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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231069/the-potential-of-transcranial-photobiomodulation-therapy-for-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Farzad Salehpour, Seyed Hossein Rasta
Major depressive disorder is a common debilitating mood disorder that affects quality of life. Prefrontal cortex abnormalities, an imbalance in neurotransmitters, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. Despite the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder, 30%-40% of patients do not respond to antidepressants. Given this, exploring the alternative therapies for treatment or prevention of major depressive disorder has aroused interest among scientists...
February 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195557/biogenetic-and-morphofunctional-heterogeneity-of-mitochondria-the-case-of-synaptic-mitochondria
#2
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem, Ludmila V Puchkova
The mitochondria of different cells are different in their morphological and biochemical properties. These organelles generate free radicals during activity, leading inevitably to mitochondrial DNA damage. It is not clear how this problem is addressed in long-lived cells, such as neurons. We propose the hypothesis that mitochondria within the same cell also differ in lifespan and ability to divide. According to our suggestion, cells have a pool of 'stem' mitochondria with low metabolic activity and a pool of 'differentiated' mitochondria with significantly shorter lifespans and high metabolic activity...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195556/how-neuroscience-can-inform-the-study-of-individual-differences-in-cognitive-abilities
#3
Dennis J McFarland
Theories of human mental abilities should be consistent with what is known in neuroscience. Currently, tests of human mental abilities are modeled by cognitive constructs such as attention, working memory, and speed of information processing. These constructs are in turn related to a single general ability. However, brains are very complex systems and whether most of the variability between the operations of different brains can be ascribed to a single factor is questionable. Research in neuroscience suggests that psychological processes such as perception, attention, decision, and executive control are emergent properties of interacting distributed networks...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195555/blood-brain-barrier-supported-neurogenesis-in-healthy-and-diseased-brain
#4
Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga L Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Vladimir V Salmin, Alla B Salmina
Adult neurogenesis is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to brain development, learning, and memory. Alterations in neurogenesis underlie a wide spectrum of brain diseases. Neurogenesis takes place in highly specialized neurogenic niches. The concept of neurogenic niches is becoming widely accepted due to growing evidence of the important role of the microenvironment established in the close vicinity to stem cells in order to provide adequate control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157694/mathematics-anxiety-and-the-brain
#5
Ahmed A Moustafa, Richard Tindle, Zaheda Ansari, Margery J Doyle, Doaa H Hewedi, Abeer Eissa
Given that achievement in learning mathematics at school correlates with work and social achievements, it is important to understand the cognitive processes underlying abilities to learn mathematics efficiently as well as reasons underlying the occurrence of mathematics anxiety (i.e. feelings of tension and fear upon facing mathematical problems or numbers) among certain individuals. Over the last two decades, many studies have shown that learning mathematical and numerical concepts relies on many cognitive processes, including working memory, spatial skills, and linguistic abilities...
February 3, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121618/leptin-and-adiponectin-pathophysiological-role-and-possible-therapeutic-target-of-inflammation-in-ischemic-stroke
#6
Jitender Gairolla, Rupinder Kler, Manish Modi, Dheeraj Khurana
Stroke is a multifactorial disease contributing to significant noncommunicable disease burden in developing countries. Risk of stroke is largely a consequence of morbidities of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and heart diseases. Incidence of stroke is directly proportional to body mass index. Adipose tissue stores energy as well as acts as an active endocrine organ, which secretes numerous humoral factors. Adiponectin and leptin are the commonest adipocytokines and have been invariably linked to the development of coronary heart disease and may be involved in the underlying biological mechanism of stroke...
January 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107176/integrating-neurobiology-of-emotion-regulation-and-trauma-therapy-reflections-on-emdr-therapy
#7
Anabel González, Lucía Del Río-Casanova, Ania Justo-Alonso
Emotion dysregulation is a frequent feature in trauma-related disorders. Different kinds of emotion dysregulation seem to be linked to particular psychiatric conditions, and there is growing evidence of the association between neurobiological correlates and those dysregulation patterns. Nevertheless, many of the recent findings from the field of the neurobiology have not been translated into clinical practice and are insufficiently contemplated in trauma-oriented therapies. The aim of this article is to review recent developments in the field of emotion regulation connecting these issues with the practical implementation of psychotherapeutic procedures...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107175/long-non-coding-rnas-potential-molecular-biomarkers-for-gliomas-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#8
Lei Wang, Zhengtao Yu, Shaiqi Sun, Jun Peng, Rongjun Xiao, Shengpan Chen, Xiaokun Zuo, Quan Cheng, Ying Xia
The current grade classification system of gliomas is based on the histopathological features of these tumors and has great significance in defining groups of patients for clinical assessment. However, this classification system is also associated with a number of limitations, and as such, additional clinical assessment criteria are required. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical role in cellular functions and are currently regarded as potential biomarkers for glioma diagnosis and prognosis. Therefore, the molecular classification of glioma based on lncRNA expression may provide additional information to assist in the systematic identification of glioma...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107174/biological-bases-of-human-musicality
#9
Carla Perrone-Capano, Floriana Volpicelli, Umberto di Porzio
Music is a universal language, present in all human societies. It pervades the lives of most human beings and can recall memories and feelings of the past, can exert positive effects on our mood, can be strongly evocative and ignite intense emotions, and can establish or strengthen social bonds. In this review, we summarize the research and recent progress on the origins and neural substrates of human musicality as well as the changes in brain plasticity elicited by listening or performing music. Indeed, music improves performance in a number of cognitive tasks and may have beneficial effects on diseased brains...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099139/quantitative-eeg-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
Szilvia Puskás, Norbert Kozák, Dóra Sulina, László Csiba, Mária Tünde Magyar
