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Journal of Personality Disorders

Joseph E Beeney, Sophie A Lazarus, Michael N Hallquist, Stephanie D Stepp, Aidan G C Wright, Lori N Scott, Rachel A Giertych, Paul A Pilkonis
Calls have increased to place interpersonal and self-disturbance as defining features of personality disorders (PDs). Findings from a methodologically diverse set of studies suggest that a common factor undergirds all PDs. The nature of this core of PDs, however, is not clear. In the current study, interviews were completed for DSM-IV PD diagnosis and interpersonal dysfunction independently with 272 individuals (PD = 191, no-PD = 91). Specifically, we evaluated interpersonal dysfunction across social domains...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Katharina Kolbeck, Steffen Moritz, Julia Bierbrodt, Christina Andreou
Ongoing research is shifting towards a dimensional understanding of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Aim of this study was to identify personality profiles in BPD that are predictive of self-destructive behaviors. Personality traits were assessed (n = 130) according to the five-factor model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) and an additional factor called Risk Preference. Self-destructive behavior parameters such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and other borderline typical dyscontrolled behaviors (e...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Dana B Borkum, Frances R Frankenburg, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Argyro Athanasiadi, Christina M Temes, D Bradford Reich, Mary C Zanarini
The current study assesses time-to-cessation of individual therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and comparison subjects with other personality disorders (OPD) after 16 years of prospective follow-up. It also details the multivariate factors that predict this outcome for those with BPD. At baseline, 290 patients met criteria for BPD and 72 met criteria for OPD. Individuals with BPD had a significantly slower time-to-cessation of individual therapy than OPD comparison subjects. Seven baseline variables were found to be significant multivariate predictors of a slower time-to-cessation of individual therapy: older age, being white, severity of childhood neglect, history of a mood disorder, an IQ less than 90, poor vocational record prior to index admission, and higher level of trait neuroticism...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
David K Marcus, Samantha L Robinson, Alexander E Eichenbaum
Most conceptualizations of psychopathy emphasize its interpersonal consequences, yet most research on psychopathy has been conducted at the individual level. In small groups, well-acquainted members of sororities and fraternities (N = 111) rated one another and themselves on a variety of externalizing behaviors (e.g., cheating, risky sex), and completed a self-report measure of psychopathy. There was consensus about the extent to which members of the groups engaged in these behaviors. The associations between these target effects and respondents' self-reports suggest that these consensual judgments were reasonably accurate...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Lene Halling Hastrup, Mickey T Kongerslev, Erik Simonsen
Earlier studies report that although people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience symptom reduction in the long term, they continue to have difficulties in work recovery. This nationwide 9-year register-based study (N = 67,075) investigated the long-term labor-market attachment of all individuals diagnosed with BPD during first admission to Danish mental health services in comparison with other psychiatric disorders. Controlling for baseline characteristics and co-occurring secondary psychiatric diagnoses, the BPD group had 32% lower odds (OR = 0...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Audun Welander-Vatn, Fartein Ask Torvik, Nikolai Czajkowski, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrom
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share risk factors to a substantial degree, and both are characterized by the experience of anxiety in social situations. The authors investigated whether these disorders are differentially related to the Big Five personality traits. They also examined the underlying genetic and environmental influences on these associations. A population-based sample of 1,761 female twins was interviewed at baseline, and 1,471 of these were re-interviewed 10 years later...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Brin F S Grenyer, Rachel C Bailey, Kate L Lewis, Michael Matthias, Toni Garretty, Annemaree Bickerton
Carers of persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience high burden. Treatment guidelines advocate involving carers in comprehensive therapy approaches. This study is a randomized controlled trial of group psychoeducation, compared to waitlist. Group psychoeducation involved 6-8 carers per group and focused on improving relationship patterns between carers and relatives with BPD, psychoeducation about the disorder, peer support and self-care, and skills to reduce burden. Carers were randomized into intervention (N = 33) or waitlist (N = 35)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Bethany G Edwards, Elsa Ermer, Peter Salovey, Kent A Kiehl
Emotional impairment is a core feature of psychopathy, and the disorder has been linked to an inability to recognize and regulate emotion, leading to deficiencies in empathy and difficulties in social functioning. This study investigated associations among psychopathic traits and ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) in female offenders and integrated data with previously published male offender data (Ermer, Kahn, Salovey, & Kiehl, 2012) to examine gender differences in relationships. Results showed that female offenders were impaired in the understanding and management of emotion relative to the general population, and that female offenders scored higher than male offenders in EI...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Casey M Strickland, Christopher J Hopwood, Marina A Bornovalova, Elizabeth C Rojas, Robert F Krueger, Christopher J Patrick
Symptom-based models, typically operationalized through diagnostic interview, and trait models, typically operationalized via questionnaire inventories, reflect historically competing conceptions of personality disorder (PD). DSMD-5 includes models of both types, in Sections II and III, respectively. In this study, we sought to synthesize these alternative conceptualizations by fitting bifactor models to data for both Section II PD symptoms (assessed using the SCID-II interview protocol) and dimensional traits for the six PDs retained in Section III (assessed using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Paul H Soloff, Laurel Chiappetta
