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Journal of Personality Disorders

Carla D Chugani, Amy L Byrd, Sarah L Pedersen, Tammy Chung, Alison E Hipwell, Stephanie D Stepp
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and alcohol use disorder often co-occur, yet we know little about risk processes underlying this association. We tested two mechanistic pathways linking BPD symptoms and alcohol-related problems. In the "affective pathway," we hypothesized that BPD symptoms would be associated with alcohol-related problems through affective instability and drinking to cope. In the "sensation-seeking pathway," we proposed that BPD symptoms would be related to alcohol-related problems through sensation seeking and drinking to enhance positive experiences...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Skye Napolitano, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Christopher M France
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with the use of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) that predicts unstable interpersonal relationships and emotion dysregulation. Rumination, a maladaptive cognitive ER response, may be one mechanism by which those with BPD experience emotion dysregulation. However, it remains unclear whether emotion dysregulation is linked to rumination in general, or to rumination during interpersonal situations that often prove challenging for those with BPD. The present study examined whether interpersonal exclusion conferred an increased risk to spontaneously ruminate among those with elevated BPD features relative to an impersonal negative mood induction, and whether spontaneous rumination mediated the effects of BPD features on distress reactivity...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Annemarie Miano, Isabel Dziobek, Stefan Roepke
Relationship dysfunction is a key criterion of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Nevertheless, little is known about the characteristics of romantic relationship functioning in BPD. In this study, couples in which the women were diagnosed with BPD (BPD couples) and healthy control couples (HC) were compared in their perceived relationship characteristics (e.g., relationship quality) and interpersonal experience variables (e.g., attachment). The hypothesis was tested that insecure attachment styles account for group differences in relationship characteristics...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Alina Z Levine, Rawya Aljabari, Kristy Dalrymple, Mark Zimmerman
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD), but it also occurs in nonclinical samples (Briere & Gil, 1998), inflicting serious harm and serving as a precursor to suicide attempts (Klonsky, May, & Glenn, 2013). Therefore, the DSM-5 proposed a nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) and suicidal behavior disorder. Because this addition requires reconciliation with current BPD criteria, the authors' study evaluated type and frequency of NSSI and suicide attempts in 3,795 outpatients...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Paul H Soloff, Laurel Chiappetta
In longitudinal studies, BPD symptoms diminish over time, though psychosocial functioning lags far behind. The effects of time and advancing age on BPD are poorly understood. We sought prospective predictors of psychosocial outcome and recovery in 150 BPD subjects followed 2 to 31 years (mean 9.94 years) using a multidimensional assessment method and biannual follow-ups. Time-in-study had no significant effect on achieving diagnostic remission in BPD, good psychosocial outcomes, meaningful interpersonal relationships, full employment, or total recovery; however, younger age was associated with social and vocational achievement independent of BPD remission...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Marie-Luise Zeitler, Martin Bohus, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Rebekka Knies, Miriam Ostermann, Christian Schmahl, Lisa Lyssenko
Longitudinal studies provide substantial evidence for a high rate of symptomatic remission in borderline personality disorder (BPD), while social and vocational functioning seems to remain consistently impaired. Less data is available on recovery and the associated objective and personal indicators. We examined 58 patients 12-18 years after their diagnosis of BPD and compared two different recovery criteria: observer-based global assessment of functioning and self-rated satisfaction with life (SWL). Symptomatic remission was observed in 81% of the participants (according to DSM-IV), but only 44% of them achieved a GAF level > 60, and only 49% reported SWL within the range of one standard deviation of the normal population...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Scott Barry Kaufman, Brandon Weiss, Joshua D Miller, W Keith Campbell
There is broad consensus that there are at least two different dimensions of narcissism: vulnerable and grandiose. In this study, the authors use a new trifurcated, three-factor model of narcissism to examine relations between aspects of narcissism and an array of clinically relevant criteria related to psychopathology, the self, authenticity, and well-being. Neurotic and antagonistic aspects of narcissism emerged as the most clinically relevant dimensions of narcissism, bearing relations with outcomes relating to interpersonal guilt, insecure attachment styles, cognitive distortions, maladaptive defense mechanisms, experiential avoidance, impostor syndrome, weak sense of self, inauthenticity, low self-esteem, and reduced psychological well-being...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Bo Bach, Jaime L Anderson
This study evaluated the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD) proposed for ICD-11 and the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form 2.0 (LPFS-BF) developed for DSM-5 Section III and their relationships with external correlates. We used a clinical sample (N = 150; 33% women) of 65 psychiatric outpatients and 85 incarcerated addicts, who self-reported the SASPD and the LPFS-BF. We conducted correlation and regression analyses in order to determine the relative associations of these two measures with relevant external criteria...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Alexander R Daros, Achala H Rodrigo, Nikoo Norouzian, Bri S Darboh, Kateri McRae, Anthony C Ruocco
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) report using cognitive reappraisal less often than healthy individuals despite the long-term benefits of the emotion regulation strategy on emotional stability. Individuals with BPD, mixed anxiety and/or depressive disorders (MAD), and healthy controls (HC) completed an experimental task to investigate the tactics contained in cognitive reappraisal statements vocalized for high and low emotional intensity photographs. Self-reported effectiveness after using cognitive reappraisal to decrease negative emotions was also evaluated...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Natalie Stratton, Mariana Mendoza Alvarez, Cathy Labrish, Ryan Barnhart, Shelley McMain
