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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959887/mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-and-aerobic-exercise-for-parkinson-s-disease-therapeutic-assets-beyond-the-motor-domain
#1
Jenny Berrío Sánchez, Jaison Cucarian Hurtado, Ramiro Barcos Nunes, Alcyr Alves de Oliveira
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a very common neurodegenerative condition in which both motor and nonmotor deficits evolve throughout the course of the disease. Normally characterized as a movement disorder, PD has been broadly studied from a motor perspective. However, mild to moderate cognitive deficits began to appear in the early phases of the disease, even before motor disturbances actually manifest, and continue to progress relentlessly. These nonmotor manifestations are also a source of detriment to the patients' already strained functionality and quality of life, and pose a therapeutic challenge seeing that replacing therapies have had conflicting results...
June 30, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902157/therapeutic-potential-of-jak-stat-pathway-modulation-in-mood-disorders
#2
Aisha S Shariq, Elisa Brietzke, Joshua D Rosenblat, Zihang Pan, Carola Rong, Renee-Marie Ragguett, Caroline Park, Roger S McIntyre
Convergent evidence demonstrates that immune dysfunction (e.g. chronic low-grade inflammatory activation) plays an important role in the development and progression of mood disorders. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is a pleiotropic cellular cascade that transduces numerous signals, including signals from the release of cytokines and growth factors. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway is involved in mediating several functions of the central nervous system, including neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, gliogenesis, and microglial activation, all of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
June 14, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883325/multiple-sclerosis-pathogenesis-missing-pieces-of-an-old-puzzle
#3
Reza Rahmanzadeh, Wolfgang Brück, Alireza Minagar, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) was considered to be a CD4 T cell-mediated CNS autoimmunity, compatible with experimental autoimmune encephalitis model, which can be characterized by focal lesions in the white matter. However, studies of recent decades revealed several missing pieces of MS puzzle and showed that MS pathogenesis is more complex than the traditional view and may include the following: a primary degenerative process (e.g. oligodendroglial pathology), generalized abnormality of normal-appearing brain tissue, pronounced gray matter pathology, involvement of innate immunity, and CD8 T cells and B cells...
June 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858910/a-review-on-future-episodic-thinking-in-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#4
Ahmed A Moustafa, Alejandro N Morris, Mohamad ElHaj
Future episodic thinking refers to the ability to imagine oneself in the future and project oneself into specific future events. This cognitive process is related to decision making and planning for the future. Although healthy populations commonly project themselves into the future (e.g. while planning a trip or career), patients with mood disorders show impairment in this ability. In this review article, we discuss the similarities and differences in future thinking among the following populations: major depressive disorder, dysphoria, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
June 2, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804103/role-of-p38-mapks-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-amyloid-beta-toxicity-targeted-therapy
#5
Ghazaleh Kheiri, Mahsa Dolatshahi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
A myriad of environmental and genetic factors, as well as the physiologic process of aging, contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Neuroinflammation is and has been a focus of interest, as a common gateway for initiation of many of the underlying pathologies of AD. Amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity, increasing RAGE expression, tau hyperphosphorylation, induction of apoptosis, and deregulated autophagy are among other mechanisms, partly entangled and being explained by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK signaling...
May 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794254/cannabidiol-effects-on-prepulse-inhibition-in-nonhuman-primates
#6
Patricia G Saletti, Carlos Tomaz
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex is a well-established behavior paradigm to measure sensorimotor gating deficits. PPI is disrupted in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. PPI tests can be used to screen new drugs for treatment of such disorders. In this review, we discuss how PPI paradigm can help in screening the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol (CBD). We look into recent literature about CBD effects on PPI response in animal models, especially in nonhuman primates...
May 24, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791316/roles-of-the-exon-junction-complex-components-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-mini-review
#7
Katarzyna Bartkowska, Beata Tepper, Kris Turlejski, Ruzanna L Djavadian
The exon junction complex (EJC) consists of four core proteins: Magoh, RNA-binding motif 8A (Rbm8a, also known as Y14), eukaryotic initiation factor 4A3 (eIF4A3, also known as DDX48), and metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51, also known as Casc3 or Barentsz), which are involved in the regulation of many processes occurring between gene transcription and protein translation. Its main role is to assemble into spliceosomes at the exon-exon junction of mRNA during splicing. It is, therefore, a range of functions concerning post-splicing events such as mRNA translocation, translation, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)...
