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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949931/genetic-underpinnings-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review
#1
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mubashir Hassan, Doaa H Hewedi, Iman Hewedi, Julia K Garami, Hany Al Ashwal, Nazar Zaki, Sung-Yum Seo, Vassilis Cutsuridis, Sergio L Angulo, Joman Y Natesh, Mohammad M Herzallah, Dorota Frydecka, Błażej Misiak, Mohamed Salama, Wael Mohamed, Mohamad El Haj, Michael Hornberger
In this review, we discuss the genetic etiologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, we review genetic links to protein signaling pathways as novel pharmacological targets to treat AD. Moreover, we also discuss the clumps of AD-m ediated genes according to their single nucleotide polymorphism mutations. Rigorous data mining approaches justified the significant role of genes in AD prevalence. Pedigree analysis and twin studies suggest that genetic components are part of the etiology, rather than only being risk factors for AD...
September 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#2
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937965/artemin-promotes-oncogenicity-metastasis-and-drug-resistance-in-cancer-cells
#3
Kamal Hezam, Jiahao Jiang, Fumou Sun, Xinrong Zhang, Juan Zhang
Artemin (ARTN) is a member of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands, and its signaling is mediated via a multi-component receptor complex including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored GDNF family receptors a (GFRa1, GFRa3) and RET receptor tyrosine kinase. The major mechanism of ARTN action is via binding to a non-signaling co-receptor. The major function of ARTN is to drive the molecule to induce migration and axonal projection from sympathetic neurons. It also promotes the survival, proliferation and neurite outgrowth of sympathetic neurons in vitro...
September 22, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889120/efficiency-an-underlying-principle-of-learning
#4
Sean Commins
Learning is essential. It allows animals to change circumstances, deal with new situations and adapt to environments. Here, we argue that learning, at behavioral and neural levels, involves efficiency, reflected in metabolic cost reductions. Behaviourally, although multiple solutions to a novel problem may be available, all solutions are not learnt - it is too costly. Furthermore, once a strategy has been selected, it is reinforced producing an efficiency that leads to a maximisation of performance and metabolic cost reductions...
September 11, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889119/sham-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-and-its-effects-on-corticospinal-excitability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Thusharika D Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Sham stimulation is used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of active stimulation and placebo effects. It should mimic the characteristics of active stimulation to achieve blinding integrity. The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to identify the effects of sham transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS, c-tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE), compared to baseline in healthy individuals...
September 11, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888093/models-used-in-the-study-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Francisco Estrada-Rojo, Ricardo Jesús Martínez-Tapia, Francisco Estrada-Bernal, Marina Martínez-Vargas, Adán Perez-Arredondo, Luis Flores-Avalos, Luz Navarro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a contemporary health problem and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Survivors of TBI frequently experience disabling long-term changes in cognition, sensorimotor function, and personality. A crucial step in understanding TBI and providing better treatment has been the use of models to mimic the event under controlled conditions. Here, we describe the known head injury models, which can be classified as whole animal (in vivo), in vitro, and mathematical models...
September 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873068/neuroinflammation-and-physical-exercise-as-modulators-of-adult-hippocampal-neural-precursor-cell-behavior
#7
Martha Pérez-Domínguez, Luis B Tovar-Y-Romo, Angélica Zepeda
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a plastic structure where adult neurogenesis constitutively occurs. Cell components of the neurogenic niche are source of paracrine as well as membrane-bound factors such as Notch, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Wnts, Sonic Hedgehog, cytokines, and growth factors that regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cell fate decision. The integration and coordinated action of multiple extrinsic and intrinsic cues drive a continuous decision process: if adult neural stem cells remain quiescent or proliferate, if they take a neuronal or a glial lineage, and if new cells proliferate, undergo apoptotic death, or survive...
September 5, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850551/wearable-technology-for-patients-with-brain-and-spinal-cord-injuries
#8
Alexis Burns, Hojjat Adeli
Studies have shown that patients who practice functional movements at home in conjunction with outpatient therapy show higher improvement in motor recovery. However, patients are not qualified to monitor or assess their own condition that must be reported back to the clinician. Therefore, there is a need to transmit physiological data to clinicians from patients in their home environment. This paper presents a review of wearable technology for in-home health monitoring, assessment, and rehabilitation of patients with brain and spinal cord injuries...
August 29, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822986/insights-in-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-nitric-oxide-may-induce-mitochondrial-dysfunction-of-oligodendrocytes
#9
Minghong Lan, Xiaoyi Tang, Jie Zhang, Zhongxiang Yao
Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), are kinds of common diseases in the central nervous system (CNS), and originated from myelin loss and axonal damage. Oligodendrocyte dysfunction is the direct reason of demyelinating lesions in the CNS. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the pathological process of demyelinating diseases. Although the neurotoxicity of NO is more likely mediated by peroxynitrite rather than NO itself, NO can impair oligodendrocyte energy metabolism through mediating the damaging of mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial membrane and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes...
