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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822229/vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-initiation-under-normoxic-conditions-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-gliomas
#1
Alexandre Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is up-regulated in gliomas and involved in proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlates with malignancy. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which promotes glycolytic energy metabolism, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas HIF-1α is degraded by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase under normoxic conditions. We focus this review on the links between the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through HIF-1α under normoxic conditions in gliomas...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822228/computerized-neurocognitive-interventions-in-the-context-of-the-brain-training-controversy
#2
Rebeca Isabel García-Betances, María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María T Arredondo
This article presents, in the form of an analytic narrative review, a complete picture of the state-of-the-art, challenges, and perspectives in the field of information and communication technology (ICT)-based neurocognitive interventions for older adults. The narrative particularly focuses on applications aimed at mild cognitive impairment and similar age-related cognitive deficits, which are analyzed in the context of the brain training controversy. Clarifying considerations are provided about the nature and present extent of the brain training debate, regarding the possible influence it has on the support received by research and development initiatives dealing with innovative computerized neurocognitive interventions...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820738/the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-short-interval-intracortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Mana Biabani, Maryam Aminitehrani, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly being used to affect the neurological conditions with deficient intracortical synaptic activities (i.e. Parkinson's disease and epilepsy). In addition, it is suggested that the lasting effects of tDCS on corticospinal excitability (CSE) have intracortical origin. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether tDCS has any effect on intracortical circuits. Eleven electronic databases were searched for the studies investigating intracortical changes induced by anodal (a) and cathodal (c) tDCS, in healthy individuals, using two paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms: short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF)...
August 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792913/iron-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-being-in-the-wrong-place-at-the-wrong-time
#4
Sotirios Apostolakis, Anna-Maria Kypraiou
Brain iron deposits have been reported consistently in imaging and histologic examinations of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. While the origins of this finding have not been clarified yet, it is speculated that impaired iron homeostasis or deficient transport mechanisms result in the accumulation of this highly toxic metal ultimately leading to formation of reactive oxygen species and cell death. On the other hand, there are also those who support that iron is just an incidental finding, a by product of neuronal loss...
August 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787275/cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review-of-current-knowledge-and-recent-research
#5
Tomasz Grzegorski, Jacek Losy
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive disease of the central nervous system that is characterised by inflammatory damage to the myelin sheath. Though often neglected, cognitive impairment is a common feature of MS that affects 43-70% of patients. It has a sophisticated neuroanatomic and pathophysiologic background and disturbs such vital cognitive domains as speed of information processing, memory, attention, executive functions and visual perceptual functions. In recent years there has been growing interest in neuroimaging findings with regard to cognitive impairment in MS...
August 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779572/brain-extracellular-space-hyaluronan-and-the-prevention-of-epileptic-seizures
#6
Katherine L Perkins, Amaia M Arranz, Yu Yamaguchi, Sabina Hrabetova
Mutant mice deficient in hyaluronan (HA) have an epileptic phenotype. HA is one of the major constituents of the brain extracellular matrix. HA has a remarkable hydration capacity, and a lack of HA causes reduced extracellular space (ECS) volume in the brain. Reducing ECS volume can initiate or exacerbate epileptiform activity in many in vitro models of epilepsy. There is both in vitro and in vivo evidence of a positive feedback loop between reduced ECS volume and synchronous neuronal activity. Reduced ECS volume promotes epileptiform activity primarily via enhanced ephaptic interactions and increased extracellular potassium concentration; however, the epileptiform activity in many models, including the brain slices from HA synthase-3 knockout mice, may still require glutamate-mediated synaptic activity...
August 5, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704200/mild-cognitive-impairment-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-related-risk-factors-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Xiao-Ying Yuan, Xu-Gang Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic disease and has become a significant health problem. Many studies have raised concern about the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with T2DM and even the Alzheimer's disease patients with T2DM. The incidence of MCI is higher in individuals with T2DM than those without diabetes. Cognitive changes might affect everyday activities depending on the work and situation. Although the exact pathophysiology of MCI in T2DM is unclear, many studies suggest that the alterations in pathoglycemia, diabetic complications, related end products, and physical/psychological status are significant risk factors...
July 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704199/the-role-of-ubiquitin-proteasomal-system-and-autophagy-lysosome-pathway-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Yuan Zhang, Xu Chen, Yanfang Zhao, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Ying Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia in the elderly population. AD is associated with the buildup of β-amyloid and tau, which aggregate into extracellular plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although the exact mechanism of pathological process of AD is unclear, the dysfunction of protein degradation mechanisms has been proposed to play an important role in AD. The cellular degradation of abnormal or misfolded proteins consists of three different mechanisms: the ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS), autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP), and interaction of molecular chaperones with UPS or ALP...
July 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704198/alzheimer-s-disease-as-it-was-in-the-beginning
#9
REVIEW
Stanislav Kozlov, Alexei Afonin, Igor Evsyukov, Andrei Bondarenko
Since Alzheimer's disease was first described in 1907, many attempts have been made to reveal its main cause. Nowadays, two forms of the disease are known, and while the hereditary form of the disease is clearly caused by mutations in one of several genes, the etiology of the sporadic form remains a mystery. Both forms share similar sets of neuropathological and molecular manifestations, including extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta, intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, disturbances in both the structure and functions of mitochondria, oxidative stress, metal ion metabolism disorders, impairment of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-related signaling pathways, abnormalities of lipid metabolism, and aberrant cell cycle reentry in some neurons...
