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Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129003/chelation-therapy-as-a-cardiovascular-therapeutic-strategy-the-rationale-and-the-data-in-review
#1
REVIEW
Roy O Mathew, Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Elizabeth L Nichols, Jonathan D Newman, Sripal Bangalore, Michael Farkouh, Mandeep S Sidhu
Chelation therapy, typically used to remove heavy metal toxins, has also been controversially used as a treatment for coronary artery disease. The first Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) aimed to provide evidence on chelation therapy's potential for benefit or harm. Although TACT had some significant results, the trial does not provide enough evidence to recommend routine chelation therapy and has limitations. The second TACT was recently funded reigniting a discussion about the value of chelation therapy, its efficacy, and allocation of research resources...
November 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116544/antithrombotic-therapy-for-acs-in-elderly-patients
#2
REVIEW
Vincent Roule, Katrien Blanchart, Xavier Humbert, Damien Legallois, Adrien Lemaitre, Paul Milliez, Farzin Beygui, Joachim Alexandre
BACKGROUND: Patients over 75 account for more than one third of those presenting with myocardial infarction and more than 50% of intrahospital mortality. There are no specific guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the elderly. SETTING: Although antithrombotic therapy seems to be effective and safe in such patients, it requires specific precautions and treatment adjustments because of the higher bleeding risk due to comorbidities such as renal function impairment and malnutrition...
November 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101507/novel-synthesized-radical-containing-nanoparticles-limit-infarct-size-following-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-canine-hearts
#3
Hiroshi Asanuma, Shoji Sanada, Toru Yoshitomi, Hideyuki Sasaki, Hiroyuki Takahama, Madoka Ihara, Hiroko Takahama, Yoshiro Shinozaki, Hidezo Mori, Masanori Asakura, Atsushi Nakano, Masaru Sugimachi, Yoshihiro Asano, Tetsuo Minamino, Seiji Takashima, Yukio Nagasaki, Masafumi Kitakaze
PURPOSE: Although nitroxyl radicals such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) scavenge free radicals, their short half-life and considerable side effects such as systemic hypotension and bradycardia have limited their clinical application. Since a radical-containing nanoparticle (RNP) delivers nitroxyl radicals with a prolonged half-life specific to ischemic hearts, we investigated whether RNPs reduce infarct size without the occurrence of substantial side effects and whether nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the cardioprotective effects of RNPs...
November 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098501/rationale-and-design-of-low-dose-administration-of-carperitide-for-acute-heart-failure-lascar-ahf
#4
Toshiyuki Nagai, Yasuyuki Honda, Hiroki Nakano, Satoshi Honda, Naotsugu Iwakami, Atsushi Mizuno, Nobuyuki Komiyama, Takafumi Yamane, Yutaka Furukawa, Tadayoshi Miyagi, Syuzo Nishihara, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Taichi Adachi, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Yasuhide Asaumi, Yoshio Tahara, Takeshi Aiba, Yasuo Sugano, Hideaki Kanzaki, Teruo Noguchi, Kengo Kusano, Satoshi Yasuda, Hisao Ogawa, Toshihisa Anzai
BACKGROUNDS: Despite current therapies, acute heart failure (AHF) remains a major public health burden with high rates of in-hospital and post-discharge morbidity and mortality. Carperitide is a recombinantly produced intravenous formulation of human atrial natriuretic peptide that promotes vasodilation with increased salt and water excretion, which leads to reduction of cardiac filling pressures. A previous open-label randomized controlled study showed that carperitide improved long-term cardiovascular mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization for patients with AHF, when adding to standard therapy...
November 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032396/assessing-adherence-to-antihypertensive-therapy-in-primary-health-care-in-namibia-findings-and-implications
#5
M M Nashilongo, B Singu, F Kalemeera, M Mubita, E Naikaku, A Baker, A Ferrario, B Godman, L Achieng, D Kibuule
INTRODUCTION: Namibia has the highest burden and incidence of hypertension in sub-Sahara Africa. Though non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy is an important cardiovascular risk factor, little is known about potential ways to improve adherence in Namibia following universal access. The objective of this study is to validate the Hill-Bone compliance scale and determine the level and predictors of adherence to antihypertensive treatment in primary health care settings in sub-urban townships of Windhoek, Namibia...
October 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965235/find-and-plug-the-leak-improving-adherence-to-anti-hypertensive-medicines-editorial-to-assessing-adherence-to-antihypertensive-therapy-in-primary-health-care-in-namibia-findings-and-implications-by-m-m-nashilongo-et-al
#6
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965151/sodium-thiosulfate-preconditioning-ameliorates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-hearts-via-reduction-of-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#7
Sriram Ravindran, Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Karthi Shanmugam, Ramalingam C Vedarathinam, Gino A Kurian
PURPOSE: Sodium thiosulfate (STS) has of late been proven efficacious in models of urolithiasis and vascular calcification. However, its cardiovascular effects on ischemia reperfusion injury (IR) have not been revealed. Being an antioxidant and calcium chelator, it is assumed to play a vital role in IR as ROS production and calcium overload are major perpetrators of IR injury. METHODS: The cardioprotective effect of STS was evaluated in vitro using H9C2 cardiomyocytes and in vivo using both isolated rat heart and intact left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion models of ischemia reperfusion injury...
