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Journal of Personality Disorders

Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Alex Cohen, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Alicia Pérez de Álbeniz, José Muñiz
The main goal of the present study was to test the measurement equivalence of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief Revised (SPQ-BR) scores in a large sample of Spanish and American non-clinical young adults. The sample was made up of 5,625 young adults (M = 19.65 years; SD = 2.53; 38.5% males). Study of the internal structure, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), revealed that SPQ-BR items were grouped in a theoretical internal structure of nine first-order factors. Moreover, three or four second-order factor and bifactor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Francesca Martino, Andrea Norcini Pala, Barbara Valenti, Rossella Capelli, Domenico Berardi, Rohini Bagrodia, Marco Menchetti
The aim of the current study was to validate the Italian version of the Attitude Toward Personality Disorders Questionnaire (APDQ), assess its psychometric properties, and investigate nurses' attitudes toward patients with personality disorders. An Italian version of the APDQ was produced and administered to nurses working in the Bologna Mental Health Department. The instrument demonstrated good psychometric proprieties and a robust structure and supported the five-factor solution of the original English version...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Irene Alvarez-Tomás, Joaquim Soler, Arturo Bados, Ana Martín-Blanco, Matilde Elices, Cristina Carmona, Joana Bauzà, Juan Carlos Pascual
The aim of this prospective study was to expand previously reported evidence on the 10-year clinical and functional course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a Spanish sample. Participants diagnosed with BPD were assessed at baseline and at 10-year follow-up to evaluate BPD symptomatology and other relevant clinical measures, suicidal behavior, dimensional personality traits, Axis I and II comorbidity, use of mental health resources, and psychosocial functioning. At the 10-year follow up, significant improvements were observed on BPD domains, suicidal behavior, and other clinical measures...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Cristina Crego, Thomas A Widiger
The purpose of the present study was to compare the cognitive and perceptual aberration scales from the Five-Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI; Edmundson, Lynam, Miller, Gore, & Widiger, 2011) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012), as well as to address more generally the validity of the FFSI as a measure of both schizotypal personality traits and the FFM. Two independent samples were obtained, including 259 college students (55 of whom were preselected with elevated scores on a measure of schizotypal personality disorder [STPD]) and 346 adult MTurk participants (43% of whom had been or were currently in mental health treatment)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Florian Weck, Laura Carlotta Nagel, Samantha Richtberg, Julia M B Neng
Previous studies found high prevalence rates of personality disorders (PDs) in patients with hypochondriasis; however, assessment was often based only on questionnaires. In the current study, a sample of 68 patients with hypochondriasis was compared to 31 patients with panic disorder and to 94 healthy controls. Participants were investigated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders questionnaire (SCID-II questionnaire) and the SCID-II interview. Based on the cut-off scores of the SCID-II questionnaire, we found a prevalence rate of 45...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Stephanie L Rojas, Thomas A Widiger
Section III of DSM-5, for emerging measures and models, includes a five-domain, 25-trait model, assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. A primary concern with respect to the trait model is its coverage of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorder syndromes (all of which were retained in DSM-5). The current study considered not only total scale scores of three independent measures of DSM-IV-TR personality disorders but also the coverage of each diagnostic criterion included within six personality disorders: antisocial, borderline, avoidant, dependent, narcissistic, and obsessive-compulsive...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Philipp Kanske, Marjan Sharifi, Jonathan Smallwood, Isabel Dziobek, Tania Singer
Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Alexander L Chapman, M Zachary Rosenthal, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Brianna J Turner, Peter Kuppens
This study examined the effects of avoidance- versus acceptance-oriented emotion regulation instructions among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 48), major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 54), and non-psychiatric controls (NPC; n = 50) using ecological momentary assessment. Participants were randomly assigned to either accept or avoid negative emotions, and monitored their moods, urges, and distress tolerance several times per day over 6 days. Avoidance instructions resulted in reduced negative affect and urges for maladaptive behaviors uniquely among BPD participants...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Marianne S Thomsen, Anthony C Ruocco, Dean Carcone, Birgit B Mathiesen, Erik Simonsen
The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Nicholas R Eaton, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Robert F Krueger, W Keith Campbell, Bridget F Grant, Deborah S Hasin
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jeremy L Grove, Timothy W Smith, Sheila E Crowell, Jennifer H Ellis
Sleep disturbance is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet the reasons for this association are not clear. The present study sought to extend prior studies by testing emotion dysregulation as a mechanism underlying this association. We administered self-report measures of sleep quality (SQ), emotion dysregulation, and borderline features to two cross-sectional samples of undergraduates (sample 1: N = 293; sample 2: N = 188). In addition to replicating prior studies linking BPD features to poor SQ, analyses indicated that BPD features related to emotion dysregulation were most strongly correlated with poorer global SQ across both samples...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Yiyun Shou, Martin Sellbom, Jin Han
The nature of psychopathy is not well understood in East Asian cultures, partially due to a lack of an established measurement of this important construct. This study developed and validated a Chinese-language version of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) based on Patrick et al.'s (2009) triarchic model of psychopathy. Study 1 described the translation of the Chinese TriPM and demonstrated that the Chinese version of the TriPM is equivalent to the original English version in linguistic meaning. Study 2 examined the construct validity of the Chinese TriPM in a Chinese student sample...
