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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Md Golam Sharoar, Riqiang Yan
Reticulon 3 (RTN3), which is a member of the reticulon family of proteins, has a biochemical function of shaping tubular endoplasmic reticulum. RTN3 has also been found to interact with β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), which initiates the generation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) from amyloid precursor protein. Aβ is the major proteinaceous component in neuritic plaques, which constitute one of the major pathological features in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Mice deficient in or overexpressing RTN3 have altered amyloid deposition through effects on BACE1 expression and activity...
November 24, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Dauda Abdullahi, Azlina Ahmad Annuar, Masro Mohamad, Izzuddin Aziz, Junedah Sanusi
It has been shown that animal spinal cord compression (using methods such as clips, balloons, spinal cord strapping, or calibrated forceps) mimics the persistent spinal canal occlusion that is common in human spinal cord injury (SCI). These methods can be used to investigate the effects of compression or to know the optimal timing of decompression (as duration of compression can affect the outcome of pathology) in acute SCI. Compression models involve prolonged cord compression and are distinct from contusion models, which apply only transient force to inflict an acute injury to the spinal cord...
November 15, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Rui-Cheng Zhang, Ying-Feng Mu, Jing Dong, Xiao-Qian Lin, De-Qin Geng
Pituitary adenoma apoplexy is a well-known clinical syndrome induced by insulin infusion, cardiac surgery, trauma, and hypothalamic releasing factors. Pituitary apoplexy can cause secondary cerebral infarct and internal carotid artery occlusion. With blockade of tumor perfusion, apoplexy triggers a sudden onset of headache, visual impairment, cranial nerve palsy, disturbances of consciousness, eyelid ptosis, and hemiparesis. However, pituitary adenoma cells with high metabolic demand cannot survive with deficient blood supply and glucose concentrations...
October 29, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, Angel Ezquerra
Temperature maintenance and detection are essential for the survival and perpetuation of any species. This review is focused on thermosensation; thus a detailed and traced explanation of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of each component of this sensation is given. First, the proteins that react to temperature changes are identified; next, the nature of the neurons involved in thermosensation is described; and then, the pathways from the skin through the spinal cord to the brain are outlined...
October 18, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Gábor Kapócs, Felix Scholkmann, Vahid Salari, Noémi Császár, Henrik Szőke, István Bókkon
Today, there is an increased interest in research on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) because it may offer new opportunities in psychotherapy under controlled settings. The more we know about how a drug works in the brain, the more opportunities there will be to exploit it in medicine. Here, based on our previously published papers and investigations, we suggest that LSD-induced visual hallucinations/phosphenes may be due to the transient enhancement of bioluminescent photons in the early retinotopic visual system in blind as well as healthy people...
October 12, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Zahra Jafari, Bryan E Kolb, Majid H Mohajerani
Stress is an integral part of modern life. Although there is a large body of literature regarding the harmful effects of chronic stress on different aspects of human life, acute stress is the most common form of stress, resulting from the demands and pressures of the recent past and the anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. In spite of its pervasive nature, less attention has been paid to the impact of acute stress on sensory processing than to the consequences of chronic stress, particularly concerning auditory processing...
October 8, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Antonio Giuditta, Gigliola Grassi-Zucconi, Adolfo G Sadile
Sophisticated methods are currently used to investigate the properties of brain DNA and clarify its role under physiological conditions and in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Attention is now called on a DNA fraction present in the adult rat brain that is characterized by an elevated turnover and is not involved in cell division or DNA repair. The fraction, known as brain metabolic DNA (BMD), is modulated by strain, stress, circadian oscillations, exposure to enriched or impoverished environment, and notably by several training protocols and post-trial sleep...
September 26, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
You-Quan Ding, Wei-Ze Xie, Jian-Guo Qi
After peripheral nerve damage, injured or stressed primary sensory neurons (PSNs) transmitting pathological pain (pathopain) sensitize central nervous system (CNS) neural circuits and determine behavioral phenotypes of peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP). Therefore, phenotypic profiling of pathopain-transmitting PSNs is vital for probing and discovering PNP conditions. Following peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs), PNP might be potentially transmitted by distinct classes of damaged or stressed PSNs, such as axotomized PSNs without regeneration (axotomy-non-regenerative neurons), axotomized PSNs with accurate regeneration (axotomy-regenerative neurons), and spared intact PSNs adjacent to axotomized neurons (axotomy-spared neurons)...