July 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688228/mast-cells-in-neuropathic-pain-an-increasing-spectrum-of-their-involvement-in-pathophysiology
#10
Gunjanpreet Kaur, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Mast cells are immunological cells that are diversely distributed in different parts of the body. Their role in various pathological conditions such as hypersensitivity, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and male infertility has been reported by different scientists. Apart from these, a number of studies have shown their important role in pathogenesis of neuropathic pain of diverse aetiology. They have been found to release active mediators, primarily histamine and serotonin on degranulation in response to different stimuli including chemical, nerve damage, toxin or disease-related conditions...
July 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665792/status-of-essential-elements-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Narges Ahangari, Kasra Hendi, Fatemeh Saleh, Nima Rezaei
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that imposes heavy financial burden on governments and families of affected children. It is considered a multifactorial condition, where trace elements are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. Meanwhile, the between-study variance is high. The present systematic review was designed to investigate the difference in trace element measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. Meta-analyses showed that the hair concentrations of chromium (p=0...
June 29, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586306/revisiting-nicotine-s-role-in-the-ageing-brain-and-cognitive-impairment
#12
Alireza Majdi, Farzin Kamari, Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Brain ageing is a complex process which in its pathologic form is associated with learning and memory dysfunction or cognitive impairment. During ageing, changes in cholinergic innervations and reduced acetylcholinergic tonus may trigger a series of molecular pathways participating in oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, amyloid-β toxicity, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and perturb neurotrophic factors in the brain. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acts as a pharmacological chaperone in the regulation of nAChR expression, potentially intervening in age-related changes in diverse molecular pathways leading to pathology...
June 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599400/the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-therapy-a-perspective-on-cell-biological-mechanisms
#13
Bor Luen Tang
Recent clinical trials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation have demonstrated procedural safety and clinical proof of principle with a modest indication of benefit in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While replacement therapy remained unrealistic, the clinical efficacy of this therapeutic option could be potentially enhanced if we could better decipher the mechanisms underlying some of the beneficial effects of transplanted cells, and work toward augmenting or combining these in a strategic manner...
May 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609296/neuroanatomical-pathways-underlying-the-effects-of-hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal-hormones-on-exploratory-activity
#14
Robert Lalonde, Catherine Strazielle
When injected via the intracerebroventricular route, corticosterone-releasing hormone (CRH) reduced exploration in the elevated plus-maze, the center region of the open-field, and the large chamber in the defensive withdrawal test. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the elevated plus-maze also occurred when infused in the basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal grey, and medial frontal cortex. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the defensive withdrawal test was reproduced when injected in the locus coeruleus, while the amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus contribute to center zone exploration in the open-field...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593904/on-the-data-stirring-role-of-the-dentate-gyrus-of-the-hippocampus
#15
REVIEW
Charles R Legéndy
Understanding hippocampal (HC) function, as it is presently known, includes exploring the HC role in episodic memory storage. As pointed out by Teyler and DiScenna in the 1980s, the apparatus needed for recalling a stored episode, and awakening all its components in a coordinated manner, by necessity includes a triggering device able to reach each of the mental entities that must be awakened. In the context of neuronal networks, the triggering device in question takes the form of a large cell assembly, a separate one made for every new episode stored...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593903/hippocampal-bdnf-in-physiological-conditions-and-social-isolation
#16
Ivan Zaletel, Dragana Filipović, Nela Puškaš
Exposure of an organism to chronic psychosocial stress may affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression that has been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Given that depression in humans has been linked with social stress, the chronic social stress paradigms for modeling psychiatric disorders in animals have thus been developed. Chronic social isolation in animal models generally causes changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, associated with anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422708/a-brief-essay-on-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Alberto Raggi, Domenica Tasca, Raffaele Ferri
Current pharmacological therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not modify its course and are not always beneficial. Therefore, the optimization of quality of life represents the best possible outcome achievable in all stages of the disease. Cognitive and behavioural rehabilitation represents the main therapeutic approach for this purpose, also in order to mitigate indirectly the burden of distress of family caregivers. The aim of this mini-review is to go through this theme by discussing cognitive activation, virtual reality and neuromodulation techniques...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343185/frameworking-memory-and-serotonergic-markers
#18
Alfredo Meneses
The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343184/regulatory-role-of-ngfs-in-neurocognitive-functions
#19
REVIEW
Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Pareek, Muneeb A Faiq, Pavan Kumar, Khursheed Raza, Pranav Prasoon, Subrahamanyam Dantham, Sankat Mochan
Nerve growth factors (NGFs), especially the prototype NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have a diverse array of functions in the central nervous system through their peculiar set of receptors and intricate signaling. They are implicated not only in the development of the nervous system but also in regulation of neurocognitive functions like learning, memory, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Evidence even suggests their role in continued neurogenesis and experience-dependent neural network remodeling in adult brain...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343168/potential-skin-involvement-in-als-revisiting-charcot-s-observation-a-review-of-skin-abnormalities-in-als
#20
Bastien Paré, François Gros-Louis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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