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Cognition & Emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317414/anxiety-depression-and-the-suicidal-spectrum-a-latent-class-analysis-of-overlapping-and-distinctive-features
#1
Matthew C Podlogar, Megan L Rogers, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Bruno Chiurliza, Thomas E Joiner
Anxiety and depression diagnoses are associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours. However, a categorical understanding of these associations limits insight into identifying dimensional mechanisms of suicide risk. This study investigated anxious and depressive features through a lens of suicide risk, independent of diagnosis. Latent class analysis of 97 depression, anxiety, and suicidality-related items among 616 psychiatric outpatients indicated a 3-class solution, specifically: (1) a higher suicide-risk class uniquely differentiated from both other classes by high reported levels of depression and anxious arousal; (2) a lower suicide-risk class that reported levels of anxiety sensitivity and generalised worry comparable to Class 1, but lower levels of depression and anxious arousal; and (3) a low to non-suicidal class that reported relatively low levels across all depression and anxiety measures...
March 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293980/finding-the-good-in-the-bad-age-and-event-experience-relate-to-the-focus-on-positive-aspects-of-a-negative-event
#2
Jaclyn H Ford, Haley D DiBiase, Elizabeth A Kensinger
All lives contain negative events, but how we think about these events differs across individuals; negative events often include positive details that can be remembered alongside the negative, and the ability to maintain both representations may be beneficial. In a survey examining emotional responses to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the current study investigated how this ability shifts as a function of age and individual differences in initial experience of the event. Specifically, this study examined how emotional importance (i...
March 15, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288533/attentional-bias-during-emotional-processing-evidence-from-an-emotional-flanker-task-using-iaps
#3
Mario A Parra, Manuel Guillermo Sánchez, Stella Valencia, Natalia Trujillo
Attention is biased towards threat-related stimuli. In three experiments, we investigated the mechanisms, processes, and time course of this processing bias. An emotional flanker task simultaneously presented affective or neutral pictures from the international affective picture system database either as central response-relevant stimuli or surrounding response-uninformative flankers. Participants' response times to central stimuli was measured. The attentional bias was observed when stimuli were presented either for 1500 ms (Experiment 1) or 500 ms (Experiment 2)...
March 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281398/attentional-capture-by-irrelevant-emotional-distractor-faces-is-contingent-on-implicit-attentional-settings
#4
Moshe Glickman, Dominique Lamy
Although expressions of facial emotion hold a special status in attention relative to other complex objects, whether they summon our attention automatically and against our intentions remains a debated issue. Studies supporting the strong view that attentional capture by facial expressions of emotion is entirely automatic reported that a unique (singleton) emotional face distractor interfered with search for a target that was also unique on a different dimension. Participants could therefore search for the odd-one out face to locate the target and attentional capture by irrelevant emotional faces might be contingent on the adoption of an implicit set for singletons...
March 10, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271740/attentional-processing-of-emotional-material-in-types-of-anxiety-and-depression
#5
Małgorzata Fajkowska, Ewa Domaradzka, Agata Wytykowska
The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that differences and similarities in patterns of attentional processing in recently proposed types of anxiety and depression are connected with the dominant (reactive, regulative) function they play in stimulation processing and their structural components. Participants (N = 1247) filled out the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire, which assesses types of anxiety and depression, and completed the Emotional Faces Attentional Test one week later. The obtained results confirmed our prediction and suggested that the proposed typology of anxiety and depression is valid in the adaptive meanings of both phenomena...
March 8, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271732/decision-mechanisms-underlying-mood-congruent-emotional-classification
#6
Corey N White, Elad Liebman, Peter Stone
There is great interest in understanding whether and how mood influences affective processing. Results in the literature have been mixed: some studies show mood-congruent processing but others do not. One limitation of previous work is that decision components for affective processing and responses biases are not dissociated. The present study explored the roles of affective processing and response biases using a drift-diffusion model (DDM) of simple choice. In two experiments, participants decided if words were emotionally positive or negative while listening to music that induced positive or negative mood...