May 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768251/balo-s-concentric-sclerosis-an-update-and-comprehensive-literature-review
#8
Ali Amini Harandi, Akram Esfandani, Hossein Pakdaman, Mehdi Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
Balo's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is considered a variant of multiple sclerosis characterized by concentric lamella of alternating demyelinated and partially myelinated tissues. It is a rare and a relatively acute condition. Attacks may proceed rapidly over weeks or months, typically without remission, like Marburg's variant, resulting in death or severe disability. However, the majority of cases have a more benign, self-limiting course with spontaneous remission. Magnetic resonance imaging is a primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of BCS...
May 16, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768250/metabolic-regulation-of-synaptic-activity
#9
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem
Brain tissue is bioenergetically expensive. In humans, it composes approximately 2% of body weight and accounts for approximately 20% of calorie consumption. The brain consumes energy mostly for ion and neurotransmitter transport, a process that occurs primarily in synapses. Therefore, synapses are expensive for any living creature who has brain. In many brain diseases, synapses are damaged earlier than neurons start dying. Synapses may be considered as vulnerable sites on a neuron. Ischemic stroke, an acute disturbance of blood flow in the brain, is an example of a metabolic disease that affects synapses...
May 16, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750658/when-your-face-describes-your-memories-facial-expressions-during-retrieval-of-autobiographical-memories
#10
Mohamad El Haj, Mohamed Daoudi, Karim Gallouj, Ahmed A Moustafa, Jean-Louis Nandrino
Thanks to the current advances in the software analysis of facial expressions, there is a burgeoning interest in understanding emotional facial expressions observed during the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This review describes the research on facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval showing distinct emotional facial expressions according to the characteristics of retrieved memoires. More specifically, this research demonstrates that the retrieval of emotional memories can trigger corresponding emotional facial expressions (e...
May 11, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750657/circulating-microparticles-in-patients-after-ischemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Botao Wang, Wang Cai, Zhen Zhang, Hui Zhang, Ke Tang, Qi Zhang, Ximo Wang
Microparticles (MPs), a class of cell products with biological activities, have been found to participate in a series of vascular activities. The aim of this article is to investigate the changes in the concentrations of MPs after ischemic stroke by meta-analysis. According to pre-established criteria, a strict screening of articles was performed through the Medline and Embase databases. Subsequently, the included studies were subjected to quality assessment and data extraction. Finally, a meta-analysis was performed on seven major outcomes from 985 noncerebrovascular disease controls and 988 ischemic stroke patients...
May 11, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729150/cd200-cx3cl1-and-trem2-mediated-neuron-microglia-interactions-and-their-involvements-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Lihang Zhang, Juan Xu, Jinchao Gao, Yuncheng Wu, Ming Yin, Wenjuan Zhao
Neurons and microglia are two major components in the central nervous system (CNS). The interactions between them play important roles in maintaining homeostasis of the brain. In recent years, substantial studies have focused on the interactions between neurons and microglia, revealing that microglia become reactive when the interactions are pathophysiologically interfered, usually accompanying neuronal injury, which is a common feature for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many molecules and factors participate in these physiological and pathological processes, either in a contact-dependent or a contact-independent manner...
May 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727300/rab23-and-developmental-disorders
#13
Catherine H H Hor, Bor Luen Tang, Eyleen L K Goh
Rab23 is a conserved member of the Rab family of small GTPases that regulates membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. It is unique amongst the Rabs in terms of its implicated role in mammalian development, as originally illustrated by the embryonic lethality and open neural tube phenotype of a spontaneous mouse mutant that carries homozygous mutation of open brain, a gene encoding Rab23. Rab23 was initially identified to act as an antagonist of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, and has since been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological roles, including oncogenesis...
