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Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323107/comparative-in-vitro-study-of-single-and-four-layer-graphene-oxide-nanoflakes-cytotoxicity-and-cellular-uptake
#1
Magdalena Peruzynska, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Martyna Barylak, Marta Tkacz, Katarzyna Piotrowska, Mateusz Kurzawski, Ewa Mijowska, Marek Drozdzik
In recent years, graphene and its derivatives have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties, which can be used in many fields including biomedical applications. Therefore, detailed biological study is required. In the current paper the detailed toxicological studies on single and four layer graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes is presented. The morphology and size of the nanomaterials were characterized via atomic force microscopy. Cytotoxicity, proliferation and internalization study were performed using various methods, including optical, confocal and Raman microscopy imaging, flow cytometry analysis, colorimetric and luminescent cell assays...
March 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323106/implications-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-in-cultured-human-sertoli-cells-glycolytic-and-oxidative-profile
#2
Tânia R Dias, Marco G Alves, Joaquina Silva, Alberto Barros, Mário Sousa, Susana Casal, Branca M Silva, Pedro F Oliveira
Sertoli cells are crucial for the success of spermatogenesis, which is the biological process that ensures male fertility. These cells present high metabolic rates, being often subjected to high oxidative stress levels that, if uncontrolled, may compromise male fertility. Since the most abundant tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has demonstrated a potent preventive activity against oxidative stress, we have evaluated its effect at concentrations of 5 and 50μM, on the metabolism, mitochondrial functionality and oxidative profile of human Sertoli cells (hSCs)...
March 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323105/automated-workflows-for-modelling-chemical-fate-kinetics-and-toxicity
#3
José Vicente Sala Benito, Alicia Paini, Andrea-Nicole Richarz, Thorsten Meinl, Michael R Berthold, Mark T D Cronin, Andrew P Worth
Automation is universal in today's society, from operating equipment such as machinery, in factory processes, to self-parking automobile systems. While these examples show the efficiency and effectiveness of automated mechanical processes, automated procedures that support the chemical risk assessment process are still in their infancy. Future human safety assessments will rely increasingly on the use of automated models, such as physiologically based kinetic (PBK) and dynamic models and the virtual cell based assay (VCBA)...
March 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323104/cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-lipid-nanocapsules
#4
Gaël Le Roux, Hélène Moche, Alejandro Nieto, Jean-Pierre Benoit, Fabrice Nesslany, Frédéric Lagarce
Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) offer a promising method for the entrapment and nanovectorisation of lipophilic molecules. This new type of nanocarrier, formulated according to a solvent-free process and using only regulatory-approved components, exhibits many prerequisites for being well tolerated. Although toxicological reference values have already been obtained in mice, interaction of LNCs at the cell level needs to be elucidated. LNCs, measuring from 27.0±0.1nm (25nm LNCs) and 112.1±1.8nm (100nm LNCs) and with a zeta potential between -38...
March 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323103/cr-vi-induces-cytotoxicity-in-vitro-through-activation-of-ros-mediated-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#5
Yujing Zhang, Fang Xiao, Xinmin Liu, Kaihua Liu, Xiaoxin Zhou, Caigao Zhong
The occupational and environmental toxicant hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] can cause severe damage to the liver; however, the exact mechanisms associated with its toxicity have not been thoroughly demonstrated. In the present study, the underlying mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Our results showed that Cr(VI) inhibited the growth and proliferation of L-02 hepatocytes. Further study revealed that Cr(VI) significantly induced S-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis accompanying with the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285151/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-upregulates-il-1%C3%AE-expression-in-hcmec-d3-human-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-cells-after-tcdd-exposure
#6
Aude Jacob, Céline Tomkiewicz-Raulet, Charlotte Jamet, Reina Bendayan, France Massicot, Xavier Coumoul, Xavier Declèves
The AhR is a cytosolic ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by both endogenous and exogenous chemicals. It can regulate expression of many target genes including some inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. To date AhR implication in the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at human cerebral endothelium has not been addressed. In the present study, we investigated whether AhR could regulate the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines and one chemokine i.e. IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the hCMEC/D3 human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line...
March 8, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285150/evaluation-of-multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-cytotoxicity-in-cultures-of-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-grown-on-plastic-or-basement-membrane
#7
Brittany N Eldridge, Fei Xing, Cale D Fahrenholtz, Ravi N Singh
There is a growing interest in the use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to treat diseases of the brain. Little is known about the effects of MWCNTs on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), which make up the blood vessels in the brain. In our studies, we evaluate the cytotoxicity of MWCNTs and acid oxidized MWNCTs, with or without a phospholipid-polyethylene glycol coating. We determined the cytotoxic effects of MWCNTs on both tissue-mimicking cultures of HBMECs grown on basement membrane and on monolayer cultures of HBMECs grown on plastic...
