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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447116/amyloid-toxicity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Allison B Reiss, Hirra A Arain, Mark M Stecker, Nicolle M Siegart, Lora J Kasselman
A major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is the plaque composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Although these plaques may have harmful properties, there is much evidence to implicate soluble oligomeric Aβ as the primary noxious form. Aβ oligomers can be generated both extracellularly and intracellularly. Aβ is toxic to neurons in a myriad of ways. It can cause pore formation resulting in the leakage of ions, disruption of cellular calcium balance, and loss of membrane potential. It can promote apoptosis, cause synaptic loss, and disrupt the cytoskeleton...
February 15, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420307/the-roles-of-special-proresolving-mediators-in-pain-relief
#2
Lan-Yu Zhang, Ming-Rui Jia, Tao Sun
The resolution of acute inflammation, once thought to be a passive process, is now recognized as an active one. The productions of endogenous special proresolving mediators (SPMs) are involved in this process. SPMs, including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, are endogenous lipid mediators generated from ω-6 arachidonic acid or ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. They have potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions in various inflammatory disorders...
February 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397392/experimental-models-of-focal-and-multifocal-cerebral-ischemia-a-review
#3
Kristy L Meadows
Rodent and rabbit stroke models have been instrumental in our current understanding of stroke pathophysiology; however, translational failure is a significant problem in preclinical ischemic stroke research today. There are a number of different focal cerebral ischemia models that vary in their utility, pathophysiology of causing disease, and their response to treatments. Unfortunately, despite active preclinical research using these models, treatment options for ischemic stroke have not significantly advanced since the food and drug administration approval of tissue plasminogen activator in 1996...
February 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397391/gut-microbiome-and-depression-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know
#4
Gal Winter, Robert A Hart, Richard P G Charlesworth, Christopher F Sharpley
Gut microbiome diversity has been strongly associated with mood-relating behaviours, including major depressive disorder (MDD). This association stems from the recently characterised bi-directional communication system between the gut and the brain, mediated by neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and sensory neural pathways. While the link between gut microbiome and depression is well supported by research, a major question needing to be addressed is the causality in the connection between the two, which will support the understanding of the role that the gut microbiota play in depression...
February 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397390/neuromuscular-synergies-in-motor-control-in-normal-and-poststroke-individuals
#5
Sharon Israely, Gerry Leisman, Eli Carmeli
Muscle synergies are proposed to function as motor primitives that are modulated by frontal brain areas to construct a large repertoire of movement. This paper reviews the history of the development of our current theoretical understanding of nervous system-based motor control mechanisms and more specifically the concept of muscle synergies. Computational models of muscle synergies, especially the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm, are discussed with specific reference to the changes in synergy control post-central nervous system (CNS) lesions...
February 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397389/recent-studies-on-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-focus-on-epigenetic-factors-and-histone-deacetylase
#6
Harikesh Dubey, Kavita Gulati, Arunabha Ray
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders mainly affecting elderly people. It is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. More than 95% of AD cases are related to sporadic or late-onset AD (LOAD). The etiology of LOAD is still unclear. It has been reported that environmental factors and epigenetic alterations play a significant role in AD pathogenesis. Furthermore, recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified 10 novel risk genes: ABCA7, APOE, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, CLU, CR1, MS4A6A, MS4A4E, and PICALM, which play an important role for LOAD...
February 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373323/art-is-not-special-an-assault-on-the-last-lines-of-defense-against-the-naturalization-of-the-human-mind
#7
Martin Skov, Marcos Nadal
The assumption that human cognition requires exceptional explanations holds strong in some domains of behavioral and brain sciences. Scientific aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, abound with claims for art-specific cognitive or neural processes. This assumption fosters a conceptual structure disconnected from other fields and biases the sort of processes to be studied. More generally, assuming that art is special is to cling to the idea that some aspect of our species' mental constitution makes us unique, special, and meaningful...
