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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Ahmed A Moustafa, Ryan D McMullan, Bjorn Rostron, Doaa H Hewedi, Harry H Haladjian
Here, we provide a review of behavioural, cognitive, and neural studies of the thalamus, including its role in attention, consciousness, sleep, and motor processes. We further discuss neuropsychological and brain disorders associated with thalamus function, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome, and sleep disorders. Importantly, we highlight how thalamus-related processes and disorders can be explained by the role of the thalamus as a relay station.
January 13, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli, Guido Maura, Luigi F Agnati
Cellular network architecture plays a crucial role as the structural substrate for the brain functions. Therefore, it represents the main rationale for the emerging field of connectomics, defined as the comprehensive study of all aspects of central nervous system connectivity. Accordingly, in the present paper the main emphasis will be on the communication processes in the brain, namely wiring transmission (WT), i.e. the mapping of the communication channels made by cell components such as axons and synapses, and volume transmission (VT), i...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Francesca Mameli, Cristina Scarpazza, Emanuele Tomasini, Roberta Ferrucci, Fabiana Ruggiero, Giuseppe Sartori, Alberto Priori
Several studies have aimed to address the natural inability of humankind to detect deception and accurately discriminate lying from truth in the legal context. To date, it has been well established that telling a lie is a complex mental activity. During deception, many functions of higher cognition are involved: the decision to lie, withholding the truth, fabricating the lie, monitoring whether the receiver believes the lie, and, if necessary, adjusting the fabricated story and maintaining a consistent lie...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Sonia Esposito, Alessandra Masala, Simona Sanna, Mauro Rassu, Viengsavanh Pimxayvong, Ciro Iaccarino, Claudia Crosio
Redox processes are key events in the degenerative cascade of many adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), but the biological relevance of a single redox change is often dependent on the redox couple involved and on its subcellular origin. The biosensors based on engineered fluorescent proteins (redox-sensitive GFP [roGFP]) offer a unique opportunity to monitor redox changes in both physiological and pathological contexts in living animals and plants. Here, we review the use of roGFPs to monitor oxidative stress in different three adult-onset NDs: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Sita Sharan Patel, Malairaman Udayabanu
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is associated with neurological complications such as depression, anxiety, hypolocomotion, cognitive dysfunction, phobias, anorexia, stroke, pain, etc. Traditional system of medicine is long known for its efficient management of diabetes. The current review discusses the scope of some common medicinal herbs as well as secondary metabolites with a special focus on diabetes-mediated central nervous system complications. Literatures suggest that natural products reduce diabetes-mediated neurological complications partly by reducing oxidative stress and/or inflammation or apoptosis in certain brain regions...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Yan Zhao, Deren Hou, Xialu Feng, Fangbo Lin, Jing Luo
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is a large family of proteins that transport specific molecules across membranes. These proteins are associated with both cholesterol metabolism and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cholesterol homeostasis has a key role in AD, and ABC transporters are important mediators of lipid transportation. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased expression and hypofunction of ABC transporters are crucial to the occurrence and development of AD. In the present article, we review the current knowledge regarding ABC transporters and speculate on their role in the pathogenesis of AD...
December 20, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Guadalupe Nathzidy Rivera-Urbina, Michael A Nitsche, Carmelo M Vicario, Andrés Molero-Chamizo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory noninvasive brain stimulation tool with potential to increase or reduce regional and remote cortical excitability. Numerous studies have shown the ability of this technique to induce neuroplasticity and to modulate cognition and behavior in adults. Clinical studies have also demonstrated the ability of tDCS to induce therapeutic effects in several central nervous system disorders. However, knowledge about its ability to modulate brain functions in children or induce clinical improvements in pediatrics is limited...
December 20, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Seyed Amir Miratashi Yazdi, Mehdi Abbasi, Seyed Masoud Miratashi Yazdi
Vitamin D has been considered as neurosteroid, and its pivotal role in neuroprotection, brain development, and immunomodulation has been noticed in studies; however, our knowledge regarding its role in neurological disorders is still developing. The potential role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology and treatment of epilepsy, as one the most prevalent neurological disorders, has received less attention in recent years. In this article, we review the possible relationship between vitamin D and epilepsy from different aspects, including the action mechanism of vitamin D in the central nervous system and ecological and epidemiological findings...
December 19, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Md Golam Sharoar, Riqiang Yan
Reticulon 3 (RTN3), which is a member of the reticulon family of proteins, has a biochemical function of shaping tubular endoplasmic reticulum. RTN3 has also been found to interact with β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), which initiates the generation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) from amyloid precursor protein. Aβ is the major proteinaceous component in neuritic plaques, which constitute one of the major pathological features in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Mice deficient in or overexpressing RTN3 have altered amyloid deposition through effects on BACE1 expression and activity...
