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Cognition & Emotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429657/what-happened-first-working-memory-and-negative-emotion-tell-you-better-evidence-from-a-temporal-binding-task
#1
Chiara Mirandola, Enrico Toffalini
Emotionally arousing events may disrupt the ability to bind together different features of items to their context; this holds true both for spatial binding (i.e. remembering the locations of previously presented items) and temporal binding (i.e. remembering the order in which different items were previously presented). Nonetheless, memory for emotional events may be enhanced in certain situations. A key factor that might explain the memory-emotion relation is represented by individual differences in cognition...
April 21, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429646/rule-violations-sensitise-towards-negative-and-authority-related-stimuli
#2
Robert Wirth, Anna Foerster, Hannah Rendel, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
Rule violations have usually been studied from a third-person perspective, identifying situational factors that render violations more or less likely. A first-person perspective of the agent that actively violates the rules, on the other hand, is only just beginning to emerge. Here we show that committing a rule violation sensitises towards subsequent negative stimuli as well as subsequent authority-related stimuli. In a Prime-Probe design, we used an instructed rule-violation task as the Prime and a word categorisation task as the Probe...
April 21, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425838/attending-to-emotional-expressions-no-evidence-for-automatic-capture-in-the-dot-probe-task
#3
Swantje Puls, Klaus Rothermund
Research on automatic attention to emotional faces offers mixed results. Therefore we examined validity effects for facial expressions of different emotions (compared to neutral faces) with a dot-probe paradigm in seven studies (total N = 308). Systematic variations of type of emotion, CTI, task, cue size, and masking allow for a differentiated assessment of attentional capture by emotions and possible moderating factors. Results indicate a general absence of emotional validity effects as well as a lack of significant interactions with either of the manipulated factors, indicating that facial expressions of emotions do not capture attention in a fully automatic fashion...
April 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415957/-so-happy-i-could-shout-and-so-happy-i-could-cry-dimorphous-expressions-represent-and-communicate-motivational-aspects-of-positive-emotions
#4
Oriana R Aragón, John A Bargh
Happiness can be expressed through smiles. Happiness can also be expressed through physical displays that without context, would appear to be sadness (tears, downward turned mouths, and crumpled body postures) and anger (clenched jaws, snarled lips, furrowed brows, and pumped fists). These seemingly incongruent displays of happiness, termed dimorphous expressions, we propose, represent and communicate expressers' motivational orientations. When participants reported their own aggressive expressions in positive or negative contexts, their expressions represented positive or negative emotional experiences respectively, imbued with appetitive orientations (feelings of wanting to go)...
April 17, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413898/erp-correlates-of-attentional-processing-in-spider-fear-evidence-of-threat-specific-hypervigilance
#5
Rebecca Venetacci, Amber Johnstone, Kenneth C Kirkby, Allison Matthews
Attentional bias towards threat can be demonstrated by enhanced processing of threat-related targets and/or greater interference when threat-related distractors are present. These effects are argued to reflect processing within the orienting and executive control networks of the brain respectively. This study investigated behavioural (RT) and electrophysiological correlates of early selective attention and top-down attentional control among females with high (n = 16) or low (n = 16) spider fear (Mean age = 22 years)...
April 17, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402215/angry-faces-are-tracked-more-easily-than-neutral-faces-during-multiple-identity-tracking
#6
Jie Li, Lauri Oksama, Lauri Nummenmaa, Jukka Hyönä
We investigated whether and how emotional facial expressions affect sustained attention in face tracking. In a multiple-identity and object tracking paradigm, participants tracked multiple target faces that continuously moved around together with several distractor faces, and subsequently reported where each target face had moved to. The emotional expression (angry, happy, and neutral) of the target and distractor faces was manipulated. Tracking performance was better when the target faces were angry rather than neutral, whereas angry distractor faces did not affect tracking...
April 12, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397544/emotion-regulation-and-biological-stress-responding-associations-with-worry-rumination-and-reappraisal
#7
Elizabeth J Lewis, K Lira Yoon, Jutta Joormann
Individual differences in the habitual use of emotion regulation strategies may play a critical role in understanding psychological and biological stress reactivity and recovery in depression and anxiety. This study investigated the relation between the habitual use of different emotion regulation strategies and cortisol reactivity and recovery in healthy control individuals (CTL; n = 33) and in individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 41). The tendency to worry was associated with increased cortisol reactivity to a stressor across the full sample...
