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Journal of Personality Disorders

Brooke A Ammerman, Thomas M Olino, Emil F Coccaro, Michael S McCloskey
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly comorbid disorder, and these comorbidities increase the impairment associated with BPD. For example, depression, which occurs in the majority of individuals with BPD, increases the likelihood of an individual with BPD to engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Little research, however, has investigated potential mechanisms of NSSI engagement in this population. The current study aimed to fill this gap by examining momentary experiences, levels of distress tolerance, and NSSI among 51 individuals meeting current diagnostic criteria for BPD and a comorbid depressive disorder...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Charles Jardin, Carla Sharp, Lorra Garey, Salome Vanwoerden, Nic Crist, Jon D Elhai, Michael J Zvolensky
Having more sexual partners increases the likelihood of new HIV infections among women. Women with more borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have been known to have greater numbers of sexual partners. However, the mechanisms linking BPD features with more sexual partners remain to be clarified. Sexual compulsivity (lack of control, increased distress over sexual behavior) may be one such explanatory factor, as it overlaps with BPD features (e.g., impulsivity, negative affectivity). The present study examined whether sexual compulsivity explained the relation of BPD features with number of sexual partners among a diverse sample of college females (N = 1,326)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Inge Debast, Gina Rossi, S P J van Alphen
The DSM-5 Section III model of personality disorders remains largely unexplored in older adults. More specifically, there is a need for further research on the generalizability of the five trait domains in old age. The development of a short operationalization to screen for maladaptive trait domains, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5-BF), can stimulate the use of the alternative DSM-5 model in older adults by addressing the need for short instruments. The primary goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the PID-5-BF by comparing its structural model and nomological network with the original PID-5 in terms of relations with domains of personality functioning and a gero-specific personality disorder indicator...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Katja Bertsch, Marlene Krauch, Katharina Stopfer, Katrin Haeussler, C Herpertz, Matthias Gamer
Threat sensitivity is a prominent predictor of interpersonal dysfunctions in borderline personality disorder (BPD), leading to intense, aversive feelings of threat and eventually dysfunctional behaviors, such as aggression. In the present study, BPD patients and healthy volunteers classified angry, fearful, neutral, and happy faces presented for 150 ms or 5,000 ms to investigate initial saccades and facial scanning. Patients more often wrongly identified anger, responded slower to all faces, and made faster saccades towards the eyes of briefly presented neutral faces and slower saccades away from fearful eyes compared with healthy volunteers...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Vera Flasbeck, Björn Enzi, Martin Brüne
Many patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience difficulties in empathizing with others and are sensitive to social exclusion. Accordingly, the authors developed a novel Social Interaction Empathy Task to examine empathy for physical and psychological pain from first- and third-person perspectives. Fifty female patients with BPD and forty-eight controls matched for age and gender were included. Alexithymia was also measured. Patients with BPD rated neutral and psychologically painful situations as more painful than healthy controls, and patients with BPD rated psychological pain as more intense in the first-person perspective than in the third-person perspective...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jenny Macfie, Gretchen Kurdziel, Rebecca M Mahan, Stephanie Kors
There is some evidence that maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) adversely affects parenting in infancy, resulting in disorganized attachment, which longitudinally predicts BPD symptoms in adulthood. We examined parenting related to disorganized attachment beyond infancy in offspring of mothers with BPD, when parenting becomes a goal-corrected partnership. We observed puzzle solving in a low socioeconomic status (SES) sample of mothers with BPD and their children ages 4-7, n = 36, and normative comparisons, n = 34...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Cesare Maffei, Laura E Giarolli, Kristian E Markon, Robert F Krueger, Andrea Fossati
In order to assess the reliability, factorial validity, and criterion validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) among adolescents, 1,264 Italian high school students were administered the PID-5. Participants were also administered the Questionnaire on Relationships and Substance Use as a criterion measure. In the full sample, McDonald's ω values were adequate for the PID-5 scales (median ω = .85, SD = .06), except for Suspiciousness. However, all PID-5 scales showed average inter-item correlation values in the ...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Justin A Lavner, Joanna Lamkin, Joshua D Miller
Despite the relationship of impulsivity with interpersonal dysfunction, including romantic relationship dysfunction, surprisingly little research has examined the degree to which impulsivity predicts how marriages unfold over time. The current study used data from 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' impulsivity in relation to their 4-year trajectories of marital satisfaction, marital problems, relationship commitment, and verbal aggression, as well as their 10-year divorce rates. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that husbands' and wives' impulsivity predicted their own intercepts of marital satisfaction and marital problems, reflecting lower levels of satisfaction and higher levels of problems...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Laura E Drislane, Christopher J Patrick
This study undertook confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of data from 567 participants to quantify constructs specified by the triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009)-boldness, meanness, and disinhibition-as latent variables. Indicators for the CFAs consisted of subscales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure along with triarchic scales derived from items of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory, Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. A modified three-factor model provided good fit to the data and outperformed alternative two- and one-factor models...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
John F Edens, Elyse N Mowle, John W Clark, Melissa S Magyar
