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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768251/balo-s-concentric-sclerosis-an-update-and-comprehensive-literature-review
#1
Ali Amini Harandi, Akram Esfandani, Hossein Pakdaman, Mehdi Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
Balo's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is considered a variant of multiple sclerosis characterized by concentric lamella of alternating demyelinated and partially myelinated tissues. It is a rare and a relatively acute condition. Attacks may proceed rapidly over weeks or months, typically without remission, like Marburg's variant, resulting in death or severe disability. However, the majority of cases have a more benign, self-limiting course with spontaneous remission. Magnetic resonance imaging is a primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of BCS...
May 16, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768250/metabolic-regulation-of-synaptic-activity
#2
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem
Brain tissue is bioenergetically expensive. In humans, it composes approximately 2% of body weight and accounts for approximately 20% of calorie consumption. The brain consumes energy mostly for ion and neurotransmitter transport, a process that occurs primarily in synapses. Therefore, synapses are expensive for any living creature who has brain. In many brain diseases, synapses are damaged earlier than neurons start dying. Synapses may be considered as vulnerable sites on a neuron. Ischemic stroke, an acute disturbance of blood flow in the brain, is an example of a metabolic disease that affects synapses...
May 16, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750658/when-your-face-describes-your-memories-facial-expressions-during-retrieval-of-autobiographical-memories
#3
Mohamad El Haj, Mohamed Daoudi, Karim Gallouj, Ahmed A Moustafa, Jean-Louis Nandrino
Thanks to the current advances in the software analysis of facial expressions, there is a burgeoning interest in understanding emotional facial expressions observed during the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This review describes the research on facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval showing distinct emotional facial expressions according to the characteristics of retrieved memoires. More specifically, this research demonstrates that the retrieval of emotional memories can trigger corresponding emotional facial expressions (e...
May 11, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750657/circulating-microparticles-in-patients-after-ischemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Botao Wang, Wang Cai, Zhen Zhang, Hui Zhang, Ke Tang, Qi Zhang, Ximo Wang
Microparticles (MPs), a class of cell products with biological activities, have been found to participate in a series of vascular activities. The aim of this article is to investigate the changes in the concentrations of MPs after ischemic stroke by meta-analysis. According to pre-established criteria, a strict screening of articles was performed through the Medline and Embase databases. Subsequently, the included studies were subjected to quality assessment and data extraction. Finally, a meta-analysis was performed on seven major outcomes from 985 noncerebrovascular disease controls and 988 ischemic stroke patients...
May 11, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729150/cd200-cx3cl1-and-trem2-mediated-neuron-microglia-interactions-and-their-involvements-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Lihang Zhang, Juan Xu, Jinchao Gao, Yuncheng Wu, Ming Yin, Wenjuan Zhao
Neurons and microglia are two major components in the central nervous system (CNS). The interactions between them play important roles in maintaining homeostasis of the brain. In recent years, substantial studies have focused on the interactions between neurons and microglia, revealing that microglia become reactive when the interactions are pathophysiologically interfered, usually accompanying neuronal injury, which is a common feature for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many molecules and factors participate in these physiological and pathological processes, either in a contact-dependent or a contact-independent manner...
May 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727300/rab23-and-developmental-disorders
#6
Catherine H H Hor, Bor Luen Tang, Eyleen L K Goh
Rab23 is a conserved member of the Rab family of small GTPases that regulates membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. It is unique amongst the Rabs in terms of its implicated role in mammalian development, as originally illustrated by the embryonic lethality and open neural tube phenotype of a spontaneous mouse mutant that carries homozygous mutation of open brain, a gene encoding Rab23. Rab23 was initially identified to act as an antagonist of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, and has since been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological roles, including oncogenesis...
May 4, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604209/how-different-priming-stimulations-affect-the-corticospinal-excitability-induced-by-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-techniques-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Maryam Hassanzahraee, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques could induce changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) and neuroplasticity. These changes could be affected by different factors, including having a session of stimulation called the 'priming' protocol before the main stimulation session called the 'test' protocol. Literature indicates that a priming protocol could affect the activity of postsynaptic neurons, form a neuronal history, and then modify the expected effects of the test protocol on CSE indicated by the amplitude of transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potentials...
March 31, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573379/dopamine-dysregulation-hypothesis-the-common-basis-for-motivational-anhedonia-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#8
Jan Józef Szczypiński, Mateusz Gola
Abnormalities in reward processing are crucial symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCH). Recent neuroscientific findings regarding MDD have led to conclusions about two different symptoms related to reward processing: motivational and consummatory anhedonia, corresponding, respectively, to impaired motivation to obtain rewards ('wanting'), and diminished satisfaction from consuming them ('liking'). One can ask: which of these is common for MDD and SCH. In our review of the latest neuroscientific studies, we show that MDD and SCH do not share consummatory anhedonia, as SCH patients usually have unaltered liking...
March 24, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573378/why-do-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-and-semantic-dementia-show-a-different-pattern-of-semantic-impairment-in-spite-of-their-main-common-involvement-within-the-anterior-temporal-lobes
#9
Guido Gainotti
A very challenging problem in the domain of the cognitive neurosciences is to explain why herpes simplex encephalitis and semantic dementia show, respectively, a category-specific semantic disorder for biological entities and an across-categories semantic disruption, despite highly overlapping areas of anterior temporal lobe damage. The aim of the present review consisted in trying to make a separate survey of anatomo-clinical investigations (single-case studies and group studies) and of activation studies, in order to analyse the factors that could explain these different patterns of semantic disruption...