April 11, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393610/proactive-and-reactive-control-depends-on-emotional-valence-a-stroop-study-with-emotional-expressions-and-words
#8
Bhoomika Rastogi Kar, Narayanan Srinivasan, Yagyima Nehabala, Richa Nigam
We examined proactive and reactive control effects in the context of task-relevant happy, sad, and angry facial expressions on a face-word Stroop task. Participants identified the emotion expressed by a face that contained a congruent or incongruent emotional word (happy/sad/angry). Proactive control effects were measured in terms of the reduction in Stroop interference (difference between incongruent and congruent trials) as a function of previous trial emotion and previous trial congruence. Reactive control effects were measured in terms of the reduction in Stroop interference as a function of current trial emotion and previous trial congruence...
April 10, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366112/facial-age-cues-and-emotional-expression-interact-asymmetrically-age-cues-moderate-emotion-categorisation
#9
Belinda M Craig, Ottmar V Lipp
Facial attributes such as race, sex, and age can interact with emotional expressions; however, only a couple of studies have investigated the nature of the interaction between facial age cues and emotional expressions and these have produced inconsistent results. Additionally, these studies have not addressed the mechanism/s driving the influence of facial age cues on emotional expression or vice versa. In the current study, participants categorised young and older adult faces expressing happiness and anger (Experiment 1) or sadness (Experiment 2) by their age and their emotional expression...
April 3, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366048/biases-in-attention-and-interpretation-in-adolescents-with-varying-levels-of-anxiety-and-depression
#10
Anke M Klein, Leone de Voogd, Reinout W Wiers, Elske Salemink
This is the first study to investigate multiple cognitive biases in adolescence simultaneously, to examine whether anxiety and depression are associated with biases in attention and interpretation, and whether these biases are able to predict unique variance in self-reported levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 681 adolescents performed a Dot Probe Task (DPT), an Emotional Visual Search Task (EVST), and an Interpretation Recognition Task. Attention and interpretation biases were significantly correlated with anxiety...
April 3, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361569/processes-of-change-in-a-school-based-mindfulness-programme-cognitive-reactivity-and-self-coldness-as-mediators
#11
Katleen Van der Gucht, Keisuke Takano, Filip Raes, Peter Kuppens
The underlying mechanisms of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for emotional well-being remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the potential mediating effects of cognitive reactivity and self-compassion on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress using data from an earlier randomised controlled school trial. A moderated time-lagged mediation model based on multilevel modelling was used to analyse the data. The findings showed that post-treatment changes in cognitive reactivity and self-coldness, an aspect of self-compassion, mediated subsequent changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress...
March 31, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359184/combined-behavioural-markers-of-cognitive-biases-are-associated-with-anhedonia
#12
Taban Salem, E Samuel Winer, Michael R Nadorff
Biases towards negative information, as well as away from positive information, are associated with psychopathology. Examining biases in multiple processes has been theorised to be more predictive than examining bias in any process alone. Anhedonia is a core symptom of psychopathology and predictive of future psychopathological symptoms. Finding that combined biases are associated with anhedonia would advance knowledge of the nature of emotional processing biases and the value of objective performance-based measures for identifying early risk markers...
March 31, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345433/the-contextual-malleability-of-approach-avoidance-training-effects-approaching-or-avoiding-fear-conditioned-stimuli-modulates-effects-of-approach-avoidance-training
#13
Gaëtan Mertens, Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer
Previous research showed that the repeated approaching of one stimulus and avoiding of another stimulus typically leads to more positive evaluations of the former stimuli. In the current study, we examined whether approach and avoidance training (AAT) effects on evaluations of neutral stimuli can be modulated by introducing a regularity between the approach-avoidance actions and a positive or negative (feared) stimulus. In an AAT task, participants repeatedly approached one neutral non-word and avoided another neutral non-word...
March 27, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332423/the-automatic-activation-of-emotion-words-measured-using-the-emotional-face-word-stroop-task-in-late-chinese-english-bilinguals
#14
Lin Fan, Qiang Xu, Xiaoxi Wang, Fei Xu, Yaping Yang, Zhi Lu
In the current study, late Chinese-English bilinguals performed a facial expression identification task with emotion words in the task-irrelevant dimension, in either their first language (L1) or second language (L2). The investigation examined the automatic access of the emotional content in words appearing in more than one language. Significant congruency effects were present for both L1 and L2 emotion word processing. Furthermore, the magnitude of emotional face-word Stroop effect in the L1 task was greater as compared to the L2 task, indicating that in L1 participants could access the emotional information in words in a more reliable manner...
