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Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084571/xanthine-oxidase-induces-foam-cell-formation-through-lox-1-and-nlrp3-activation
#1
Yao Dai, Yongxiang Cao, Zhigao Zhang, Srikanth Vallurupalli, Jawahar L Mehta
PURPOSE: Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. This process generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play an important role in atherogenesis. Recent studies show that LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), a component of the inflammasome, may be involved in the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to study the role of various scavenger receptors and NLRP3 inflammasome in xanthine oxidase and uric acid-induced foam cell formation...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064408/resveratrol-mediated-expression-of-klf15-in-the-ischemic-myocardium-is-associated-with-an-improved-cardiac-phenotype
#2
Russell G Rogers, Jeffrey S Otis
PURPOSE: Myocardial infarction results in physiological derangements that lead to structural and functional alterations to the myocardium. In addition, oxidative stress potentiates cardiac remodeling and drives disease progression. Unfortunately, treatment with antioxidants in clinical trials have failed to show any therapeutic benefits despite the positive results reported in animal studies, which warrants further investigation into their mechanism(s) of action. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to elucidate a previously unknown mechanism of action for the antioxidant, resveratrol, in the treatment of the ischemic heart...
January 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924429/cyp2c19-lof-and-gof-guided-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#3
Minghuan Jiang, Joyce H S You
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of CYP2C19 loss-of-function and gain-of-function allele guided (LOF/GOF-guided) antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A life-long decision-analytic model was designed to simulate outcomes of three strategies: universal clopidogrel (75 mg daily), universal alternative P2Y12 inhibitor (prasugrel 10 mg daily or ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily), and LOF/GOF-guided therapy (LOF/GOF allele carriers receiving alternative P2Y12 inhibitor, wild-type patients receiving clopidogrel)...
December 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913896/mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-enos-over-expression-enhance-cardiac-repair-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#4
Leilei Chen, Yuan Zhang, Liangliang Tao, Zhijian Yang, Liansheng Wang
PURPOSE: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapeutic option for patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We show here that the ectopic overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), an endothelial form of NOS, could enhance the ability of MSCs in treating ischemic heart damage after the occlusion of the coronary artery. RESULTS: Adenoviral delivery of human eNOS gene into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) conferred resistance to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in vitro, and elevated the bioavailability of nitric oxide when injected into the myocardium in vivo...
December 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796607/exosomes-and-cardiovascular-protection
#5
Sean M Davidson, Kaloyan Takov, Derek M Yellon
Most, if not all, cells of the cardiovascular system secrete small, lipid bilayer vesicles called exosomes. Despite technical challenges in their purification and analysis, exosomes from various sources have been shown to be powerfully cardioprotective. Indeed, it is possible that much of the so-called "paracrine" benefit in cardiovascular function obtained by stem cell therapy can be replicated by the injection of exosomes produced by stem cells. However, exosomes purified from plasma appear to be just as capable of activating cardioprotective pathways...