September 24, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Golrokh Mirzaei, Hojjat Adeli
In recent years, there has been considerable research interest in the study of brain connectivity using the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Studies have explored the brain networks and connection between different brain regions. These studies have revealed interesting new findings about the brain mapping as well as important new insights in the overall organization of functional communication in the brain network. In this paper, after a general discussion of brain networks and connectivity imaging, the brain connectivity and resting state networks are described with a focus on rsfMRI imaging in stroke studies...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Nickolay K Isaev, Elena V Stelmashook, Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Galina A Korshunova, Natalya V Sumbatyan, Marina R Kapkaeva, Vladimir P Skulachev
In 2008, using a model of compression brain ischemia, we presented the first evidence that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of the SkQ family, i.e. SkQR1 [10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decylrhodamine], have a neuroprotective action. It was shown that intraperitoneal injections of SkQR1 (0.5-1 μmol/kg) 1 day before ischemia significantly decreased the damaged brain area. Later, we studied in more detail the anti-ischemic action of this antioxidant in a model of experimental focal ischemia provoked by unilateral intravascular occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Changzheng Zhang, Peiling Zhou, Tifei Yuan
The cerebellar cholinergic system belongs to the third type of afferent nerve fiber system (after the climbing and mossy fibers), and has important modulatory effects on cerebellar circuits and cerebellar-mediated functions. In this report, we review the cerebellar cholinergic system, including cholinergic origins and innervations, acetylcholine receptor expression and distributions, cholinergic modulations of neuronal firing and synaptic plasticity, the cholinergic role in cerebellar-mediated integral functions, and cholinergic changes during development and aging...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Golrokh Mirzaei, Anahita Adeli, Hojjat Adeli
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common health problem in elderly people. There has been considerable research toward the diagnosis and early detection of this disease in the past decade. The sensitivity of biomarkers and the accuracy of the detection techniques have been defined to be the key to an accurate diagnosis. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the research performed on the diagnosis of AD based on imaging and machine learning techniques. Different segmentation and machine learning techniques used for the diagnosis of AD are reviewed including thresholding, supervised and unsupervised learning, probabilistic techniques, Atlas-based approaches, and fusion of different image modalities...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Catherine Winsper, Steven Marwaha, Suzet Tanya Lereya, Andrew Thompson, Julie Eyden, Swaran P Singh
Contemporary theories for the aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) take a lifespan approach asserting that inborn biological predisposition is potentiated across development by environmental risk factors. In this review, we present and critically evaluate evidence on the neurobiology of BPD in childhood and adolescence, compare this evidence to the adult literature, and contextualise within a neurodevelopmental framework. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies examining the neurobiological (i...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Jian-Jiao Chen, Tao Wang, Cai-di An, Chun-Yan Jiang, Jie Zhao, Shao Li
In early- or late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), inflammation, which is triggered by pathologic conditions, influences the progression of neurodegeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a crucial mediator of neurogenesis, because it exhibits a remarkable activity-dependent regulation of expression, which suggests that it may link inflammation to neurogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that acute and chronic inflammation in AD differentially modulates neurotrophin functions, which are related to the roles of inflammation in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Siew Ying Wong, Bor Luen Tang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia in the aging population worldwide. SIRT1 deacetylation of histones and transcription factors impinge on multiple neuronal and non-neuronal targets, and modulates stress response, energy metabolism and cellular senescence/death pathways. Collectively, SIRT1 activity could potentially affect multiple aspects of hippocampal and cortical neuron function and survival, thus modifying disease onset and progression. In this review, the known and potential mechanisms of action of SIRT1 with regard to AD, and its potential as a therapeutic target, are discussed...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Sana Javed, Ameema Tariq, Touqeer Ahmed, Barbara Budzyńska, Silvia Tejada, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
The prevalence of mental diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders, is ever-increasing, while treatment options for such disorders are limited and insufficient. In this scarcity of available medication, it is a feasible strategy to search for potential drugs among natural compounds, such as those found in plants. One such plant source is the root of Chinese sage, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae), which contains several compounds reported to possess neuroprotective activities. The most important of these compounds are tanshinones, which have been reported to possess ameliorative activity against a myriad of mental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and glioma, along with promoting neuronal differentiation and manifesting antinociceptive and anticonvulsant outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Zhao Zhong Chong
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality and mobility, the novel therapeutic strategies of which are essentially required. The calcium binding protein S100B has emerged as a brain injury biomarker that is implicated in pathogenic process of SAH. S100B is mainly expressed in astrocytes of the central nervous system and functions through initiating intracellular signaling or via interacting with cell surface receptor, such as the receptor of advanced glycation end products. The biological roles of S100B in neurons have been closely associated with its concentrations, resulting in either neuroprotection or neurotoxicity...
October 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Nathanael James Yates
Schizophrenia has long been associated with abnormalities in circadian rhythms and sleep. Up until now, there have been no thorough reviews of the potential mechanisms behind the myriad of circadian and sleep abnormalities observed in schizophrenia and psychosis. We present evidence of sleep playing an important role in psychosis predominantly mediated by dopaminergic pathways. A synthesis of both human and animal experimental work suggests that the interplay between sleep and dopamine is important in the generation and maintenance of psychosis...
October 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Lan Huang, Fengyan Zhao, Yi Qu, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), a serious disease leading to neonatal death, is becoming a key area of pediatric neurological research. Despite remarkable advances in the understanding of HIE, the explicit pathogenesis of HIE is unclear, and well-established treatments are absent. Animal models are usually considered as the first step in the exploration of the underlying disease and in evaluating promising therapeutic interventions. Various animal models of HIE have been developed with distinct characteristics, and it is important to choose an appropriate animal model according to the experimental objectives...
August 25, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Linda L Agnew, Nicholas M Andronicos
Salivary cortisol may be used as a biomarker of stress and anxiety in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some suggestions have been made that the measurement of cortisol needs to be undertaken by repeated days' observations to ensure reliability of the data obtained. These requirements are discussed in regard to 14 studies of the test-retest agreement and stability in cortisol data across repeated daily measurements. Results of those studies almost universally fail to support the argument for repeated daily measurements of cortisol...
August 17, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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