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Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224242/next-generation-stem-cell-therapy-genetically-modified-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cardiac-repair-editorial-to-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-enos-over-expression-enhance-cardiac-repair-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction-by-leilei-chen-et-al
#1
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204966/inhibition-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-post-myocardial-infarction-prevents-inflammation-associated-acute-cardiac-rupture
#2
Xiao-Ming Gao, Alan Tsai, Annas Al-Sharea, Yidan Su, Shirley Moore, Li-Ping Han, Helen Kiriazis, Anthony M Dart, Andrew J Murphy, Xiao-Jun Du
PURPOSE: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is beneficial in patient management after myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether RAS inhibition also provides cardiac protection in the acute phase of MI is unclear. METHODS: Male 129sv mice underwent coronary artery occlusion to induce MI, followed by treatment with losartan (L, 20 and 60 mg/kg), perindopril (P, 2 and 6 mg/kg), amlodipine (20 mg/kg as a BP-lowering agent) or vehicle as control. Drug effects on hemodynamics were examined...
February 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194544/exploring-the-role-of-trpv-and-cgrp-in-adenosine-preconditioning-and-remote-hind-limb-preconditioning-induced-cardioprotection-in-rats
#3
Amritpal Singh, Puneet Kaur Randhawa, Anjana Bali, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning (RIPC) are well known, but mechanisms by which protection occurs still remain to be explored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of TRPV and CGRP in adenosine and remote preconditioning-induced cardioprotection, using sumatriptan, a CGRP release inhibitor and ruthenium red, a TRPV inhibitor, in rats. For remote preconditioning, a pressure cuff was tied around the hind limb of the rat and was inflated with air up to 150 mmHg to produce ischemia in the hind limb and during reperfusion pressure was released...
February 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194542/editorial-to-building-a-bridge-to-the-future-of-cardiovascular-drugs-and-therapy
#4
EDITORIAL
Sean M Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190190/mitochondrial-shaping-proteins-in-cardiac-health-and-disease-the-long-and-the-short-of-it
#5
Sang-Bing Ong, Siavash Beikoghli Kalkhoran, Sauri Hernández-Reséndiz, Parisa Samangouei, Sang-Ging Ong, Derek John Hausenloy
Mitochondrial health is critically dependent on the ability of mitochondria to undergo changes in mitochondrial morphology, a process which is regulated by mitochondrial shaping proteins. Mitochondria undergo fission to generate fragmented discrete organelles, a process which is mediated by the mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1, hFIS1, Mff and MiD49/51), and is required for cell division, and to remove damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. Mitochondria undergo fusion to form elongated interconnected networks, a process which is orchestrated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1), and which enables the replenishment of damaged mitochondrial DNA...
February 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185035/anthracycline-chemotherapy-and-cardiotoxicity
#6
John V McGowan, Robin Chung, Angshuman Maulik, Izabela Piotrowska, J Malcolm Walker, Derek M Yellon
Anthracycline chemotherapy maintains a prominent role in treating many forms of cancer. Cardiotoxic side effects limit their dosing and improved cancer outcomes expose the cancer survivor to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The basic mechanisms of cardiotoxicity may involve direct pathways for reactive oxygen species generation and topoisomerase 2 as well as other indirect pathways. Cardioprotective treatments are few and those that have been examined include renin angiotensin system blockade, beta blockers, or the iron chelator dexrazoxane...
February 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120277/protein-quality-control-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-complications-induced-by-anti-cancer-drugs
#7
Hai Ying Fu, Mikio Mukai, Nobuhisa Awata, Yasushi Sakata, Masatsugu Hori, Tetsuo Minamino
Cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, hypertension, ischemic syndromes and venous thromboembolism, have been identified in patients treated with anti-cancer drugs. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA synthesis inhibition are considered to be responsible for the cardiotoxicity induced by these agents. Protein quality control (PQC) has 3 major components, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosome system, and participates in protein folding and degradation to maintain protein homeostasis...
