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Cognition & Emotion

Yael Ecker, Yoav Bar-Anan
Feelings and cognitions influence judgment through attribution. For instance, the attribution of positive feelings and cognitions to a stimulus leads to a positive judgment of that stimulus. We examined whether misattribution is moderated by the applicability of a distractor to the judgment question. For instance, when are people more likely to attribute to a target person the affective and cognitive experiences triggered by a kitten - when trying to judge the person's cuteness or trustworthiness? The kitten triggers experiences specifically relevant to cuteness, but people might more easily suspect the kitten's potential influence when judging cuteness rather than trustworthiness...
July 12, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Catherine J Norris, Paula T Leaf, Kimberly M Fenn
The negativity bias is the tendency for individuals to give greater weight, and often exhibit more rapid and extreme responses, to negative than positive information. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott illusory memory paradigm, the current study sought to examine how the negativity bias might affect both correct recognition for negative and positive words and false recognition for associated critical lures, as well as how trait neuroticism might moderate these effects. In two experiments, participants studied lists of words composed of semantic associates of an unpresented word (the critical lure)...
July 9, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Xijia Luo, Mike Rinck, Harold Bekkering, Eni S Becker
When processing information about human faces, we have to integrate different sources of information like skin colour and emotional expression. In 3 experiments, we investigated how these features are processed in a top-down manner when task instructions determine the relevance of features, and in a bottom-up manner when the stimulus features themselves determine process priority. In Experiment 1, participants learned to respond with approach-avoidance movements to faces that presented both emotion and colour features (e...
July 9, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Sarah D McCrackin, Roxane J Itier
Gaze-cuing refers to the spontaneous orienting of attention towards a gazed-at location, characterised by shorter response times to gazed-at than non-gazed at targets. Previous research suggests that processing of these gaze cues interacts with the processing of facial expression cues to enhance gaze-cuing. However, whether only negative emotions (which signal potential threat or uncertainty) can enhance gaze-cuing is still debated, and whether this emotional modulation varies as a function of individual differences still remains largely unclear...
July 8, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Yingying Wang, Zijian Zhu, Biqing Chen, Fang Fang
The six basic emotions (disgust, anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) have long been considered discrete categories that serve as the primary units of the emotion system. Yet recent evidence indicated underlying connections among them. Here we tested the underlying relationships among the six basic emotions using a perceptual learning procedure. This technique has the potential of causally changing participants' emotion detection ability. We found that training on detecting a facial expression improved the performance not only on the trained expression but also on other expressions...
June 30, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Ruida Zhu, Zhenhua Xu, Honghong Tang, Jiting Liu, Huanqing Wang, Ying An, Xiaoqin Mai, Chao Liu
Numerous studies have found that shame increases individuals' anger at others. However, according to recent theories about the social function of shame and anger at others, it is possible that shame controls individuals' anger at others in specific conditions. We replicated previous findings that shame increased individuals' anger at others' unfairness, when others were not aware of the individual's experience of shameful events. We also found for the first time that shame controlled or even decreased individuals' anger at others' unfairness, when others were aware of the individual's experience of shameful events...
June 22, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Vera Vine, Emily E Bernstein, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Previous research suggests that labelling emotions, or describing affective states using emotion words, facilitates emotion regulation. But how much labelling promotes emotion regulation? And which emotion regulation strategies does emotion labelling promote? Drawing on cognitive theories of emotion, we predicted that labelling emotions using fewer words would be less confusing and would facilitate forms of emotion regulation requiring more cognitively demanding processing of context. Participants (N = 82) mentally immersed themselves in an emotional vignette, were randomly assigned to an exhaustive or minimal emotion labelling manipulation, and then completed an emotion regulation strategy planning task...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Leah S Sharman, Genevieve A Dingle, Eric J Vanman
Crying is often considered to be a positive experience that benefits the crier, yet there is little empirical evidence to support this. Indeed, it seems that people hold a range of appraisals about their crying, and these are likely to influence the effects of crying on their emotional state. This paper reports on the development and psychometric validation of the Beliefs about Crying Scale (BACS), a new measure assessing beliefs about whether crying leads to positive or negative emotional outcomes in individual and interpersonal contexts...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Vladimir Kosonogov, Jose M Martinez-Selva, Eduvigis Carrillo-Verdejo, Ginesa Torrente, Luis Carretié, Juan P Sanchez-Navarro
The social content of affective stimuli has been proposed as having an influence on cognitive processing and behaviour. This research was aimed, therefore, at studying whether automatic exogenous attention demanded by affective pictures was related to their social value. We hypothesised that affective social pictures would capture attention to a greater extent than non-social affective stimuli. For this purpose, we recorded event-related potentials in a sample of 24 participants engaged in a digit categorisation task...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Naoaki Kawakami, Emi Miura
We tested the response dynamics of the evaluative priming effect (i.e. facilitation of target responses following evaluatively congruent compared with evaluatively incongruent primes) using a mouse tracking procedure that records hand movements during the execution of categorisation tasks. In Experiment 1, when participants performed the evaluative categorisation task but not the non-evaluative semantic categorisation task, their mouse trajectories for evaluatively incongruent trials curved more toward the opposite response than those for evaluatively congruent trials, indicating the emergence of evaluative priming effects based on response competition...