January 26, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329109/cluster-analysis-and-subgrouping-to-investigate-inter-individual-variability-to-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-a-systematic-review
#8
Michael Pellegrini, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Cluster analysis and other subgrouping techniques have risen in popularity in recent years in non-invasive brain stimulation research in the attempt to investigate the issue of inter-individual variability - the issue of why some individuals respond, as traditionally expected, to non-invasive brain stimulation protocols and others do not. Cluster analysis and subgrouping techniques have been used to categorise individuals, based on their response patterns, as responder or non-responders. There is, however, a lack of consensus and consistency on the most appropriate technique to use...
January 12, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329108/cracking-novel-shared-targets-between-epilepsy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-need-of-the-hour
#9
Nitika Garg, Rupa Joshi, Bikash Medhi
Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are interconnected. It is well known that seizures are linked with cognitive impairment, and there are various shared etiologies between epilepsy and AD. The connection between hyperexcitability of neurons and cognitive dysfunction in the progression of AD or epileptogenesis plays a vital role for improving selection of treatment for both diseases. Traditionally, seizures occur less frequently and in later stages of age in patients with AD which in turn implies that neurodegeneration causes seizures...
January 12, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320366/therapeutic-efficacy-of-specific-immunotherapy-for-glioma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Sara Hanaei, Khashayar Afshari, Armin Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Bahram Mohajer, Delara Amir Dastmalchi, Nima Rezaei
Although different immunotherapeutic approaches have been developed for the treatment of glioma, there is a discrepancy between clinical trials limiting their approval as common treatment. So, the current systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess survival and clinical response of specific immunotherapy in patients with glioma. Generally, seven databases were searched to find eligible studies. Controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy of specific immunotherapy in glioma were found eligible...
January 10, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306934/gliotransmitters-and-cytokines-in-the-control-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#11
REVIEW
Elena D Osipova, Oxana V Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Andrey V Morgun, Natalia V Pisareva, Natalia A Malinovskaya, Elizaveta B Boitsova, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga A Belova, Vladimir V Salmin, Tatiana E Taranushenko, Mami Noda, Alla B Salmina
The contribution of astrocytes and microglia to the regulation of neuroplasticity or neurovascular unit (NVU) is based on the coordinated secretion of gliotransmitters and cytokines and the release and uptake of metabolites. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and angiogenesis are influenced by perivascular cells contacting with the abluminal side of brain microvessel endothelial cells (pericytes, astrocytes) or by immune cells existing (microglia) or invading the NVU (macrophages) under pathologic conditions...
January 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306933/mechanisms-and-treatment-of-painful-neuromas
#12
Changfeng Lu, Xun Sun, Chong Wang, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng
A painful neuroma is a common complication of a peripheral nerve injury or amputation, and it can cause tremendous pain that is resistant to most analgesics. Furthermore, painful neuromas have a high postoperative recurrence rate. Painful neuromas are often accompanied by functional disorders, drastically reducing the patient's quality of life. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain this type of neuropathic pain, including peripheral and central sensitisation and the involvement of nerve growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and structural changes in neuroma fibres...
January 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305570/neurotrophic-factors-hold-promise-for-the-future-of-parkinson-s-disease-treatment-is-there-a-light-at-the-end-of-the-tunnel
#13
Ava Nasrolahi, Javad Mahmoudi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Karimipour, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Roya Salehi, Mehdi Farhoudi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a spectrum of clinicopathologic signs and a complex etiology. PD results from the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra. Current therapies for PD are only able to alleviate symptoms without stopping disease progression. In addition, the available therapeutic strategies do not have long-lasting effects. Furthermore, these therapies cause different ranges of adverse side effects...
