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Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128515/injectable-network-biomaterials-via-molecular-or-colloidal-self-assembly
#1
Jugal Kishore Sahoo, Michael A VandenBerg, Matthew J Webber
Self-assembly is a powerful tool to create functional materials. A specific application for which self-assembled materials are ideally suited is in creating injectable biomaterials. Contrasting with traditional biomaterials that are implanted through surgical means, injecting biomaterials through the skin offers numerous advantages, expanding the scope and impact for biomaterials in medicine. In particular, self-assembled biomaterials prepared from molecular or colloidal interactions have been frequently explored...
November 8, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117512/mucus-models-to-evaluate-the-diffusion-of-drugs-and-particles
#2
Jaclyn Y Lock, Taylor Carlson, Rebecca L Carrier
Mucus is a complex hydrogel that acts as a natural barrier to drug delivery at different mucosal surfaces including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vaginal tracts. To elucidate the role mucus plays in drug delivery, different in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo mucus models and techniques have been utilized. Drug and drug carrier diffusion can be studied using various techniques in either isolated mucus gels or mucus present on cell cultures and tissues. The species, age, and potential disease state of the animal from which mucus is derived can all impact mucus composition and structure, and therefore impact drug and drug carrier diffusion...
November 5, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117511/the-role-of-mucus-as-an-invisible-cloak-to-transepithelial-drug-delivery-by-nanoparticles
#3
María García-Díaz, Ditlev Birch, Feng Wan, Hanne Mørck Nielsen
Mucosal administration of drugs and drug delivery systems has gained increasing interest. However, nanoparticles intended to protect and deliver drugs to epithelial surfaces require transport through the surface-lining mucus. Translation from bench to bedside is particularly challenging for mucosal administration since a variety of parameters will influence the specific barrier properties of the mucus including the luminal fluids, the microbiota, the mucus composition and clearance rate, and the condition of the underlying epithelia...
November 5, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117510/mems-devices-for-drug-delivery
#4
Hyunjoo J Lee, Nakwon Choi, Eui-Sung Yoon, Il-Joo Cho
Novel drug delivery systems based on microtechnology have advanced tremendously, but yet face some technological and societal hurdles to fully achieve their potential. The novel drug delivery systems aim to deliver drugs in a spatiotemporal- and dosage-controlled manner with a goal to address the unmet medical needs from oral delivery and hypodermic injection. The unmet needs include effective delivery of new types of drug candidates that are otherwise insoluble and unstable, targeted delivery to areas protected by barriers (e...
November 5, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108862/animal-models-of-smoke-inhalation-injury-and-related-acute-and-chronic-lung-diseases
#5
Katarzyna Reczyńska, Priyanka Tharkar, Sally Yunsun Kim, Yiwei Wang, Elzbieta Pamuła, Hak-Kim Chan, Wojciech Chrzanowski
Smoke inhalation injury leads to various acute and chronic lung diseases and thus is the dominant cause of fire-related fatalities. In a search for an effective treatment and validation of therapies different classes of animal models have been developed, which include both small and large animals. These models have advanced our understanding of the mechanism of smoke inhalation injury, enabling a better understanding of pathogenesis and pathophysiology and development of new therapies. However, none of the animal models fully mirrors human lungs and their pathologies...
November 3, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108861/a-slippery-slope-on-the-origin-role-and-physiology-of-mucus
#6
Farhan Taherali, Felipe Varum, Abdul W Basit
The mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, eyes, nose, lungs, cervix and vagina is lined by epithelium interspersed with mucus-secreting goblet cells, all of which contribute to their unique functions. This mucus provides an integral defence to the epithelium against noxious agents and pathogens. However, it can equally act as a barrier to drugs and delivery systems targeting epithelial passive and active transport mechanisms. This review highlights the various mucins expressed at different mucosal surfaces on the human body, and their role in creating a mucoid architecture to protect epithelia with specialized functions...
