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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609296/neuroanatomical-pathways-underlying-the-effects-of-hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal-hormones-on-exploratory-activity
#1
Robert Lalonde, Catherine Strazielle
When injected via the intracerebroventricular route, corticosterone-releasing hormone (CRH) reduced exploration in the elevated plus-maze, the center region of the open-field, and the large chamber in the defensive withdrawal test. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the elevated plus-maze also occurred when infused in the basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal grey, and medial frontal cortex. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the defensive withdrawal test was reproduced when injected in the locus coeruleus, while the amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus contribute to center zone exploration in the open-field...
June 13, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586306/revisiting-nicotine-s-role-in-the-ageing-brain-and-cognitive-impairment
#2
Alireza Majdi, Farzin Kamari, Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Brain ageing is a complex process which in its pathologic form is associated with learning and memory dysfunction or cognitive impairment. During ageing, changes in cholinergic innervations and reduced acetylcholinergic tonus may trigger a series of molecular pathways participating in oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, amyloid-β toxicity, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and perturb neurotrophic factors in the brain. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acts as a pharmacological chaperone in the regulation of nAChR expression, potentially intervening in age-related changes in diverse molecular pathways leading to pathology...
June 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599400/the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-therapy-a-perspective-on-cell-biological-mechanisms
#3
Bor Luen Tang
Recent clinical trials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation have demonstrated procedural safety and clinical proof of principle with a modest indication of benefit in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While replacement therapy remained unrealistic, the clinical efficacy of this therapeutic option could be potentially enhanced if we could better decipher the mechanisms underlying some of the beneficial effects of transplanted cells, and work toward augmenting or combining these in a strategic manner...
May 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599399/pulsed-magnetic-field-treatment-as-antineuropathic-pain-therapy
#4
Tufan Mert
No satisfactory effective therapy is still available to treat trauma- or disease-induced neuropathic pain, and current available treatment options have several side effects. Pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatments are receiving growing interest as a therapeutic approach for several neuronal diseases. Although the exact mechanism of action of PMF treatments is unknown, reported findings represent a promising alternative therapeutic choice for the management of neuropathic pain. PMF treatments can supply new strategies for the therapy of life-threatening neuropathic pain due to its antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic, antiallodynic, and neuroimmunomodulatory actions...
May 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498796/interactions-between-cannabis-and-schizophrenia-in-humans-and-rodents
#5
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohamed Salama, Roseanne Peak, Richard Tindle, Amir Salem, Szabolcs Keri, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Wael Mohamed
In this review, we provide an overview of the relationship between cannabis use and the development of schizophrenia, using both animal and human studies. We further discuss the potential neural mechanism that may mediate the relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia symptoms. We finally provide clinical implications and future studies that can further elucidate the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia.
May 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593878/microbiota-abnormalities-and-the-therapeutic-potential-of-probiotics-in-the-treatment-of-mood-disorders
#6
Adiel C Rios, Pawan Kumar Maurya, Mariana Pedrini, Maiara Zeni-Graiff, Elson Asevedo, Rodrigo B Mansur, Andrea Wieck, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Roger S McIntyre, Mirian A F Hayashi, Elisa Brietzke
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are among the leading causes of burden and disability worldwide. Despite intensified research efforts to improve the treatment options and remission rates in mood disorders, no disease modifying treatment exists for these disorders. Accumulating evidence implicates the involvement of the gut microbiota in processes relevant to etiopathology of central nervous system-based disorders. The objective of this article was to critically evaluate the evidence supporting the link between gastrointestinal microbiota and mood disorders and to discuss the potential benefits of using probiotics in the treatment of MDD and BD...
May 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422708/a-brief-essay-on-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Alberto Raggi, Domenica Tasca, Raffaele Ferri
Current pharmacological therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not modify its course and are not always beneficial. Therefore, the optimization of quality of life represents the best possible outcome achievable in all stages of the disease. Cognitive and behavioural rehabilitation represents the main therapeutic approach for this purpose, also in order to mitigate indirectly the burden of distress of family caregivers. The aim of this mini-review is to go through this theme by discussing cognitive activation, virtual reality and neuromodulation techniques...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422707/factors-underlying-cognitive-decline-in-old-age-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-the-hippocampus
#8
Wafa Jaroudi, Julia Garami, Sandra Garrido, Michael Hornberger, Szabolcs Keri, Ahmed A Moustafa
There are many factors that strongly influence the aetiology, development, and progression of cognitive decline in old age, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These factors include not only different personality traits and moods but also lifestyle patterns (e.g. exercise and diet) and awareness levels that lead to cognitive decline in old age. In this review, we discuss how personality traits, mood states, and lifestyle impact brain and behaviour in older adults. Specifically, our review shows that these lifestyle and personality factors affect several brain regions, including the hippocampus, a region key for memory that is affected by cognitive decline in old age as well as AD...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422706/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-an-important-target-associated-with-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise
#9
Lina Sun, Qingshan Sun, Jinshun Qi
Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593904/on-the-data-stirring-role-of-the-dentate-gyrus-of-the-hippocampus
#10
REVIEW
Charles R Legéndy
Understanding hippocampal (HC) function, as it is presently known, includes exploring the HC role in episodic memory storage. As pointed out by Teyler and DiScenna in the 1980s, the apparatus needed for recalling a stored episode, and awakening all its components in a coordinated manner, by necessity includes a triggering device able to reach each of the mental entities that must be awakened. In the context of neuronal networks, the triggering device in question takes the form of a large cell assembly, a separate one made for every new episode stored...