January 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101742/melatonin-as-an-agent-for-cardioprotection-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-and-short-ischaemic-time
#8
EDITORIAL
Alberto Dominguez-Rodriguez, Pedro Abreu-Gonzalez, Russel J Reiter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084571/xanthine-oxidase-induces-foam-cell-formation-through-lox-1-and-nlrp3-activation
#9
Yao Dai, Yongxiang Cao, Zhigao Zhang, Srikanth Vallurupalli, Jawahar L Mehta
PURPOSE: Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. This process generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play an important role in atherogenesis. Recent studies show that LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), a component of the inflammasome, may be involved in the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to study the role of various scavenger receptors and NLRP3 inflammasome in xanthine oxidase and uric acid-induced foam cell formation...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064408/resveratrol-mediated-expression-of-klf15-in-the-ischemic-myocardium-is-associated-with-an-improved-cardiac-phenotype
#10
Russell G Rogers, Jeffrey S Otis
PURPOSE: Myocardial infarction results in physiological derangements that lead to structural and functional alterations to the myocardium. In addition, oxidative stress potentiates cardiac remodeling and drives disease progression. Unfortunately, treatment with antioxidants in clinical trials have failed to show any therapeutic benefits despite the positive results reported in animal studies, which warrants further investigation into their mechanism(s) of action. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to elucidate a previously unknown mechanism of action for the antioxidant, resveratrol, in the treatment of the ischemic heart...
January 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924429/cyp2c19-lof-and-gof-guided-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#11
Minghuan Jiang, Joyce H S You
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of CYP2C19 loss-of-function and gain-of-function allele guided (LOF/GOF-guided) antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A life-long decision-analytic model was designed to simulate outcomes of three strategies: universal clopidogrel (75 mg daily), universal alternative P2Y12 inhibitor (prasugrel 10 mg daily or ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily), and LOF/GOF-guided therapy (LOF/GOF allele carriers receiving alternative P2Y12 inhibitor, wild-type patients receiving clopidogrel)...
December 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913896/mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-enos-over-expression-enhance-cardiac-repair-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#12
Leilei Chen, Yuan Zhang, Liangliang Tao, Zhijian Yang, Liansheng Wang
PURPOSE: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapeutic option for patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We show here that the ectopic overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), an endothelial form of NOS, could enhance the ability of MSCs in treating ischemic heart damage after the occlusion of the coronary artery. RESULTS: Adenoviral delivery of human eNOS gene into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) conferred resistance to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in vitro, and elevated the bioavailability of nitric oxide when injected into the myocardium in vivo...
December 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858191/focus-on-the-novel-cardiovascular-drug-lzc696-from-evidence-to-clinical-consideration
#13
L M Lin, Y Wu, M F Wu, J X Lin
LCZ696, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), is comprised of the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor pro-drug sacubitril (AHU377). After oral administration, AHU377 is rapidly metabolized to the active neprilysin inhibitor LBQ657. LCZ696 exerts its effects of diuresis, natriuresis, vasodilation and aldosterone secretion inhibition through simultaneous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade and natriuretic peptides system (NPS) enhancement...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858190/nitro-oleic-acid-prevents-hypoxia-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-induced-pulmonary-endothelial-dysfunction
#14
Adolf Koudelka, Gabriela Ambrozova, Anna Klinke, Tana Fidlerova, Hana Martiskova, Radek Kuchta, Tanja K Rudolph, Jaroslav Kadlec, Zdenka Kuchtova, Steven R Woodcock, Bruce A Freeman, Lukas Kubala, Michaela Pekarova
RATIONALE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) represents a serious health complication accompanied with hypoxic conditions, elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and overall dysfunction of pulmonary vascular endothelium. Since the prevention strategies for treatment of PH remain largely unknown, our study aimed to explore the effect of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid (NO2-FA), in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) under the influence of hypoxia or ADMA...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844183/evaluation-and-treatment-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-in-right-ventricular-dysfunction-during-monocrotaline-induced-rat-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Jing-Jing Wang, Xiang-Rong Zuo, Jian Xu, Jin-Yong Zhou, Hui Kong, Xiao-Ning Zeng, Wei-Ping Xie, Quan Cao