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Elsa Ronningstam, Steven Huprich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Kate E A Saunders, Guy M Goodwin, Robert D Rogers
Poor decision-making is a feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Twenty women with BPD, 20 women with BD, and 20 healthy females completed a risky choice task. Those with BPD exhibited altered processing of information about potential gains and losses, with a bias toward large compared to small gains, large compared to small losses, and a tendency to choose outcomes with a negative expected value. This failure to use explicit reinforcement signals was not observed in those with BD...
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Eva K Horn, Roel Verheul, Moniek Thunnissen, Jos Delimon, Maartje Goorden, Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen, Mirjam Soons, Anke M M A Meerman, Uli M Ziegler, Bert V Rossum, Theo Stijnen, Paul M G Emmelkamp, Jan J V Busschbach
Short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis (STIP-TA) in patients with personality disorders (PD) has shown to be more effective than comparable other specialized psychotherapies (OP). The aim of this study was to assess whether the higher effectiveness of STIP-TA also results in a better cost-effectiveness. Patients treated with STIP-TA were matched with patients treated with OP by the propensity score. Healthcare costs and lost productivity costs were measured over 3 years and from the societal perspective...
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jeffrey Roelofs, Peter Muris, Jill Lobbestael
Schema modes are strong, predominant, momentary (state-like) emotional and cognitive states, and maladaptive coping responses that occur when underlying personality schemas are activated by emotional events. The current study employed the Schema Mode Inventory for Adolescents (SMI-A) to assess such schema modes in a sample of non-clinical adolescents (n = 530). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the hypothesized model of the SMI-A with 14 separate schema modes provided a good fit for the data. Reliability coefficients for the various schema modes were all in the adequate to good range...
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Bo Bach, Christopher Lee, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Erik Simonsen
DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants...
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Christopher C Conway, Constance Hammen, Patricia A Brennan
Transdiagnostic models hold promise for transforming research and treatment practices for personality disorders (PDs), but widespread acceptance and implementation of such approaches will require persuasive evidence of construct validity and clinical utility. Toward that end, the authors examined the criterion-related validity of a transdiagnostic PD model in relation to psychosocial and clinical outcomes in a high-risk community sample of 700 young adults. Participants and their mothers completed semistructured interviews to assess young adults' PD symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, suicidality, and mental health treatment use...
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Alex S Keuroghlian, Brian A Palmer, Lois W Choi-Kain, Christina P C Borba, Paul S Links, John G Gunderson
The effect that attending a 1-day workshop on Good Psychiatric Management (GPM) had on attitudes about borderline personality disorder (BPD) was assessed among 297 clinicians. Change was recorded by comparing before and after scores on a 9-item survey previously developed to assess the effects of workshops on Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS). Participants reported decreased inclination to avoid borderline patients, dislike of borderline patients, and belief that BPD's prognosis is hopeless, as well as increased feeling of competence, belief that borderline patients have low self-esteem, feeling of being able to make a positive difference, and belief that effective psychotherapies exist...
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Elizabeth A Martin, David C Cicero, Drew H Bailey, Nicole R Karcher, John G Kerns
Social anhedonia and introversion, two closely related constructs associated with decreased positive emotions and decreased sociability, are common in schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders. In light of a myriad of mixed findings regarding positive emotionality in anhedonia, there has been a call to reconceptualize "anhedonia." To clarify the nature of social anhedonia, we used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the relationship between social anhedonia and introversion. Findings were consistent with the conceptualization of social anhedonia as a separate construct from introversion-the best fitting model was one in which social anhedonia and introversion measures loaded separately...
August 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
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