March 24, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565791/animal-models-of-status-epilepticus-and-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-narrative-review
#10
Nikita Nirwan, Preeti Vyas, Divya Vohora
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the chronic and pharmacoresistant form of epilepsy observed in humans. The current literature is insufficient in explicating the comprehensive mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis and advancement. Consequently, the development of a suitable animal model mimicking the clinical characteristics is required. Further, the relevance of status epilepticus (SE) to animal models is dubious. SE occurs rarely in people; most epilepsy patients never experience it. The present review summarizes the established animal models of SE and TLE, along with a brief discussion of the animal models that have the distinctiveness and carries the possibility to be developed as effective models for TLE...
March 22, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561731/paraneoplastic-movement-disorders
#11
Karolina Popławska-Domaszewicz, Jolanta Florczak-Wyspiańska, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
Paraneoplastic movement disorders are rare, autoimmune-mediated, nonmetastatic complications of malignant neoplasms. Common paraneoplastic movement disorders include paraneoplastic chorea, dystonia, cerebellar degeneration, different types of encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, stiff person syndrome, and neuromyotonia. Syndromes usually develop before tumor diagnosis, have subacute onset, and are associated with serum or cerebrospinal fluid antibodies. Two types of antibodies can be distinguished: antibodies against nuclear and cytoplasmic neuronal antigens (anti-Hu, anti-Ri, anti-Yo, anti-Ma, anti-CV2/CRMP5, anti-Gephrin, and anti-GABATRAP) and antibodies recently identified against cell surface and synaptic proteins (anti-NMDAR, anti-LGI1, and anti-Caspr2)...
March 21, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509545/neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-psoriasis
#12
Man Amanat, Mona Salehi, Nima Rezaei
Psoriasis used to be known as a skin disorder; however, it can now be considered as a systemic disease with the involvement of multiple organs. Neurological and psychiatric disorders are some of the associated problems that can be observed in patients with psoriasis. Stroke, multiple sclerosis, seizure, migraine, restless leg syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and myasthenia gravis are the reported neurological diseases, while depression, bipolar mood disorder, anxiety, psychosis, cognitive impairment, personality disorders, sexual disorders, sleep disturbance, and eating disorders are the recognized psychiatric presentations in patients with psoriasis...
March 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397389/recent-studies-on-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-focus-on-epigenetic-factors-and-histone-deacetylase
#13
Harikesh Dubey, Kavita Gulati, Arunabha Ray
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders mainly affecting elderly people. It is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. More than 95% of AD cases are related to sporadic or late-onset AD (LOAD). The etiology of LOAD is still unclear. It has been reported that environmental factors and epigenetic alterations play a significant role in AD pathogenesis. Furthermore, recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified 10 novel risk genes: ABCA7, APOE, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, CLU, CR1, MS4A6A, MS4A4E, and PICALM, which play an important role for LOAD...
March 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135453/analysis-of-subcellular-structural-tension-in-axonal-growth-of-neurons
#14
Yi Chen Guo, Yu Xuan Wang, Yan Ping Ge, Lu Jia Yu, Jun Guo
The growth and regeneration of axons are the core processes of nervous system development and functional recovery. They are also related to certain physiological and pathological conditions. For decades, it has been the consensus that a new axon is formed by adding new material at the growth cone. However, using the existing technology, we have studied the structural tension of the nerve cell, which led us to hypothesize that some subcellular structural tensions contribute synergistically to axonal growth and regeneration...
February 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120862/micrornas-participate-in-the-regulation-of-oligodendrocytes-development-in-white-matter-injury
#15
Dongqiong Xiao, Yi Qu, Lingli Pan, Xihong Li, Dezhi Mu
White matter injury (WMI) often results in cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and cerebral palsy and thus imposes a tremendous burden on society. The cells in brain white matter mainly comprise oligodendrocytes (OLs), astrocytes, and microglia. The dysregulation of OLs development is the pathological hallmark of WMI. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) participate in the regulation of OLs development, and the dysregulation of this process represents the pathogenesis of WMI...
February 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116936/neurophysiological-aspects-of-the-trigeminal-sensory-system-an-update
#16
Frederic Van der Cruyssen, Constantinus Politis
The trigeminal system is one of the most complex cranial nerve systems of the human body. Research on it has vastly grown in recent years and concentrated more and more on molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology, but thorough reviews on this topic are lacking, certainly on the normal physiology of the trigeminal sensory system. Here we review the current literature on neurophysiology of the trigeminal nerve from peripheral receptors up to its central projections toward the somatosensory cortex. We focus on the most recent scientific discoveries and describe historical relevant research to substantiate further...
February 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055940/biological-and-anatomical-factors-influencing-interindividual-variability-to-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Michael Pellegrini, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) historically in a predictable manner dependent on stimulation parameters. Researchers, however, discuss high degrees of variability between individuals, either responding as expected or not responding as expected. The explanation for this interindividual variability remains unknown with suggested interplay between stimulation parameters and variations in biological, anatomical, and physiological factors. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effect of variation in inherent factors within an individual (biological and anatomical factors) on CSE in response to NIBS of the primary motor cortex...
February 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#18
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
February 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889120/efficiency-an-underlying-principle-of-learning
#19
Sean Commins
Learning is essential. It allows animals to change circumstances, deal with new situations and adapt to environments. Here, we argue that learning, at behavioral and neural levels, involves efficiency, reflected in metabolic cost reductions. Behaviourally, although multiple solutions to a novel problem may be available, all solutions are not learnt - it is too costly. Furthermore, once a strategy has been selected, it is reinforced producing an efficiency that leads to a maximisation of performance and metabolic cost reductions...
February 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889119/sham-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-and-its-effects-on-corticospinal-excitability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Thusharika D Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Sham stimulation is used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of active stimulation and placebo effects. It should mimic the characteristics of active stimulation to achieve blinding integrity. The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to identify the effects of sham transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS, c-tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE), compared to baseline in healthy individuals...
February 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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