March 23, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317414/anxiety-depression-and-the-suicidal-spectrum-a-latent-class-analysis-of-overlapping-and-distinctive-features
#15
Matthew C Podlogar, Megan L Rogers, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Bruno Chiurliza, Thomas E Joiner
Anxiety and depression diagnoses are associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours. However, a categorical understanding of these associations limits insight into identifying dimensional mechanisms of suicide risk. This study investigated anxious and depressive features through a lens of suicide risk, independent of diagnosis. Latent class analysis of 97 depression, anxiety, and suicidality-related items among 616 psychiatric outpatients indicated a 3-class solution, specifically: (1) a higher suicide-risk class uniquely differentiated from both other classes by high reported levels of depression and anxious arousal; (2) a lower suicide-risk class that reported levels of anxiety sensitivity and generalised worry comparable to Class 1, but lower levels of depression and anxious arousal; and (3) a low to non-suicidal class that reported relatively low levels across all depression and anxiety measures...
March 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293980/finding-the-good-in-the-bad-age-and-event-experience-relate-to-the-focus-on-positive-aspects-of-a-negative-event
#16
Jaclyn H Ford, Haley D DiBiase, Elizabeth A Kensinger
All lives contain negative events, but how we think about these events differs across individuals; negative events often include positive details that can be remembered alongside the negative, and the ability to maintain both representations may be beneficial. In a survey examining emotional responses to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the current study investigated how this ability shifts as a function of age and individual differences in initial experience of the event. Specifically, this study examined how emotional importance (i...
March 15, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288533/attentional-bias-during-emotional-processing-evidence-from-an-emotional-flanker-task-using-iaps
#17
Mario A Parra, Manuel Guillermo Sánchez, Stella Valencia, Natalia Trujillo
Attention is biased towards threat-related stimuli. In three experiments, we investigated the mechanisms, processes, and time course of this processing bias. An emotional flanker task simultaneously presented affective or neutral pictures from the international affective picture system database either as central response-relevant stimuli or surrounding response-uninformative flankers. Participants' response times to central stimuli was measured. The attentional bias was observed when stimuli were presented either for 1500 ms (Experiment 1) or 500 ms (Experiment 2)...
March 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281398/attentional-capture-by-irrelevant-emotional-distractor-faces-is-contingent-on-implicit-attentional-settings
#18
Moshe Glickman, Dominique Lamy
Although expressions of facial emotion hold a special status in attention relative to other complex objects, whether they summon our attention automatically and against our intentions remains a debated issue. Studies supporting the strong view that attentional capture by facial expressions of emotion is entirely automatic reported that a unique (singleton) emotional face distractor interfered with search for a target that was also unique on a different dimension. Participants could therefore search for the odd-one out face to locate the target and attentional capture by irrelevant emotional faces might be contingent on the adoption of an implicit set for singletons...
March 10, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271740/attentional-processing-of-emotional-material-in-types-of-anxiety-and-depression
#19
Małgorzata Fajkowska, Ewa Domaradzka, Agata Wytykowska
The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that differences and similarities in patterns of attentional processing in recently proposed types of anxiety and depression are connected with the dominant (reactive, regulative) function they play in stimulation processing and their structural components. Participants (N = 1247) filled out the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire, which assesses types of anxiety and depression, and completed the Emotional Faces Attentional Test one week later. The obtained results confirmed our prediction and suggested that the proposed typology of anxiety and depression is valid in the adaptive meanings of both phenomena...
March 8, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271732/decision-mechanisms-underlying-mood-congruent-emotional-classification
#20
Corey N White, Elad Liebman, Peter Stone
There is great interest in understanding whether and how mood influences affective processing. Results in the literature have been mixed: some studies show mood-congruent processing but others do not. One limitation of previous work is that decision components for affective processing and responses biases are not dissociated. The present study explored the roles of affective processing and response biases using a drift-diffusion model (DDM) of simple choice. In two experiments, participants decided if words were emotionally positive or negative while listening to music that induced positive or negative mood...
March 8, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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