May 4, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329108/cracking-novel-shared-targets-between-epilepsy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-need-of-the-hour
#14
Nitika Garg, Rupa Joshi, Bikash Medhi
Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are interconnected. It is well known that seizures are linked with cognitive impairment, and there are various shared etiologies between epilepsy and AD. The connection between hyperexcitability of neurons and cognitive dysfunction in the progression of AD or epileptogenesis plays a vital role for improving selection of treatment for both diseases. Traditionally, seizures occur less frequently and in later stages of age in patients with AD which in turn implies that neurodegeneration causes seizures...
June 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320366/therapeutic-efficacy-of-specific-immunotherapy-for-glioma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Sara Hanaei, Khashayar Afshari, Armin Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Bahram Mohajer, Delara Amir Dastmalchi, Nima Rezaei
Although different immunotherapeutic approaches have been developed for the treatment of glioma, there is a discrepancy between clinical trials limiting their approval as common treatment. So, the current systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess survival and clinical response of specific immunotherapy in patients with glioma. Generally, seven databases were searched to find eligible studies. Controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy of specific immunotherapy in glioma were found eligible...
June 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303785/mechanisms-of-disordered-neurodegenerative-function-concepts-and-facts-about-the-different-roles-of-the-protein-kinase-rna-like-endoplasmic-reticulum-kinase-perk
#16
Yasmeen M Taalab, Nour Ibrahim, Ahmed Maher, Mubashir Hassan, Wael Mohamed, Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohamed Salama, Dina Johar, Larry Bernstein
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, are a dissimilar group of disorders that share a hallmark feature of accumulation of abnormal intraneuronal or extraneuronal misfolded/unfolded protein and are classified as protein misfolding disorders. Cellular and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates multiple signaling cascades of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Consequently, translational and transcriptional alterations in target gene expression occur in response directed toward restoring the ER capacity of proteostasis and reestablishing the cellular homeostasis...
June 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252202/neuroanatomy-of-conversion-disorder-towards-a-network-approach
#17
Ismael Conejero, Eric Thouvenot, Mocrane Abbar, Stéphane Mouchabac, Philippe Courtet, Emilie Olié
The pathophysiology of conversion disorder is not well understood, although studies using functional brain imaging in patients with motor and sensory symptoms are progressively increasing. We conducted a systematic review of the literature with the aim of summarising the available data on the neuroanatomical features of this disorder. We also propose a general model of the neurobiological disturbance in motor conversion disorder. We systematically searched articles in Medline using the Medical Subject Headings terms '(conversion disorder or hysterical motor disorder) and (neuropsychology or cognition) or (functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography or neuroimaging) or (genetics or polymorphisms or epigenetics) or (biomarkers or biology)', following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
June 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232196/mechanisms-of-action-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-septic-encephalopathy
#18
Figen Esen, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Erdem Tuzun, M Dustin Boone
Acute brain dysfunction associated with sepsis is a serious complication that results in morbidity and mortality. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. Our results suggest that IVIgG and IgGAM administration ameliorates neuronal dysfunction and behavioral deficits by reducing apoptotic cell death and glial cell proliferation...
June 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232195/crossover-design-in-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-studies-on-motor-learning-potential-pitfalls-and-difficulties-in-interpretation-of-findings
#19
Mana Biabani, Michael Farrell, Maryam Zoghi, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Crossover designs are used by a high proportion of studies investigating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning. These designs necessitate attention to aspects of data collection and analysis to take account of design-related confounds including order, carryover, and period effects. In this systematic review, we appraised the method sections of crossover-designed tDCS studies of motor learning and discussed the strategies adopted to address these factors. A systematic search of 10 databases was performed and 19 research papers, including 21 experimental studies, were identified...
June 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222936/role-of-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-nociception-and-their-possible-interactions-suggested-hypotheses
#20
Mohammed Gamal-Eltrabily, Alfredo Manzano-García
Central oxytocin and dopamine have an important role in the process of nociception at the spinal level as well as supraspinal structures, e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. Many studies have pointed out the importance of both systems in the pain descending modulatory system and in pain-related symptoms in some chronic disorders, e.g. Parkinson disease and fibromyalgia. The interaction between oxytocin and dopamine systems has been addressed in some motivational behaviors, e...
June 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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