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Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349645/the-incidence-and-the-prognostic-impact-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-patients-current-preventive-strategies
#1
Evangelos Kaltsas, George Chalikias, Dimitrios Tziakas
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications during hospitalization in various clinical settings. The goal of this review was to assess the incidence of AKI in acute myocardial infarction patients (AMI), how this incidence is affected by the diverse definitions, and if there is variability in the reported rates over recent years. Additionally, we sought to appraise the impact of AKI on short- and long-term prognosis of these patients. Finally, we report on the current preventive measures as they are suggested in the current guidelines of various societies, we comment on the evidence that support them, and we review the literature for other proposed therapeutic strategies, which either failed to prove their efficacy or they are not adequately confirmed yet...
January 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349644/does-statin-benefits-patients-with-heart-failure-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-findings-from-the-melbourne-interventional-group-registry
#2
Ken Lee Chin, Rory Wolfe, Christopher M Reid, Andrew Tonkin, Ingrid Hopper, Angela Brennan, Nick Andrianopoulos, Stephen J Duffy, David Clark, Andrew Ajani, Danny Liew
PURPOSE: The effectiveness of statins in improving clinical outcomes among patients with heart failure (HF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unclear. We examined the association between use of statins and clinical outcomes in patients with HF included in the Melbourne Interventional Group registry. METHODS: Patients were followed from 30 days to 1 year post-PCI for a primary composite outcome of all-cause mortality and hospitalisation for cardiovascular (CV) causes...
January 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318439/mind-the-gap-mismatches-between-clinicians-and-patients-in-heart-failure-medication-management
#3
Ken Lee Chin, Marina Skiba, Christopher M Reid, Andrew Tonkin, Ingrid Hopper, Justin A Mariani, Danny Liew
PURPOSE: Previous studies on the 'treatment gap' in patients with heart failure (HF) have focused either on prescribing or patients' adherence to prescribed treatment. This study sought to determine whether or not recent initiatives to close the gap have also minimised any mismatches between physicians' expectation of their patients' medications, medications in the patients' possession and their actual medication use. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational survey was conducted from December 2015 to June 2016 in The Alfred Hospital HF clinic in Melbourne, Australia...
January 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181610/barriers-to-beta-blocker-use-and-up-titration-among-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#4
Emily B Levitan, Melissa K Van Dyke, Matthew Shane Loop, Ronan O'Beirne, Monika M Safford
PURPOSE: For patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), guidelines recommend use of beta-blockers with gradual up-titration. However, many patients with HFrEF do not use beta-blockers and up-titration is rare. Our purpose was to identify and rank barriers to beta-blocker use and up-titration from the perspective of primary care physicians. METHODS: We conducted 4 moderated, structured group discussions among 19 primary care physicians using the nominal group technique; 16 participants also completed a survey...
November 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181609/a-new-class-iii-antiarrhythmic-drug-niferidil-prolongs-action-potentials-in-guinea-pig-atrial-myocardium-via-inhibition-of-rapid-delayed-rectifier
#5
Denis V Abramochkin, Vladislav S Kuzmin, Leonid V Rosenshtraukh
PURPOSE: A new class III antiarrhythmic drug niferidil (RG-2) has been introduced as a highly effective therapy for cases of persistent atrial fibrillation, but ionic mechanisms of its action are poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of niferidil on action potential (AP) waveform and potassium currents responsible for AP repolarization were investigated in guinea pig atrial myocardium. METHODS: APs were recorded with sharp glass microelectrodes in multicellular atrial preparations...
November 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164426/the-impact-of-vascular-disease-treatment-on-platelet-derived-microvesicles
#6
Justyna Rosińska, Maria Łukasik, Wojciech Kozubski
Platelet-derived microvesicles (pMVs) are small, heterogeneous vesicles released from platelet membranes as a result of activation. These microvesicles possess a wide range of properties, including prothrombotic, proatherogenic, proinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and even anticoagulant activity. The elevated release of these microvesicles has been observed in various metabolic, inflammatory, thrombotic, and vascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and connective tissue disease...
November 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129003/chelation-therapy-as-a-cardiovascular-therapeutic-strategy-the-rationale-and-the-data-in-review
#7
REVIEW
Roy O Mathew, Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Elizabeth L Nichols, Jonathan D Newman, Sripal Bangalore, Michael Farkouh, Mandeep S Sidhu
Chelation therapy, typically used to remove heavy metal toxins, has also been controversially used as a treatment for coronary artery disease. The first Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) aimed to provide evidence on chelation therapy's potential for benefit or harm. Although TACT had some significant results, the trial does not provide enough evidence to recommend routine chelation therapy and has limitations. The second TACT was recently funded reigniting a discussion about the value of chelation therapy, its efficacy, and allocation of research resources...