March 8, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286114/mechanism-of-deoxynivalenol-effects-on-the-reproductive-system-and-fetus-malformation-current-status-and-future-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Miao Yu, Liangkai Chen, Zhao Peng, Andreas K Nüssler, Qinghua Wu, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic fungal secondary metabolite produced by molds of the Fusarium genus, and it is known to cause a spectrum of diseases both in humans and animals, such as emesis, diarrhea, anorexia, immunotoxicity, hematological disorders, impairment of maternal reproduction, and fetal development. The recently revealed teratogenic potential of DON has received much attention. In various animal models, it has been shown that DON led to skeletal deformities of the fetus. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood, and toxicological data are also scarce...
March 7, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263892/in-vitro-assays-supporting-the-safety-assessment-of-immunomodulatory-monoclonal-antibodies
#9
Frank R Brennan, Andrea Kiessling
Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) licensed for human use or in clinical development for cancer and autoimmune disease directly interact with the immune system. These immunomodulatory mAbs have an inherent risk of adverse immune-mediated drug reactions, including infusion reactions, cytokine storms, immunosuppression and autoimmunity. A thorough understanding of the potential for immunotoxicity of a mAb is required to support administration to humans. This review will highlight the key role of in vitro assays in defining the immunopharmacology, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity of mAbs...
March 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263894/inhibition-of-autophagy-enhances-hydroquinone-induced-tk6-cell-death
#10
Longmei Xu, Jiaxian Liu, Yuting Chen, Lin Yun, Shaoyun Chen, Kairu Zhou, Bei Lai, Li Song, Hui Yang, Hairong Liang, Huanwen Tang
Hydroquinone (HQ), one of the metabolic products of benzene, is a carcinogen. It can induce apoptosis in lymphoma cells. However, whether HQ can induce autophagy and what roles autophagy plays in TK6 cells exposured to HQ remains unclear. In this study, we found that HQ could induce autophagy through techniques of qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescent assay of LC3 and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, inhibiting autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) significantly enhanced HQ-induced cell apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy may be a survival mechanism...
March 2, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263893/in-silico-cytotoxicity-assessment-on-cultured-rat-intestinal-cells-deduced-from-cellular-impedance-measurements
#11
P Gupta, A Gramatke, R Einspanier, C Schütte, M von Kleist, J Sharbati
Early and reliable identification of chemical toxicity is of utmost importance. At the same time, reduction of animal testing is paramount. Therefore, methods that improve the interpretability and usability of in vitro assays are essential. xCELLigence's real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) provides a novel, fast and cost effective in vitro method to probe compound toxicity. We developed a simple mathematical framework for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of toxicity for RTCA measurements. Compound toxicity, in terms of its 50% inhibitory concentration IC50 on cell growth, and parameters related to cell turnover were estimated on cultured IEC-6 cells exposed to 10 chemicals at varying concentrations...
March 2, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263891/skin-contamination-as-pathway-for-nicotine-intoxication-in-vapers
#12
Giovanni Maina, Carlotta Castagnoli, Giordana Ghione, Valter Passini, Gianpiero Adami, Francesca Larese Filon, Matteo Crosera
Growing warnings on health effects related to electronic cigarettes have met inconclusive findings at present. This study analyzed the in vitro percutaneous absorption of nicotine resulting by skin contamination with two e-liquids (refill 1 and 2) containing nicotine at 1.8%. Donor chambers of 6 Franz cells for each refill liquid were filled with 1mL of nicotine e-liquid for 24h; at selected intervals, 1.5mL of the receptor solutions were collected for nicotine concentration analysis by mean gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LOD: 0...
March 2, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259788/bisphenol-a-bisphenol-s-bisphenol-f-and-bisphenol-af-induce-different-oxidative-stress-and-damage-in-human-red-blood-cells-in-vitro-study
#13
Aneta Maćczak, Monika Cyrkler, Bożena Bukowska, Jaromir Michałowicz
Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogs are widely used in the production of various everyday use products, which leads to a common exposure of humans to these substances. The effect of bisphenols on oxidative stress parameters has not been described in detail in non-nucleated cells, therefore, we have decided to evaluate the impact of BPA and its analogs, i.e. bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in human erythrocytes...
March 1, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259787/development-of-a-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-pregnane-x-receptor-cpxr-transactivation-reporter-assay-and-its-activation-by-azole-fungicides-and-pharmaceutical-chemicals
#14
Anke Lange, Jenna Corcoran, Shinichi Miyagawa, Taisen Iguchi, Matthew J Winter, Charles R Tyler
In mammals, the pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor with a key role in regulating expression of several genes involved in drug biotransformation. PXR is present in fish and some genes known to be under its control can be up-regulated by mammalian PXR ligands. Despite this, direct involvement of PXR in drug biotransformation in fish has yet to be established. Here, the full length PXR sequence was cloned from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and used in a luciferase reporter assay to elucidate its role in xenobiotic metabolism in fish...