November 24, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Peng Zhang, Christian Hölscher, Xun Ma
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic event that can profoundly affect a patient's life, with far-reaching social and economic effects. A consequential sequence of SCI is the significant neurological or psychological deficit, which obviously contributes to the overall burden of this condition. To date, there is no effective treatment for SCI. Therefore, developing novel therapeutic strategies for SCI is highly prioritized. Flavonoids, one of the most numerous and ubiquitous groups of plant metabolites, are the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine such as Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin) or Ginkgo biloba (Ying Xin)...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Dauda Abdullahi, Azlina Ahmad Annuar, Masro Mohamad, Izzuddin Aziz, Junedah Sanusi
It has been shown that animal spinal cord compression (using methods such as clips, balloons, spinal cord strapping, or calibrated forceps) mimics the persistent spinal canal occlusion that is common in human spinal cord injury (SCI). These methods can be used to investigate the effects of compression or to know the optimal timing of decompression (as duration of compression can affect the outcome of pathology) in acute SCI. Compression models involve prolonged cord compression and are distinct from contusion models, which apply only transient force to inflict an acute injury to the spinal cord...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Rui-Cheng Zhang, Ying-Feng Mu, Jing Dong, Xiao-Qian Lin, De-Qin Geng
Pituitary adenoma apoplexy is a well-known clinical syndrome induced by insulin infusion, cardiac surgery, trauma, and hypothalamic releasing factors. Pituitary apoplexy can cause secondary cerebral infarct and internal carotid artery occlusion. With blockade of tumor perfusion, apoplexy triggers a sudden onset of headache, visual impairment, cranial nerve palsy, disturbances of consciousness, eyelid ptosis, and hemiparesis. However, pituitary adenoma cells with high metabolic demand cannot survive with deficient blood supply and glucose concentrations...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, Angel Ezquerra
Temperature maintenance and detection are essential for the survival and perpetuation of any species. This review is focused on thermosensation; thus a detailed and traced explanation of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of each component of this sensation is given. First, the proteins that react to temperature changes are identified; next, the nature of the neurons involved in thermosensation is described; and then, the pathways from the skin through the spinal cord to the brain are outlined...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Gábor Kapócs, Felix Scholkmann, Vahid Salari, Noémi Császár, Henrik Szőke, István Bókkon
Today, there is an increased interest in research on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) because it may offer new opportunities in psychotherapy under controlled settings. The more we know about how a drug works in the brain, the more opportunities there will be to exploit it in medicine. Here, based on our previously published papers and investigations, we suggest that LSD-induced visual hallucinations/phosphenes may be due to the transient enhancement of bioluminescent photons in the early retinotopic visual system in blind as well as healthy people...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Zahra Jafari, Bryan E Kolb, Majid H Mohajerani
Stress is an integral part of modern life. Although there is a large body of literature regarding the harmful effects of chronic stress on different aspects of human life, acute stress is the most common form of stress, resulting from the demands and pressures of the recent past and the anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. In spite of its pervasive nature, less attention has been paid to the impact of acute stress on sensory processing than to the consequences of chronic stress, particularly concerning auditory processing...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Antonio Giuditta, Gigliola Grassi-Zucconi, Adolfo G Sadile
Sophisticated methods are currently used to investigate the properties of brain DNA and clarify its role under physiological conditions and in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Attention is now called on a DNA fraction present in the adult rat brain that is characterized by an elevated turnover and is not involved in cell division or DNA repair. The fraction, known as brain metabolic DNA (BMD), is modulated by strain, stress, circadian oscillations, exposure to enriched or impoverished environment, and notably by several training protocols and post-trial sleep...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
You-Quan Ding, Wei-Ze Xie, Jian-Guo Qi
After peripheral nerve damage, injured or stressed primary sensory neurons (PSNs) transmitting pathological pain (pathopain) sensitize central nervous system (CNS) neural circuits and determine behavioral phenotypes of peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP). Therefore, phenotypic profiling of pathopain-transmitting PSNs is vital for probing and discovering PNP conditions. Following peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs), PNP might be potentially transmitted by distinct classes of damaged or stressed PSNs, such as axotomized PSNs without regeneration (axotomy-non-regenerative neurons), axotomized PSNs with accurate regeneration (axotomy-regenerative neurons), and spared intact PSNs adjacent to axotomized neurons (axotomy-spared neurons)...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Lan Huang, Fengyan Zhao, Yi Qu, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), a serious disease leading to neonatal death, is becoming a key area of pediatric neurological research. Despite remarkable advances in the understanding of HIE, the explicit pathogenesis of HIE is unclear, and well-established treatments are absent. Animal models are usually considered as the first step in the exploration of the underlying disease and in evaluating promising therapeutic interventions. Various animal models of HIE have been developed with distinct characteristics, and it is important to choose an appropriate animal model according to the experimental objectives...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Linda L Agnew, Nicholas M Andronicos
Salivary cortisol may be used as a biomarker of stress and anxiety in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some suggestions have been made that the measurement of cortisol needs to be undertaken by repeated days' observations to ensure reliability of the data obtained. These requirements are discussed in regard to 14 studies of the test-retest agreement and stability in cortisol data across repeated daily measurements. Results of those studies almost universally fail to support the argument for repeated daily measurements of cortisol...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Golrokh Mirzaei, Hojjat Adeli
In recent years, there has been considerable research interest in the study of brain connectivity using the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Studies have explored the brain networks and connection between different brain regions. These studies have revealed interesting new findings about the brain mapping as well as important new insights in the overall organization of functional communication in the brain network. In this paper, after a general discussion of brain networks and connectivity imaging, the brain connectivity and resting state networks are described with a focus on rsfMRI imaging in stroke studies...
December 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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