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Journal of Personality Disorders

Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Alex Cohen, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Alicia Pérez de Álbeniz, José Muñiz
The main goal of the present study was to test the measurement equivalence of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief Revised (SPQ-BR) scores in a large sample of Spanish and American non-clinical young adults. The sample was made up of 5,625 young adults (M = 19.65 years; SD = 2.53; 38.5% males). Study of the internal structure, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), revealed that SPQ-BR items were grouped in a theoretical internal structure of nine first-order factors. Moreover, three or four second-order factor and bifactor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Francesca Martino, Andrea Norcini Pala, Barbara Valenti, Rossella Capelli, Domenico Berardi, Rohini Bagrodia, Marco Menchetti
The aim of the current study was to validate the Italian version of the Attitude Toward Personality Disorders Questionnaire (APDQ), assess its psychometric properties, and investigate nurses' attitudes toward patients with personality disorders. An Italian version of the APDQ was produced and administered to nurses working in the Bologna Mental Health Department. The instrument demonstrated good psychometric proprieties and a robust structure and supported the five-factor solution of the original English version...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Irene Alvarez-Tomás, Joaquim Soler, Arturo Bados, Ana Martín-Blanco, Matilde Elices, Cristina Carmona, Joana Bauzà, Juan Carlos Pascual
The aim of this prospective study was to expand previously reported evidence on the 10-year clinical and functional course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a Spanish sample. Participants diagnosed with BPD were assessed at baseline and at 10-year follow-up to evaluate BPD symptomatology and other relevant clinical measures, suicidal behavior, dimensional personality traits, Axis I and II comorbidity, use of mental health resources, and psychosocial functioning. At the 10-year follow up, significant improvements were observed on BPD domains, suicidal behavior, and other clinical measures...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Cristina Crego, Thomas A Widiger
The purpose of the present study was to compare the cognitive and perceptual aberration scales from the Five-Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI; Edmundson, Lynam, Miller, Gore, & Widiger, 2011) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012), as well as to address more generally the validity of the FFSI as a measure of both schizotypal personality traits and the FFM. Two independent samples were obtained, including 259 college students (55 of whom were preselected with elevated scores on a measure of schizotypal personality disorder [STPD]) and 346 adult MTurk participants (43% of whom had been or were currently in mental health treatment)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Florian Weck, Laura Carlotta Nagel, Samantha Richtberg, Julia M B Neng
Previous studies found high prevalence rates of personality disorders (PDs) in patients with hypochondriasis; however, assessment was often based only on questionnaires. In the current study, a sample of 68 patients with hypochondriasis was compared to 31 patients with panic disorder and to 94 healthy controls. Participants were investigated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders questionnaire (SCID-II questionnaire) and the SCID-II interview. Based on the cut-off scores of the SCID-II questionnaire, we found a prevalence rate of 45...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Stephanie L Rojas, Thomas A Widiger
Section III of DSM-5, for emerging measures and models, includes a five-domain, 25-trait model, assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. A primary concern with respect to the trait model is its coverage of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorder syndromes (all of which were retained in DSM-5). The current study considered not only total scale scores of three independent measures of DSM-IV-TR personality disorders but also the coverage of each diagnostic criterion included within six personality disorders: antisocial, borderline, avoidant, dependent, narcissistic, and obsessive-compulsive...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Philipp Kanske, Marjan Sharifi, Jonathan Smallwood, Isabel Dziobek, Tania Singer
Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Alexander L Chapman, M Zachary Rosenthal, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Brianna J Turner, Peter Kuppens
This study examined the effects of avoidance- versus acceptance-oriented emotion regulation instructions among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 48), major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 54), and non-psychiatric controls (NPC; n = 50) using ecological momentary assessment. Participants were randomly assigned to either accept or avoid negative emotions, and monitored their moods, urges, and distress tolerance several times per day over 6 days. Avoidance instructions resulted in reduced negative affect and urges for maladaptive behaviors uniquely among BPD participants...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Marianne S Thomsen, Anthony C Ruocco, Dean Carcone, Birgit B Mathiesen, Erik Simonsen
The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Nicholas R Eaton, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Robert F Krueger, W Keith Campbell, Bridget F Grant, Deborah S Hasin
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jeremy L Grove, Timothy W Smith, Sheila E Crowell, Jennifer H Ellis
Sleep disturbance is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet the reasons for this association are not clear. The present study sought to extend prior studies by testing emotion dysregulation as a mechanism underlying this association. We administered self-report measures of sleep quality (SQ), emotion dysregulation, and borderline features to two cross-sectional samples of undergraduates (sample 1: N = 293; sample 2: N = 188). In addition to replicating prior studies linking BPD features to poor SQ, analyses indicated that BPD features related to emotion dysregulation were most strongly correlated with poorer global SQ across both samples...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
