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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704200/mild-cognitive-impairment-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-related-risk-factors-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Xiao-Ying Yuan, Xu-Gang Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic disease and has become a significant health problem. Many studies have raised concern about the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with T2DM and even the Alzheimer's disease patients with T2DM. The incidence of MCI is higher in individuals with T2DM than those without diabetes. Cognitive changes might affect everyday activities depending on the work and situation. Although the exact pathophysiology of MCI in T2DM is unclear, many studies suggest that the alterations in pathoglycemia, diabetic complications, related end products, and physical/psychological status are significant risk factors...
July 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704199/the-role-of-ubiquitin-proteasomal-system-and-autophagy-lysosome-pathway-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Yuan Zhang, Xu Chen, Yanfang Zhao, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Ying Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia in the elderly population. AD is associated with the buildup of β-amyloid and tau, which aggregate into extracellular plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although the exact mechanism of pathological process of AD is unclear, the dysfunction of protein degradation mechanisms has been proposed to play an important role in AD. The cellular degradation of abnormal or misfolded proteins consists of three different mechanisms: the ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS), autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP), and interaction of molecular chaperones with UPS or ALP...
July 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704198/alzheimer-s-disease-as-it-was-in-the-beginning
#3
REVIEW
Stanislav Kozlov, Alexei Afonin, Igor Evsyukov, Andrei Bondarenko
Since Alzheimer's disease was first described in 1907, many attempts have been made to reveal its main cause. Nowadays, two forms of the disease are known, and while the hereditary form of the disease is clearly caused by mutations in one of several genes, the etiology of the sporadic form remains a mystery. Both forms share similar sets of neuropathological and molecular manifestations, including extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta, intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, disturbances in both the structure and functions of mitochondria, oxidative stress, metal ion metabolism disorders, impairment of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-related signaling pathways, abnormalities of lipid metabolism, and aberrant cell cycle reentry in some neurons...
July 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688228/mast-cells-in-neuropathic-pain-an-increasing-spectrum-of-their-involvement-in-pathophysiology
#4
Gunjanpreet Kaur, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Mast cells are immunological cells that are diversely distributed in different parts of the body. Their role in various pathological conditions such as hypersensitivity, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and male infertility has been reported by different scientists. Apart from these, a number of studies have shown their important role in pathogenesis of neuropathic pain of diverse aetiology. They have been found to release active mediators, primarily histamine and serotonin on degranulation in response to different stimuli including chemical, nerve damage, toxin or disease-related conditions...
July 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665792/status-of-essential-elements-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Narges Ahangari, Kasra Hendi, Fatemeh Saleh, Nima Rezaei
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that imposes heavy financial burden on governments and families of affected children. It is considered a multifactorial condition, where trace elements are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. Meanwhile, the between-study variance is high. The present systematic review was designed to investigate the difference in trace element measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. Meta-analyses showed that the hair concentrations of chromium (p=0...
June 29, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609296/neuroanatomical-pathways-underlying-the-effects-of-hypothalamo-hypophysial-adrenal-hormones-on-exploratory-activity
#6
Robert Lalonde, Catherine Strazielle
When injected via the intracerebroventricular route, corticosterone-releasing hormone (CRH) reduced exploration in the elevated plus-maze, the center region of the open-field, and the large chamber in the defensive withdrawal test. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the elevated plus-maze also occurred when infused in the basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, periaqueductal grey, and medial frontal cortex. The anxiogenic action of CRH in the defensive withdrawal test was reproduced when injected in the locus coeruleus, while the amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus contribute to center zone exploration in the open-field...
June 13, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586306/revisiting-nicotine-s-role-in-the-ageing-brain-and-cognitive-impairment
#7
Alireza Majdi, Farzin Kamari, Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Brain ageing is a complex process which in its pathologic form is associated with learning and memory dysfunction or cognitive impairment. During ageing, changes in cholinergic innervations and reduced acetylcholinergic tonus may trigger a series of molecular pathways participating in oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, amyloid-β toxicity, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and perturb neurotrophic factors in the brain. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acts as a pharmacological chaperone in the regulation of nAChR expression, potentially intervening in age-related changes in diverse molecular pathways leading to pathology...
June 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599400/the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-therapy-a-perspective-on-cell-biological-mechanisms
#8
Bor Luen Tang
Recent clinical trials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation have demonstrated procedural safety and clinical proof of principle with a modest indication of benefit in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While replacement therapy remained unrealistic, the clinical efficacy of this therapeutic option could be potentially enhanced if we could better decipher the mechanisms underlying some of the beneficial effects of transplanted cells, and work toward augmenting or combining these in a strategic manner...
May 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599399/pulsed-magnetic-field-treatment-as-antineuropathic-pain-therapy
#9
Tufan Mert
No satisfactory effective therapy is still available to treat trauma- or disease-induced neuropathic pain, and current available treatment options have several side effects. Pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatments are receiving growing interest as a therapeutic approach for several neuronal diseases. Although the exact mechanism of action of PMF treatments is unknown, reported findings represent a promising alternative therapeutic choice for the management of neuropathic pain. PMF treatments can supply new strategies for the therapy of life-threatening neuropathic pain due to its antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic, antiallodynic, and neuroimmunomodulatory actions...
