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Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739488/nanosilver-pmma-composite-coating-optimized-to-provide-robust-antibacterial-efficacy-while-minimizing-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-toxicity
#1
Peter E Petrochenko, Jiwen Zheng, Brendan J Casey, Reza Bayati, Roger J Narayan, Peter L Goering
Porous PMMA is a versatile biomaterial with good biocompatibility but high susceptibility to bacterial colonization, which we mitigated by utilizing immobilized antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A uniform porous thin film was deposited onto silicon wafers by simultaneously ablating PMMA and silver (Ag) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) optimized for minimal human cell toxicity and antibacterial efficacy. PMMA without Ag became heavily colonized by E. coli in simulated dynamic conditions, while Ag-containing samples prevented all colonization...
July 21, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739487/the-ros-mediated-activation-of-il-6-stat3-signaling-pathway-is-involved-in-the-27-hydroxycholesterol-induced-cellular-senescence-in-nerve-cells
#2
Jiao Liu, Yun Liu, Juan Chen, Chunyan Hu, Mengying Teng, Kailin Jiao, Zhaoxia Shen, Dongmei Zhu, Jia Yue, Zhong Li, Yuan Li
The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs), which like endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) induces the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, the observation that 27HC induces adverse effects in neural system, distinguishing it from E2. It has been suggested that high levels of circulating cholesterol increase the entry of 27HC into the brain, which may induce learning and memory impairment. Based on this evidence, 27HC may be associated with neurodegenerative processes and interrupted cholesterol homeostasis in the brain...
July 21, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735033/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-vimentin-is-involved-in-steroidogenesis-stimulated-by-mono-butyl-phthalate-in-primary-cultured-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#3
Chang Zhang, Pan Gong, Yan Ye, Lulu Zhang, Minjian Chen, Yanhui Hu, Aihua Gu, Shanshan Chen, Yubang Wang
Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and its active metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) are the most common endocrine disrupting chemicals. Many studies indicated the effects of MBP on male steroidogenesis, however, little attention have been paid on the effects of low levels of MBP on female steroidogenesis. This study was aimed to assess steroidogenesis stimulated by low-dose MBP on primary cultured ovarian granulosa cells (mGCs). Ovarian granulosa cells were isolated from ICR female mice. Hormone levels in medium were detected by ELISA, mRNA and protein expressions of vimentin, NF-κB p65 and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 (p-p65) were assayed by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
July 19, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716455/the-vitamin-b6-paradox-supplementation-with-high-concentrations-of-pyridoxine-leads-to-decreased-vitamin-b6-function
#4
Misha F Vrolijk, Antoon Opperhuizen, Eugène H J M Jansen, Geja J Hageman, Aalt Bast, Guido R M M Haenen
Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in many reactions involved in amino acid, carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Since 2014, >50 cases of sensory neuronal pain due to vitamin B6 supplementation were reported. Up to now, the mechanism of this toxicity is enigmatic and the contribution of the various B6 vitamers to this toxicity is largely unknown. In the present study, the neurotoxicity of the different forms of vitamin B6 is tested on SHSY5Y and CaCo-2 cells. Cells were exposed to pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal, pyridoxal-5-phosphate or pyridoxamine-5-phosphate for 24h, after which cell viability was measured using the MTT assay...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712878/antidepressants-are-cytotoxic-to-rat-primary-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells-at-high-therapeutic-concentrations
#5
Ekramy Elmorsy, Ayat Al-Ghafari, Fahd M Almutairi, Amal Misbah Aggour, Wayne G Carter
Antidepressants are commonly employed for the treatment of major depressive disorders and other psychiatric conditions. We investigated the relatively acute cytotoxic effects of three commonly prescribed antidepressants: fluoxetine, sertraline, and clomipramine on rat primary blood brain barrier endothelial cells over a concentration range of 0.1-100μM. At therapeutic concentrations (0.1μM) no significant cytotoxicity was observed after 4, 24, or 48h. At high therapeutic to overdose concentrations (1-100μM), antidepressants reduced cell viability in proportion to their concentration and exposure duration...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712880/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-antipsychotics-induced-ovarian-toxicity
#6
Ekramy Elmorsy, Ayat Al-Ghafari, Amal Misbah Aggour, Raheela Khan, Saad Amer
This study tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress could be an underlying mechanism for APs-induced ovarian cytotoxicity and reproductive dysfunction. Rat ovarian theca interstitial cells (TICs) were isolated and treated with four APs [chlorpromazine (CPZ), haloperidol (HAL), risperidone (RIS) and clozapine (CLZ)]. MTT assay was used to test the effects of these antipsychotics on TICs viability and to estimate their 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s). The effects of APs (IC50s and 1μM concentrations) on the activities of caspases-3, -8 and -9, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, total intracellular glutathione and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in TICs were assessed...