November 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101507/novel-synthesized-radical-containing-nanoparticles-limit-infarct-size-following-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-canine-hearts
#8
Hiroshi Asanuma, Shoji Sanada, Toru Yoshitomi, Hideyuki Sasaki, Hiroyuki Takahama, Madoka Ihara, Hiroko Takahama, Yoshiro Shinozaki, Hidezo Mori, Masanori Asakura, Atsushi Nakano, Masaru Sugimachi, Yoshihiro Asano, Tetsuo Minamino, Seiji Takashima, Yukio Nagasaki, Masafumi Kitakaze
PURPOSE: Although nitroxyl radicals such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) scavenge free radicals, their short half-life and considerable side effects such as systemic hypotension and bradycardia have limited their clinical application. Since a radical-containing nanoparticle (RNP) delivers nitroxyl radicals with a prolonged half-life specific to ischemic hearts, we investigated whether RNPs reduce infarct size without the occurrence of substantial side effects and whether nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the cardioprotective effects of RNPs...
November 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098501/rationale-and-design-of-low-dose-administration-of-carperitide-for-acute-heart-failure-lascar-ahf
#9
Toshiyuki Nagai, Yasuyuki Honda, Hiroki Nakano, Satoshi Honda, Naotsugu Iwakami, Atsushi Mizuno, Nobuyuki Komiyama, Takafumi Yamane, Yutaka Furukawa, Tadayoshi Miyagi, Syuzo Nishihara, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Taichi Adachi, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Yasuhide Asaumi, Yoshio Tahara, Takeshi Aiba, Yasuo Sugano, Hideaki Kanzaki, Teruo Noguchi, Kengo Kusano, Satoshi Yasuda, Hisao Ogawa, Toshihisa Anzai
BACKGROUNDS: Despite current therapies, acute heart failure (AHF) remains a major public health burden with high rates of in-hospital and post-discharge morbidity and mortality. Carperitide is a recombinantly produced intravenous formulation of human atrial natriuretic peptide that promotes vasodilation with increased salt and water excretion, which leads to reduction of cardiac filling pressures. A previous open-label randomized controlled study showed that carperitide improved long-term cardiovascular mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization for patients with AHF, when adding to standard therapy...
November 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218625/diuretic-or-beta-blocker-for-hypertensive-patients-already-receiving-acei-arb-and-calcium-channel-blocker
#10
Min-Shan Tsai, Chao-Hsiun Tang, Chia-Ying Lin, Po-Ya Chuang, Nai-Chuan Chen, Chien-Hua Huang, Wei-Tien Chang, Tzung-Dau Wang, Ping-Hsun Yu, Wen-Jone Chen
BACKGROUND: In patients already receiving combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and calcium channel blocker (CCB), whether the choice of additional diuretic or beta-blocker affects the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 13,551 patients who were concurrently receiving three anti-hypertensive agents of different classes through outpatient clinics during 2004-2006 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185103/unraveling-the-interaction-of-aspirin-ticagrelor-and-rosuvastatin-on-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis-and-inflammation-in-diabetic-mice
#11
Yumei Ye, Sven Nylander, Yochai Birnbaum
PURPOSE: We explored the effects of rosuvastatin, aspirin, ticagrelor, and clopidogrel, alone or in combinations on the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammasome activation in diabetic mice. Statins and ticagrelor increase the production of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 via cyclooxygenase-2. Aspirin alone increases 15-epi-lipoxin A4, but when combined with statins, cyclooxygenase-2 is completely blocked. METHODS: ApoE-/-/db+/db+ double-knockout mice received rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg/day), aspirin (25 mg/kg/day), ticagrelor (300 mg/kg/day), clopidogrel (75 mg/kg/day), or their combination for 14 weeks...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116544/antithrombotic-therapy-for-acs-in-elderly-patients
#12
REVIEW
Vincent Roule, Katrien Blanchart, Xavier Humbert, Damien Legallois, Adrien Lemaitre, Paul Milliez, Farzin Beygui, Joachim Alexandre
BACKGROUND: Patients over 75 account for more than one third of those presenting with myocardial infarction and more than 50% of intrahospital mortality. There are no specific guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the elderly. SETTING: Although antithrombotic therapy seems to be effective and safe in such patients, it requires specific precautions and treatment adjustments because of the higher bleeding risk due to comorbidities such as renal function impairment and malnutrition...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032396/assessing-adherence-to-antihypertensive-therapy-in-primary-health-care-in-namibia-findings-and-implications
#13
M M Nashilongo, B Singu, F Kalemeera, M Mubita, E Naikaku, A Baker, A Ferrario, B Godman, L Achieng, D Kibuule
INTRODUCTION: Namibia has the highest burden and incidence of hypertension in sub-Sahara Africa. Though non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy is an important cardiovascular risk factor, little is known about potential ways to improve adherence in Namibia following universal access. The objective of this study is to validate the Hill-Bone compliance scale and determine the level and predictors of adherence to antihypertensive treatment in primary health care settings in sub-urban townships of Windhoek, Namibia...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965235/find-and-plug-the-leak-improving-adherence-to-anti-hypertensive-medicines-editorial-to-assessing-adherence-to-antihypertensive-therapy-in-primary-health-care-in-namibia-findings-and-implications-by-m-m-nashilongo-et-al
