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Journal of Personality Disorders

Dominick Gamache, Claudia Savard, Sophie Lemelin, Evens Villeneuve
This study is an investigation of the psychometric properties of the Treatment Attrition-Retention Scale for Personality Disorders (TARS-PD), an instrument developed to identify patients with personality disorder (PD) at risk of early dropout from psychotherapy. In a first study, assessment files from 320 patients referred for PD evaluation at an outpatient clinic were examined to assess the instrument's inter-rater reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Results showed that the global scale could be scored with excellent reliability...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jacqueline Liggett, Martin Sellbom, Kieran L C Carmichael
The current study examined the extent to which the trait-based operationalization of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in Section III of the DSM-5 describes the same construct as the one described in Section II. A community sample of 313 adults completed a series of personality inventories indexing the DSM-5 Sections II and III diagnostic criteria for OCPD, in addition to a measure of functional impairment modelled after the criteria in Section III. Results indicated that latent constructs representing Section II and Section III OCPD overlapped substantially (r = ...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Paul H Soloff, Laurel Chiappetta
We sought predictors of both suicidal behavior and psychosocial outcome in subjects with BPD followed for 8 years and asked if there was a relationship between these outcomes. One hundred twenty-three BPD subjects, recruited from inpatient (35.8%), outpatient (30.9%) and community (33.3%) sources, were assessed annually for known risk factors for suicidal behavior. Interval attempts were reported by 25 subjects (20.2%). Increased risk of suicide attempt was associated with negative affectivity, aggression, inpatient recruitment, hospitalizations, minority race, and frequent changes in employment...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Deborah Badoud, Paco Prada, Rosetta Nicastro, Charlotte Germond, Patrick Luyten, Nader Perroud, Martin Debbané
Insecure attachment and impairments in reflective functioning (RF) are thought to play a critical role in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In particular, the mentalization-based model argues that insecure attachment indirectly accounts for increased BPD features, notably via disruption of RF capacities. Although the mediation relationship between attachment, RF, and BPD is supported by previous evidence, it remains to be directly tested in adults with BPD. In the current study, a sample of 55 female adult BPD patients and 105 female healthy controls completed a battery of self-report measures to investigate the interplay between attachment, RF capacities, and BPD clinical status...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Ji Young Choi, Soo Hyun Park
Extant literature indicates that childhood maltreatment is significantly associated with personality disorders. With the recent call for a more dimensional approach to understanding personality and pathological personality traits, the aim of the present study was to examine whether the experience of childhood maltreatment is associated with pathological personality traits as measured by the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5). We analyzed data from 557 adult psychiatric patients with diverse psychiatric diagnoses, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and anxiety disorders...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
K S Kendler, S H Aggen, Nathan Gillespie, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, R F Krueger, Nikolai Czajkowski, Eivind Ystrom, T Reichborn-Kjennerud
Recent work has suggested a high level of congruence between normative personality, most typically represented by the "big five" factors, and abnormal personality traits. In 2,293 Norwegian adult twins ascertained from a population-based registry, the authors evaluated the degree of sharing of genetic and environmental influences on normative personality, assessed by the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and personality disorder traits (PDTs), assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Norwegian Brief Form (PID-5-NBF)...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jens Drachmann Bukh, Per Bech, Lars Vedel Kessing
The diagnostic stability of comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression remains unclear. A total of 262 patients suffering from first-episode depression were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and reassessed after 5 years. A total of 87 patients (33%) were diagnosed with a personality disorder at baseline, and 63 of them (72%) maintained a personality disorder diagnosis at follow-up (kappa coefficient 0.71). At cluster level, 63% maintained a diagnosis within cluster B and 48% maintained a cluster C disorder across the follow-up period (kappa coefficients of 0...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Erin A Kaufman, Megan E Puzia, Hilary K Mead, Sheila E Crowell, Amber McEachern, Theodore P Beauchaine
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are among the most debilitating psychiatric conditions. Behaviors and traits associated with these disorders can have profound influences on those surrounding the affected individual. Accordingly, researchers have begun to examine effects of these symptoms on parent-child relationships. Theoretical and empirical work suggests that one mechanism linking maternal psychopathology to child symptoms is familial transmission of emotion dysregulation...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
G Apter, E Devouche, V Garez, M Valente, M-C Genet, M Gratier, S Dominguez, E Tronick
The main aim of this study was to ascertain whether infants as young as 3 months of age, whose mothers suffer from borderline personality disorder (BPD), are already at risk of greater dysregulation than infants of mothers without BPD when faced with a minor stressful experience. Nineteen mothers diagnosed with BPD and 41 controls with no history of psychopathology and their 3-month-old infants were observed using Tronick's Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. The authors found that infants whose mothers have BPD express less positive vocalizations and less nonautonomic self-regulation than infants of mothers with no psychopathology...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Carolin Brück, Stephanie Derstroff, Heike Jacob, Martina Wolf-Arehult, Stefanie Wekenmann, Dirk Wildgruber
Studies conducted in patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have documented a variety of anomalies concerning patients' abilities to interpret emotional signals. Attempting to clarify the bases of these anomalies, the current literature draws attention to a possible role of dysfunctional expectations, such as the expectation of social rejection. Dysfunctional expectations, however, may not only bias social interpretations, but may also focus attention on social cues most important in conveying emotional messages, such as nonverbal signals...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
