrs-nlrs-shaping-the-landscape-of-host-immunity
#18
Komal Dolasia, Manoj K Bisht, Gourango Pradhan, Atul Udgata, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
Innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogenic organisms. It has a varied and large collection of molecules known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which can tackle the pathogens promptly and effectively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are members of the PRR family that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and play pivotal roles to mediate defense against infections from bacteria, fungi, virus and various other pathogens. In this review, we discuss the critical roles of TLRs and NLRs in the regulation of host immune-effector functions such as cytokine production, phagosome-lysosome fusion, inflammasome activation, autophagy, antigen presentation, and B and T cell immune responses that are known to be essential for mounting a protective immune response against the pathogens...
January 2, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182399/application-of-camelid-heavy-chain-variable-domains-vhhs-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-bacterial-and-viral-infections
#19
Lucas Wilken, Anne McPherson
Camelid heavy-chain variable domains (VHHs) are the smallest, intact, antigen-binding units to occur in nature. VHHs possess high degrees of solubility and robustness enabling generation of multivalent constructs with increased avidity - characteristics that mark their superiority to other antibody fragments and monoclonal antibodies. Capable of effectively binding to molecular targets inaccessible to classical immunotherapeutic agents and easily produced in microbial culture, VHHs are considered promising tools for pharmaceutical biotechnology...
January 2, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028369/toll-like-receptors-significance-ligands-signaling-pathways-and-functions-in-mammals
#20
Mallenahally Kusha Vidya, V Girish Kumar, Veerasamy Sejian, Madiajagan Bagath, Govindan Krishnan, Raghavendra Bhatta
This review attempts to cover the implication of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in controlling immune functions with emphasis on their significance, function, regulation and expression patterns. The tripartite TLRs are type I integral transmembrane receptors that are involved in recognition and conveying of pathogens to the immune system. These paralogs are located on cell surfaces or within endosomes. The TLRs are found to be functionally involved in the recognition of self and non-self-antigens, maturation of DCs and initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune responses as they bridge the innate and adaptive immunity...
January 2, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
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