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December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Lieke Nentjes, David P Bernstein, Ewout Meijer, Arnoud Arntz, Reinout W Wiers
This study investigated the physiological, self-reported, and facial correlates of emotion regulation in psychopathy. Specifically, we compared psychopathic offenders (n = 42), nonpsychopathic offenders (n = 42), and nonoffender controls (n = 26) in their ability to inhibit and express emotion while watching affective films (fear, happy, and sad). Results showed that all participants were capable of drastically diminishing facial emotions under inhibition instructions. Contrary to expectation, psychopaths were not superior in adopting such a "poker face...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Luna C Muñoz Centifanti, Nicholas D Thomson, Angela H Kwok
Psychopathy and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits are associated with coercion and manipulation within relationships. The authors investigated whether BPD traits were uniquely associated with manipulation for emotional closeness whereas psychopathy was used for the purpose of attaining physical closeness. A community sample (N = 164) reported on mating behaviors, psychopathic traits, and BPD traits. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to predict mating behaviors that would account for the overlap between psychopathy and BPD...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Michael L Crowe, Alexander C LoPilato, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller
The present study hypothesized that there exist two distinct groups of entitled individuals: grandiose-entitled, and vulnerable-entitled. Self-report scores of entitlement were collected for 916 individuals using an online platform. Model-based cluster analyses were conducted on the individuals with scores one standard deviation above mean (n = 159) using the five-factor model dimensions as clustering variables. The results support the existence of two groups of entitled individuals categorized as emotionally stable and emotionally vulnerable...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Steven K Huprich, Ketrin Lengu, Carly Evich
DSM-5 Section III recommends that level of personality functioning be assessed. This requires an assessment of self and other representations. Malignant self-regard (MSR) is a way of assessing the level of functioning of those with a masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, or vulnerably narcissistic personality. In Study 1, 840 undergraduates were assessed for MSR, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anaclitic and introjective depression, and interpersonal problems. MSR, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anaclitic and introjective depression were correlated with multiple dimensions of interpersonal problems, and MSR predicted the most variance in interpersonal scales measuring social inhibition, nonassertion, over-accommodation, and excessive self-sacrifice...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Dominic Sisti, Andrea G Segal, Andrew M Siegel, Rebecca Johnson, John Gunderson
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a valid and reliable diagnosis with effective treatments. However, data suggest many patients remain unaware they carry the diagnosis, even when they are actively engaged in outpatient psychiatric treatment. The authors conducted a survey of 134 psychiatrists practicing in the United States to examine whether they had ever withheld and/or not documented their patients' BPD diagnosis. Fifty-seven percent indicated that at some point during their career they failed to disclose BPD; 37 percent said they had not documented the diagnosis...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Emanuela S Gritti, Douglas B Samuel, Margherita Lang
A particularly controversial aspect in the field of personality assessment is the use of self-report measures, versus clinicians' evaluations, for diagnosing personality disorder (PD). No studies have systematically documented the agreement between these sources for the entire array of DSM-5 PDs using comprehensive measures and experienced clinicians' judgments. The present work fills this gap by indexing the agreement between patients' self-descriptions and clinicians' judgments, relying on standardized and thorough PD instruments...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Johanna Köhling, Markus Moessner, Johannes C Ehrenthal, Stephanie Bauer, Manfred Cierpka, Annette Kämmerer, Henning Schauenburg, Ulrike Dinger
The quality of depression in borderline personality disorder (BPD) was reported to differ from that in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) only. However, little is known about affect dynamics in "borderline-depression." The authors assessed affective instability and reactivity in 20 MDD patients with BPD and in 21 MDD patients without BPD by Ambulatory Assessment. Participants reported on current affect, daily events, and attribution of affective states to events five times per day over a 7-day period...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Mary K Lear, Carolyn M Pepper
Recent research has linked identity instability with engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; Claes, Luyckx, & Bijttebier, 2014; Claes et al., 2015). This study examined the relationship between self-concept clarity (SCC), an index of identity stability, and NSSI in a sample of 147 college students, using a cross-sectional survey design. The relationship between SCC and emotion dysregulation in NSSI severity was also examined. SCC was significantly negatively associated with NSSI engagement, as well as NSSI frequency and versatility, above negative affect or age...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
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