January 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303786/aerobic-glycolysis-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-huntington-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Neurodegenerative cells are the sites of numerous metabolic and energetic abnormalities with abnormalities in energy production. Energy is the primary determinant of neuronal viability. In neurodegenerative cells, metabolic enzymes are modified by the dysregulation of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), WNT/β-catenin pathway is upregulated. We focused this review on the hypothesis of aerobic glycolysis stimulated by the upregulation of WNT/β-catenin pathway in ALS and HD...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303785/mechanisms-of-disordered-neurodegenerative-function-concepts-and-facts-about-the-different-roles-of-the-protein-kinase-rna-like-endoplasmic-reticulum-kinase-perk
#15
Yasmeen M Taalab, Nour Ibrahim, Ahmed Maher, Mubashir Hassan, Wael Mohamed, Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohamed Salama, Dina Johar, Larry Bernstein
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, are a dissimilar group of disorders that share a hallmark feature of accumulation of abnormal intraneuronal or extraneuronal misfolded/unfolded protein and are classified as protein misfolding disorders. Cellular and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates multiple signaling cascades of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Consequently, translational and transcriptional alterations in target gene expression occur in response directed toward restoring the ER capacity of proteostasis and reestablishing the cellular homeostasis...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303784/medicinal-plants-with-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity
#16
Sita Sharan Patel, Ramsaneh Raghuwanshi, Misha Masood, Ashish Acharya, Surendra Kumar Jain
Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is characterised by hypofunction of acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter in the distinct region of brain. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that metabolises the ACh at synaptic cleft resulting in Alzheimer's disease. Medicinal plants have been used to treat numerous ailments and improve human health from ancient time. A traditional system of medicine is long recognised for its effective management of neurological disorders. The present review confers the scope of some common medicinal plants with a special focus on AChE-mediated central nervous system complications especially Alzheimer's disease...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29267178/applications-of-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-tissue-engineering-and-neurological-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Baichuan Sun, Jiang Peng, Shoufeng Wang, Xuejian Liu, Kaihong Zhang, Zengzeng Zhang, Chong Wang, Xiaoguang Jing, Chengfu Zhou, Yu Wang
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with diameters of 30-100 nm that are key for intercellular communication. Almost all types of cell, including dendritic cells, T cells, mast cells, epithelial cells, neuronal cells, adipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, and platelets, can release exosomes. Exosomes are present in human body fluids, such as urine, amniotic fluid, malignant ascites, synovial fluid, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, saliva, and blood. Exosomes have biological functions in immune response, antigen presentation, intercellular communication, and RNA and protein transfer...
December 21, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252202/neuroanatomy-of-conversion-disorder-towards-a-network-approach
#18
Ismael Conejero, Eric Thouvenot, Mocrane Abbar, Stéphane Mouchabac, Philippe Courtet, Emilie Olié
The pathophysiology of conversion disorder is not well understood, although studies using functional brain imaging in patients with motor and sensory symptoms are progressively increasing. We conducted a systematic review of the literature with the aim of summarising the available data on the neuroanatomical features of this disorder. We also propose a general model of the neurobiological disturbance in motor conversion disorder. We systematically searched articles in Medline using the Medical Subject Headings terms '(conversion disorder or hysterical motor disorder) and (neuropsychology or cognition) or (functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography or neuroimaging) or (genetics or polymorphisms or epigenetics) or (biomarkers or biology)', following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
December 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232196/mechanisms-of-action-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-septic-encephalopathy
#19
Figen Esen, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Erdem Tuzun, M Dustin Boone
Acute brain dysfunction associated with sepsis is a serious complication that results in morbidity and mortality. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. Our results suggest that IVIgG and IgGAM administration ameliorates neuronal dysfunction and behavioral deficits by reducing apoptotic cell death and glial cell proliferation...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232195/crossover-design-in-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-studies-on-motor-learning-potential-pitfalls-and-difficulties-in-interpretation-of-findings
#20
Mana Biabani, Michael Farrell, Maryam Zoghi, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Crossover designs are used by a high proportion of studies investigating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning. These designs necessitate attention to aspects of data collection and analysis to take account of design-related confounds including order, carryover, and period effects. In this systematic review, we appraised the method sections of crossover-designed tDCS studies of motor learning and discussed the strategies adopted to address these factors. A systematic search of 10 databases was performed and 19 research papers, including 21 experimental studies, were identified...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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