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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, Angel Ezquerra
Temperature maintenance and detection are essential for the survival and perpetuation of any species. This review is focused on thermosensation; thus a detailed and traced explanation of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of each component of this sensation is given. First, the proteins that react to temperature changes are identified; next, the nature of the neurons involved in thermosensation is described; and then, the pathways from the skin through the spinal cord to the brain are outlined...
October 18, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Gábor Kapócs, Felix Scholkmann, Vahid Salari, Noémi Császár, Henrik Szőke, István Bókkon
Today, there is an increased interest in research on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) because it may offer new opportunities in psychotherapy under controlled settings. The more we know about how a drug works in the brain, the more opportunities there will be to exploit it in medicine. Here, based on our previously published papers and investigations, we suggest that LSD-induced visual hallucinations/phosphenes may be due to the transient enhancement of bioluminescent photons in the early retinotopic visual system in blind as well as healthy people...
October 12, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Zahra Jafari, Bryan E Kolb, Majid H Mohajerani
Stress is an integral part of modern life. Although there is a large body of literature regarding the harmful effects of chronic stress on different aspects of human life, acute stress is the most common form of stress, resulting from the demands and pressures of the recent past and the anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. In spite of its pervasive nature, less attention has been paid to the impact of acute stress on sensory processing than to the consequences of chronic stress, particularly concerning auditory processing...
October 8, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Antonio Giuditta, Gigliola Grassi-Zucconi, Adolfo G Sadile
Sophisticated methods are currently used to investigate the properties of brain DNA and clarify its role under physiological conditions and in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Attention is now called on a DNA fraction present in the adult rat brain that is characterized by an elevated turnover and is not involved in cell division or DNA repair. The fraction, known as brain metabolic DNA (BMD), is modulated by strain, stress, circadian oscillations, exposure to enriched or impoverished environment, and notably by several training protocols and post-trial sleep...
September 26, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
You-Quan Ding, Wei-Ze Xie, Jian-Guo Qi
After peripheral nerve damage, injured or stressed primary sensory neurons (PSNs) transmitting pathological pain (pathopain) sensitize central nervous system (CNS) neural circuits and determine behavioral phenotypes of peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP). Therefore, phenotypic profiling of pathopain-transmitting PSNs is vital for probing and discovering PNP conditions. Following peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs), PNP might be potentially transmitted by distinct classes of damaged or stressed PSNs, such as axotomized PSNs without regeneration (axotomy-non-regenerative neurons), axotomized PSNs with accurate regeneration (axotomy-regenerative neurons), and spared intact PSNs adjacent to axotomized neurons (axotomy-spared neurons)...
September 24, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Nickolay K Isaev, Elena V Stelmashook, Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Galina A Korshunova, Natalya V Sumbatyan, Marina R Kapkaeva, Vladimir P Skulachev
In 2008, using a model of compression brain ischemia, we presented the first evidence that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of the SkQ family, i.e. SkQR1 [10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decylrhodamine], have a neuroprotective action. It was shown that intraperitoneal injections of SkQR1 (0.5-1 μmol/kg) 1 day before ischemia significantly decreased the damaged brain area. Later, we studied in more detail the anti-ischemic action of this antioxidant in a model of experimental focal ischemia provoked by unilateral intravascular occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...
August 25, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Lan Huang, Fengyan Zhao, Yi Qu, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), a serious disease leading to neonatal death, is becoming a key area of pediatric neurological research. Despite remarkable advances in the understanding of HIE, the explicit pathogenesis of HIE is unclear, and well-established treatments are absent. Animal models are usually considered as the first step in the exploration of the underlying disease and in evaluating promising therapeutic interventions. Various animal models of HIE have been developed with distinct characteristics, and it is important to choose an appropriate animal model according to the experimental objectives...
August 25, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Changzheng Zhang, Peiling Zhou, Tifei Yuan
The cerebellar cholinergic system belongs to the third type of afferent nerve fiber system (after the climbing and mossy fibers), and has important modulatory effects on cerebellar circuits and cerebellar-mediated functions. In this report, we review the cerebellar cholinergic system, including cholinergic origins and innervations, acetylcholine receptor expression and distributions, cholinergic modulations of neuronal firing and synaptic plasticity, the cholinergic role in cerebellar-mediated integral functions, and cholinergic changes during development and aging...
August 25, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Linda L Agnew, Nicholas M Andronicos
Salivary cortisol may be used as a biomarker of stress and anxiety in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some suggestions have been made that the measurement of cortisol needs to be undertaken by repeated days' observations to ensure reliability of the data obtained. These requirements are discussed in regard to 14 studies of the test-retest agreement and stability in cortisol data across repeated daily measurements. Results of those studies almost universally fail to support the argument for repeated daily measurements of cortisol...
August 17, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Golrokh Mirzaei, Anahita Adeli, Hojjat Adeli
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common health problem in elderly people. There has been considerable research toward the diagnosis and early detection of this disease in the past decade. The sensitivity of biomarkers and the accuracy of the detection techniques have been defined to be the key to an accurate diagnosis. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the research performed on the diagnosis of AD based on imaging and machine learning techniques. Different segmentation and machine learning techniques used for the diagnosis of AD are reviewed including thresholding, supervised and unsupervised learning, probabilistic techniques, Atlas-based approaches, and fusion of different image modalities...