March 8, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278733/correlations-of-trait-and-state-emotions-with-utilitarian-moral-judgements
#7
Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay, Mary Frances Luce
In four experiments, we asked subjects for judgements about scenarios that pit utilitarian outcomes against deontological moral rules, for example, saving more lives vs. a rule against active killing. We measured trait emotions of anger, disgust, sympathy and empathy (the last two in both specific and general forms, the latter referring to large groups of people), asked about the same emotions after each scenario (state emotions). We found that utilitarian responding to the scenarios, and higher scores on a utilitarianism scale, were correlated negatively with disgust, positively (but weakly and inconsistently) with anger, positively with specific sympathy and state sympathy, and less so with general sympathy or empathy...
March 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278732/longitudinal-evaluation-of-anhedonia-as-a-mediator-of-fear-of-positive-evaluation-and-other-depressive-symptoms
#8
D Gage Jordan, E Samuel Winer, Taban Salem, Jenna Kilgore
Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) is experiencing dread during real or potential praise. FPE is associated with social anxiety, but its relation to depressive symptoms is unclear. Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression related to symptoms of anxiety in cross-sectional research. The current study investigated the indirect effect of FPE on depressive symptoms via anhedonia over time. One-hundred ninety-six participants completed three waves of questionnaires over a total timespan of approximately four months via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including measures of FPE, depressive symptoms, and anticipatory and consummatory anhedonia...
March 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278734/the-relation-between-rumination-and-temporal-features-of-emotion-intensity
#9
Maxime Résibois, Elise K Kalokerinos, Gregory Verleysen, Peter Kuppens, Iven Van Mechelen, Philippe Fossati, Philippe Verduyn
Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we examined whether emotion regulation strategies are predictive of the degree of explosiveness and accumulation of negative emotional episodes. Participants were asked to draw profiles reflecting changes in the intensity of emotions elicited either by negative social feedback in the lab (Study 1) or by negative events in daily life (Study 2)...
March 2, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278735/situation-selection-is-a-particularly-effective-emotion-regulation-strategy-for-people-who-need-help-regulating-their-emotions
#10
Thomas L Webb, Kristen A Lindquist, Katelyn Jones, Aya Avishai, Paschal Sheeran
Situation selection involves choosing situations based on their likely emotional impact and may be less cognitively taxing or challenging to implement compared to other strategies for regulating emotion, which require people to regulate their emotions "in the moment"; we thus predicted that individuals who chronically experience intense emotions or who are not particularly competent at employing other emotion regulation strategies would be especially likely to benefit from situation selection. Consistent with this idea, we found that the use of situation selection interacted with individual differences in emotional reactivity and competence at emotion regulation to predict emotional outcomes in both a correlational (Study 1; N = 301) and an experimental field study (Study 2; N = 125)...
March 1, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278736/mood-effects-on-attentional-control-a-preregistered-replication-study-and-critical-analysis
#11
Helen Tibboel
In a widely cited paper, Jefferies et al. ( 2008 ) report a study in which they manipulated participants' mood and examined the effects of this manipulation on their performance on the Attentional Blink task. Their results revealed an interaction between emotional valence and arousal: attentional control of participants who experienced a negative mood with low arousal (i.e. sadness) was best, whereas it was worst for participants who experienced a negative mood with high arousal (i.e. anxiety). Performance for participants who were in a positive mood, either with low arousal (i...
February 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278739/the-self-and-others-in-the-experience-of-pride
#12
Yvette van Osch, Marcel Zeelenberg, Seger M Breugelmans
Pride is seen as both a self-conscious emotion as well as a social emotion. These categories are not mutually exclusive, but have brought forth different ideas about pride as either revolving around the self or as revolving around one's relationship with others. Current measures of pride do not include intrapersonal elements of pride experiences. Social comparisons, which often cause experiences of pride, contain three elements: the self, the relationship between the self and another person, and the other person...
February 16, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278738/evidence-for-a-relationship-between-trait-gratitude-and-prosocial-behaviour
#13
Rachel Yost-Dubrow, Yarrow Dunham
Prosocial behaviour towards unrelated others is communally beneficial but can be individually costly. The emotion of gratitude mitigates this cost by encouraging direct as well as "upstream" reciprocity, thereby facilitating cooperation. A widely used method for measuring trait gratitude is the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ6) [McCullough, M., Emmons, R., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127. Retrieved from http://dx...