October 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858191/focus-on-the-novel-cardiovascular-drug-lzc696-from-evidence-to-clinical-consideration
#6
L M Lin, Y Wu, M F Wu, J X Lin
LCZ696, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), is comprised of the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor pro-drug sacubitril (AHU377). After oral administration, AHU377 is rapidly metabolized to the active neprilysin inhibitor LBQ657. LCZ696 exerts its effects of diuresis, natriuresis, vasodilation and aldosterone secretion inhibition through simultaneous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade and natriuretic peptides system (NPS) enhancement...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858190/nitro-oleic-acid-prevents-hypoxia-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-induced-pulmonary-endothelial-dysfunction
#7
Adolf Koudelka, Gabriela Ambrozova, Anna Klinke, Tana Fidlerova, Hana Martiskova, Radek Kuchta, Tanja K Rudolph, Jaroslav Kadlec, Zdenka Kuchtova, Steven R Woodcock, Bruce A Freeman, Lukas Kubala, Michaela Pekarova
RATIONALE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) represents a serious health complication accompanied with hypoxic conditions, elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and overall dysfunction of pulmonary vascular endothelium. Since the prevention strategies for treatment of PH remain largely unknown, our study aimed to explore the effect of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid (NO2-FA), in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) under the influence of hypoxia or ADMA...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844183/evaluation-and-treatment-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-in-right-ventricular-dysfunction-during-monocrotaline-induced-rat-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#8
Jing-Jing Wang, Xiang-Rong Zuo, Jian Xu, Jin-Yong Zhou, Hui Kong, Xiao-Ning Zeng, Wei-Ping Xie, Quan Cao
PURPOSE: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). However, the exact roles of ER stress in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, which is strongly associated with PAH, are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to explore how ER stress affects RV function in a rat PAH model and evaluated the effects of an ER stress inhibitor on RV dysfunction. METHODS: We examined expression changes of an ER marker: chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), three ER stress sensor proteins: activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and a key ER stress-induced apoptosis indicator: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), with inflammation indicators: interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in RV at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days following a single dose of monocrotaline (MCT) injection, with or without a preventive treatment [4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA)]...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838864/hetrombopag-a-thrombopoietin-receptor-agonist-protects-cardiomyocyte-survival-from-oxidative-stress-damage-as-an-enhancer-of-stem-cells
#9
Nannan Zhou, Jianchun Wang, Xiaodong Li, Yong Zhao, Yuanyuan Sun, Chengwei Zou
PURPOSE: Current human umbilical cord blood stem cell therapy faces the great challenges, because the stem cells are scarce and cannot survive for a long time. Here we describe how hetrombopag, an orally-active TPO receptor agonists, enhanced ex vivo expansion of human UCB stem cells, and protected cardiac myocytes from the damage caused by oxidative stress. METHODS: Ex vivo expansion of stem cells were performed in serum-free medium supplemented with rhSCF and rhFL plus hetrombopag for 7 days...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830382/ticagrelor-and-rosuvastatin-have-additive-cardioprotective-effects-via-adenosine
#10
Yochai Birnbaum, Gilad D Birnbaum, Itamar Birnbaum, Sven Nylander, Yumei Ye
BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor inhibits the equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-1 and thereby, adenosine cell re-uptake. Ticagrelor limits infarct size (IS) in non-diabetic rats and the effect is adenosine-dependent. Statins, via ecto-5'-nucleotidase activation, also increase adenosine levels and limit IS. HYPOTHESIS: Ticagrelor and rosuvastatin have additive effects on myocardial adenosine levels, and therefore, on IS and post-reperfusion activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830381/cardiovascular-safety-of-evolocumab-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
EDITORIAL
Chayakrit Krittanawong, Takeshi Kitai, HongJu Zhang, Tao Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819111/cardiac-dysfunction-congestion-and-loop-diuretics-their-relationship-to-prognosis-in-heart-failure
#12
Pierpaolo Pellicori, John G F Cleland, Jufen Zhang, Anna Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Alessia Urbinati, Parin Shah, Syed Kazmi, Andrew L Clark
BACKGROUND: Diuretics are the mainstay of treatment for congestion but concerns exist that they adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether the relationship between loop diuretic use and outcome is explained by the underlying severity of congestion amongst patients referred with suspected heart failure. METHOD AND RESULTS: Of 1190 patients, 712 had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50 %, 267 had LVEF >50 % with raised plasma NTproBNP (>400 ng/L) and 211 had LVEF >50 % with NTproBNP ≤400 ng/L; respectively, 72 %, 68 % and 37 % of these groups were treated with loop diuretics including 28 %, 29 % and 10 % in doses ≥80 mg furosemide equivalent/day...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757726/risk-and-benefits-of-triple-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-stent-implantation-requiring-oral-anticoagulation-a-meta-analysis-of-16-studies
#13
Lucia Barbieri, Monica Verdoia, Alon Schaffer, Harry Suryapranata, Giuseppe De Luca
BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo stent implantation and have concomitant indication for long-term oral anticoagulation represent a considerable proportion of the overall population. To date there is still no consensus about the optimal antithrombotic strategy to choose in this kind of patients, due to the difficult balance between an increased risk of bleeding and thromboembolic complications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk and benefits of triple antithrombotic therapy versus dual antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation, requiring long-term oral anticoagulation...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757725/adenosine-a2a-and-a2b-receptor-substantially-attenuate-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-septic-rat-hearts
#14
Hendrik Busse, Diane Bitzinger, Klaus Höcherl, Timo Seyfried, Michael Gruber, Bernhard M Graf, York A Zausig
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical and morphological ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury is reduced in septic hearts. The mechanism behind this "cardioprotection" is less well understood. As adenosine receptors play a major role for cardioprotection in non-septic hearts, we investigated the influence of adenosine receptors in a model of I/R in septic hearts. METHODS: SHAM operation or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed in adult male Wistar rats (n = 60)...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757724/can-adiponectin-help-us-to-target-diastolic-dysfunction
#15
Catarina Francisco, João Sérgio Neves, Inês Falcão-Pires, Adelino Leite-Moreira
Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and antidiabetic properties. Unlike other adipokines, it inversely correlates with body weight and obesity-linked cardiovascular complications. Diastolic dysfunction is the main mechanism responsible for approximately half of all heart failure cases, the so-called heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but therapeutic strategies specifically directed towards these patients are still lacking. In the last years, a link between adiponectin and diastolic dysfunction has been suggested...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747447/cardioprotective-effects-of-mitochondria-targeted-peptide-sbt-20-in-two-different-models-of-rat-ischemia-reperfusion
#16
Wangde Dai, Elissa Cheung, Rick J Alleman, Justin B Perry, Mitchell E Allen, David A Brown, Robert A Kloner
PURPOSE: Dysfunctional mitochondria are considered to be the major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species and play a central role in the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. This study sought to determine effects of mitochondria-targeted cytoprotective peptide SBT-20 on myocardial infarct size in two different models of ischemia/reperfusion. METHODS: For in vivo studies, anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 h of reperfusion...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714476/cardioprotection-where-to-from-here
#17
Robert A Kloner, Sharon L Hale, Wangde Dai, Jianru Shi
The size of the myocardial infarction remains an important therapeutic target, because heart attack size correlates with mortality and heart failure. In this era, myocardial infarct size is reduced primarily by timely reperfusion of the infarct related coronary artery. Whereas numerous pre-clinical studies have shown that certain pharmacologic agents and therapeutic maneuvers reduce myocardial infarction size greater than reperfusion alone, very few of these therapies have translated to successful clinical trials or standard clinical use...
October 6, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669716/pcsk9-the-critical-role-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-from-discovery-to-benefit-for-all-editorial-to-efficacy-and-safety-of-alirocumab-in-patients-with-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-and-ldl-c-of-160%C3%A2-mg-dl-or-higher-by-henry-n-ginsberg-et-al
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628679/reduction-of-atherosclerotic-lesions-by-the-chemotherapeutic-agent-carmustine-associated-to-lipid-nanoparticles
#19
Elaine N Daminelli, Ana E M Martinelli, Adriana Bulgarelli, Fatima R Freitas, Raul C Maranhão
PURPOSE: After injection in the bloodstream, a lipid nanoparticle (LDE) resembling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrates in atherosclerotic lesions of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Here, rabbits with atherosclerosis were treated with carmustine, an antiproliferative agent used in cancer chemotherapy, associated to LDE to investigate the effects on the lesions. METHODS: Twenty-seven male New Zealand rabbits were fed a 1 % cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks nine animals were treated with intravenous saline solution, nine with intravenous LDE alone, and nine with intravenous LDE-carmustine (4 mg/kg, weekly for 4 weeks)...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618826/amiodarone-compared-with-lidocaine-for-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-with-refractory-ventricular-fibrillation-on-hospital-arrival-a-nationwide-database-study
#20
Takashi Tagami, Hiroki Matsui, Chie Tanaka, Junya Kaneko, Masamune Kuno, Saori Ishinokami, Kyoko Unemoto, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
PURPOSE: The latest resuscitation guidelines recommend the use of amiodarone in adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF) to improve the rates of return of spontaneous circulation. However, there is limited evidence to suggest that amiodarone is superior to lidocaine with respect to survival at discharge. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that amiodarone is superior to lidocaine with regard to the rate of survival to hospital discharge for OHCA patients with VF/pulseless VT (pVT) on hospital arrival...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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