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by the recurrent cessation (apnea) or reduction (hypopnea) of airflow due to the partial or complete upper airway collapse during sleep. Respiratory disturbances causing sleep fragmentation and repetitive nocturnal hypoxia are responsible for a variety of nocturnal and daytime complaints of sleep apnea patients, such as snoring, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, or impaired cognitive functions. Different techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography, are used to evaluate the structural and functional changes in OSAS patients...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099138/role-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-mood-disorders
#11
Anton S Tsybko, Tatiana V Ilchibaeva, Nina K Popova
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is widely recognized as a survival factor for dopaminergic neurons, but GDNF has also been shown to promote development, differentiation, and protection of other central nervous system neurons and was thought to play an important role in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Severe mood disorders, such as primarily major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder, attract particular attention. These psychopathologies are characterized by structural alterations accompanied by the dysregulation of neuroprotective and neurotrophic signaling mechanisms required for the maturation, growth, and survival of neurons and glia...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099137/epilepsy-associated-alterations-in-hippocampal-excitability
#12
Mojdeh Navidhamidi, Maedeh Ghasemi, Nasrin Mehranfard
The hippocampus exhibits a wide range of epilepsy-related abnormalities and is situated in the mesial temporal lobe, where limbic seizures begin. These abnormalities could affect membrane excitability and lead to overstimulation of neurons. Multiple overlapping processes refer to neural homeostatic responses develop in neurons that work together to restore neuronal firing rates to control levels. Nevertheless, homeostatic mechanisms are unable to restore normal neuronal excitability, and the epileptic hippocampus becomes hyperexcitable or hypoexcitable...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#13
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030360/effect-of-natural-products-on-diabetes-associated-neurological-disorders
#14
Sita Sharan Patel, Malairaman Udayabanu
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is associated with neurological complications such as depression, anxiety, hypolocomotion, cognitive dysfunction, phobias, anorexia, stroke, pain, etc. Traditional system of medicine is long known for its efficient management of diabetes. The current review discusses the scope of some common medicinal herbs as well as secondary metabolites with a special focus on diabetes-mediated central nervous system complications. Literatures suggest that natural products reduce diabetes-mediated neurological complications partly by reducing oxidative stress and/or inflammation or apoptosis in certain brain regions...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085677/the-thalamus-as-a-relay-station-and-gatekeeper-relevance-to-brain-disorders
#15
Ahmed A Moustafa, Ryan D McMullan, Bjorn Rostron, Doaa H Hewedi, Harry H Haladjian
Here, we provide a review of behavioural, cognitive, and neural studies of the thalamus, including its role in attention, consciousness, sleep, and motor processes. We further discuss neuropsychological and brain disorders associated with thalamus function, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome, and sleep disorders. Importantly, we highlight how thalamus-related processes and disorders can be explained by the role of the thalamus as a relay station.
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030363/new-dimensions-of-connectomics-and-network-plasticity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Luigi F Agnati
Cellular network architecture plays a crucial role as the structural substrate for the brain functions. Therefore, it represents the main rationale for the emerging field of connectomics, defined as the comprehensive study of all aspects of central nervous system connectivity. Accordingly, in the present paper the main emphasis will be on the communication processes in the brain, namely wiring transmission (WT), i.e. the mapping of the communication channels made by cell components such as axons and synapses, and volume transmission (VT), i...
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030362/the-guilty-brain-the-utility-of-neuroimaging-and-neurostimulation-studies-in-forensic-field
#17
Francesca Mameli, Cristina Scarpazza, Emanuele Tomasini, Roberta Ferrucci, Fabiana Ruggiero, Giuseppe Sartori, Alberto Priori
Several studies have aimed to address the natural inability of humankind to detect deception and accurately discriminate lying from truth in the legal context. To date, it has been well established that telling a lie is a complex mental activity. During deception, many functions of higher cognition are involved: the decision to lie, withholding the truth, fabricating the lie, monitoring whether the receiver believes the lie, and, if necessary, adjusting the fabricated story and maintaining a consistent lie...
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030361/redox-sensitive-gfp-to-monitor-oxidative-stress-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Sonia Esposito, Alessandra Masala, Simona Sanna, Mauro Rassu, Viengsavanh Pimxayvong, Ciro Iaccarino, Claudia Crosio
Redox processes are key events in the degenerative cascade of many adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), but the biological relevance of a single redox change is often dependent on the redox couple involved and on its subcellular origin. The biosensors based on engineered fluorescent proteins (redox-sensitive GFP [roGFP]) offer a unique opportunity to monitor redox changes in both physiological and pathological contexts in living animals and plants. Here, we review the use of roGFPs to monitor oxidative stress in different three adult-onset NDs: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997355/role-of-abc-transporters-in-the-pathology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Yan Zhao, Deren Hou, Xialu Feng, Fangbo Lin, Jing Luo
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is a large family of proteins that transport specific molecules across membranes. These proteins are associated with both cholesterol metabolism and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cholesterol homeostasis has a key role in AD, and ABC transporters are important mediators of lipid transportation. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased expression and hypofunction of ABC transporters are crucial to the occurrence and development of AD. In the present article, we review the current knowledge regarding ABC transporters and speculate on their role in the pathogenesis of AD...
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997354/applications-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-children-and-pediatrics
#20
Guadalupe Nathzidy Rivera-Urbina, Michael A Nitsche, Carmelo M Vicario, Andrés Molero-Chamizo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory noninvasive brain stimulation tool with potential to increase or reduce regional and remote cortical excitability. Numerous studies have shown the ability of this technique to induce neuroplasticity and to modulate cognition and behavior in adults. Clinical studies have also demonstrated the ability of tDCS to induce therapeutic effects in several central nervous system disorders. However, knowledge about its ability to modulate brain functions in children or induce clinical improvements in pediatrics is limited...
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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