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Journal of Personality Disorders

Dan Wetterborg, Peter Dehlbom, Niklas Långström, Gerhard Andersson, Alan E Fruzzetti, Pia Enebrink
In addition to suicidal behaviors, men with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often display antisocial behavior that could impair contacts with mental health services. While research has established effective treatments for women with BPD, this is not yet the case for men. The authors evaluated 12 months of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for 30 men with BPD and antisocial behavior, using a within-group design with repeated measurements. The authors found moderate to strong, statistically significant pre-to posttreatment reductions of several dysfunctional behaviors, including self-harm, verbal and physical aggression, and criminal offending (rate ratios 0...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Andrew C Salatino, June P Tangney, Jeffrey B Stuewig, Linda D Chrosniak
This study assessed whether psychopathy and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are differentially related to three drinking motives: coping, enhancement, and social. Participants were 170 inmates (74% male) initially held on felony charges in a suburban jail. The Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995) and Borderline Features scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) were administered at the outset of incarceration. In a follow-up interview 4 to 6 years postincarceration, participants completed the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ; Cooper, Russell, Skinner, & Windle, 1992) assessing drinking motives...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
John H Porcerelli, Christopher J Hopwood, John R Jones
A growing body of research supports the validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in evaluating community and psychiatric samples. Although maladaptive personality also has significant relevance in primary care settings, research on the PID-5 in primary care samples is limited. In this study, the authors examined the intercorrelations, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the brief form of the PID-5 (PID-5-BF) in 100 primary care outpatients. Results are consistent with findings in other samples in suggesting that PID-5 domains are moderately intercorrelated and associated with a variety of mental health variables...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Roberta Bortolla, Marco Cavicchioli, Andrea Fossati, Cesare Maffei
Emotional hyperreactivity (Linehan, 1993) is the most investigated construct in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, experimental studies revealed mixed results on the topic. Our main objective is to comprehensively summarize the results on emotional reactivity in BPD compared to healthy controls (HCs), using a meta-analytic approach, considering different emotional response systems (physiology, behavior, self-report). We included 31 experimental studies (1,675 subjects). We observed null to small effect sizes for several physiological and behavioral outcomes...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Miles Bore, Kristin R Laurens, Megan J Hobbs, Melissa J Green, Stacy Tzoumakis, Felicity Harris, Vaughan J Carr
Prior investigations indicate that the five core personality dimensions (the "Big Five") are measurable by middle childhood. The aim of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of a short-form self-report measure of the Big Five personality dimensions in children that would be suitable for administration online in large population-based studies. Twenty-five questionnaire items in English, derived from the 65-item Big Five Questionnaire for Children in Italian (Barbaranelli, Caprara, Rabasca, & Pastorelli, 2003), were completed online by 27,415 Australian children in Year 6 (mean age 11...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Elliott Christian, Martin Sellbom, Ross B Wilkinson
In the current investigation, we examined the association between psychopathy and attachment styles in several specific attachment relationships (i.e., romantic, mother, father, friend). Data were collected online from a combination of Australian university and general community samples (N = 729, 53.50% female) using the Expanded Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy scale (Christian & Sellbom, 2016) and a modified version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Structures (Fraley, Heffernan, Vicary, & Brumbaugh, 2011)...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Alexander Collins, Kirsten Barnicot, Piyal Sen
The objectives of this study were to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in emergency departments (EDs) and evaluate the effect of comorbid PDs on clinical outcomes. A systematic search of five databases along with manual searching and expert consultation was performed. A quality appraisal was conducted. A total of 29 articles were included. Prevalence of PDs in ED attendees varied depending on presenting complaint, Q(4) = 577.5, p < ...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Josep M Peri, Ana Muñoz-Champel, Rafael Torrubia, Fernando Gutiérrez
On the path to developing dimensional models of personality disorder (PD), we are at risk of leaving key diagnostic aspects behind. The general criteria for PD may be important ones because they reflect the defining aspects of personality pathology: long duration, independence from psychopathological states, and harmfulness. We assessed these criteria by interview in a sample of 362 psychiatric outpatients after administering the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+. The result was a 42.5% fall in self-reported endorsements, due to misinterpretations (11...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Ingo Jacobs, Lisa Lenz, Anna Wollny, Antje Horsch
In schema therapy, modes are proposed as a key concept and main target for treatment of personality disorders. The present study aimed to assess a comprehensive set of 20 modes, to explore their higher-order structure, and to link the mode factors to the generic schema factor and basic personality traits. The sample consisted of N = 533 inpatients. Earlier versions of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI, SMI-2) were merged into the German Extended SMI (GE-SMI). Item-level confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the structure of 16 out of 20 GE-SMI scales might be unidimensional...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jared R Ruchensky, John F Edens, M Brent Donnellan, Samuel W Hawes, Edward P Mulvey
The Triarchic model (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) posits that psychopathy consists of three elements: Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition. Drislane et al. (2015) recently derived scales from the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Kerr, Stattin, & Levander, 2002) to assess these traits. The initial validation efforts appeared promising, but researchers have yet to evaluate these scales among justice-involved youth. The current study examines the validity of the YPI-Triarchic scales in an archival sample of 928 male adolescent offenders and tests whether the new scales provide information incremental to the original YPI...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jenna Kirtley, John Chiocchi, Jon Cole, Mark Sampson