February 16, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278737/the-tell-tale-heart-physiological-reactivity-during-resolution-of-ambiguity-in-youth-anxiety
#14
Michelle Rozenman, Allison Vreeland, Marisela Iglesias, Melissa Mendez, John Piacentini
In the past decade, cognitive biases and physiological arousal have each been proposed as mechanisms through which paediatric anxiety develops and is maintained over time. Preliminary studies have found associations between anxious interpretations of ambiguity, physiological arousal, and avoidance, supporting theories that link cognition, psychophysiology, and behaviour. However, little is known about the relationship between youths' resolutions of ambiguity and physiological arousal during acute stress. Such information may have important clinical implications for use of verbal self-regulation strategies and cognitive restructuring during treatments for paediatric anxiety...
February 16, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278740/effects-of-achievement-contexts-on-the-meaning-structure-of-emotion-words
#15
Kornelia Gentsch, Kristina Loderer, Cristina Soriano, Johnny R J Fontaine, Michael Eid, Reinhard Pekrun, Klaus R Scherer
Little is known about the impact of context on the meaning of emotion words. In the present study, we used a semantic profiling instrument (GRID) to investigate features representing five emotion components (appraisal, bodily reaction, expression, action tendencies, and feeling) of 11 emotion words in situational contexts involving success or failure. We compared these to the data from an earlier study in which participants evaluated the typicality of features out of context. Profile analyses identified features for which typicality changed as a function of context for all emotion words, except contentment, with appraisal features being most frequently affected...
February 15, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278741/the-role-of-motion-and-intensity-in-deaf-children-s-recognition-of-real-human-facial-expressions-of-emotion
#16
Anna C Jones, Roberto Gutierrez, Amanda K Ludlow
There is substantial evidence to suggest that deafness is associated with delays in emotion understanding, which has been attributed to delays in language acquisition and opportunities to converse. However, studies addressing the ability to recognise facial expressions of emotion have produced equivocal findings. The two experiments presented here attempt to clarify emotion recognition in deaf children by considering two aspects: the role of motion and the role of intensity in deaf children's emotion recognition...
February 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278742/cognitive-reactivity-as-outcome-and-working-mechanism-of-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-for-recurrently-depressed-patients-in-remission
#17
M B Cladder-Micus, J van Aalderen, A R T Donders, J Spijker, J N Vrijsen, A E M Speckens
Major depressive disorder is a prevalent condition with high relapse rates. There is evidence that cognitive reactivity is an important vulnerability factor for the recurrence of depression. Mindfulness-based interventions are designed to reduce relapse rates, with cognitive reactivity as one of the proposed working mechanisms. In a randomised controlled trial we compared the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with treatment-as-usual (TAU) on cognitive reactivity in recurrently depressed patients (N = 115)...
February 7, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278743/networks-of-self-defining-memories-as-a-contributing-factor-to-emotional-openness
#18
Iliane Houle, Frederick L Philippe, Serge Lecours, Josiane Roulez
Emotional openness is characterised by a capacity to tolerate threatening self-relevant material and an interest towards new emotional situations. We investigated how specific networks of memories could be an important contributing factor to emotional openness. At Phase 1, participants completed measures of personality traits and emotional intelligence, described a self-defining memory, provided other memories associated with it, and rated the valence of each of their memories. A score assessing the complexity of this memory network, comprising the number of memories reported and their valence diversity, was created...
February 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165860/emotional-mimicry-of-older-adults-expressions-effects-of-partial-inclusion-in-a-cyberball-paradigm
#19
Isabell Hühnel, Janka Kuszynski, Jens B Asendorpf, Ursula Hess
As intergenerational interactions increase due to an ageing population, the study of emotion-related responses to the elderly is increasingly relevant. Previous research found mixed results regarding affective mimicry - a measure related to liking and affiliation. In the current study, we investigated emotional mimicry to younger and older actors following an encounter with a younger and older player in a Cyberball game. In a complete exclusion condition, in which both younger and older players excluded the participant, we expected emotional mimicry to be stronger for younger vs...
February 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156191/working-memory-capacity-and-spontaneous-emotion-regulation-in-generalised-anxiety-disorder
#20
K Lira Yoon, Joelle LeMoult, Atayeh Hamedani, Randi McCabe
Researchers have postulated that deficits in cognitive control are associated with, and thus may underlie, the perseverative thinking that characterises generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). We examined associations between cognitive control and levels of spontaneous state rumination following a stressor in a sample of healthy control participants (CTL; n = 27) and participants with GAD (n = 21). We assessed cognitive control by measuring working memory capacity (WMC), defined as the ability to maintain task-relevant information by ignoring task-irrelevant information...
February 3, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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