August 12, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Catherine Winsper, Steven Marwaha, Suzet Tanya Lereya, Andrew Thompson, Julie Eyden, Swaran P Singh
Contemporary theories for the aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) take a lifespan approach asserting that inborn biological predisposition is potentiated across development by environmental risk factors. In this review, we present and critically evaluate evidence on the neurobiology of BPD in childhood and adolescence, compare this evidence to the adult literature, and contextualise within a neurodevelopmental framework. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies examining the neurobiological (i...
August 12, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Siew Ying Wong, Bor Luen Tang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia in the aging population worldwide. SIRT1 deacetylation of histones and transcription factors impinge on multiple neuronal and non-neuronal targets, and modulates stress response, energy metabolism and cellular senescence/death pathways. Collectively, SIRT1 activity could potentially affect multiple aspects of hippocampal and cortical neuron function and survival, thus modifying disease onset and progression. In this review, the known and potential mechanisms of action of SIRT1 with regard to AD, and its potential as a therapeutic target, are discussed...
August 6, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Jian-Jiao Chen, Tao Wang, Cai-di An, Chun-Yan Jiang, Jie Zhao, Shao Li
In early- or late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), inflammation, which is triggered by pathologic conditions, influences the progression of neurodegeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a crucial mediator of neurogenesis, because it exhibits a remarkable activity-dependent regulation of expression, which suggests that it may link inflammation to neurogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that acute and chronic inflammation in AD differentially modulates neurotrophin functions, which are related to the roles of inflammation in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration...
August 5, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Sana Javed, Ameema Tariq, Touqeer Ahmed, Barbara Budzyńska, Silvia Tejada, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
The prevalence of mental diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders, is ever-increasing, while treatment options for such disorders are limited and insufficient. In this scarcity of available medication, it is a feasible strategy to search for potential drugs among natural compounds, such as those found in plants. One such plant source is the root of Chinese sage, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae), which contains several compounds reported to possess neuroprotective activities. The most important of these compounds are tanshinones, which have been reported to possess ameliorative activity against a myriad of mental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and glioma, along with promoting neuronal differentiation and manifesting antinociceptive and anticonvulsant outcomes...
August 3, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Zhao Zhong Chong
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality and mobility, the novel therapeutic strategies of which are essentially required. The calcium binding protein S100B has emerged as a brain injury biomarker that is implicated in pathogenic process of SAH. S100B is mainly expressed in astrocytes of the central nervous system and functions through initiating intracellular signaling or via interacting with cell surface receptor, such as the receptor of advanced glycation end products. The biological roles of S100B in neurons have been closely associated with its concentrations, resulting in either neuroprotection or neurotoxicity...
October 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Charles R Legéndy
It is generally assumed at the time of this writing that memories are stored in the form of synaptic weights. However, it is now also clear that the synapses are not permanent; in fact, synaptic patterns undergo significant change in a matter of hours. This means that to implement the long survival of distant memories (for several decades in humans), the brain must possess a molecular backup mechanism in some form, complete with provisions for the storage and retrieval of information. It is found below that the memory-supporting molecules need not contain a detailed description of mental entities, as had been envisioned in the 'memory molecule papers' from 50 years ago, they only need to contain unique identifiers of various entities, and that this can be achieved using relatively small molecules, using a random code ('ID molecules')...
August 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Yahui Zhao, Dandong Li, Junjie Zhao, Jinning Song, Yonglin Zhao
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a protective structure that helps maintaining the homeostasis in cerebral microenvironment by limiting the passage of molecules into the brain. BBB is formed by closely conjugated endothelial cells, with astrocytic endfeet surrounded and extracellular matrix (ECM) consolidated. Numerous neurological diseases can cause disturbance of BBB, leading to brain edema and neurological dysfunctions. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), a member of the LDL receptor gene family, is involved in a lot of important processes in the brain under both physiological and pathological conditions...
August 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Andrew L Eagle, Paula A Gajewski, Alfred J Robison
Experience-dependent changes in the strength of connections between neurons in the hippocampus (HPC) are critical for normal learning and memory consolidation, and disruption of this process drives a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Proper HPC function relies upon discrete changes in gene expression driven by transcription factors (TFs) induced by neuronal activity. Here, we describe the induction and function of many of the most well-studied HPC TFs, including cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, serum-response factor, AP-1, and others, and describe their role in the learning process...
August 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Amene Saghazadeh, Carina C Ferrari, Nima Rezaei
Although the role of inflammation in neurodegeneration has been well acknowledged, less is known on the issue of each cytokine in specific neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will present evidence elucidating that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has a multi-faceted character in pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Increased levels of IL-1β were found in PD patients. Besides, PD symptoms were observed in IL-1β wild-type, but not deficient, animals. These lines of evidence suggest that IL-1β may contribute to the initiation or progression of PD...
August 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Zahra Shahpiri, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Fatemeh Farzaei, Roja Rahimi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common chronic neurodegenerative disease that affects motor skills and cognitive performance. The conventional therapeutic approaches for the management of PD are just able to alleviate symptoms. Exploring for achieving novel substances with therapeutic benefits in PD patients is the focus of a wide range of current investigations. The aim of the present study is to comprehensively review phytochemicals with protective or therapeutic activities in PD and focus on their neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms...
August 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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