August 21, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822229/vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-initiation-under-normoxic-conditions-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-gliomas
#10
Alexandre Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is up-regulated in gliomas and involved in proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlates with malignancy. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which promotes glycolytic energy metabolism, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas HIF-1α is degraded by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase under normoxic conditions. We focus this review on the links between the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through HIF-1α under normoxic conditions in gliomas...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822228/computerized-neurocognitive-interventions-in-the-context-of-the-brain-training-controversy
#11
Rebeca Isabel García-Betances, María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez, María T Arredondo
This article presents, in the form of an analytic narrative review, a complete picture of the state-of-the-art, challenges, and perspectives in the field of information and communication technology (ICT)-based neurocognitive interventions for older adults. The narrative particularly focuses on applications aimed at mild cognitive impairment and similar age-related cognitive deficits, which are analyzed in the context of the brain training controversy. Clarifying considerations are provided about the nature and present extent of the brain training debate, regarding the possible influence it has on the support received by research and development initiatives dealing with innovative computerized neurocognitive interventions...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820738/the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-short-interval-intracortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Mana Biabani, Maryam Aminitehrani, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly being used to affect the neurological conditions with deficient intracortical synaptic activities (i.e. Parkinson's disease and epilepsy). In addition, it is suggested that the lasting effects of tDCS on corticospinal excitability (CSE) have intracortical origin. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether tDCS has any effect on intracortical circuits. Eleven electronic databases were searched for the studies investigating intracortical changes induced by anodal (a) and cathodal (c) tDCS, in healthy individuals, using two paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms: short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF)...
August 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792913/iron-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-being-in-the-wrong-place-at-the-wrong-time
#13
Sotirios Apostolakis, Anna-Maria Kypraiou
Brain iron deposits have been reported consistently in imaging and histologic examinations of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. While the origins of this finding have not been clarified yet, it is speculated that impaired iron homeostasis or deficient transport mechanisms result in the accumulation of this highly toxic metal ultimately leading to formation of reactive oxygen species and cell death. On the other hand, there are also those who support that iron is just an incidental finding, a by product of neuronal loss...
August 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787275/cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review-of-current-knowledge-and-recent-research
#14
Tomasz Grzegorski, Jacek Losy
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive disease of the central nervous system that is characterised by inflammatory damage to the myelin sheath. Though often neglected, cognitive impairment is a common feature of MS that affects 43-70% of patients. It has a sophisticated neuroanatomic and pathophysiologic background and disturbs such vital cognitive domains as speed of information processing, memory, attention, executive functions and visual perceptual functions. In recent years there has been growing interest in neuroimaging findings with regard to cognitive impairment in MS...
August 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779572/brain-extracellular-space-hyaluronan-and-the-prevention-of-epileptic-seizures
#15
Katherine L Perkins, Amaia M Arranz, Yu Yamaguchi, Sabina Hrabetova
Mutant mice deficient in hyaluronan (HA) have an epileptic phenotype. HA is one of the major constituents of the brain extracellular matrix. HA has a remarkable hydration capacity, and a lack of HA causes reduced extracellular space (ECS) volume in the brain. Reducing ECS volume can initiate or exacerbate epileptiform activity in many in vitro models of epilepsy. There is both in vitro and in vivo evidence of a positive feedback loop between reduced ECS volume and synchronous neuronal activity. Reduced ECS volume promotes epileptiform activity primarily via enhanced ephaptic interactions and increased extracellular potassium concentration; however, the epileptiform activity in many models, including the brain slices from HA synthase-3 knockout mice, may still require glutamate-mediated synaptic activity...
August 5, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704200/mild-cognitive-impairment-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-related-risk-factors-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Xiao-Ying Yuan, Xu-Gang Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic disease and has become a significant health problem. Many studies have raised concern about the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with T2DM and even the Alzheimer's disease patients with T2DM. The incidence of MCI is higher in individuals with T2DM than those without diabetes. Cognitive changes might affect everyday activities depending on the work and situation. Although the exact pathophysiology of MCI in T2DM is unclear, many studies suggest that the alterations in pathoglycemia, diabetic complications, related end products, and physical/psychological status are significant risk factors...
October 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688228/mast-cells-in-neuropathic-pain-an-increasing-spectrum-of-their-involvement-in-pathophysiology
#17
Gunjanpreet Kaur, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Mast cells are immunological cells that are diversely distributed in different parts of the body. Their role in various pathological conditions such as hypersensitivity, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and male infertility has been reported by different scientists. Apart from these, a number of studies have shown their important role in pathogenesis of neuropathic pain of diverse aetiology. They have been found to release active mediators, primarily histamine and serotonin on degranulation in response to different stimuli including chemical, nerve damage, toxin or disease-related conditions...
October 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665792/status-of-essential-elements-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Narges Ahangari, Kasra Hendi, Fatemeh Saleh, Nima Rezaei
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that imposes heavy financial burden on governments and families of affected children. It is considered a multifactorial condition, where trace elements are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. Meanwhile, the between-study variance is high. The present systematic review was designed to investigate the difference in trace element measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. Meta-analyses showed that the hair concentrations of chromium (p=0...
October 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599400/the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-therapy-a-perspective-on-cell-biological-mechanisms
#19
Bor Luen Tang
Recent clinical trials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation have demonstrated procedural safety and clinical proof of principle with a modest indication of benefit in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While replacement therapy remained unrealistic, the clinical efficacy of this therapeutic option could be potentially enhanced if we could better decipher the mechanisms underlying some of the beneficial effects of transplanted cells, and work toward augmenting or combining these in a strategic manner...
October 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599399/pulsed-magnetic-field-treatment-as-antineuropathic-pain-therapy
#20
Tufan Mert
No satisfactory effective therapy is still available to treat trauma- or disease-induced neuropathic pain, and current available treatment options have several side effects. Pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatments are receiving growing interest as a therapeutic approach for several neuronal diseases. Although the exact mechanism of action of PMF treatments is unknown, reported findings represent a promising alternative therapeutic choice for the management of neuropathic pain. PMF treatments can supply new strategies for the therapy of life-threatening neuropathic pain due to its antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic, antiallodynic, and neuroimmunomodulatory actions...
October 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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