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Reviews in the Neurosciences

Kunjumon I Vadakkan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Mahasweta Das, Xiaolan Tang, Shyam S Mohapatra, Subhra Mohapatra
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the USA as well as in the world. As a result of TBI, the visual system is also affected often causing complete or partial visual loss, which in turn affects the quality of life. It may also lead to ocular motor dysfunction, defective accommodation, and impaired visual perception. As a part of the therapeutic strategy, early rehabilitative optometric intervention is important. Orthoptic therapy, medication, stem cell therapy, motor and attention trainings are the available treatment options...
September 18, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Catherine Hong Huan Hor, Bor Luen Tang
Autophagy is an essential and conserved cellular homeostatic process. Defects in the core and accessory components of the autophagic machinery would most severely impact terminally differentiated cells, such as neurons. The neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorder β-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) resulted from heterozygous or hemizygous germline mutations/pathogenic variant of the X chromosome gene WDR45, encoding WD40 repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides 4 (WIPI4)...
September 11, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Catherine Pérez-Valenzuela, Gonzalo Terreros, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Xiao Juan Su, Lingyi Huang, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Ahmed A Moustafa, Mubashir Hassan, Doaa H Hewedi, Iman Hewedi, Julia K Garami, Hany Al Ashwal, Nazar Zaki, Sung-Yum Seo, Vassilis Cutsuridis, Sergio L Angulo, Joman Y Natsheh, Mohammad M Herzallah, Dorota Frydecka, Błażej Misiak, Mohamed Salama, Wael Mohamed, Mohamad El Haj, Michael Hornberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Marcus L Brandão, Norberto C Coimbra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Fabiola Hernández-Vázquez, Julieta Garduño, Salvador Hernández-López
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Seyed Mohammad Seyedsaadat, David F Kallmes
Stroke is an important cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Immediately after stroke onset, the ischemic cascade initiates and deleteriously affects neural cells. Time to reperfusion therapy is a critical determinant of functional recovery in stroke patients. Although recent trials have shown the significant efficacy of endovascular thrombectomy, either alone or with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, in improving the functional outcomes of stroke patients with large vessel occlusion, hours can pass before patients receive reperfusion therapy...
August 1, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Marcello Ceci, Vittoria Mariano, Nicla Romano
The review is an overview of the current knowledge of neuronal regeneration properties in mammals and fish. The ability to regenerate the damaged parts of the nervous tissue has been demonstrated in all vertebrates. Notably, fish and amphibians have the highest capacity for neurogenesis, whereas reptiles and birds are able to only regenerate specific regions of the brain, while mammals have reduced capacity for neurogenesis. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a promising model of study because lesions in the brain or complete cross-section of the spinal cord are followed by an effective neuro-regeneration that successfully restores the motor function...
August 1, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Berenice Anabel Silva, Carina Cintia Ferrari
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that involves an intricate interaction between the central nervous system and the immune system. Nevertheless, its etiology is still unknown. MS exhibits different clinical courses: recurrent episodes with remission periods ('relapsing-remitting') that can evolve to a 'secondary progressive' form or persistent progression from the onset of the disease ('primary progressive'). The discovery of an effective treatment and cure has been hampered due to the pathological and clinical heterogeneity of the disease...
July 26, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Jenny Berrío Sánchez, Jaison Cucarian Hurtado, Ramiro Barcos Nunes, Alcyr Alves de Oliveira
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a very common neurodegenerative condition in which both motor and nonmotor deficits evolve throughout the course of the disease. Normally characterized as a movement disorder, PD has been broadly studied from a motor perspective. However, mild to moderate cognitive deficits began to appear in the early phases of the disease, even before motor disturbances actually manifest, and continue to progress relentlessly. These nonmotor manifestations are also a source of detriment to the patients' already strained functionality and quality of life, and pose a therapeutic challenge seeing that replacing therapies have had conflicting results...
June 30, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Allison B Reiss, Hirra A Arain, Mark M Stecker, Nicolle M Siegart, Lora J Kasselman
A major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is the plaque composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Although these plaques may have harmful properties, there is much evidence to implicate soluble oligomeric Aβ as the primary noxious form. Aβ oligomers can be generated both extracellularly and intracellularly. Aβ is toxic to neurons in a myriad of ways. It can cause pore formation resulting in the leakage of ions, disruption of cellular calcium balance, and loss of membrane potential. It can promote apoptosis, cause synaptic loss, and disrupt the cytoskeleton...
August 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Lan-Yu Zhang, Ming-Rui Jia, Tao Sun
The resolution of acute inflammation, once thought to be a passive process, is now recognized as an active one. The productions of endogenous special proresolving mediators (SPMs) are involved in this process. SPMs, including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, are endogenous lipid mediators generated from ω-6 arachidonic acid or ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. They have potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions in various inflammatory disorders...
August 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Kristy L Meadows
Rodent and rabbit stroke models have been instrumental in our current understanding of stroke pathophysiology; however, translational failure is a significant problem in preclinical ischemic stroke research today. There are a number of different focal cerebral ischemia models that vary in their utility, pathophysiology of causing disease, and their response to treatments. Unfortunately, despite active preclinical research using these models, treatment options for ischemic stroke have not significantly advanced since the food and drug administration approval of tissue plasminogen activator in 1996...
August 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Gal Winter, Robert A Hart, Richard P G Charlesworth, Christopher F Sharpley
Gut microbiome diversity has been strongly associated with mood-relating behaviours, including major depressive disorder (MDD). This association stems from the recently characterised bi-directional communication system between the gut and the brain, mediated by neuroimmune, neuroendocrine and sensory neural pathways. While the link between gut microbiome and depression is well supported by research, a major question needing to be addressed is the causality in the connection between the two, which will support the understanding of the role that the gut microbiota play in depression...
August 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Sharon Israely, Gerry Leisman, Eli Carmeli
Muscle synergies are proposed to function as motor primitives that are modulated by frontal brain areas to construct a large repertoire of movement. This paper reviews the history of the development of our current theoretical understanding of nervous system-based motor control mechanisms and more specifically the concept of muscle synergies. Computational models of muscle synergies, especially the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm, are discussed with specific reference to the changes in synergy control post-central nervous system (CNS) lesions...
August 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Martin Skov, Marcos Nadal
The assumption that human cognition requires exceptional explanations holds strong in some domains of behavioral and brain sciences. Scientific aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, abound with claims for art-specific cognitive or neural processes. This assumption fosters a conceptual structure disconnected from other fields and biases the sort of processes to be studied. More generally, assuming that art is special is to cling to the idea that some aspect of our species' mental constitution makes us unique, special, and meaningful...
August 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Michael Pellegrini, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Cluster analysis and other subgrouping techniques have risen in popularity in recent years in non-invasive brain stimulation research in the attempt to investigate the issue of inter-individual variability - the issue of why some individuals respond, as traditionally expected, to non-invasive brain stimulation protocols and others do not. Cluster analysis and subgrouping techniques have been used to categorise individuals, based on their response patterns, as responder or non-responders. There is, however, a lack of consensus and consistency on the most appropriate technique to use...
August 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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