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Reviews in the Neurosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232196/mechanisms-of-action-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-septic-encephalopathy
#1
Figen Esen, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Erdem Tuzun, M Dustin Boone
Acute brain dysfunction associated with sepsis is a serious complication that results in morbidity and mortality. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. Our results suggest that IVIgG and IgGAM administration ameliorates neuronal dysfunction and behavioral deficits by reducing apoptotic cell death and glial cell proliferation...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232195/crossover-design-in-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-studies-on-motor-learning-potential-pitfalls-and-difficulties-in-interpretation-of-findings
#2
Mana Biabani, Michael Farrell, Maryam Zoghi, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Crossover designs are used by a high proportion of studies investigating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning. These designs necessitate attention to aspects of data collection and analysis to take account of design-related confounds including order, carryover, and period effects. In this systematic review, we appraised the method sections of crossover-designed tDCS studies of motor learning and discussed the strategies adopted to address these factors. A systematic search of 10 databases was performed and 19 research papers, including 21 experimental studies, were identified...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222936/role-of-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-nociception-and-their-possible-interactions-suggested-hypotheses
#3
Mohammed Gamal-Eltrabily, Alfredo Manzano-García
Central oxytocin and dopamine have an important role in the process of nociception at the spinal level as well as supraspinal structures, e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. Many studies have pointed out the importance of both systems in the pain descending modulatory system and in pain-related symptoms in some chronic disorders, e.g. Parkinson disease and fibromyalgia. The interaction between oxytocin and dopamine systems has been addressed in some motivational behaviors, e...
December 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220331/regenerative-potential-of-secretome-from-dental-stem-cells-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#4
Suleiman Alhaji Muhammad, Norshariza Nordin, Sharida Fakurazi
Injury to tissues is a major clinical challenge due to the limited regenerative capacity of endogenous cells. Stem cell therapy is evolving rapidly as an alternative for tissue regeneration. However, increasing evidence suggests that the regenerative ability of stem cells is mainly mediated by paracrine actions of secretome that are generally secreted by the cells. We aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of dental stem cell (DSC)-conditioned medium in in vivo animal models of various tissue defects...
December 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216010/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-role-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Albert M Chung
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has an important anti-inflammatory role in the immune system. Research has shown that CGRP is an integral part in peripheral nerve regeneration by (1) suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α, (2) forming an initial nerve bridge by increasing fibroblast motility and extracellular matrix synthesis, (3) vascularizing the spinal cord injury site, and (4) inducing Schwann cell (SC) proliferation. In this treatise, the following hypotheses will be explored: (1) CGRP is induced by c-Jun to regulate SC dedifferentiation, (2) CGRP promotes the chemotaxic migration of SCs along the nerve bridge, and (3) CGRP induces myelinophagy by activating various signaling pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase...
December 7, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211683/understanding-the-controversial-drug-targets-in-epilepsy-and-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#6
Sree Lalitha, Ranjana W Minz, Bikash Medhi
Accumulating experimental data suggests a number of successful drug targets against epilepsy which eventually failed in the clinical setup. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, multi-drug resistance transporter inhibitors, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, statins, etc. are the most promising and well studied among them. Drugs aiming at these targets produced beneficial response in most of the in vitro and in vivo seizure models. However, in certain situations, they have produced differential rather controversial results...
December 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211682/the-natural-history-of-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytomas-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-a-review
#7
Denise L Chan, Tessa Calder, John A Lawson, David Mowat, Sean E Kennedy
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an auto-somal-dominant inherited condition with an incidence of approximately 1:6000 births, characterised by deregulated mTOR activity with multi-site hamartomas. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) are one such hamartoma, affecting up to 24% of patients with TSC. Their intraventricular location may lead to life-threatening obstructive hydrocephalus. Current management is hampered by a lack of understanding regarding the natural history, behaviour and growth patterns of SEGA...
December 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194045/mothering-under-the-influence-how-perinatal-drugs-of-abuse-alter-the-mother-infant-interaction
#8
Anna Brancato, Carla Cannizzaro
Although drug-abusing women try to moderate their drug and alcohol use during pregnancy, they often relapse at a time when childcare needs are high and maternal bonding is critical to an infant's development. In the clinical setting, the search for the neural basis of drug-induced caregiving deficits is complex due to several intervening variables. Rather, the preclinical studies that control for drug dose and regimen, as well as for gestational and postpartum environment, allow a precise determination of the effects of drugs on maternal behaviour...
December 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176031/the-neurophysiology-of-working-memory-development-from-childhood-to-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#9
Carlos M Gómez, Catarina Isabel Barriga-Paulino, Elena Isabel Rodríguez-Martínez, Ma Ángeles Rojas-Benjumea, Antonio Arjona, Jaime Gómez-González
Working memory (WM) is an important cognitive function that is necessary to perform our daily activities. The present review briefly describes the most accepted models underlying WM and the neural networks involved in its processing. The review focuses on how the neurophysiological mechanisms develop with age in the periods from childhood to adolescence and young adulthood. Studies using behavioral, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological techniques showed the progress of WM throughout the development. The present review focuses on the neurophysiology of the basic processes underlying WM operations, as indicated by electroencephalogram-derived signals, in order to take advantage of the excellent time resolution of this technique...