DSM-5 recently added the specifier "Limited Prosocial Emotions" (LPE) to the Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnosis, yet little is known about how these traits will affect attitudes toward CD youth. Laypersons attending jury duty (N = 326) were randomly assigned to one of four case vignette conditions in which a male juvenile offender was identified as having (a) CD symptoms only, (b) CD symptoms plus a diagnostic label, (c) CD symptoms plus a diagnostic label and description of LPE traits, or (d) CD symptoms plus a description of LPE traits and a "psychopath" label...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Lisa C Zhang, Colleen A Brenner
The prevailing theoretical model of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is a three-factor model based on subscale-level analyses. However, recent item-level factor analyses of the SPQ suggest a four- or five-factor model. To examine the factor structure of the SPQ and how this structure may differ between undergraduate and community samples, the authors conducted exploratory and confirmatory item-level factor analyses of this measure on undergraduate (N = 1,850) and community participants (N = 1,464)...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jessica R Peters, Karen J Derefinko, Donald R Lynam
Many studies have demonstrated that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with aggression and, in particular, intimate partner violence; however, the mechanisms underlying this association have been less clearly identified. The present study examines the hypothesis that negative urgency (impulsive behavior in response to intense, negative emotions) may explain the specific association between BPD and intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional self-report measures of BPD, violent behavior, and multiple dimensions of impulsivity were administered to 193 undergraduate men...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Tess E Smith, Douglas B Samuel
An existing relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality disorder (PD) has been well documented, yet research has been limited by possible selection and self-report biases as well as PD models of questionable validity. This study examined the relationship of ADHD with adult personality traits and disorders in a sample that included individuals prescreened for elevated childhood ADHD symptoms. Four hundred thirty-nine undergraduates completed retrospective reports of childhood ADHD symptoms as well as current ratings of ADHD symptoms, traditional PD categories, and the DSM-5 alternative PD trait model...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Olivier F Colins, Kostas A Fanti, Randall T Salekin, Henrik Andershed
This study aimed to identify distinct subgroups of adults in a general population sample (N = 2,500; 52.6% females) based on their scores on three psychopathy dimensions. Using latent profile analysis, five groups were identified among males and females separately, including a psychopathic personality group. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that this latter group had higher levels of aggression, offending, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms, internalizing problems, and maltreatment than most of the other groups...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Julia Reichenberger, Johannes Josef Eibl, Monique Pfaltz, Frank H Wilhelm, Ulrich Voderholzer, Andreas Hillert, Jens Blechert
Diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) include interpersonal problems and high reactivity to negative social interactions. However, experimental studies on these symptoms are scarce, and it remains unclear whether reactivity is also altered in response to positive social interactions. To simulate such situations, the present study used videographic stimuli (E.Vids; Blechert, Schwitalla, & Wilhelm, 2013) in which actors express rejecting, neutral, or appreciating sentences. Twenty BPD patients and 20 healthy controls rated their emotional responses to these on pleasantness, arousal, and 11 specific emotions...
February 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Lieke Nentjes, David P Bernstein, Ewout Meijer, Arnoud Arntz, Reinout W Wiers
This study investigated the physiological, self-reported, and facial correlates of emotion regulation in psychopathy. Specifically, we compared psychopathic offenders (n = 42), nonpsychopathic offenders (n = 42), and nonoffender controls (n = 26) in their ability to inhibit and express emotion while watching affective films (fear, happy, and sad). Results showed that all participants were capable of drastically diminishing facial emotions under inhibition instructions. Contrary to expectation, psychopaths were not superior in adopting such a "poker face...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Luna C Muñoz Centifanti, Nicholas D Thomson, Angela H Kwok
Psychopathy and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits are associated with coercion and manipulation within relationships. The authors investigated whether BPD traits were uniquely associated with manipulation for emotional closeness whereas psychopathy was used for the purpose of attaining physical closeness. A community sample (N = 164) reported on mating behaviors, psychopathic traits, and BPD traits. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to predict mating behaviors that would account for the overlap between psychopathy and BPD...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Michael L Crowe, Alexander C LoPilato, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller
The present study hypothesized that there exist two distinct groups of entitled individuals: grandiose-entitled, and vulnerable-entitled. Self-report scores of entitlement were collected for 916 individuals using an online platform. Model-based cluster analyses were conducted on the individuals with scores one standard deviation above mean (n = 159) using the five-factor model dimensions as clustering variables. The results support the existence of two groups of entitled individuals categorized as emotionally stable and emotionally vulnerable...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Steven K Huprich, Ketrin Lengu, Carly Evich
DSM-5 Section III recommends that level of personality functioning be assessed. This requires an assessment of self and other representations. Malignant self-regard (MSR) is a way of assessing the level of functioning of those with a masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, or vulnerably narcissistic personality. In Study 1, 840 undergraduates were assessed for MSR, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anaclitic and introjective depression, and interpersonal problems. MSR, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anaclitic and introjective depression were correlated with multiple dimensions of interpersonal problems, and MSR predicted the most variance in interpersonal scales measuring social inhibition, nonassertion, over-accommodation, and excessive self-sacrifice...
December 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
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