John Newbury-Helps, Janet Feigenbaum, Peter Fonagy
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition)...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Falk Mancke, Sabine C Herpertz, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Katja Bertsch
Emotion dysregulation and trait anger are seen as central aspects of aggression in borderline personality disorder (BPD); their interplay in aggression of BPD, however, remains unclear. Using a cross-sectional design, we conducted a mediation analysis in a well-characterized sample of female and male BPD patients (n = 95). We found that emotion dysregulation and trait anger sequentially mediate the association between BPD and aggression. In accordance with major theories of BPD, emotion dysregulation may thus constitute an underlying factor that gives rise to anger and in turn to aggression in BPD...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Inga Niedtfeld, Nadine Defiebre, Christina Regenbogen, Daniela Mier, Sabrina Fenske, Peter Kirsch, Stefanie Lis, Christian Schmahl
Previous research has revealed alterations and deficits in facial emotion recognition in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). During interpersonal communication in daily life, social signals such as speech content, variation in prosody, and facial expression need to be considered simultaneously. We hypothesized that deficits in higher level integration of social stimuli contribute to difficulties in emotion recognition in BPD, and heightened arousal might explain this effect. Thirty-one patients with BPD and thirty-one healthy controls were asked to identify emotions in short video clips, which were designed to represent different combinations of the three communication channels: facial expression, speech content, and prosody...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Carol Chu, Jennifer M Buchman-Schmitt, Thomas E Joiner, M David Rudd
This study characterizes the personality disorder (PD) symptoms of patients who endorse a perplexing combination of low desire and high plans for suicide. Five PD (antisocial, narcissistic, borderline, dependent, avoidant) symptoms were examined at the junction of two suicide risk factors: (a) suicidal desire/ideation and (b) resolved plans/preparations. Participants (N = 250) were recruited from U.S. Army Medical Center affiliated sites, including two outpatient clinics, an inpatient facility, and an emergency room...
April 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Justin A Lavner, Joanna Lamkin, Joshua D Miller
Despite the relationship of impulsivity with interpersonal dysfunction, including romantic relationship dysfunction, surprisingly little research has examined the degree to which impulsivity predicts how marriages unfold over time. The current study used data from 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' impulsivity in relation to their 4-year trajectories of marital satisfaction, marital problems, relationship commitment, and verbal aggression, as well as their 10-year divorce rates. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that husbands' and wives' impulsivity predicted their own intercepts of marital satisfaction and marital problems, reflecting lower levels of satisfaction and higher levels of problems...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Laura E Drislane, Christopher J Patrick
This study undertook confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of data from 567 participants to quantify constructs specified by the triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009)-boldness, meanness, and disinhibition-as latent variables. Indicators for the CFAs consisted of subscales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure along with triarchic scales derived from items of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory, Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. A modified three-factor model provided good fit to the data and outperformed alternative two- and one-factor models...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
John F Edens, Elyse N Mowle, John W Clark, Melissa S Magyar
DSM-5 recently added the specifier "Limited Prosocial Emotions" (LPE) to the Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnosis, yet little is known about how these traits will affect attitudes toward CD youth. Laypersons attending jury duty (N = 326) were randomly assigned to one of four case vignette conditions in which a male juvenile offender was identified as having (a) CD symptoms only, (b) CD symptoms plus a diagnostic label, (c) CD symptoms plus a diagnostic label and description of LPE traits, or (d) CD symptoms plus a description of LPE traits and a "psychopath" label...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Lisa C Zhang, Colleen A Brenner
The prevailing theoretical model of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is a three-factor model based on subscale-level analyses. However, recent item-level factor analyses of the SPQ suggest a four- or five-factor model. To examine the factor structure of the SPQ and how this structure may differ between undergraduate and community samples, the authors conducted exploratory and confirmatory item-level factor analyses of this measure on undergraduate (N = 1,850) and community participants (N = 1,464)...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jessica R Peters, Karen J Derefinko, Donald R Lynam
Many studies have demonstrated that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with aggression and, in particular, intimate partner violence; however, the mechanisms underlying this association have been less clearly identified. The present study examines the hypothesis that negative urgency (impulsive behavior in response to intense, negative emotions) may explain the specific association between BPD and intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional self-report measures of BPD, violent behavior, and multiple dimensions of impulsivity were administered to 193 undergraduate men...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Tess E Smith, Douglas B Samuel
An existing relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality disorder (PD) has been well documented, yet research has been limited by possible selection and self-report biases as well as PD models of questionable validity. This study examined the relationship of ADHD with adult personality traits and disorders in a sample that included individuals prescreened for elevated childhood ADHD symptoms. Four hundred thirty-nine undergraduates completed retrospective reports of childhood ADHD symptoms as well as current ratings of ADHD symptoms, traditional PD categories, and the DSM-5 alternative PD trait model...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
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