#14
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965151/sodium-thiosulfate-preconditioning-ameliorates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-hearts-via-reduction-of-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#15
Sriram Ravindran, Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Karthi Shanmugam, Ramalingam C Vedarathinam, Gino A Kurian
PURPOSE: Sodium thiosulfate (STS) has of late been proven efficacious in models of urolithiasis and vascular calcification. However, its cardiovascular effects on ischemia reperfusion injury (IR) have not been revealed. Being an antioxidant and calcium chelator, it is assumed to play a vital role in IR as ROS production and calcium overload are major perpetrators of IR injury. METHODS: The cardioprotective effect of STS was evaluated in vitro using H9C2 cardiomyocytes and in vivo using both isolated rat heart and intact left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion models of ischemia reperfusion injury...
September 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956198/immunity-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-heart-failure-emerging-molecular-targets
#16
REVIEW
Karam F Ayoub, Naga Venkata K Pothineni, Joshua Rutland, Zufeng Ding, Jawahar L Mehta
PURPOSE: Heart failure (HF) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although various therapies developed over the last two decades have shown improved long term outcomes in patients with established HF, there has been little progress in preventing the adverse cardiac remodeling that initiates HF. To fill the gap in treatment, current research efforts are focused on understanding novel mechanisms and signaling pathways. Immune activation, inflammation, oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics, and autophagy have been postulated as important pathophysiological events in this process...
September 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956186/diabetic-nephropathy-a-tangled-web-to-unweave
#17
REVIEW
Corey Magee, David J Grieve, Chris J Watson, Derek P Brazil
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is currently the leading cause of end-stage renal disease globally. Given the increasing incidence of diabetes, many experts hold the view that DN will eventually progress toward pandemic proportions. Whilst hyperglycaemia-induced vascular dysfunction is the primary initiating mechanism in DN, its progression is also driven by a heterogeneous set of pathological mechanisms, including oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Current treatment strategies for DN are targeted against the fundamental dysregulation of glycaemia and hypertension...
September 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948430/prevalence-of-prediabetes-and-undiagnosed-diabetes-in-patients-with-hfpef-and-hfref-and-associated-clinical-outcomes
#18
Søren L Kristensen, Pardeep S Jhund, Matthew M Y Lee, Lars Køber, Scott D Solomon, Christopher B Granger, Salim Yusuf, Marc A Pfeffer, Karl Swedberg, John J V McMurray
PURPOSE: The prevalence and consequences of prediabetic dysglycemia and undiagnosed diabetes is unknown in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and has not been compared to heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: We examined the prevalence and outcomes associated with normoglycemia, prediabetic dysglycemia and diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) among individuals with a baseline glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c) measurement stratified by HFrEF or HFpEF in the Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity programme (CHARM)...
September 25, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871349/recent-insights-into-pharmacologic-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Scott L Purga, Mandeep Sidhu, Michael Farkouh, Joshua Schulman-Marcus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects nearly 30 million Americans and carries an increased risk of macrovascular complications of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. While aggressive cardiovascular risk factor reduction has long been advocated in patients with diabetes, clinical trials have only recently demonstrated that such reductions result in improved outcomes. This review discusses recent evidence for risk reduction strategies and therapies with a focus on the management of glycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
August 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866767/the-parthenon-clinical-development-program-the-role-of-ticagrelor-in-patients-with-atherothrombotic-disease
#20
REVIEW
Paul P Dobesh, Manesh Patel
Although the rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality has declined over the last decade, it is still the leading cause of mortality in the USA, accounting for over 1.4 million deaths annually. In addition, total direct (primarily hospital admissions) and indirect costs of CVD in the US is over $316 billion annually and is expected to grow to over $918 billion by 2030. Much of the etiology of CVD is due to atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications, and central to this is the role of platelets...
August 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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