April 7, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593903/hippocampal-bdnf-in-physiological-conditions-and-social-isolation
#11
Ivan Zaletel, Dragana Filipović, Nela Puškaš
Exposure of an organism to chronic psychosocial stress may affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression that has been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Given that depression in humans has been linked with social stress, the chronic social stress paradigms for modeling psychiatric disorders in animals have thus been developed. Chronic social isolation in animal models generally causes changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, associated with anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
April 7, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343185/frameworking-memory-and-serotonergic-markers
#12
Alfredo Meneses
The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343184/regulatory-role-of-ngfs-in-neurocognitive-functions
#13
Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Pareek, Muneeb A Faiq, Pavan Kumar, Khursheed Raza, Pranav Prasoon, Subrahamanyam Dantham, Sankat Mochan
Nerve growth factors (NGFs), especially the prototype NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have a diverse array of functions in the central nervous system through their peculiar set of receptors and intricate signaling. They are implicated not only in the development of the nervous system but also in regulation of neurocognitive functions like learning, memory, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Evidence even suggests their role in continued neurogenesis and experience-dependent neural network remodeling in adult brain...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343168/potential-skin-involvement-in-als-revisiting-charcot-s-observation-a-review-of-skin-abnormalities-in-als
#14
Bastien Paré, François Gros-Louis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343167/the-unappreciated-roles-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-cck-1-in-brain-functioning
#15
Santiago Ballaz
The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475100/defensive-reflexes-in-people-with-pain-a-biomarker-of-the-need-to-protect-a-meta-analytical-systematic-review
#16
Sarah B Wallwork, Luzia Grabherr, Neil E O'Connell, Mark J Catley, G Lorimer Moseley
Upregulation of defensive reflexes such as the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) has been attributed to sensitisation of peripheral and spinal nociceptors and is often considered biomarkers of pain. Experimental modulation of defensive reflexes raises the possibility that they might be better conceptualised as markers of descending cognitive control. Despite strongly held views on both sides and several narrative reviews, there has been no attempt to evaluate the evidence in a systematic manner. We undertook a meta-analytical systematic review of the extant English-language literature from inception...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#17
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231069/the-potential-of-transcranial-photobiomodulation-therapy-for-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Farzad Salehpour, Seyed Hossein Rasta
Major depressive disorder is a common debilitating mood disorder that affects quality of life. Prefrontal cortex abnormalities, an imbalance in neurotransmitters, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. Despite the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder, 30%-40% of patients do not respond to antidepressants. Given this, exploring the alternative therapies for treatment or prevention of major depressive disorder has aroused interest among scientists...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195557/biogenetic-and-morphofunctional-heterogeneity-of-mitochondria-the-case-of-synaptic-mitochondria
#19
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem, Ludmila V Puchkova
The mitochondria of different cells are different in their morphological and biochemical properties. These organelles generate free radicals during activity, leading inevitably to mitochondrial DNA damage. It is not clear how this problem is addressed in long-lived cells, such as neurons. We propose the hypothesis that mitochondria within the same cell also differ in lifespan and ability to divide. According to our suggestion, cells have a pool of 'stem' mitochondria with low metabolic activity and a pool of 'differentiated' mitochondria with significantly shorter lifespans and high metabolic activity...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195556/how-neuroscience-can-inform-the-study-of-individual-differences-in-cognitive-abilities
#20
Dennis J McFarland
Theories of human mental abilities should be consistent with what is known in neuroscience. Currently, tests of human mental abilities are modeled by cognitive constructs such as attention, working memory, and speed of information processing. These constructs are in turn related to a single general ability. However, brains are very complex systems and whether most of the variability between the operations of different brains can be ascribed to a single factor is questionable. Research in neuroscience suggests that psychological processes such as perception, attention, decision, and executive control are emergent properties of interacting distributed networks...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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