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Cognition & Emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103761/the-everyday-dynamics-of-rumination-and-worry-precipitant-events-and-affective-consequences
#1
Katharina Kircanski, Renee J Thompson, James Sorenson, Lindsey Sherdell, Ian H Gotlib
Rumination and worry are two perseverative, negatively valenced thought processes that characterise depressive and anxiety disorders. Despite significant research interest, little is known about the everyday precipitants and consequences of rumination and worry. Using an experience sampling methodology, we examined and compared rumination and worry with respect to their relations to daily events and affective experience. Participants diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), co-occurring MDD-GAD, or no diagnosis carried an electronic device for one week and reported on rumination, worry, significant events, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA)...
January 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095740/does-a-single-session-of-reading-literary-fiction-prime-enhanced-mentalising-performance-four-replication-experiments-of-kidd-and-castano-2013
#2
Dalya Samur, Mattie Tops, Sander L Koole
Prior experiments indicated that reading literary fiction improves mentalising performance relative to reading popular fiction, non-fiction, or not reading. However, the experiments had relatively small sample sizes and hence low statistical power. To address this limitation, the present authors conducted four high-powered replication experiments (combined N = 1006) testing the causal impact of reading literary fiction on mentalising. Relative to the original research, the present experiments used the same literary texts in the reading manipulation; the same mentalising task; and the same kind of participant samples...
January 17, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064681/forget-about-the-future-effects-of-thought-suppression-on-memory-for-imaginary-emotional-episodes
#3
Nathan A Ryckman, Donna Rose Addis, Andrew J Latham, Anthony J Lambert
Whether intentional suppression of an unpleasant or unwanted memory reduces the ability to recall that memory subsequently is a contested issue in contemporary memory research. Building on findings that similar processes are recruited when individuals remember the past and imagine the future, we measured the effects of thought suppression on memory for imagined future scenarios. Thought suppression reduced the ability to recall emotionally negative scenarios, but not those that were emotionally positive. This finding suggests that intentionally avoiding thoughts about emotionally negative episodes may inhibit representations of those memories, progressively reducing their availability to recall...
January 9, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033739/facial-redness-expression-and-masculinity-influence-perceptions-of-anger-and-health
#4
Steven G Young, Christopher A Thorstenson, Adam D Pazda
Past research has found that skin colouration, particularly facial redness, influences the perceived health and emotional state of target individuals. In the current work, we explore several extensions of this past research. In Experiment 1, we manipulated facial redness incrementally on neutral and angry faces and had participants rate each face for anger and health. Different red effects emerged, as perceived anger increased in a linear manner as facial redness increased. Health ratings instead showed a curvilinear trend, as both extreme paleness and redness were rated as less healthy than moderate levels of red...
December 29, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032518/factors-contributing-to-individual-differences-in-facial-expression-categorisation
#5
Corinne Green, Kun Guo
Individuals vary in perceptual accuracy when categorising facial expressions, yet it is unclear how these individual differences in non-clinical population are related to cognitive processing stages at facial information acquisition and interpretation. We tested 104 healthy adults in a facial expression categorisation task, and correlated their categorisation accuracy with face-viewing gaze allocation and personal traits assessed with Autism Quotient, anxiety inventory and Self-Monitoring Scale. The gaze allocation had limited but emotion-specific impact on categorising expressions...
December 29, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030982/a-minimal-ingroup-advantage-in-emotion-identification-confidence
#6
Steven G Young, John Paul Wilson
Emotion expressions convey valuable information about others' internal states and likely behaviours. Accurately identifying expressions is critical for social interactions, but so is perceiver confidence when decoding expressions. Even if a perceiver correctly labels an expression, uncertainty may impair appropriate behavioural responses and create uncomfortable interactions. Past research has found that perceivers report greater confidence when identifying emotions displayed by cultural ingroup members, an effect attributed to greater perceptual skill and familiarity with own-culture than other-culture faces...
December 28, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024440/moment-to-moment-changes-in-feeling-moved-match-changes-in-closeness-tears-goosebumps-and-warmth-time-series-analyses
#7
Thomas W Schubert, Janis H Zickfeld, Beate Seibt, Alan Page Fiske
Feeling moved or touched can be accompanied by tears, goosebumps, and sensations of warmth in the centre of the chest. The experience has been described frequently, but psychological science knows little about it. We propose that labelling one's feeling as being moved or touched is a component of a social-relational emotion that we term kama muta (its Sanskrit label). We hypothesise that it is caused by appraising an intensification of communal sharing relations. Here, we test this by investigating people's moment-to-moment reports of feeling moved and touched while watching six short videos...