May 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498796/interactions-between-cannabis-and-schizophrenia-in-humans-and-rodents
#10
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohamed Salama, Roseanne Peak, Richard Tindle, Amir Salem, Szabolcs Keri, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Wael Mohamed
In this review, we provide an overview of the relationship between cannabis use and the development of schizophrenia, using both animal and human studies. We further discuss the potential neural mechanism that may mediate the relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia symptoms. We finally provide clinical implications and future studies that can further elucidate the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia.
May 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593878/microbiota-abnormalities-and-the-therapeutic-potential-of-probiotics-in-the-treatment-of-mood-disorders
#11
Adiel C Rios, Pawan Kumar Maurya, Mariana Pedrini, Maiara Zeni-Graiff, Elson Asevedo, Rodrigo B Mansur, Andrea Wieck, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Roger S McIntyre, Mirian A F Hayashi, Elisa Brietzke
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are among the leading causes of burden and disability worldwide. Despite intensified research efforts to improve the treatment options and remission rates in mood disorders, no disease modifying treatment exists for these disorders. Accumulating evidence implicates the involvement of the gut microbiota in processes relevant to etiopathology of central nervous system-based disorders. The objective of this article was to critically evaluate the evidence supporting the link between gastrointestinal microbiota and mood disorders and to discuss the potential benefits of using probiotics in the treatment of MDD and BD...
May 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343185/frameworking-memory-and-serotonergic-markers
#12
Alfredo Meneses
The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343168/potential-skin-involvement-in-als-revisiting-charcot-s-observation-a-review-of-skin-abnormalities-in-als
#13
Bastien Paré, François Gros-Louis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328536/neurotransmission-systems-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is histologically characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein particles, known as Lewy bodies. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder, PD is widely known because of the typical motor manifestations of active tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, while several prodromal non-motor symptoms including REM sleep behavior disorders, depression, autonomic disturbances, and cognitive decline are being more extensively recognized. Motor symptoms most commonly arise from synucleinopathy of nigrostriatal pathway...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306543/peripheral-levels-of-bdnf-and-opiate-use-disorder-literature-review-and-update
#15
Raul Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Kristopher Amaro-Hosey, Laia Rodriguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Margarida Corominas-Roso, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Carlos Roncero
Several neurobiological factors are related to opiate-use disorder (OUD), and among them, neurotrophins have a relevant role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a central neurotrophin involved in many neuronal processes, and it has been related to several psychiatric diseases and addictive disorders. BDNF can be measured in plasma and serum; its levels may reflect BDNF concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) and, indirectly, CNS processes. Hence, peripheral BDNF could be a biomarker in clinical practice...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301322/semicircular-canal-modeling-in-human-perception
#16
Houshyar Asadi, Shady Mohamed, Chee Peng Lim, Saeid Nahavandi, Eugene Nalivaiko
The human vestibular system is a sensory and equilibrium system that manages and controls the human sense of balance and movement. It is the main sensor humans use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Determining an accurate mathematical model of the human vestibular system is significant for research pertaining to motion perception, as the quality and effectiveness of the motion cueing algorithm (MCA) directly depends on the mathematical model used in its design. This paper describes the history and analyses the development process of mathematical semicircular canal models...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475100/defensive-reflexes-in-people-with-pain-a-biomarker-of-the-need-to-protect-a-meta-analytical-systematic-review
#17
Sarah B Wallwork, Luzia Grabherr, Neil E O'Connell, Mark J Catley, G Lorimer Moseley
Upregulation of defensive reflexes such as the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) has been attributed to sensitisation of peripheral and spinal nociceptors and is often considered biomarkers of pain. Experimental modulation of defensive reflexes raises the possibility that they might be better conceptualised as markers of descending cognitive control. Despite strongly held views on both sides and several narrative reviews, there has been no attempt to evaluate the evidence in a systematic manner. We undertook a meta-analytical systematic review of the extant English-language literature from inception...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#18
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231069/the-potential-of-transcranial-photobiomodulation-therapy-for-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Farzad Salehpour, Seyed Hossein Rasta
Major depressive disorder is a common debilitating mood disorder that affects quality of life. Prefrontal cortex abnormalities, an imbalance in neurotransmitters, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. Despite the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder, 30%-40% of patients do not respond to antidepressants. Given this, exploring the alternative therapies for treatment or prevention of major depressive disorder has aroused interest among scientists...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195557/biogenetic-and-morphofunctional-heterogeneity-of-mitochondria-the-case-of-synaptic-mitochondria
#20
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem, Ludmila V Puchkova
The mitochondria of different cells are different in their morphological and biochemical properties. These organelles generate free radicals during activity, leading inevitably to mitochondrial DNA damage. It is not clear how this problem is addressed in long-lived cells, such as neurons. We propose the hypothesis that mitochondria within the same cell also differ in lifespan and ability to divide. According to our suggestion, cells have a pool of 'stem' mitochondria with low metabolic activity and a pool of 'differentiated' mitochondria with significantly shorter lifespans and high metabolic activity...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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