November 3, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108860/fibrosis-imaging-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#7
Maike Baues, Anshuman Dasgupta, Josef Ehling, Jai Prakash, Peter Boor, Frank Tacke, Fabian Kiessling, Twan Lammers
Fibrosis plays an important role in many different pathologies. It results from tissue injury, chronic inflammation, autoimmune reactions and genetic alterations, and it is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components. Biopsies are routinely employed for fibrosis diagnosis, but they suffer from several drawbacks, including their invasive nature, sampling variability and limited spatial information. To overcome these limitations, multiple different imaging tools and technologies have been evaluated over the years, including x-ray imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
November 3, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106911/stem-cells-niches-and-scaffolds-applications-to-burns-and-wound-care
#8
Suzanne M Watt, Jonathan M Pleat
The importance of skin to survival, and the devastating physical and psychological consequences of scarring following reparative healing of extensive or difficult to heal human wounds, cannot be disputed. We discuss the significant challenges faced by patients and healthcare providers alike in treating these wounds. New state of the art technologies have provided remarkable insights into the role of skin stem and progenitor cells and their niches in maintaining skin homeostasis and in reparative wound healing...
October 26, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106910/the-role-of-mucus-on-drug-transport-and-its-potential-to-affect-therapeutic-outcomes
#9
Xabier Murgia, Brigitta Loretz, Olga Hartwig, Marius Hittinger, Claus-Michael Lehr
A layer of mucus covers the surface of all wet epithelia throughout the human body. Mucus is a hydrogel mainly composed of water, mucins (glycoproteins), DNA, proteins, lipids, and cell debris. This complex composition yields a tenacious viscoelastic hydrogel that lubricates and protects the exposed epithelia from external threats and enzymatic degradation. The natural protective role of mucus is nowadays acknowledged as a major barrier to be overcome in non-invasive drug delivery. The heterogeneity of mucus components offers a wide range of potential chemical interaction sites for macromolecules, while the mesh-like architecture given to mucus by the intermolecular cross-linking of mucin molecules results in a dense network that physically, and in a size-dependent manner, hinders the diffusion of nanoparticles through mucus...
October 26, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079534/epigenetic-reprogramming-in-liver-fibrosis-and-cancer
#10
Caroline L Wilson, Derek A Mann, Lee A Borthwick
Novel insights into the epigenetic control of chronic liver diseases are now emerging. Recent advances in our understanding of the critical roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications and ncRNA may now be exploited to improve management of fibrosis/cirrhosis and cancer. Furthermore, improved technologies for the detection of epigenetic markers from patients' blood and tissues will vastly improve diagnosis, treatment options and prognostic tracking. The aim of this review is to present recent findings from the field of liver epigenetics and to explore their potential for translation into therapeutics to prevent disease promoting epigenome reprogramming and reverse epigenetic changes...
October 25, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079537/enzyme-decorated-drug-carriers-targeted-swords-to-cleave-and-overcome-the-mucus-barrier
#11
Claudia Menzel, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The use of mucus permeating drug carrier systems being able to overcome the mucus barrier can lead to a remarkable enhancement in bioavailability. One promising approach is the design of mucolytic enzyme decorated carrier systems (MECS). These systems include micro- and nanoparticles as well as self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) decorated with mucin cleaving enzymes such as papain (PAP) or bromelain (BRO). MECS are able to cross the mucus barrier in a comparatively efficient manner by cleaving mucus substructures in front of them on their way to the epithelium...
October 24, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079536/restoration-of-skin-pigmentation-after-deep-partial-or-full-thickness-burn-injury
#12
Niann-Tzyy Dai, Hsin-I Chang, Yi-Wen Wang, Keng-Yen Fu, Tai-Chun Huang, Nien-Chi Huang, Jhen-Kai Li, Pai-Shan Hsieh, Lien-Guo Dai, Chao-Kuei Hsu, Peter K Maitz
Significant skin pigmentation changes occur when patients suffer deep burn injuries. These pigmentation disorders may cause not only cosmetic and psychological issues, but more importantly it increases the risk of skin cancer or photoaging. Severe burns significantly effect on the process of repigmentation as the pigmentation is tightly regulated by cell proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes and melanocyte stem cells which are housing in the epidermis and hair follicles of the skin. In the present review, we discuss the possible mechanisms to replenish the melanocytes from the healthy epidermis and hair follicles surrounding burn wounds...
October 24, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079535/insights-into-the-key-roles-of-epigenetics-in-matrix-macromolecules-associated-wound-healing
#13
Zoi Piperigkou, Martin Götte, Achilleas D Theocharis, Nikos K Karamanos
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic network of macromolecules, playing a regulatory role in cell functions, tissue regeneration and remodeling. Wound healing is a tissue repair process necessary for the maintenance of the functionality of tissues and organs. This highly orchestrated process is divided into four temporally overlapping phases, including hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodeling. The dynamic interplay between ECM and resident cells exerts its critical role in many aspects of wound healing, including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, survival, matrix degradation and biosynthesis...