July 13, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712879/comet-assay-on-thawed-embryos-an-optimized-technique-to-evaluate-dna-damage-in-mouse-embryos
#7
L Rolland, B Courbiere, V Tassistro, A Sansoni, T Orsière, W Liu, C Di Giorgio, J Perrin
Our objective was to optimize the CA technique on mammal embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1000 frozen 2-cell embryos from B6CBA mice were used. Based on a literature review, and after checking post-thaw embryo viability, the main outcome measures included: 1) comparison of the embryo recovery rate between 2 CA protocols (2 agarose layers and 3 agarose layers); 2) comparison of DNA damage by the CA on embryos with (ZP+) and without (ZP-) zona pellucida; and 3) comparison of DNA damage in embryos exposed to 2 genotoxic agents (H2O2 and simulated sunlight irradiation (SSI))...
July 13, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711347/particulate-emissions-from-modern-and-old-technology-wood-combustion-induce-distinct-time-dependent-patterns-of-toxicological-responses-in-vitro
#8
Mikko S Happo, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Oskari Uski, Stefanie Kasurinen, Joachim Kelz, Thomas Brunner, Ingwald Obernberger, Pasi I Jalava
Toxicological characterisation of combustion emissions in vitro are often conducted with macrophage cell lines, and the majority of these experiments are based on responses measured at 24h after the exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate how significant role time course plays on toxicological endpoints that are commonly measured in vitro. The RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed to PM1 samples (150μg/ml) from biomass combustion devices representing old and modern combustion technologies for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 32h...
July 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705761/factors-of-concern-in-a-human-3d-cellular-airway-model-exposed-to-aerosols-of-nanoparticles
#9
Ingeborg M Kooter, Mariska Gröllers-Mulderij, Evert Duistermaat, Frieke Kuper, Eric D Schoen
Mucilair 3D bronchial airway models, cultured at an air-liquid interface, were exposed to aerosols of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in Vitrocell air exposure modules. Four cell donors, four exposure modules and four exposure concentrations were varied within four different exposure sessions using a statistical experimental design called a hyper-Graeco-Latin square. Analysis of variance techniques were used to investigate the effects of these factors on release and RNA expression of inflammation markers monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) interleukines 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8) an cytotoxicity marker lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) determined 24h after exposure...
July 10, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705760/synthetic-analogues-of-cyanobacterial-alkaloid-cylindrospermopsin-and-their-toxicological-activity
#10
Christopher Cartmell, Daniel M Evans, Jessica M L Elwood, Hisham S Fituri, Patrick J Murphy, Thomas Caspari, Barbara Poniedziałek, Piotr Rzymski
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a naturally occurring alkaloid produced by a variety of cyanobacteria and known to induce oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Despite extensive research on the mechanism of CYN toxicity, an understanding of the structural features responsible for this toxicity and the mechanism by which it can enter the cell are still not clear. It was established that the presence of both the uracil and guanidine groups is essential in biological activity of CYN whilst not much is known in this regard on the role of tether that separates them and the attached hydroxyl group...