September 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956198/immunity-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-heart-failure-emerging-molecular-targets
#8
REVIEW
Karam F Ayoub, Naga Venkata K Pothineni, Joshua Rutland, Zufeng Ding, Jawahar L Mehta
PURPOSE: Heart failure (HF) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although various therapies developed over the last two decades have shown improved long term outcomes in patients with established HF, there has been little progress in preventing the adverse cardiac remodeling that initiates HF. To fill the gap in treatment, current research efforts are focused on understanding novel mechanisms and signaling pathways. Immune activation, inflammation, oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics, and autophagy have been postulated as important pathophysiological events in this process...
September 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956186/diabetic-nephropathy-a-tangled-web-to-unweave
#9
REVIEW
Corey Magee, David J Grieve, Chris J Watson, Derek P Brazil
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is currently the leading cause of end-stage renal disease globally. Given the increasing incidence of diabetes, many experts hold the view that DN will eventually progress toward pandemic proportions. Whilst hyperglycaemia-induced vascular dysfunction is the primary initiating mechanism in DN, its progression is also driven by a heterogeneous set of pathological mechanisms, including oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Current treatment strategies for DN are targeted against the fundamental dysregulation of glycaemia and hypertension...
September 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948430/prevalence-of-prediabetes-and-undiagnosed-diabetes-in-patients-with-hfpef-and-hfref-and-associated-clinical-outcomes
#10
Søren L Kristensen, Pardeep S Jhund, Matthew M Y Lee, Lars Køber, Scott D Solomon, Christopher B Granger, Salim Yusuf, Marc A Pfeffer, Karl Swedberg, John J V McMurray
PURPOSE: The prevalence and consequences of prediabetic dysglycemia and undiagnosed diabetes is unknown in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and has not been compared to heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: We examined the prevalence and outcomes associated with normoglycemia, prediabetic dysglycemia and diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) among individuals with a baseline glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c) measurement stratified by HFrEF or HFpEF in the Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity programme (CHARM)...
September 25, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871349/recent-insights-into-pharmacologic-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Scott L Purga, Mandeep Sidhu, Michael Farkouh, Joshua Schulman-Marcus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects nearly 30 million Americans and carries an increased risk of macrovascular complications of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. While aggressive cardiovascular risk factor reduction has long been advocated in patients with diabetes, clinical trials have only recently demonstrated that such reductions result in improved outcomes. This review discusses recent evidence for risk reduction strategies and therapies with a focus on the management of glycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866767/the-parthenon-clinical-development-program-the-role-of-ticagrelor-in-patients-with-atherothrombotic-disease
#12
REVIEW
Paul P Dobesh, Manesh Patel
Although the rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality has declined over the last decade, it is still the leading cause of mortality in the USA, accounting for over 1.4 million deaths annually. In addition, total direct (primarily hospital admissions) and indirect costs of CVD in the US is over $316 billion annually and is expected to grow to over $918 billion by 2030. Much of the etiology of CVD is due to atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications, and central to this is the role of platelets...
September 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856537/the-treatment-effect-of-an-ace-inhibitor-based-regimen-with-perindopril-in-relation-to-beta-blocker-use-in-29-463-patients-with-vascular-disease-a-combined-analysis-of-individual-data-of-advance-europa-and-progress-trials
#13
J J Brugts, M Bertrand, W Remme, R Ferrari, K Fox, S MacMahon, J Chalmers, M L Simoons, E Boersma
INTRODUCTION: In everyday practice, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers are cornerstone treatments in patients with (cardio-)vascular disease. Clear data that evaluate the effects of the combination of these agents on morbidity and mortality are lacking. METHODS: In this retrospective pooled analysis of three large perindopril outcome trials (ADVANCE, EUROPA, PROGRESS), clinical outcomes were evaluated in 29,463 patients with vascular disease...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844118/mdco-216-does-not-induce-adverse-immunostimulation-in-contrast-to-its-predecessor-etc-216
#14
Joannes A A Reijers, D G Kallend, K E Malone, J W Jukema, P L J Wijngaard, J Burggraaf, M Moerland
PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to demonstrate that MDCO-216 (human recombinant Apolipoprotein A-I Milano) does not induce adverse immunostimulation, in contrast to its predecessor, ETC-216, which was thought to contain host cell proteins (HCPs) that elicited an inflammatory reaction. METHODS: Data were taken from a clinical trial in which 24 healthy volunteers (HV) and 24 patients with proven stable coronary artery disease (sCAD) received a single intravenous dose of MDCO-216, ranging 5-40 mg/kg...
