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Cognition & Emotion

Tanya L Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth
Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) tests...
September 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Navot Naor, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory, Gal Sheppes, Hadas Okon-Singer
Empathy represents a fundamental ability that allows for the creation and cultivation of social bonds. As part of the empathic process, individuals use their own emotional state to interpret the content and intensity of other people's emotions. Therefore, the current study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) empathy for the pain of another will result in biased emotional intensity judgment; and (2) changing one's emotion via emotion regulation will modulate these biased judgments. To test these hypotheses, in experiment one we used a modified version of a well-known task that triggers an empathic reaction We found that empathy resulted in biased emotional intensity judgment...
September 11, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Laura Wante, Marie-Lotte Van Beveren, Lotte Theuwis, Caroline Braet
Recent research suggests that impaired emotion regulation (ER) may play an important role in the development of youth psychopathology. However, little research has explored the effects of ER strategies on affect in early adolescents. In Study 1 (n = 76), we examined if early adolescents are able to use distraction and whether the effects of this strategy are similar to talking to one's mother. In Study 2 (n = 184), we compared the effects of distraction, cognitive reappraisal, acceptance, and rumination...
September 7, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Gaurav Suri, Gal Sheppes, Gerald Young, Damon Abraham, Kateri McRae, James J Gross
Which emotion regulation strategy one uses in a given context can have profound affective, cognitive, and social consequences. It is therefore important to understand the determinants of emotion regulation choice. Many prior studies have examined person-specific, internal determinants of emotion regulation choice. Recently, it has become clear that external variables that are properties of the stimulus can also influence emotion regulation choice. In the present research, we consider whether reappraisal affordances, defined as the opportunities for re-interpretation of a stimulus that are inherent in that stimulus, can shape individuals' emotion regulation choices...
September 1, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Mariska E Kret
The eyes are extremely important for communication. The muscles around the eyes express emotional states and the size of the pupil signals whether a person is aroused and alert or bored and fatigued. Pupil size is an overlooked social signal, yet is readily picked up by observers. Observers mirror their own pupil sizes in response, which can influence social impressions. In a landmark study by Hess [1975. The role of pupil size in communication. Scientific American, 233(5), 110-119] it was shown that individuals with large pupils are perceived more positively than individuals with small pupils...
August 31, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Takashi Mitsuda, Syuta Masaki
Another individual's gaze automatically shifts an observer's attention to a location. This reflexive response occurs even when the gaze is presented subliminally over a short period. Another's gaze also increases the preference level for items in the gaze direction; however, it was previously unclear if this effect occurs when the gaze is presented subliminally. This study showed that the preference levels for nonsense figures looked at by a subliminal gaze were significantly greater than those for items that were subliminally looked away from (Task 1)...
August 29, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Penelope A Hasking, Martina Di Simplicio, Peter M McEvoy, Clare S Rees
Grounded in Emotional Cascade Theory, we explored whether rumination and multisensory imagery-based cognitions moderated the relationships between affect and both odds of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and frequency of the behaviour. A sample of 393 university students completed self-report questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Contrary to expectations, rumination did not emerge as a significant moderator of the affect-NSSI relationship. However, the relationship between affect and frequency of NSSI was moderated by the use of imagery...
August 25, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Jayne Morriss, Eugene McSorley, Carien M van Reekum
Attentional bias to uncertain threat is associated with anxiety disorders. Here we examine the extent to which emotional face distractors (happy, angry and neutral) and individual differences in intolerance of uncertainty (IU), impact saccades in two versions of the "follow a cross" task. In both versions of the follow the cross task, the probability of receiving an emotional face distractor was 66.7%. To increase perceived uncertainty regarding the location of the face distractors, in one of the tasks additional non-predictive cues were presented before the onset of the face distractors and target...
August 24, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Christien Slofstra, Maaike H Nauta, Emily A Holmes, Elisabeth H Bos, Marieke Wichers, Nikolaos Batalas, Nicola S Klein, Claudi L H Bockting
Previously depressed individuals experience disturbances in affect. Affective disturbances may be related to visual mental imagery, given that imagery-based processing of emotional stimuli causes stronger affective responses than verbal processing in experimental laboratory studies. However, the role of imagery-based processing in everyday life is unknown. This study assessed mental imagery in the daily life of previously and never depressed individuals. Higher levels of visual mental imagery was hypothesised to be associated with more affective reactivity to both negatively and positively valenced mental representations...
August 17, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
S P Ahmed, L H Somerville, C L Sebastian
Adopting a temporally distant perspective on stressors reduces distress in adults. Here we investigate whether the extent to which individuals project themselves into the future influences distancing efficacy. We also examined modulating effects of age across adolescence and reactive aggression: factors associated with reduced future-thinking and poor emotion regulation. Participants (N = 83, aged 12-22) read scenarios and rated negative affect when adopting a distant-future perspective, near-future perspective, or when reacting naturally...