July 10, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700953/comparative-assessment-of-local-tolerance-of-alcohols-commonly-used-in-alcohol-based-hand-rubs-for-hand-hygiene
#11
Monique Manche, Benoît Foligné, Mathieu Sauty, Anne Platel, Eric Vercauteren, Gaétan Rauwel, Sophie Catoire, Hervé Ficheux, Jacques Criquelion, Fabrice Nesslany
Hand hygiene plays a key role in nosocomial infection prevention. To achieve users' adherence, products' dermal tolerance is essential. We aimed at making a comparative assessment of skin irritation and phototoxicity of the 3 alcohols commonly used in alcohol-based hand rubs (Ethanol, Propan-2-ol, Propan-1-ol) at 60, 70, 80 or 85% w/w in water or with co-formulates (hydrating, emollient and skin protective agents). In vitro validated OECD methods 439 and 432 were used. For irritation, EpiSkin™ Small Model was the chosen Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RhE)...
July 9, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697962/con4ei-epiocular%C3%A2-eye-irritation-test-epiocular%C3%A2-eit-for-hazard-identification-and-labelling-of-eye-irritating-chemicals
#12
H Kandarova, S Letasiova, E Adriaens, R Guest, J A Willoughby, A Drzewiecka, K Gruszka, Nathalie Alépée, Sandra Verstraelen, An R Van Rompay
Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. The objective of the CON4EI project was to develop tiered testing strategies for eye irritation assessment. A set of 80 reference chemicals (38 liquids and 42 solids) was tested with eight different methods. Here, the results obtained with the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT), adopted as OECD TG 492, are shown. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate of the performance of the test method to discriminate between chemicals not requiring classification for serious eye damage/eye irritancy (No Category) and chemicals requiring classification and labelling...
July 8, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689815/nicotine-promotes-blood-retinal-barrier-damage-in-a-model-of-human-diabetic-macular-edema
#13
Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Daniela Maria Rasà, Valentina La Cognata, Salvatore Saccone, Concetta Federico, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
More than 1 billion world's population actively smokes tobacco containing the bioactive component nicotine (NT). The biological role of this molecule is mediated through the activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors, widely distributed in various human tissues including retinal pigmented epithelium. The long-term assumption of NT contributes to several diseases development such as diabetic retinopathy. The major complication of this pathology is the diabetic macular edema (DME), characterized by macular area thinning and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688989/involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-calcium-signaling-in-airborne-particulate-matter-induced-damages-in-human-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cells
#14
J Deweirdt, J F Quignard, B Crobeddu, A Baeza-Squiban, J Sciare, A Courtois, S Lacomme, E Gontier, B Muller, J P Savineau, R Marthan, C Guibert, I Baudrimont
Recent studies have revealed that particulate matter (PM) exert deleterious effects on vascular function. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC), which are involved in the vasomotricity regulation, can be a direct target of inhaled particles. Modifications in calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress are critical events involved in the physiopathology of vascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of PM2.5 on oxidative stress and calcium signaling in HPAEC. Different endpoints were studied, (i) intrinsic and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the H2DCF-DA probe, (ii) intrinsic, intracellular and mitochondrial production of superoxide anion (O2(-)) by electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and MitoSOX probe, (iii) reactive nitrosative species (RNS) production by Griess reaction, and (vi) calcium signaling by the Fluo-4 probe...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673561/tcdd-induced-mitochondrial-superoxide-production-does-not-lead-to-mitochondrial-degeneration-or-genomic-instability-in-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#15
Jukka Luukkonen, Anne Höytö, Matti Viluksela, Jukka Juutilainen, Jonne Naarala
Several genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents have been reported to cause delayed genetic damage in the progeny of the exposed cells. Such induced genomic instability (IGI) may be a driving force in carcinogenesis, and it is thus highly important to understand the cellular events accompanying it. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects mitochondrial integrity and can consequently induce genomic instability. Mitochondrial integrity was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial superoxide production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial activity...