December 26, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002985/on-the-malleability-of-the-meaning-of-contexts-the-influence-of-another-person-s-emotion-expressions-on-situation-perception
#8
Ursula Hess, Shlomo Hareli
Research on the relationship between context and facial expressions generally assumes a unidirectional effect of context on expressions. However, according to the model of the meaning of emotion expressions in context (MEEC) the effect should be bidirectional. The present research tested the effect of emotion expression on the interpretation of scenes. A total of 380 participants either (a) rated facial expressions with regard to the likely appraisal of the eliciting situation by the emoter, (b) appraised the scenes alone or (c) appraised scenes shown together with the expressions they supposedly elicited...
December 21, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000541/involuntary-processing-of-social-dominance-cues-from-bimodal-face-voice-displays
#9
Virginie Peschard, Pierre Philippot, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman
Social-rank cues communicate social status or social power within and between groups. Information about social-rank is fluently processed in both visual and auditory modalities. So far, the investigation on the processing of social-rank cues has been limited to studies in which information from a single modality was assessed or manipulated. Yet, in everyday communication, multiple information channels are used to express and understand social-rank. We sought to examine the (in)voluntary nature of processing of facial and vocal signals of social-rank using a cross-modal Stroop task...
December 21, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928931/differentiating-anxiety-and-depression-the-state-trait-anxiety-depression-inventory
#10
Karl-Heinz Renner, Michael Hock, Ralf Bergner-Köther, Lothar Laux
The differentiation of trait anxiety and depression in nonclinical and clinical populations is addressed. Following the tripartite model, it is assumed that anxiety and depression share a large portion of negative affectivity (NA), but differ with respect to bodily hyperarousal (specific to anxiety) and anhedonia (lack of positive affect; specific to depression). In contrast to the tripartite model, NA is subdivided into worry (characteristic for anxiety) and dysthymia (characteristic for depression), which leads to a four-variable model of anxiety and depression encompassing emotionality, worry, dysthymia, and anhedonia...
December 8, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922343/daily-and-trait-rumination-diurnal-cortisol-patterns-in-adolescent-girls
#11
Lori M Hilt, Michael R Sladek, Leah D Doane, Catherine B Stroud
Rumination is a maladaptive form of emotion regulation associated with psychopathology. Research with adults suggests that rumination covaries with diurnal cortisol rhythms, yet this has not been examined among adolescents. Here, we examine the day-to-day covariation between rumination and cortisol, and explore whether trait rumination is associated with alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms among adolescent girls. Participants (N = 122) provided saliva samples 3 times per day over 3 days, along with daily reports of stress and rumination, questionnaires assessing trait rumination related to peer stress, and diagnostic interviews assessing depression and anxiety...
December 6, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922339/responding-to-emotional-scenes-effects-of-response-outcome-and-picture-repetition-on-reaction-times-and-the-late-positive-potential
#12
Nina N Thigpen, Andreas Keil, Alexandra M Freund
Processing the motivational relevance of a visual scene and reacting accordingly is crucial for survival. Previous work suggests the emotional content of naturalistic scenes affects response speed, such that unpleasant content slows responses whereas pleasant content accelerates responses. It is unclear whether these effects reflect motor-cognitive processes, such as attentional orienting, or vary with the function/outcome of the motor response itself. Four experiments manipulated participants' ability to terminate the picture (offset control) and, thereby, the response's function and motivational value...
December 6, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922320/discrimination-between-safe-and-unsafe-stimuli-mediates-the-relationship-between-trait-anxiety-and-return-of-fear
#13
Lindsay K Staples-Bradley, Michael Treanor, Michelle G Craske
Individuals with anxiety disorders show deficits in the discrimination between a cue that predicts an aversive outcome and a safe stimulus that predicts the absence of that outcome. This impairment has been linked to increased spontaneous recovery of fear following extinction, however it is unknown if there is a link between discrimination and return of fear in a novel context (i.e. context renewal). It is also unknown if impaired discrimination mediates the relationship between trait anxiety and either spontaneous recovery or context renewal...
