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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498796/interactions-between-cannabis-and-schizophrenia-in-humans-and-rodents
#1
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohamed Salama, Roseanne Peak, Richard Tindle, Amir Salem, Szabolcs Keri, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Wael Mohamed
In this review, we provide an overview of the relationship between cannabis use and the development of schizophrenia, using both animal and human studies. We further discuss the potential neural mechanism that may mediate the relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia symptoms. We finally provide clinical implications and future studies that can further elucidate the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia.
May 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422708/a-brief-essay-on-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Alberto Raggi, Domenica Tasca, Raffaele Ferri
Current pharmacological therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not modify its course and are not always beneficial. Therefore, the optimization of quality of life represents the best possible outcome achievable in all stages of the disease. Cognitive and behavioural rehabilitation represents the main therapeutic approach for this purpose, also in order to mitigate indirectly the burden of distress of family caregivers. The aim of this mini-review is to go through this theme by discussing cognitive activation, virtual reality and neuromodulation techniques...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422707/factors-underlying-cognitive-decline-in-old-age-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-the-hippocampus
#3
Wafa Jaroudi, Julia Garami, Sandra Garrido, Michael Hornberger, Szabolcs Keri, Ahmed A Moustafa
There are many factors that strongly influence the aetiology, development, and progression of cognitive decline in old age, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These factors include not only different personality traits and moods but also lifestyle patterns (e.g. exercise and diet) and awareness levels that lead to cognitive decline in old age. In this review, we discuss how personality traits, mood states, and lifestyle impact brain and behaviour in older adults. Specifically, our review shows that these lifestyle and personality factors affect several brain regions, including the hippocampus, a region key for memory that is affected by cognitive decline in old age as well as AD...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422706/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-an-important-target-associated-with-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise
#4
Lina Sun, Qingshan Sun, Jinshun Qi
Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343185/frameworking-memory-and-serotonergic-markers
#5
Alfredo Meneses
The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343184/regulatory-role-of-ngfs-in-neurocognitive-functions
#6
Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Pareek, Muneeb A Faiq, Pavan Kumar, Khursheed Raza, Pranav Prasoon, Subrahamanyam Dantham, Sankat Mochan
Nerve growth factors (NGFs), especially the prototype NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have a diverse array of functions in the central nervous system through their peculiar set of receptors and intricate signaling. They are implicated not only in the development of the nervous system but also in regulation of neurocognitive functions like learning, memory, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Evidence even suggests their role in continued neurogenesis and experience-dependent neural network remodeling in adult brain...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343168/potential-skin-involvement-in-als-revisiting-charcot-s-observation-a-review-of-skin-abnormalities-in-als
#7
Bastien Paré, François Gros-Louis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343167/the-unappreciated-roles-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-cck-1-in-brain-functioning
#8
Santiago Ballaz
The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328536/neurotransmission-systems-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is histologically characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein particles, known as Lewy bodies. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder, PD is widely known because of the typical motor manifestations of active tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, while several prodromal non-motor symptoms including REM sleep behavior disorders, depression, autonomic disturbances, and cognitive decline are being more extensively recognized. Motor symptoms most commonly arise from synucleinopathy of nigrostriatal pathway...