June 30, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673560/down-regulation-of-the-expression-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-4-and-cyp2e1-by-the-combination-of-%C3%AE-endosulfan-and-dioxin-in-heparg-human-cells
#16
Eléonore A Attignon, Emilie Distel, Béatrice Le-Grand, Alix F Leblanc, Robert Barouki, Eliandre de Oliveira, Martine Aggerbeck, Etienne B Blanc
Pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants are considered as risk factors for liver diseases. We treated the human hepatic cell line HepaRG with both 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the organochlorine pesticide, α-endosulfan, to evaluate their combined impact on the expression of hepatic genes involved in alcohol metabolism. We show that the combination of the two pollutants (25nM TCDD and 10μM α-endosulfan) led to marked decreases in the amounts of both the mRNA (up to 90%) and protein (up to 60%) of ADH4 and CYP2E1...
June 30, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673559/con4ei-bovine-corneal-opacity-and-permeability-bcop-test-for-hazard-identification-and-labelling-of-eye-irritating-chemicals
#17
Sandra Verstraelen, Gareth Maglennon, Karen Hollanders, Francis Boonen, Els Adriaens, Nathalie Alépée, Agnieszka Drzewiecka, Katarzyna Gruszka, Helena Kandarova, Jamin A Willoughby, Robert Guest, Jane Schofield, An R Van Rompay
Assessment of ocular irritation potential is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. None in vitro ocular irritation assays are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium assessed the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as established a tiered-testing strategy. One of the selected assays was Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP). In this project, the same corneas were used for measurement of opacity using the OP-KIT, the Laser Light-Based Opacitometer (LLBO) and for histopathological analysis...
June 30, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669845/dioxin-like-activity-of-brominated-dioxins-as-individual-compounds-or-mixtures-in-in-vitro-reporter-gene-assays-with-rat-and-mouse-hepatoma-cell-lines
#18
G Suzuki, M Nakamura, C Michinaka, N M Tue, H Handa, H Takigami
In vitro reporter gene assays detecting dioxin-like compounds have been developed and validated since the middle 1990's, and applied to the determination of dioxin-like activities in various samples for their risk management. Data on characterizing the potency of individual brominated dioxins and their activity in mixture with chlorinated dioxins are still limited on the cell-based assay. This study characterized the dioxin-like activities of the 32 brominated dioxins, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs), coplanar polybrominated biphenyls, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDFs), as a sole component or in a mixture by DR-CALUX (dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase expression) using the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line and XDS-CALUX (xenobiotic detection systems-chemically activated luciferase expression) assays using the mouse hepatoma H1L6...
June 29, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668616/influence-of-flavonols-and-quercetin-derivative-compounds-on-ma-10-leydig-cells-steroidogenic-genes-expressions
#19
Michelle Cormier, Firas Ghouili, Pauline Roumaud, Luc J Martin, Mohamed Touaibia
Androgen are mainly synthesized and secreted from testicular Leydig cells and play critical roles in testis development, normal masculinization, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. The rate-limiting step in testosterone biosynthesis involves the import of cholesterol inside mitochondria by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (Star) protein. Cholesterol is then converted to pregnenolone by the steroidogenic enzyme Cyp11a1, followed by a chemical transformation to testosterone using other steroidogenic enzymes...
June 28, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595836/con4ei-selection-of-the-reference-chemicals-for-hazard-identification-and-labelling-of-eye-irritating-chemicals
#20
E Adriaens, N Alépée, H Kandarova, A Drzewieckac, K Gruszka, R Guest, J A Willoughby, S Verstraelen, A R Van Rompay
Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. In the past, several prospective and retrospective validation studies have taken place in the area of serious eye damage/eye irritation testing. Success in terms of complete replacement of the regulatory in vivo Draize rabbit eye test has not yet been achieved. A very important aspect to ensure development of successful alternative test methods and/or strategies for serious eye damage/eye irritation testing is the selection of appropriate reference chemicals...
June 28, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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