PURPOSE: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). However, the exact roles of ER stress in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, which is strongly associated with PAH, are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to explore how ER stress affects RV function in a rat PAH model and evaluated the effects of an ER stress inhibitor on RV dysfunction. METHODS: We examined expression changes of an ER marker: chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), three ER stress sensor proteins: activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and a key ER stress-induced apoptosis indicator: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), with inflammation indicators: interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in RV at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days following a single dose of monocrotaline (MCT) injection, with or without a preventive treatment [4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA)]...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838864/hetrombopag-a-thrombopoietin-receptor-agonist-protects-cardiomyocyte-survival-from-oxidative-stress-damage-as-an-enhancer-of-stem-cells
#16
Nannan Zhou, Jianchun Wang, Xiaodong Li, Yong Zhao, Yuanyuan Sun, Chengwei Zou
PURPOSE: Current human umbilical cord blood stem cell therapy faces the great challenges, because the stem cells are scarce and cannot survive for a long time. Here we describe how hetrombopag, an orally-active TPO receptor agonists, enhanced ex vivo expansion of human UCB stem cells, and protected cardiac myocytes from the damage caused by oxidative stress. METHODS: Ex vivo expansion of stem cells were performed in serum-free medium supplemented with rhSCF and rhFL plus hetrombopag for 7 days...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830382/ticagrelor-and-rosuvastatin-have-additive-cardioprotective-effects-via-adenosine
#17
Yochai Birnbaum, Gilad D Birnbaum, Itamar Birnbaum, Sven Nylander, Yumei Ye
BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor inhibits the equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-1 and thereby, adenosine cell re-uptake. Ticagrelor limits infarct size (IS) in non-diabetic rats and the effect is adenosine-dependent. Statins, via ecto-5'-nucleotidase activation, also increase adenosine levels and limit IS. HYPOTHESIS: Ticagrelor and rosuvastatin have additive effects on myocardial adenosine levels, and therefore, on IS and post-reperfusion activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830381/cardiovascular-safety-of-evolocumab-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
EDITORIAL
Chayakrit Krittanawong, Takeshi Kitai, HongJu Zhang, Tao Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819111/cardiac-dysfunction-congestion-and-loop-diuretics-their-relationship-to-prognosis-in-heart-failure
#19
Pierpaolo Pellicori, John G F Cleland, Jufen Zhang, Anna Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Alessia Urbinati, Parin Shah, Syed Kazmi, Andrew L Clark
BACKGROUND: Diuretics are the mainstay of treatment for congestion but concerns exist that they adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether the relationship between loop diuretic use and outcome is explained by the underlying severity of congestion amongst patients referred with suspected heart failure. METHOD AND RESULTS: Of 1190 patients, 712 had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50 %, 267 had LVEF >50 % with raised plasma NTproBNP (>400 ng/L) and 211 had LVEF >50 % with NTproBNP ≤400 ng/L; respectively, 72 %, 68 % and 37 % of these groups were treated with loop diuretics including 28 %, 29 % and 10 % in doses ≥80 mg furosemide equivalent/day...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757726/risk-and-benefits-of-triple-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-stent-implantation-requiring-oral-anticoagulation-a-meta-analysis-of-16-studies
#20
Lucia Barbieri, Monica Verdoia, Alon Schaffer, Harry Suryapranata, Giuseppe De Luca
BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo stent implantation and have concomitant indication for long-term oral anticoagulation represent a considerable proportion of the overall population. To date there is still no consensus about the optimal antithrombotic strategy to choose in this kind of patients, due to the difficult balance between an increased risk of bleeding and thromboembolic complications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk and benefits of triple antithrombotic therapy versus dual antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation, requiring long-term oral anticoagulation...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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