November 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150992/accelerated-aging-and-aging-process-in-the-brain
#10
Nickolay K Isaev, Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Maria V Oborina, Elena V Stelmashook
One of the approaches to the research of the problem of aging is the study of genetic pathologies leading to accelerated aging, such as the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Down syndrome. Probably, this approach can be used in an attempt to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal and pathological brain aging. The analysis of the current state of scientific knowledge about these pathologies shows that in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndrome, the rate of brain aging is significantly lower than the rate of whole body aging, whereas in Down syndrome, the brain ages faster than other organs due to amyloid-beta accumulation and chronic oxidative stress in the brain tissue...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150991/population-based-differences-in-immune-system-response-contribute-to-an-increased-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-african-migrants
#11
Milica J Nesic, Nadja P Maric
Among the highest incidences of schizophrenia is the one documented in second-generation migrants of African descent in the Western countries. Interestingly, people of African and European ancestry demonstrate significant genetic-based differences in immune system regulation and response. As a result, the pro-inflammatory phenotype is more pronounced in people of African descent than it is in Europeans. At the same time, the role of the immune system in the etiology of schizophrenia is gaining increased recognition...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135453/analysis-of-subcellular-structural-tension-in-axonal-growth-of-neurons
#12
Yi Chen Guo, Yu Xuan Wang, Yan Ping Ge, Lu Jia Yu, Jun Guo
The growth and regeneration of axons are the core processes of nervous system development and functional recovery. They are also related to certain physiological and pathological conditions. For decades, it has been the consensus that a new axon is formed by adding new material at the growth cone. However, using the existing technology, we have studied the structural tension of the nerve cell, which led us to hypothesize that some subcellular structural tensions contribute synergistically to axonal growth and regeneration...
November 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120862/micrornas-participate-in-the-regulation-of-oligodendrocytes-development-in-white-matter-injury
#13
Dongqiong Xiao, Yi Qu, Lingli Pan, Xihong Li, Dezhi Mu
White matter injury (WMI) often results in cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and cerebral palsy and thus imposes a tremendous burden on society. The cells in brain white matter mainly comprise oligodendrocytes (OLs), astrocytes, and microglia. The dysregulation of OLs development is the pathological hallmark of WMI. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) participate in the regulation of OLs development, and the dysregulation of this process represents the pathogenesis of WMI...
November 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116936/neurophysiological-aspects-of-the-trigeminal-sensory-system-an-update
#14
Frederic Van der Cruyssen, Constantinus Politis
The trigeminal system is one of the most complex cranial nerve systems of the human body. Research on it has vastly grown in recent years and concentrated more and more on molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology, but thorough reviews on this topic are lacking, certainly on the normal physiology of the trigeminal sensory system. Here we review the current literature on neurophysiology of the trigeminal nerve from peripheral receptors up to its central projections toward the somatosensory cortex. We focus on the most recent scientific discoveries and describe historical relevant research to substantiate further...
November 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055940/biological-and-anatomical-factors-influencing-interindividual-variability-to-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Michael Pellegrini, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) historically in a predictable manner dependent on stimulation parameters. Researchers, however, discuss high degrees of variability between individuals, either responding as expected or not responding as expected. The explanation for this interindividual variability remains unknown with suggested interplay between stimulation parameters and variations in biological, anatomical, and physiological factors. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effect of variation in inherent factors within an individual (biological and anatomical factors) on CSE in response to NIBS of the primary motor cortex...
October 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949931/genetic-underpinnings-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review
#16
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mubashir Hassan, Doaa H Hewedi, Iman Hewedi, Julia K Garami, Hany Al Ashwal, Nazar Zaki, Sung-Yum Seo, Vassilis Cutsuridis, Sergio L Angulo, Joman Y Natesh, Mohammad M Herzallah, Dorota Frydecka, Błażej Misiak, Mohamed Salama, Wael Mohamed, Mohamad El Haj, Michael Hornberger
In this review, we discuss the genetic etiologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, we review genetic links to protein signaling pathways as novel pharmacological targets to treat AD. Moreover, we also discuss the clumps of AD-m ediated genes according to their single nucleotide polymorphism mutations. Rigorous data mining approaches justified the significant role of genes in AD prevalence. Pedigree analysis and twin studies suggest that genetic components are part of the etiology, rather than only being risk factors for AD...
September 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#17
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937965/artemin-promotes-oncogenicity-metastasis-and-drug-resistance-in-cancer-cells
#18
Kamal Hezam, Jiahao Jiang, Fumou Sun, Xinrong Zhang, Juan Zhang
Artemin (ARTN) is a member of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands, and its signaling is mediated via a multi-component receptor complex including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored GDNF family receptors a (GFRa1, GFRa3) and RET receptor tyrosine kinase. The major mechanism of ARTN action is via binding to a non-signaling co-receptor. The major function of ARTN is to drive the molecule to induce migration and axonal projection from sympathetic neurons. It also promotes the survival, proliferation and neurite outgrowth of sympathetic neurons in vitro...
September 22, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704200/mild-cognitive-impairment-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-related-risk-factors-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Xiao-Ying Yuan, Xu-Gang Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic disease and has become a significant health problem. Many studies have raised concern about the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with T2DM and even the Alzheimer's disease patients with T2DM. The incidence of MCI is higher in individuals with T2DM than those without diabetes. Cognitive changes might affect everyday activities depending on the work and situation. Although the exact pathophysiology of MCI in T2DM is unclear, many studies suggest that the alterations in pathoglycemia, diabetic complications, related end products, and physical/psychological status are significant risk factors...
October 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688228/mast-cells-in-neuropathic-pain-an-increasing-spectrum-of-their-involvement-in-pathophysiology
#20
Gunjanpreet Kaur, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Mast cells are immunological cells that are diversely distributed in different parts of the body. Their role in various pathological conditions such as hypersensitivity, atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and male infertility has been reported by different scientists. Apart from these, a number of studies have shown their important role in pathogenesis of neuropathic pain of diverse aetiology. They have been found to release active mediators, primarily histamine and serotonin on degranulation in response to different stimuli including chemical, nerve damage, toxin or disease-related conditions...
October 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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