June 8, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Daniela Becker, Nils B Jostmann, Rob W Holland
Solving a conflict between two response options in an interference task has been found to increase control in a subsequent conflict situation. The present research examined whether such conflict adaptation persists in the presence of distractors that have motivational relevance and are therefore competing for attentional resources (i.e. they signal opportunities for monetary gains or losses contingent on overall task performance). In an adjusted flanker task, motivational (versus neutral versus no) distractors were presented together with the current trial while the previous trial never included any distractor...
June 6, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Maria Montefinese, Ettore Ambrosini, Eka Roivainen
In this study, we tested the linguistic relativity hypothesis by studying the effect of grammatical gender (feminine vs. masculine) on affective judgments of conceptual representation in Italian and German. In particular, we examined the within- and cross-language grammatical gender effect and its interaction with participants' demographic characteristics (such as, the raters' age and sex) on semantic differential scales (affective ratings of valence, arousal and dominance) in Italian and German speakers. We selected the stimuli and the relative affective measures from Italian and German adaptations of the ANEW (Affective Norms for English Words)...
June 6, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Felipe De Brigard, Eleanor Hanna, Peggy L St Jacques, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic counterfactual thoughts (CFT) and autobiographical memories (AM) involve the reactivation and recombination of episodic memory components into mental simulations. Upon reactivation, memories become labile and prone to modification. Thus, reactivating AM in the context of mentally generating CFT may provide an opportunity for editing processes to modify the content of the original memory. To examine this idea, this paper reports the results of two studies that investigated the effect of reactivating negative and positive AM in the context of either imagining a better (i...
June 1, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Klaus R Scherer, Johnny R J Fontaine
Appraisal theories of emotion, and particularly the Component Process Model, claim that the different components of the emotion process (action tendencies, physiological reactions, expressions, and feeling experiences) are essentially driven by the results of cognitive appraisals and that the feeling component constitutes a central integration and representation of these processes. Given the complexity of the proposed architecture, comprehensive experimental tests of these predictions are difficult to perform and to date are lacking...
June 1, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Erika M Manczak, Paula J Ham, Rebecca N Sinard, Edith Chen
Previous work on the contribution of family environments to adolescent emotion dysregulation has tended to focus on broad parenting characteristics (such as warmth); however, it is possible that day-to-day variability in parenting may also relate to emotion dysregulation. The current study sought to test whether inconsistency in the quality of daily parent-youth interactions related to multiple indices of emotion dysregulation in adolescents. Two-hundred-twenty-two adolescents (ages 13-16; 53% female) participated with one parent...
May 27, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Junwen Chen, Kirby Milne, Janet Dayman, Eva Kemps
Two studies aimed to examine whether high socially anxious individuals are more likely to negatively interpret ambiguous social scenarios and facial expressions compared to low socially anxious individuals. We also examined whether interpretation bias serves as a mediator of the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety responses, in particular current state anxiety, bodily sensations, and perceived probability and cost of negative evaluation pertaining to a speech task. Study 1 used ambiguous social scenarios and Study 2 used ambiguous facial expressions as stimuli to objectively assess interpretation bias...
May 23, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Andrew R du Rocher, Alan D Pickering
People high in social anxiety experience fear of social situations due to the likelihood of social evaluation. Whereas happy faces are generally processed very quickly, this effect is impaired by high social anxiety. Mouth regions are implicated during emotional face processing, therefore differences in mouth salience might affect how social anxiety relates to emotional face discrimination. We designed an emotional facial expression recognition task to reveal how varying levels of sub-clinical social anxiety (measured by questionnaire) related to the discrimination of happy and fearful faces, and of happy and angry faces...
May 21, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Noa Avirbach, Baruch Perlman, Nilly Mor
In this study, we developed a cognitive bias modification procedure that targets inferential style, and tested its effect on hope, mood, and self-esteem. Participants were randomly assigned to training conditions intended to encourage either a negative or a positive inferential style. Participants' inferences for their failure on a cognitive challenge were congruent with their training condition. Moreover, compared to participants in the positive training condition, those in the negative condition reported less hope and exhibited lower mood and self-esteem following the failure...
May 19, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Marc W Heerdink, Lukas F Koning, Evert A van Doorn, Gerben A van Kleef
Other people's emotional reactions to a third person's behaviour are potentially informative about what is appropriate within a given situation. We investigated whether and how observers' inferences of such injunctive norms are shaped by expressions of anger and disgust. Building on the moral emotions literature, we hypothesised that angry and disgusted expressions produce relative differences in the strength of autonomy-based versus purity-based norm inferences. We report three studies (plus three supplementary studies) using different types of stimuli (vignette-based, video clips) to investigate how emotional reactions shape norms about potential norm violations (eating snacks, drinking alcohol), and contexts (groups of friends, a university, a company)...
May 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Rebecca Elias, Thomas H Ollendick, Susan W White
Prior research on attention bias in anxious youth, often utilising a visual dot probe task, has yielded inconsistent findings, which may be due to how bias is assessed and/or variability in the phenomenon. The present study utilises eye gaze tracking to assess attention bias in socially anxious adolescents, and explores several methodological and within-subject factors that may contribute to variability in attention bias. Attention bias to threat was measured in forty-two treatment-seeking adolescents (age 12-16 years) diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder...
May 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
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