December 6, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910735/birth-of-the-cool-a-two-centuries-decline-in-emotional-expression-in-anglophone-fiction
#14
Olivier Morin, Alberto Acerbi
The presence of emotional words and content in stories has been shown to enhance a story's memorability, and its cultural success. Yet, recent cultural trends run in the opposite direction. Using the Google Books corpus, coupled with two metadata-rich corpora of Anglophone fiction books, we show a decrease in emotionality in English-speaking literature starting plausibly in the nineteenth century. We show that this decrease cannot be explained by changes unrelated to emotionality (such as demographic dynamics concerning age or gender balance, changes in vocabulary richness, or changes in the prevalence of literary genres), and that, in our three corpora, the decrease is driven almost entirely by a decline in the proportion of positive emotion-related words, while the frequency of negative emotion-related words shows little if any decline...
December 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910731/selective-attention-to-emotional-prosody-in-social-anxiety-a-dichotic-listening-study
#15
Virginie Peschard, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, Pierre Philippot
The majority of evidence on social anxiety (SA)-linked attentional biases to threat comes from research using facial expressions. Emotions are, however, communicated through other channels, such as voice. Despite its importance in the interpretation of social cues, emotional prosody processing in SA has been barely explored. This study investigated whether SA is associated with enhanced processing of task-irrelevant angry prosody. Fifty-three participants with high and low SA performed a dichotic listening task in which pairs of male/female voices were presented, one to each ear, with either the same or different prosody (neutral or angry)...
December 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910724/attentional-networks-and-visuospatial-working-memory-capacity-in-social-anxiety
#16
Jun Moriya
Social anxiety is associated with attentional bias and working memory for emotional stimuli; however, the ways in which social anxiety affects cognitive functions involving non-emotional stimuli remains unclear. The present study focused on the role of attentional networks (i.e. alerting, orienting, and executive control networks) and visuospatial working memory capacity (WMC) for non-emotional stimuli in the context of social anxiety. One hundred and seventeen undergraduates completed questionnaires on social anxiety...
December 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892819/fear-generalisation-in-individuals-with-high-neuroticism-increasing-predictability-is-not-necessarily-better
#17
Natalia M Garcia, Lori A Zoellner
Fear generalisation, a process by which conditioned fear spreads to similar but innocuous stimuli, is key in understanding why some individuals feel unsafe in objectively non-threatening situations. Both trait neuroticism and lack of predictability about the likelihood of feared consequences are associated with negative affect in the face of ambiguity and may increase the degree to which fear generalises. Undergraduates (N = 129) with varying degrees of neuroticism were randomised to either high- or low-instructional predictability conditions prior to fear acquisition...
November 28, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892776/cognitive-and-affective-predictors-of-boredom-proneness
#18
Julia Isacescu, Andriy Anatolievich Struk, James Danckert
Boredom proneness has been linked to various forms of cognitive and affective dysregulation including poor self-control and mind-wandering (MW), as well as depression and aggression. As such, understanding boredom and the associated cognitive and affective components of the experience, represents an important first step in combatting the consequences of boredom for psychological well-being. We surveyed 1928 undergraduate students on measures of boredom proneness, self-control, MW, depression and aggression to investigate how these constructs were related...
November 28, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873536/discomfort-and-avoidance-of-touch-new-insights-on-the-emotional-deficits-of-social-anxiety
#19
Todd B Kashdan, James Doorley, Melissa C Stiksma, Matthew J Hertenstein
Physical touch is central to the emotional intimacy that separates romantic relationships from other social contexts. In this study of 256 adults (128 heterosexual couples, mean relationship length = 20.5 months), we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety influenced comfort with and avoidance of physical touch. Because of prior work on sex difference in touch use, touch comfort, and social anxiety symptoms and impairment, we explored sex-specific findings. We found evidence that women with greater social anxiety were less comfortable with touch and more avoidant of touch in same-sex friendships...
November 22, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848281/processing-emotions-in-sounds-cross-domain-aftereffects-of-vocal-utterances-and-musical-sounds
#20
Casady Bowman, Takashi Yamauchi
Nonlinguistic signals in the voice and musical instruments play a critical role in communicating emotion. Although previous research suggests a common mechanism for emotion processing in music and speech, the precise relationship between the two domains is unclear due to the paucity of direct evidence. By applying the adaptation paradigm developed by Bestelmeyer, Rouger, DeBruine, and Belin [2010. Auditory adaptation in vocal affect perception. Cognition, 117(2), 217-223. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.08.008 ], this study shows cross-domain aftereffects from vocal to musical sounds...
November 16, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
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