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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Vasiliki Georgiou, Vasiliki Gkretsi
The central nervous system (CNS) comprises of neurons, which are responsible for impulse transmission, and glial cells, which surround neurons providing protection and nutrition. Glial cells are categorized into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, and ependymal cells. Tumors forming from glial cells are called gliomas, and they are classified accordingly into astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. Gliomas are characterized by high mortality rates and degree of malignancy, heterogeneity, and resistance to treatment...
October 31, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Yan Zeng, Huiqing Wang, Li Zhang, Jun Tang, Jing Shi, Dongqiong Xiao, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
White matter injury, the most common neurological injury in preterm infants, is a major cause of chronic neurological morbidity, including cerebral palsy. Although there has been great progress in the study of the mechanism of white matter injury in newborn infants, its pathogenesis is not entirely clear, and further treatment approaches are required. Animal models are the basis of study in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of white matter injury in preterm infants. Various species have been used to establish white matter injury models, including rodents, rabbits, sheep, and non-human primates...
October 31, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Maria Rosaria Melis, Fabrizio Sanna, Antonio Argiolas
Sexual behavior plays a fundamental role for reproduction in mammals and other animal species. It is characterized by an anticipatory and a consummatory phase, and several copulatory parameters have been identified in each phase, mainly in rats. Sexual behavior varies significantly across rats even when they are of the same strain and reared under identical conditions. This review shows that rats of the same strain selectively bred for showing a divergent behavioral trait when exposed to stress or novelty (i...
October 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Kimaya Sarmukadam, Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Mary M E McMillan, Linda L Agnew
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting about 1 in 100 children and is currently incurable. ASD represents a challenge to traditional methods of assessment and diagnosis, and it has been suggested that direct measures of brain activity and connectivity between brain regions during demanding tasks represents a potential pathway to building more accurate models of underlying brain function and ASD. One of the key behavioural diagnostic indicators of ASD consists of sensory features (SF), often characterised by over- or under-reactivity to environmental stimuli...
October 1, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Susanne Nikolaus, Eduards Mamlins, Hubertus Hautzel, Hans-Wilhelm Müller
Dopamine (DA) receptor and transporter dysfunctions play a major role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases including anxiety disorder (AD), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) in the manic (BDman) or depressive (BDdep) state and schizophrenia (SZ). We performed a PUBMED search, which provided a total of 239 in vivo imaging studies with either positron emission tomography (PET) or single-proton emission computed tomography (SPECT). In these studies, DA transporter binding, D1 receptor (R) binding, D2R binding, DA synthesis and/or DA release in patients with the primary diagnosis of acute AD (n=310), MDD (n=754), BDman (n=15), BDdep (n=49) or SZ (n=1532) were compared to healthy individuals...
October 1, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Golrokh Mirzaei, Hojjat Adeli
Clustering is a vital task in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain imaging and plays an important role in the reliability of brain disease detection, diagnosis, and effectiveness of the treatment. Clustering is used in processing and analysis of brain images for different tasks, including segmentation of brain regions and tissues (grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) and clustering of the atrophy in different parts of the brain. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of brain MRI studies that use clustering techniques for different tasks...
September 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Prasanth M Eapen, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Madhavan Nampoothiri
The neurokinin 1 receptor with the natural substrate substance P is one of the intensely studied receptors among the neurokinin receptors. The intracellular signaling mechanism uses G protein-coupled transduction regulating various physiological processes from nausea to Alzheimer's disease. The neurokinin 1 receptor plays a significant role in neuroinflammation-mediated alterations in neural circuitry. Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists are selective, potent and exhibited efficacy in animal models of nervous system disorders...
September 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Noemi Császár, Gabor Kapócs, István Bókkon
Based on a brief overview of the various aspects of schizophrenia reported by numerous studies, here we hypothesize that schizophrenia may originate (and in part be performed) from visual areas. In other words, it seems that a normal visual system or at least an evanescent visual perception may be an essential prerequisite for the development of schizophrenia as well as of various types of hallucinations. Our study focuses on auditory and visual hallucinations, as they are the most prominent features of schizophrenic hallucinations (and also the most studied types of hallucinations)...
September 24, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Mahasweta Das, Xiaolan Tang, Shyam S Mohapatra, Subhra Mohapatra
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the USA as well as in the world. As a result of TBI, the visual system is also affected often causing complete or partial visual loss, which in turn affects the quality of life. It may also lead to ocular motor dysfunction, defective accommodation, and impaired visual perception. As a part of the therapeutic strategy, early rehabilitative optometric intervention is important. Orthoptic therapy, medication, stem cell therapy, motor and attention trainings are the available treatment options...
September 18, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Catherine Hong Huan Hor, Bor Luen Tang
Autophagy is an essential and conserved cellular homeostatic process. Defects in the core and accessory components of the autophagic machinery would most severely impact terminally differentiated cells, such as neurons. The neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorder β-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) resulted from heterozygous or hemizygous germline mutations/pathogenic variant of the X chromosome gene WDR45, encoding WD40 repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides 4 (WIPI4)...
September 11, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Catherine Pérez-Valenzuela, Gonzalo Terreros, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Xiao Juan Su, Lingyi Huang, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Marcus L Brandão, Norberto C Coimbra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Fabiola Hernández-Vázquez, Julieta Garduño, Salvador Hernández-López
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Kunjumon I Vadakkan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Katarzyna Bartkowska, Beata Tepper, Kris Turlejski, Ruzanna L Djavadian
The exon junction complex (EJC) consists of four core proteins: Magoh, RNA-binding motif 8A (Rbm8a, also known as Y14), eukaryotic initiation factor 4A3 (eIF4A3, also known as DDX48), and metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51, also known as Casc3 or Barentsz), which are involved in the regulation of many processes occurring between gene transcription and protein translation. Its main role is to assemble into spliceosomes at the exon-exon junction of mRNA during splicing. It is, therefore, a range of functions concerning post-splicing events such as mRNA translocation, translation, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)...
May 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Ali Amini Harandi, Akram Esfandani, Hossein Pakdaman, Mehdi Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
Balo's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is considered a variant of multiple sclerosis characterized by concentric lamella of alternating demyelinated and partially myelinated tissues. It is a rare and a relatively acute condition. Attacks may proceed rapidly over weeks or months, typically without remission, like Marburg's variant, resulting in death or severe disability. However, the majority of cases have a more benign, self-limiting course with spontaneous remission. Magnetic resonance imaging is a primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of BCS...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem
Brain tissue is bioenergetically expensive. In humans, it composes approximately 2% of body weight and accounts for approximately 20% of calorie consumption. The brain consumes energy mostly for ion and neurotransmitter transport, a process that occurs primarily in synapses. Therefore, synapses are expensive for any living creature who has brain. In many brain diseases, synapses are damaged earlier than neurons start dying. Synapses may be considered as vulnerable sites on a neuron. Ischemic stroke, an acute disturbance of blood flow in the brain, is an example of a metabolic disease that affects synapses...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Mohamad El Haj, Mohamed Daoudi, Karim Gallouj, Ahmed A Moustafa, Jean-Louis Nandrino
Thanks to the current advances in the software analysis of facial expressions, there is a burgeoning interest in understanding emotional facial expressions observed during the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This review describes the research on facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval showing distinct emotional facial expressions according to the characteristics of retrieved memoires. More specifically, this research demonstrates that the retrieval of emotional memories can trigger corresponding emotional facial expressions (e...
November 27, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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