August 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785894/is-initiating-noacs-for-atrial-arrhythmias-safe-in-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease
#15
Hayang Yang, Berto J Bouma, Barbara J M Mulder
BACKGROUND: In recent years, non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been increasingly prescribed to adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) and atrial arrhythmias without good evidence for either safety or efficacy. To address this gap, we initiated an ongoing prospective global registry (NOTE: non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for thromboembolic prevention in patients with congenital heart disease). Using the NOTE registry data, the present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of any adverse events during the initiation phase (first 30 days) of NOACs in adults with CHD and atrial arrhythmias...
August 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779372/erythropoietin-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-in-rats-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#16
Jing Lu, Qi-Ming Dai, Gen-Shan Ma, Yue-Hong Zhu, Bing Chen, Bing Li, Yu-Yu Yao
PURPOSE: Enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and down-regulated SERCA2a expression play crucial roles in diabetes. We aimed to verify whether erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates cardiac dysfunction by suppressing ER stress in diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, EPO-treated control, vehicle-treated diabetic, and EPO-treated diabetic groups. The animals in the EPO-treated control and diabetic groups were administered recombinant human EPO (1000 U/kg body weight) once per week for 12 weeks...
August 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779371/does-treatment-of-impaired-glucose-tolerance-improve-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-previous-myocardial-infarction
#17
Masanori Asakura, Jiyoong Kim, Hiroshi Asanuma, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Kengo Tsukahara, Yorihiko Higashino, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Yasuharu Nakama, Shinji Koba, Yasuyuki Maruyama, Mitsuru Tsujimoto, Hideo Himeno, Takanori Ohkusa, Susumu Fujino, Makoto Shimizu, Tsutomu Endo, Shunichi Yoda, Takahiro Muroya, Toyoaki Murohara, Nobuyuki Ohte, Hiroshi Suzuki, Tohru Kohno, Kazuki Fukui, Takaaki Shiono, Hiroyuki Takase, Hiroyasu Uzui, Yoshiyuki Nagai, Yuji Hashimoto, Shuntaro Ikeda, Sumio Mizuno, Koichi Tamita, Masashi Fujita, Kazuo Satake, Yoshihiko Kinoshita, Tatsuya Nunohiro, Satoru Sakagami, Jitsuo Higaki, Isao Morii, Reimin Sawada, Yoshikazu Hiasa, Tomohiko Shigemasa, Makoto Nakahama, Masataka Sata, Osamu Doi, Tetsuro Ueda, Takahisa Yamada, Takayoshi Yamanouchi, Hajime Yamaguchi, Yukiko Morita, Hideki Hayashi, Masafumi Kitakaze
PURPOSE: We evaluated the effects of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose, on cardiovascular events in patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: This prospective, randomized, open, blinded-endpoint study was conducted in 112 hospitals and clinics in Japan in 3000 subjects with both previous MI and IGT receiving voglibose (0.6 mg/day, n = 424) or no drugs (n = 435) for 2 years. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) recommended discontinuation of the study in June 2012 after an interim analysis when the outcomes of 859 subjects were obtained...
August 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808945/erratum-to-vasodilator-therapy-nitrates-and-nicorandil
#18
Jason M Tarkin, Juan Carlos Kaski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752209/plasma-lipidome-analysis-by-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-ion-mobility-of-hypertriglyceridemic-patients-on-extended-release-nicotinic-acid-a-pilot-study
#19
Véronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Mikaël Croyal, Thomas Moyon, Yassine Zair, Michel Krempf, Khadija Ouguerram
BACKGROUND: Plasma high triacylglycerols and low HDL-C concentration are associated with increased cardiovascular events. Extended-release nicotinic acid (ERN) was shown to reduce plasma triacylglycerols and total cholesterol but also to markedly increase high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). No data on the effect of ERN on different species of triacylglycerol, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipids are available. In this study, we applied a nontargeted lipidomic approach to investigate the plasma and lipoproteins lipids profile of hypertriglyceridemic patients treated with ERN or a placebo in order to identify new lipids markers associated with this treatment...
July 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752208/micrornas-in-atrial-fibrillation-from-expression-signatures-to-functional-implications
#20
REVIEW
Nicoline W E van den Berg, Makiri Kawasaki, Wouter R Berger, Jolien Neefs, Eva Meulendijks, Anke J Tijsen, Joris R de Groot
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with pronounced morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence, expected to further increase for the forthcoming years, and associated frequent hospitalizations turn AF into a major health problem. Structural and electrical atrial remodelling underlie the substrate for AF, but the exact mechanisms driving this remodelling remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNA), short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, may be involved in the pathophysiology of AF...
July 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
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