Prospective predictors of suicide attempts were assessed in 118 subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD) after 10 or more years of follow-up. Mean (SD) time to follow-up was 14.4 (4.7) years. Subjects were predominately female (78.8%), Caucasian (81.4%), and of lower socioeconomic status. Initial recruitment was evenly balanced between inpatient, outpatient, and non-patient (community) sources. In the 10-year interval, 55 subjects (46.6%) attempted suicide. Compared to baseline, suicidal ideation, number of attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury diminished markedly...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Elien De Caluwé, Lize Verbeke, Marcel van Aken, Paul T van der Heijden, Barbara De Clercq
The inclusion of a dimensional trait model of personality pathology in DSM-5 creates new opportunities for research on developmental antecedents of personality pathology. The traits of this model can be measured with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), initially developed for adults, but also demonstrating validity in adolescents. The present study adds to the growing body of literature on the psychometrics of the PID-5, by examining its structure, validity, and reliability in 187 psychiatric-referred late adolescents and emerging adults...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Robert D Latzman, Isabella M Palumbo, Katheryn C Sauvigné, Lisa K Hecht, Scott O Lilienfeld, Christopher J Patrick
Methodological and conceptual differences across studies have impeded our understanding of the relationship between psychopathy and internalizing psychopathology. To shed further light on this question, we undertook correlational and structural-modeling analyses of data from two samples to characterize how facets of psychopathy relate to internalizing psychopathology when assessed using multidimensional measures of each construct (i.e., Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jeremy Quek, Glenn A Melvin, Clair Bennett, Michael S Gordon, Naysun Saeedi, Louise K Newman
Mentalization is proposed to underlie the disturbed interpersonal relatedness that is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Despite growing evidence of BPD in adolescents, studies examining mentalization in relation to adolescent BPD have remained limited. Given contradictory findings of this relationship, particularly with adults, further research of mentalization in adolescents with BPD is warranted. The current study further clarifies the nature of mentalizing impairments, related to BPD, by examining different aspects of mentalization between adolescents with BPD (n = 26) and a group of healthy controls (n = 25)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Barbara Stanley, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Christa Labouliere, Steven Roose
Traditionally, the study of personality disorders had been based on psychoanalytic or behavioral models. Over the past two decades, there has been an emerging neuroscience model of borderline personality disorder (BPD) grounded in the concept of BPD as a condition in which dysfunctional neural circuits underlie its pathological dimensions, some of which include emotion dysregulation (broadly encompassing affective instability, negative affectivity, and hyperarousal), abnormal interpersonal functioning, and impulsive aggression...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Maja Zandersen, Mads Gram Henriksen, Josef Parnas
The status of borderline personality disorder (BPD) as a diagnostic category is a matter of continuing controversy. In the United States, BPD is one of the most frequent diagnoses of psychiatric inpatients, and a similar tendency emerges in Europe. Nearly all theoretical aspects of BPD have been questioned, including its very position as a personality disorder. In this article, we trace the evolution of the borderline concept from the beginning of the 20th century to the current psychometric research. We argue that the status of BPD is fraught with conceptual difficulties, including an unrecognized semantic drift of major phenomenological terms (e...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Rheanna J Remmel, Andrea L Glenn, Jennifer Cox
Research on the biological factors influencing criminal behavior is increasingly being introduced into court, necessitating research on how such evidence is perceived and influences decision makers. Research on how this evidence influences sentencing recommendations is inconclusive. In this study, we focus on biological evidence related to psychopathy, a construct commonly associated with criminal behavior. Approximately 800 community members were presented with a case vignette detailing an individual who is described as having a high level of psychopathic traits...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Michelle Schoenleber
In reviewing four prominent theories, Gunderson et al. (2018) incidentally highlight for the reader the need for new collaborative research efforts that draw together scholars representing these various theories o borderline personality pathology. Many avenues for such research exist that have the potential to improve o r overall understanding of the development, maintenance and possible treatment of borderline personality pathology in ways that research grounded in just one theory does not. Herein, the similarities and differences among these theories in their assumptions with regard to emotional baselines and sequences of emotion (i...
April 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
John F Clarkin
Models of personality pathology have been used to guide treatment development for patients with borderline personality disorder. The existing treatments are effective, but mechanisms of change related to the model have not been adequately explored.
April 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger, Gillian A McCabe
Gunderson, Fruzzetti, Unruh, and Choi-Kahn (2018) review four competing theories of borderline personality border (BPD). Regrettably, they did not acknowledge the theory that BPD is a maladaptive variant of Five-Factor Model general personality structure. This commentary indicates how the FFM of BPD addresses well, and does so empirically, the points of comparison, made by Gunderson et al.
April 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
John G Gunderson, Alan Fruzzetti, Brandon Unruh, Lois Choi-Kain
The authors review four theories that propose different conceptualizations of borderline personality disorder's (BPD) core psychopathology: excess aggression, emotional dysregulation, failed mentalization, and interpersonal hypersensitivity. The theories are compared in their ability to explain BPD's coaggregation of four usually distinct sectors of psychopathology, their high overlap with other disorders, their ability to distinguish BPD from other disorders, their integration of heritability, and their clinical applicability...
April 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
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