There is some research exploring carers' experiences within the National Health Service in the UK, but only one has focused on carers of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Ninety-eight carers completed a questionnaire-based study; 57 carers of individuals who meet the diagnostic criteria for BPD were compared to 41 carers of individuals with other mental health problems. The study aimed to investigate whether perceived stigma, perceived threat of strong emotions, and expressed emotion (EE) within the family environment predicted carer burden...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Thomas C Harford, Chiung M Chen, Bradley T Kerridge, Bridget F Grant
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with violence toward self and others. This study aims to further identify which DSM-5 BPD criteria are independently related to violence, using data from National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, which included a total of 36,309 U.S. respondents ages 18 and older (n = 4,301 for BPD; n = 19,404 for subthreshold BPD). Multinomial logistic regression examined the associations between BPD criteria and violence categories, including suicide attempt (self-directed), violence toward others (other-directed), combined (self-/other-directed) violence, and no violence...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Daniel Flynn, Mary Kells, Mary Joyce, Paul Corcoran, Justina Hurley, Conall Gillespie, Catalina Suarez, Michaela Swales, Ella Arensman
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an effective intervention for treating adults with emotional and behavioral dysregulation. The National DBT Project, Ireland was established in 2013 to coordinate the implementation of DBT across public community mental health settings at a national level. This study describes the implementation and evaluation of DBT across multiple independent sites in adult mental health services (AMHS). The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to guide this national implementation where barriers and facilitators to DBT implementation were considered...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Nicholas D Thomson, Theodore P Beauchaine
Although emotion dysregulation (ED) is a core symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD), tests of associations between ED and aggression and violence-which are common to BPD-are sparse. The authors evaluated mediating effects of an autonomic vulnerability to ED on links between BPD symptoms and (a) reactive aggression, (b) proactive aggression, and (c) histories of interpersonal violence in a sample of young adults (N = 104), ages 18-22 years. Low baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) mediated the association between BPD symptoms and reactive aggression...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jesper N Rgaard Kjær, Robert Biskin, Claus Vestergaard, Povl Munk-J Rgensen
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are known to present frequently in emergency rooms, and they have a high rate of suicide. The mortality rate of patients with BPD is still unclear. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and The Danish Register for Causes of Death were used to identify patients with a first-ever diagnosis of BPD (ICD-10: F60.31) from 1995 through 2011 together with time and cause of death. A total of 10,545 patients with a BPD diagnosis were followed for a mean time of 7...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Christopher C Conway, Molly T Penrod, Genevieve M Pugsley, Maria A Larrazabal, Casey E Snyder
Distress tolerance (DT) is central to major etiological theories of, and popular treatments for, borderline personality disorder (PD), but empirical evidence for the connection between DT and borderline PD is inconclusive. Such inconsistency is partly due to limited concordance across DT indices from different measurement domains (e.g., behavioral, physiological). In a student sample (N = 267), we assessed subjective perceptions of DT capabilities, task performance on a distressing laboratory challenge, and borderline pathology...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Carla D Chugani, Amy L Byrd, Sarah L Pedersen, Tammy Chung, Alison E Hipwell, Stephanie D Stepp
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and alcohol use disorder often co-occur, yet we know little about risk processes underlying this association. We tested two mechanistic pathways linking BPD symptoms and alcohol-related problems. In the "affective pathway," we hypothesized that BPD symptoms would be associated with alcohol-related problems through affective instability and drinking to cope. In the "sensation-seeking pathway," we proposed that BPD symptoms would be related to alcohol-related problems through sensation seeking and drinking to enhance positive experiences...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Skye Napolitano, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Christopher M France
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with the use of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) that predicts unstable interpersonal relationships and emotion dysregulation. Rumination, a maladaptive cognitive ER response, may be one mechanism by which those with BPD experience emotion dysregulation. However, it remains unclear whether emotion dysregulation is linked to rumination in general, or to rumination during interpersonal situations that often prove challenging for those with BPD. The present study examined whether interpersonal exclusion conferred an increased risk to spontaneously ruminate among those with elevated BPD features relative to an impersonal negative mood induction, and whether spontaneous rumination mediated the effects of BPD features on distress reactivity...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Annemarie Miano, Isabel Dziobek, Stefan Roepke
Relationship dysfunction is a key criterion of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Nevertheless, little is known about the characteristics of romantic relationship functioning in BPD. In this study, couples in which the women were diagnosed with BPD (BPD couples) and healthy control couples (HC) were compared in their perceived relationship characteristics (e.g., relationship quality) and interpersonal experience variables (e.g., attachment). The hypothesis was tested that insecure attachment styles account for group differences in relationship characteristics...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Alina Z Levine, Rawya Aljabari, Kristy Dalrymple, Mark Zimmerman
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD), but it also occurs in nonclinical samples (Briere & Gil, 1998), inflicting serious harm and serving as a precursor to suicide attempts (Klonsky, May, & Glenn, 2013). Therefore, the DSM-5 proposed a nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) and suicidal behavior disorder. Because this addition requires reconciliation with current BPD criteria, the authors' study evaluated type and frequency of NSSI and suicide attempts in 3,795 outpatients...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
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