August 17, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Oriana R Aragón, Margaret S Clark
Close relationship partners often respond to happiness expressed through smiles with capitalization, i.e. they join in attempting to up-regulate and prolong the individual's positive emotion, and they often respond to crying with interpersonal down-regulation of negative emotions, attempting to dampen the negative emotions. We investigated how people responded when happiness was expressed through tears, an expression termed dimorphous. We hypothesised that the physical expression of crying would prompt interpersonal down-regulation of emotion when the onlooker perceived that the expresser was experiencing negative or positive emotions...
August 11, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Vanessa LoBue, Lewis Baker, Cat Thrasher
Researchers have been interested in the perception of human emotional expressions for decades. Importantly, most empirical work in this domain has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing for various emotional expressions. Recently, the Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set was introduced to the scientific community, featuring a large validated set of photographs of preschool aged children posing for seven different emotional expressions. Although the CAFE set was extensively validated using adult participants, the set was designed for use with children...
August 10, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Lydia Whitaker, Sherri C Widen
This study investigated the relationship of emotional intelligence and age to adolescents' (11-17 years) free labelling responses to proposed facial expressions and situations for disgust. Emotional intelligence continues to develop throughout adolescence and may provide needed cognitive support for linking the disgust face to the disgust script. Emotional intelligence, specifically, regulating one's own and others emotions, and age predicted adolescents' labelling of disgust facial expressions (but not situations) as disgusted...
August 8, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Pilar Ferré, Juan Haro, José Antonio Hinojosa
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of discrete emotions in lexical processing and memory, focusing on disgust and fear. We compared neutral words to disgust-related words and fear-related words in three experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT), and in Experiment 3 an affective categorisation task. These tasks were followed by an unexpected memory task. The results of the LDT experiments showed slower reaction times for both types of negative words with respect to neutral words, plus a higher percentage of errors, this being more consistent for fear-related words (Experiments 1 and 2) than for disgust-related words (Experiment 2)...
August 7, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Robert Soussignan, Nicolas Dollion, Benoist Schaal, Karine Durand, Nadja Reissland, Jean-Yves Baudouin
While there is an extensive literature on the tendency to mimic emotional expressions in adults, it is unclear how this skill emerges and develops over time. Specifically, it is unclear whether infants mimic discrete emotion-related facial actions, whether their facial displays are moderated by contextual cues and whether infants' emotional mimicry is constrained by developmental changes in the ability to discriminate emotions. We therefore investigate these questions using Baby-FACS to code infants' facial displays and eye-movement tracking to examine infants' looking times at facial expressions...
August 4, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Zachary F Miller, Jessica K Fox, Jason S Moser, Aline Godfroid
We investigated the impact of emotions on learning vocabulary in an unfamiliar language to better understand affective influences in foreign language acquisition. Seventy native English speakers learned new vocabulary in either a negative or a neutral emotional state. Participants also completed two sets of working memory tasks to examine the potential mediating role of working memory. Results revealed that participants exposed to negative stimuli exhibited difficulty in retrieving and correctly pairing English words with Indonesian words, as reflected in a lower performance on the prompted recall tests and the free recall measure...
August 3, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Amber E Witherby, Sarah K Tauber
Researchers have evaluated how broad categories of emotion (i.e. positive and negative) influence judgments of learning (JOLs) relative to neutral items. Specifically, JOLs are typically higher for emotional relative to neutral items. The novel goal of the present research was to evaluate JOLs for fine-grained categories of emotion. Participants studied faces with afraid, angry, sad, or neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and with afraid, angry, or sad expressions (Experiment 2). Participants identified the expressed emotion, made a JOL for each, and completed a recognition test...
August 2, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Vincent Hoogerheide, Marleen Vink, Bridgid Finn, An K Raes, Fred Paas
The retrospective evaluation of an event tends to be based on how the experience felt during the most intense moment and the last moment. Two experiments tested whether this so-called peak-end effect influences how primary school students are affected by peer assessments. In both experiments, children (ages 7-12) assessed two classmates on their behaviour in school and then received two manipulated assessments. In Experiment 1 (N  = 30), one assessment consisted of four negative ratings and the other of four negative ratings with an extra moderately negative rating added to the end...
August 2, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Kathrin J Emmerdinger, Christof Kuhbandner, Franziska Berchtold
A large body of research shows that emotionally significant stimuli are better stored in memory. One question that has received much less attention is how emotional memories are influenced by factors that influence memories after the initial encoding of stimuli. Intriguingly, several recent studies suggest that post-encoding factors do not differ in their effects on emotional and neutral memories. However, to date, only detrimental factors have been addressed. In the present study, we examined whether emotionally negative memories are differentially influenced by a well-known beneficial factor: the testing of memories...
July 31, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
How is nostalgia positioned among self-relevant emotions? We tested, in six studies, which self-relevant emotions are perceived as most similar versus least similar to nostalgia, and what underlies these similarities/differences. We used multidimensional scaling to chart the perceived similarities/differences among self-relevant emotions, resulting in two-dimensional models. The results were revealing. Nostalgia is positioned among self-relevant emotions characterised by positive valence, an approach orientation, and low arousal...
July 24, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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