October 24, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054357/stem-cells-and-heart-disease-brake-or-accelerator
#14
Gustav Steinhoff, Julia Nesteruk, Markus Wolfien, Jana Große, Ulrike Ruch, Praveen Vasudevan, Paula Müller
After two decades of intensive research and attempts of clinical translation, stem cell based therapies for cardiac diseases are not getting closer to clinical success. This review tries to unravel the obstacles and focuses on underlying mechanisms as the target for regenerative therapies. At present, the principal outcome in clinical therapy does not reflect experimental evidence. It seems that the scientific obstacle is a lack of integration of knowledge from tissue repair and disease mechanisms. Recent insights from clinical trials delineate mechanisms of stem cell dysfunction and gene defects in repair mechanisms as cause of atherosclerosis and heart disease...
October 18, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054356/enzyme-prodrug-therapies-and-therapeutic-enzymes
#15
EDITORIAL
Brigitte Städler, Alexander N Zelikin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031640/the-application-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-treat-thermal-and-radiation-burns
#16
Kathleen Rodgers, Sachin S Jadhav
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been developed for a number of indications due to their regenerative and anti-inflammatory phenotypes and their utility is enhanced by the fact that allogeneic transplant is feasible with this cell type. Animal studies and early human cases indicate this has the potential to be an exciting new therapy for treating chronic non-healing wounds such as diabetic ulcers, burns and cutaneous radiation burns. This review will focus on the use of MSCs to treat thermal and radiation burns...
October 11, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989056/engineering-nanomaterials-to-overcome-the-mucosal-barrier-by-modulating-surface-properties
#17
Lei Wu, Wei Shan, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Although nanotechnology has been investigated during recent years to increase the bioavailability and therapeutic effects of mucosal administrated drugs, numerous barriers (e.g., pH environment, enzymes and mucus) still limit the delivery efficiency. And the epithelium would also affect the systemic mucosal drug delivery. Amongst all the barriers, the protective mucus has drawn more and more attention, which strongly hinders the accessibility of nanovehicles to epithelium. Therefore, trials to conquer the mucus barrier have been designed using two controversial strategies: mucoadhesion and mucus-penetration...
October 5, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970051/pdgf-receptors-in-tumor-stroma-biological-effects-and-associations-with-prognosis-and-response-to-treatment
#18
Arne Östman
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and their receptors (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) regulate mesenchymal cells, such as fibroblasts and pericytes. These cells are important constituents of tumor stroma where they impact on tumor growth, metastasis and drug response. Studies in model systems have demonstrated ability of the PDGF system to regulate the tumor-stimulatory effects of fibroblasts, as well as their ability to promote cancer cell migration and invasion. Animal studies imply PDGFR-signaling as a regulator of tumor drug uptake...
September 29, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970050/the-biology-of-mucus-composition-synthesis-and-organization
#19
Rama Bansil, Bradley S Turner
In this review we discuss mucus, the viscoelastic secretion from goblet or mucous producing cells that lines the epithelial surfaces of all organs exposed to the external world. Mucus is a complex aqueous fluid that owes its viscoelastic, lubricating and hydration properties to the glycoprotein mucin combined with electrolytes, lipids and other smaller proteins. Electron microscopy of mucosal surfaces reveals a highly convoluted surface with a network of fibers and pores of varying sizes. The major structural and functional component, mucin is a complex glycoprotein coded by about 20 mucin genes which produce a protein backbone having multiple tandem repeats of Serine, Threonine (ST repeats) where oligosaccharides are covalently O-linked...
September 29, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964882/the-effects-of-major-burn-related-pathophysiological-changes-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-drug-use-an-appraisal-utilizing-antibiotics
#20
Andrew A Udy, Jason A Roberts, Jeffrey Lipman, Stijn Blot
Patients suffering major burn injury represent a unique population of critically ill patients. Widespread skin and tissue damage causes release of systemic inflammatory mediators that promote endothelial leak, extravascular fluid shifts, and cardiovascular derangement. This phase is characterized by relative intra-vascular hypovolaemia and poor peripheral perfusion. Large volume intravenous fluid resuscitation is generally required. The patients' clinical course is then typically complicated by ongoing inflammation, protein catabolism, and marked haemodynamic perturbation...
September 28, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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