Treatment dropout among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with negative psychosocial outcomes. Identifying predictors of dropout among this population is critical to understanding how to improve treatment retention. The present study extends the current literature by examining both static and dynamic predictors of dropout. Chronically suicidal outpatients diagnosed with BPD (N = 42) were randomly assigned to a 20-week dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills training group...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Arne Buerger, Gloria Fischer-Waldschmidt, Florian Hammerle, Kristin von Auer, Peter Parzer, Michael Kaess
Despite the expansion of treatment options for adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD), research on treatment options for adolescent BPD is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) on the individual trait level as primary outcome; and the frequency of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury, self-reported BPD core pathology, and general psychopathology as secondary outcomes. Seventy-two adolescents (aged 12.17 years) with full- or subsyndromal BPD were treated with DBT-A (25 single sessions, 20 sessions of skills training), and 13 patients (18...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Eszter Beran, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Unoka
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by impaired functioning of autobiographical memory (AM). We use a quantitative meta-analysis to assess AM performance in adults diagnosed with BPD as compared to healthy controls (HC). Moderator variables included type of autobiographical memory as well as clinical and demographic variables. Large significant deficits were seen in the BPD group in comparison to the HC group. In the BPD group, effect sizes were large for overgenerality, omission, and specific memories, while not significant for recall...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Mark Zimmerman, Iwona Chelminski, Kristy Dalrymple, Jacob Martin
The authors' group previously reported that patients who screened positive on the Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ), the most frequently studied screening scale for bipolar disorder, were as likely to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) as with bipolar disorder. A limitation of that study was that the authors examined the performance of the MDQ in patients presenting for various psychiatric disorders, including depression. The recognition of bipolar disorder and its differential diagnosis with BPD is of greatest clinical relevance in depressed patients...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Laura E Drislane, Christopher J Patrick, Andrea Fossati
This study sought to characterize the factor structure of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) using data from a sample of 1,082 communitydwelling Italian adults. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was used to compare the fit of a bifactor model for each TriPM scale, in which specific-content factors were specified along with a general factor, with the fit of a single, general-factor model. Robust weighted least square (WLSMV) ESEM supported a bifactor latent structure of the TriPM items for all individual scales...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Katherine N Thompson, Henry Jackson, Marialuisa Cavelti, Jennifer Betts, Louise McCutcheon, Martina Jovev, Andrew M Chanen
Studies among adult patients have found that subthreshold borderline personality disorder (BPD) features are associated with elevated psychosocial morbidity compared with patients with no BPD features. However, the clinical significance of subthreshold features of BPD has not been investigated among real-world patients during the clinical emergence of the disorder, which is usually between puberty and emerging adulthood. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous research by comparing outpatient youth aged 15-25 years with subthreshold BPD features with youth with no BPD features...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Janina Naoum, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Ulf Baumgärtner, Franziska Willis, Falk Mancke, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl
Pain processing in relation to stress has so far not been investigated in male patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This experimental pilot study examined 17 male BPD patients and 20 male healthy controls (HCs) to assess the effects of a pain stimulus on arousal, aggression, pain (ratings), and heart rate. At baseline, BPD patients showed significantly higher arousal and aggression; however, there was no significant difference in heart rate compared to the HC group. Following stress induction, a noninvasive mechanical pain stimulus was applied...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Shian-Ling Keng, Yirong Lee, Sukriti Drabu, Ryan Y Hong, Cornelia Y I Chee, Cyrus S H Ho, Roger C M Ho
This study examined the construct validity of the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD) in a consecutive sample of adult psychiatric patients (n = 128) and a separate sample of undergraduate students (n = 289) in Singapore. Participants were administered the MSI-BPD and other measures assessing related symptoms of BPD. Patients were also administered a semistructured interview by interviewers blind to their MSI-BPD scores. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a unique three-factor solution, consisting of affect dysregulation, self-disturbances, and behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Denise S H Lim, Ai Jia Gwee, Ryan Y Hong
The Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, recommends the joint consideration of personality disorder severity (i.e., dysfunction) and style (i.e., trait profile) in personality disorder diagnosis. The current study examined the association between maladaptive personality dysfunction and traits using a Singaporean student sample (N = 360). A subsample (n = 151) had informant ratings of personality traits on target participants...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Giles Newton-Howes, Roger Mulder, Pete M Ellis, Joseph M Boden, Peter Joyce
There is debate around the best model for diagnosing personality disorder, both in terms of its relationship to the empirical data and clinical utility. Four randomized controlled trials examining various treatments for depression were analyzed at an individual patient level. Three different approaches to the diagnosis of personality disorder were analyzed in these patients. A total of 578 depressed patients were included in the analysis. Personality disorder, however measured, was of little predictive utility in the short term but added significantly to predictive modelling of mediumterm outcomes, accounting for more than twice as much of the variance in social functioning outcome as depression psychopathology...
August 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Suzanne Haeyen, Susan van Hooren, William van der Veld, Giel Hutschemaekers
Multidisciplinary treatment programs for patients with personality disorders (PDs) often include art therapy, but the efficacy of this intervention has hardly been evaluated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of an art therapy intervention on psychological functioning of patients with a PD. In this randomized controlled trial, 57 adult participants diagnosed with a PD cluster B/C (SCID-II) were randomly assigned to either weekly group art therapy (1.5 hours, 10 weeks) or a waiting list group...
August 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
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