March 1, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257805/jnk1-and-jnk3-play-a-significant-role-in-both-neuronal-apoptosis-and-necrosis-evaluation-based-on-in-vitro-approach-using-tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-neuro-2a-cells-and-perturbation-through-3-aminobenzamide
#15
Vijaya Prakash Krishnan Muthaiah, Felicia Mary Michael, Tamilselvi Palaniappan, Sridhar Skylab Rajan, Kirubhanand Chandrasekar, Sankar Venkatachalam
In spinal cord injury (SCI), oxidative stress in the penumbra of the injury site is a characteristic feature. The predominance of necrosis over apoptosis in the ensuing delayed cell death results in progressive waves of necrosis affecting neighboring cells and thus exaggerates the severity of the lesion. Necrosis has been classified into subtypes based on the active molecular players and parthanatos is one among them, which is characterized by the over activation of PARP1 as the pre-mitochondrial event that triggers necrosis...
February 28, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245982/comparative-analysis-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-cells-and-exosomes-under-toluene-exposure
#16
Jung-Hee Lim, Mi-Kyung Song, Yoon Cho, Woong Kim, Sung Ok Han, Jae-Chun Ryu
Recent studies have illustrated the growing importance of exosomes (small extracellular vesicles) and their constituent microRNAs (miRNAs) in the fields of toxicology and pathology. The mechanism of toxicity of toluene, a highly-prevalent and volatile organic compound, is largely unknown. To examine the role of miRNAs in toluene-induced toxicity, we investigated miRNAs and toluene-induced gene expression in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and exosomes using microarrays. A total of 54 miRNAs were differentially expressed in HL-60 cell lines exposed to toluene and exosomes from the cells...
February 27, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242239/role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-drug-drug-interaction-between-paclitaxel-and-irinotecan-in-vitro
#17
Pankajini Mallick, Sumit Basu, Bhagavtula Moorthy, Romi Ghose
The bacterial receptor, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediates inflammatory responses and has been linked to a broad array of diseases. TLR4 agonists are being explored as potential treatments for cancer and other diseases. We have previously shown that activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to down-regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes/transporters (DMETs), and altered pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of drugs. These changes can increase the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in patients on multiple medications...
February 27, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238728/an-integrative-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-bisphenol-a-exposure-induced-dysregulation-of-microrna-expression-in-human-endometrial-cells
#18
Wei-Chun Chou, Pei-Hsuan Lee, Yan-Yan Tan, Ho-Chen Lin, Chung-Wei Yang, Kuan-Hsueh Chen, Chun-Yu Chuang
Bisphenol A (BPA) are commonly used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Higher BPA exposure levels have been found in patients with endometrial hyperplasia that is one of risk factors of endometrial cancer (EC). Aberrant microRNAs (miRNAs) regulation has been observed in the development of cancer. Thus, this study investigated whether BPA exposure can disrupt miRNA regulation and its gene expression regarding to EC carcinogenic progress. Microarray experiments of miRNA and mRNA were performed in human endometrial cancer RL95-2 cells with treatment of low-to-moderate (10, 10(3) and 10(5)nM) BPA to explore the aberrant genes corresponding to human EC progression...
February 24, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238727/testosterone-metabolism-of-equine-single-cyps-of-the-3a-subfamily-compared-to-the-human-cyp3a4
#19
S Vimercati, M Büchi, J Zielinski, N Peduto, M Mevissen
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are responsible for the phase I metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Knowledge of single CYPs and their substrates is important for drug metabolism, helps to predict adverse effects and may prevent reduced drug efficacy in polypharmacy. In this study, three equine isoenzymes of the 3A subfamily, the equine flavoprotein NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (POR), and the cytochrome b5 (CYB5) were cloned, sequenced and heterologously expressed in a baculovirus expression system...
February 24, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232239/novel-na%C3%A3-ve-bayes-classification-models-for-predicting-the-chemical-ames-mutagenicity
#20
Hui Zhang, Yan-Li Kang, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Kai-Xia Zhao, Jun-Yu Liang, Lan Ding, Teng-Guo Zhang, Ji Zhang
Prediction of drug candidates for mutagenicity is a regulatory requirement since mutagenic compounds could pose a toxic risk to humans. The aim of this investigation was to develop a novel prediction model of mutagenicity by using a naïve Bayes classifier. The established model was validated by the internal 5-fold cross validation and external test sets. For comparison, the recursive partitioning classifier prediction model was also established and other various reported prediction models of mutagenicity were collected...
February 21, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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