March 22, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306543/peripheral-levels-of-bdnf-and-opiate-use-disorder-literature-review-and-update
#10
Raul Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Kristopher Amaro-Hosey, Laia Rodriguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Margarida Corominas-Roso, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Carlos Roncero
Several neurobiological factors are related to opiate-use disorder (OUD), and among them, neurotrophins have a relevant role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a central neurotrophin involved in many neuronal processes, and it has been related to several psychiatric diseases and addictive disorders. BDNF can be measured in plasma and serum; its levels may reflect BDNF concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) and, indirectly, CNS processes. Hence, peripheral BDNF could be a biomarker in clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#11
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301322/semicircular-canal-modeling-in-human-perception
#12
Houshyar Asadi, Shady Mohamed, Chee Peng Lim, Saeid Nahavandi, Eugene Nalivaiko
The human vestibular system is a sensory and equilibrium system that manages and controls the human sense of balance and movement. It is the main sensor humans use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Determining an accurate mathematical model of the human vestibular system is significant for research pertaining to motion perception, as the quality and effectiveness of the motion cueing algorithm (MCA) directly depends on the mathematical model used in its design. This paper describes the history and analyses the development process of mathematical semicircular canal models...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121618/leptin-and-adiponectin-pathophysiological-role-and-possible-therapeutic-target-of-inflammation-in-ischemic-stroke
#13
Jitender Gairolla, Rupinder Kler, Manish Modi, Dheeraj Khurana
Stroke is a multifactorial disease contributing to significant noncommunicable disease burden in developing countries. Risk of stroke is largely a consequence of morbidities of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and heart diseases. Incidence of stroke is directly proportional to body mass index. Adipose tissue stores energy as well as acts as an active endocrine organ, which secretes numerous humoral factors. Adiponectin and leptin are the commonest adipocytokines and have been invariably linked to the development of coronary heart disease and may be involved in the underlying biological mechanism of stroke...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107174/biological-bases-of-human-musicality
#14
Carla Perrone-Capano, Floriana Volpicelli, Umberto di Porzio
Music is a universal language, present in all human societies. It pervades the lives of most human beings and can recall memories and feelings of the past, can exert positive effects on our mood, can be strongly evocative and ignite intense emotions, and can establish or strengthen social bonds. In this review, we summarize the research and recent progress on the origins and neural substrates of human musicality as well as the changes in brain plasticity elicited by listening or performing music. Indeed, music improves performance in a number of cognitive tasks and may have beneficial effects on diseased brains...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099139/quantitative-eeg-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Szilvia Puskás, Norbert Kozák, Dóra Sulina, László Csiba, Mária Tünde Magyar
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by the recurrent cessation (apnea) or reduction (hypopnea) of airflow due to the partial or complete upper airway collapse during sleep. Respiratory disturbances causing sleep fragmentation and repetitive nocturnal hypoxia are responsible for a variety of nocturnal and daytime complaints of sleep apnea patients, such as snoring, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, or impaired cognitive functions. Different techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography, are used to evaluate the structural and functional changes in OSAS patients...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099138/role-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-mood-disorders
#16
Anton S Tsybko, Tatiana V Ilchibaeva, Nina K Popova
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is widely recognized as a survival factor for dopaminergic neurons, but GDNF has also been shown to promote development, differentiation, and protection of other central nervous system neurons and was thought to play an important role in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Severe mood disorders, such as primarily major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder, attract particular attention. These psychopathologies are characterized by structural alterations accompanied by the dysregulation of neuroprotective and neurotrophic signaling mechanisms required for the maturation, growth, and survival of neurons and glia...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099137/epilepsy-associated-alterations-in-hippocampal-excitability
#17
Mojdeh Navidhamidi, Maedeh Ghasemi, Nasrin Mehranfard
The hippocampus exhibits a wide range of epilepsy-related abnormalities and is situated in the mesial temporal lobe, where limbic seizures begin. These abnormalities could affect membrane excitability and lead to overstimulation of neurons. Multiple overlapping processes refer to neural homeostatic responses develop in neurons that work together to restore neuronal firing rates to control levels. Nevertheless, homeostatic mechanisms are unable to restore normal neuronal excitability, and the epileptic hippocampus becomes hyperexcitable or hypoexcitable...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#18
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030360/effect-of-natural-products-on-diabetes-associated-neurological-disorders
#19
Sita Sharan Patel, Malairaman Udayabanu
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is associated with neurological complications such as depression, anxiety, hypolocomotion, cognitive dysfunction, phobias, anorexia, stroke, pain, etc. Traditional system of medicine is long known for its efficient management of diabetes. The current review discusses the scope of some common medicinal herbs as well as secondary metabolites with a special focus on diabetes-mediated central nervous system complications. Literatures suggest that natural products reduce diabetes-mediated neurological complications partly by reducing oxidative stress and/or inflammation or apoptosis in certain brain regions...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231069/the-potential-of-transcranial-photobiomodulation-therapy-for-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Farzad Salehpour, Seyed Hossein Rasta
Major depressive disorder is a common debilitating mood disorder that affects quality of life. Prefrontal cortex abnormalities, an imbalance in neurotransmitters, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. Despite the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder, 30%-40% of patients do not respond to antidepressants. Given this, exploring the alternative therapies for treatment or prevention of major depressive disorder has aroused interest among scientists...
February 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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